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Sample records for glioblastoma brain cancer

  1. Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Justin D.; Mack, Stephen C.; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E.; Valentim, Claudia L.L.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Tissues with defined cellular hierarchies in development and homeostasis give rise to tumors with cellular hierarchies, suggesting that tumors recapitulate specific tissues and mimic their origins. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor and contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. As normal stem and progenitor cells participate in tissue development and repair, these developmental programs re-emerge in CSCs to support the development and progressive growth of tumors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern CSCs has informed the development of novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers. CSCs are not self-autonomous units; rather, they function within an ecological system, both actively remodeling the microenvironment and receiving critical maintenance cues from their niches. To fulfill the future goal of developing novel therapies to collapse CSC dynamics, drawing parallels to other normal and pathological states that are highly interactive with their microenvironments and that use developmental signaling pathways will be beneficial. PMID:26109046

  2. Effective treatment of glioblastoma requires crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeting tumors including cancer stem cells: The promise of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Harford, Joe B; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Chang, Esther H

    2015-12-18

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumor. Both therapeutic resistance and restricted permeation of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) play a major role in the poor prognosis of GBM patients. Accumulated evidence suggests that in many human cancers, including GBM, therapeutic resistance can be attributed to a small fraction of cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to have stem cell-like properties that enable them to evade traditional cytotoxic therapies, and so new CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies are needed. Nanoparticles have been designed to selectively deliver payloads to relevant target cells in the body, and there is considerable interest in the use of nanoparticles for CSC-directed anti-cancer therapies. Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine offer new possibilities for overcoming CSC-mediated therapeutic resistance and thus significantly improving management of GBM. In this review, we will examine the current nanomedicine approaches for targeting CSCs and their therapeutic implications. The inhibitory effect of various nanoparticle-based drug delivery system towards CSCs in GBM tumors is the primary focus of this review.

  3. p53 isoform profiling in glioblastoma and injured brain.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, R; Giannini, C; Sarkaria, J N; Schroeder, M; Rogers, J; Mastroeni, D; Scrable, H

    2013-06-27

    The tumor suppressor p53 has been found to be the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers; however, the frequency of p53 mutations varies from 10 to 70% across different cancer types. This variability can partly be explained by inactivating mechanisms aside from direct genomic polymorphisms. The p53 gene encodes 12 isoforms, some of which can modulate full-length p53 activity in cancer. In this study, we characterized p53 isoform expression patterns in glioblastoma, gliosis, non-tumor brain and neural progenitor cells by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, mass spectrometry and reverse transcription-PCR. We found that the most consistently expressed isoform in glioblastoma, Δ40p53, was uniquely expressed in regenerative processes, such as those involving neural progenitor cells and gliosis compared with tumor samples. Isoform profiling of glioblastoma tissues revealed the presence of both Δ40p53 and full-length p53, neither of which were detected in non-tumor cerebral cortex. Upon xenograft propagation of tumors, p53 levels increased. The variability of overall p53 expression and relative levels of isoforms suggest fluctuations in subpopulations of cells with greater or lesser capacity for proliferation, which can change as the tumor evolves under different growth conditions.

  4. Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wirsching, Hans-Georg; Galanis, Evanthia; Weller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Defining histopathologic features are necrosis and endothelial proliferation, resulting in the assignment of grade IV, the highest grade in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors. The classic clinical term "secondary glioblastoma" refers to a minority of glioblastomas that evolve from previously diagnosed WHO grade II or grade III gliomas. Specific point mutations of the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or 2 appear to define molecularly these tumors that are associated with younger age and more favorable outcome; the vast majority of glioblastomas are IDH wild-type. Typical molecular changes in glioblastoma include mutations in genes regulating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/rat sarcoma (RAS)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p53, and retinoblastoma protein (RB) signaling. Standard treatment of glioblastoma includes surgery, radiotherapy, and alkylating chemotherapy. Promoter methylation of the gene encoding the DNA repair protein, O(6)-methylguanyl DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), predicts benefit from alkylating chemotherapy with temozolomide and guides choice of first-line treatment in elderly patients. Current developments focus on targeting the molecular characteristics that drive the malignant phenotype, including altered signal transduction and angiogenesis, and more recently, various approaches of immunotherapy.

  5. Aptamer for imaging and therapeutic targeting of brain tumor glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Delač, Mateja; Motaln, Helena; Ulrich, Henning; Lah, Tamara T

    2015-09-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids (RNA or ssDNA), identified by an in vitro selection process, denominated SELEX, from a partially random oligonucleotide library. They bind to a molecular target, a protein or other complex macromolecular structures of interest with high affinity and specificity, comparable to those of antibodies. Recently, aptamer selection protocols were developed for targeting living cells, including tumors. Chemical modifications of the aptamers and modalities of their detection and delivery systems are already available with high selectivity and targeting ability for the desired cancer cell type, making them promising for diagnosis and therapy. Glioblastoma multiformae represents the most malignant and fatal stage of glioma, and is also the most frequent brain tumor. Glioblastoma-specific aptamers were developed by either targeting the whole cell surface or known glioma biomarkers. These aptamers may gain importance for imaging, tumor cell isolation from biopsies and drug delivery. In biomedical imaging techniques, aptamers coupled with radionuclide or fluorescent labels, bioconjugates and nanoparticles offer an advanced, noninvasive manner for defining the glioblastoma tissue border. Though single modality aptamer imaging probes have some limitations, these are overcome by the use of multimodal probes. Due to selectivity and chemical characteristics, aptamers can be coupled to functionalized nanoparticles and loaded with a drug, appeared promising for in vivo targeting of glioblastoma. Finally, aptamers are effective mediators for gene silencing when coupled to small interfering RNA and a viral vector, thus providing a novel tool with enhanced targeting capability in drug delivery, designed for tailored treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  6. Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM’s cancer biology. PMID:27148537

  7. Targeting Aggressive Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Tracy; Nowak, Anna; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal type of primary brain tumor. Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rarer and more aggressive variant of GBM that has recently been considered a potentially different disease. Current clinical treatment for both GBM and GSM includes maximal surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treating other solid tumors, treatment for GBM and GSM still remains palliative, with a very poor prognosis and a median survival rate of 12–15 months. Treatment failure is a result of a number of causes, including resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent research has applied the cancer stem cells theory of carcinogenesis to these tumors, suggesting the existence of a small subpopulation of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) within these tumors. GSCs are thought to contribute to tumor progression, treatment resistance, and tumor recapitulation post-treatment and have become the focus of novel therapy strategies. Their isolation and investigation suggest that GSCs share critical signaling pathways with normal embryonic and somatic stem cells, but with distinct alterations. Research must focus on identifying these variations as they may present novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pluripotency transcription factors, SOX2, OCT4, and Nanog homeobox, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential that if applied in isolation or together with current treatments may improve overall survival, reduce tumor relapse, and achieve a cure for these patients. PMID:26258069

  8. Yes-associated protein 1 is widely expressed in human brain tumors and promotes glioblastoma growth.

    PubMed

    Orr, Brent A; Bai, Haibo; Odia, Yazmin; Jain, Deepali; Anders, Robert A; Eberhart, Charles G

    2011-07-01

    The hippo pathway and its downstream mediator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulate mammalian organ size in part through modulating progenitor cell numbers. YAP1 has also been implicated as an oncogene in multiple human cancers. Currently, little is known about the expression of YAP1 either in normal human brain tissue or in central nervous system neoplasms. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate nuclear YAP1 expression in the fetal and normal adult human brains and in 264 brain tumors. YAP1 was expressed in fetal and adult brain regions known to harbor neural progenitor cells, but there was little YAP1 immunoreactivity in the adult cerebral cortex. YAP1 protein was also readily detected in the nuclei of human brain tumors. In medulloblastoma, the expression varied between histologic subtypes and was most prominent in nodular/desmoplastic tumors. In gliomas, it was frequently expressed in infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas but rarely in pilocytic astrocytomas. Using a loss-of-function approach, we show that YAP1 promoted growth of glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. High levels of YAP1 messenger RNA expression were associated with aggressive molecular subsets of glioblastoma and with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean survival in human astrocytoma patients. These findings suggest that YAP1 may play an important role in normal human brain development and that it could represent a new target in human brain tumors.

  9. Nanotechnology applications for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nduom, Edjah K; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. Although conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging and targeted therapy of glioblastoma. This article examines the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and directions of further study.

  10. Multicentric spinal cord and brain glioblastoma without previous craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    de Eulate-Beramendi, Sayoa A.; Piña-Batista, Kelvin M.; Rodrigo, Victor; Torres-Rivas, Hector E.; Rial-Basalo, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBS) is a highly malignant glioma that rarely presents as an infratentorial tumor. Multicentric gliomas lesions are widely separated in site and/or time and its incidence has been reported between 0.15 and 10%. Multicentric gliomas involving supratentorial and infratentorial region are even more rare. In most cases, infratentorial disease is seen after surgical manipulation or radiation therapy and is usually located in the cerebellum or cervical region. Case Report: We present a rare case of symptomatic multicentric glioma in the brain, fourth ventricle, cervical as well as lumbar glioblastoma in an adult without previous therapeutic intervention. We also review the literature of this rare presentation. Conclusions: This report suggests that GBM is a diffuse disease; the more extended the disease, the worse prognosis it has. The management still remains controversial and further studies are required to understand the prognosis factors of dissemination. PMID:27512613

  11. Overcoming the blood-brain tumor barrier for effective glioblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    van Tellingen, O; Yetkin-Arik, B; de Gooijer, M C; Wesseling, P; Wurdinger, T; de Vries, H E

    2015-03-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Particularly in adult patients, the vast majority of gliomas belongs to the heterogeneous group of diffuse gliomas, i.e. glial tumors characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth in the preexistent brain tissue. Unfortunately, glioblastoma, the most aggressive (WHO grade IV) diffuse glioma is also by far the most frequent one. After standard treatment, the 2-year overall survival of glioblastoma patients is approximately only 25%. Advanced knowledge in the molecular pathology underlying malignant transformation has offered new handles and better treatments for several cancer types. Unfortunately, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients have not yet profited as although numerous experimental drugs have been tested in clinical trials, all failed miserably. This grim prognosis for GBM is at least partly due to the lack of successful drug delivery across the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB). The human brain comprises over 100 billion capillaries with a total length of 400 miles, a total surface area of 20 m(2) and a median inter-capillary distance of about 50 μm, making it the best perfused organ in the body. The BBTB encompasses existing and newly formed blood vessels that contribute to the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the tumor and facilitate glioma cell migration to other parts of the brain. The high metabolic demands of high-grade glioma create hypoxic areas that trigger increased expression of VEGF and angiogenesis, leading to the formation of abnormal vessels and a dysfunctional BBTB. Even though the BBTB is considered 'leaky' in the core part of glioblastomas, in large parts of glioblastomas and, even more so, in lower grade diffuse gliomas the BBTB more closely resembles the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and prevents efficient passage of cancer therapeutics, including small molecules and antibodies. Thus, many drugs can still be blocked from reaching the many infiltrative glioblastoma cells that

  12. MicroRNAs in Cancer: Glioblastoma and Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Jeffrey; Clark, Paul A.; Lyon, Will

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs represent an abundant class of endogenously expressed 18–25 nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules that function to silence gene expression through a process of post-transcriptional modification. They exhibit varied and widespread functions during normal development and tissue homeostasis, and accordingly their dysregulation plays major roles in many cancer types. Gliomas are cancers arising from the central nervous system. The most malignant and common glioma is glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and even with aggressive treatment (surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation), average patient survival remains less than two years. In this review we will summarize the current findings regarding microRNAs in GBM and the biological and clinical implications of this data. PMID:24937770

  13. Glioblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common form of glioblastoma; it is very aggressive. Secondary: These tumors have a longer, somewhat slower growth history, but still are very aggressive. They may begin as lower-grade tumors which ...

  14. Calpain 2 Is Required for the Invasion of Glioblastoma Cells in the Zebrafish Brain Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Sangeet; La Du, Jane; Tanguay, Robert L.; Greenwood, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. The ability of glioblastoma cells to invade surrounding brain tissue presents the primary challenge for the success of focal therapeutic approaches. We previously reported that the calcium-activated protease calpain 2 is critical for glioblastoma cell invasion in vitro. Here, we show that expression of calpain 2 is required for the dispersal of glioblastoma cells in a living brain microenvironment. Knockdown of calpain 2 resulted in a 2.9-fold decrease in the invasion of human glioblastoma cells in zebrafish brain. Control cells diffusely migrated up to 450 μm from the site of injection, whereas knockdown cells remained confined in clusters. The invasion study was repeated in organotypic mouse brain tissues, and calpain 2 knockdown cells demonstrated a 2.3-fold lower area of dispersal compared with control cells. In zebrafish brain, glioblastoma cells appeared to migrate in part along the blood vessels of the host. Furthermore, angiogenesis was detected in 27% of zebrafish injected with control cells, whereas only 12.5% of fish receiving knockdown cells showed the formation of new vessels, suggesting a role for calpain 2 in tumor cell angiogenesis. Consistent with the progression of glioblastoma in humans, transplanted tumor cells were not observed to metastasize outside the brain of zebrafish. This study demonstrates that calpain 2 expression is required for the dispersal of glioblastoma cells within the dynamic microenvironment of the brain, identifying zebrafish as a valuable orthotopic system for studying glioblastoma cell invasion. PMID:22183788

  15. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  16. Characterizing the peritumoral brain zone in glioblastoma: a multidisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Lemée, Jean-Michel; Clavreul, Anne; Aubry, Marc; Com, Emmanuelle; de Tayrac, Marie; Eliat, Pierre-Antoine; Henry, Cécile; Rousseau, Audrey; Mosser, Jean; Menei, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Recurrences are mostly located at the margin of the resection cavity in the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ). Although it is widely believed that infiltrative tumor cells in this zone are responsible for GB recurrence, few studies have examined this zone. In this study, we analyzed PBZ left after surgery with a variety of techniques including radiology, histopathology, flow cytometry, genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and primary cell cultures. The resulting PBZ profiles were compared with those of the GB tumor zone and normal brain samples to identify characteristics specific to the PBZ. We found that tumor cell infiltration detected by standard histological analysis was present in almost one third of PBZ taken from an area that was considered normal both on standard MRI and by the neurosurgeon under an operating microscope. The panel of techniques used in this study show that the PBZ, similar to the tumor zone itself, is characterized by substantial inter-patient heterogeneity, which makes it difficult to identify representative markers. Nevertheless, we identified specific alterations in the PBZ such as the presence of selected tumor clones and stromal cells with tumorigenic and angiogenic properties. The study of GB-PBZ is a growing field of interest and this region needs to be characterized further. This will facilitate the development of new, targeted therapies for patients with GB and the development of approaches to refine the per-operative evaluation of the PBZ to optimize the surgical resection of the tumor.

  17. A nanostructure of functional targeting epirubicin liposomes dually modified with aminophenyl glucose and cyclic pentapeptide used for brain glioblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Yu; Liu, Lei; Ju, Rui-Jun; Mu, Li-Min; Zhao, Yao; Zeng, Fan; Xie, Hong-Jun; Yan, Yan; Lu, Wan-Liang

    2015-10-20

    The objectives of the present study were to develop functional targeting epirubicin liposomes for transferring drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), treating glioblastoma, and disabling neovascularization. The studies were performed on glioblastoma cells in vitro and on glioblastoma-bearing mice. The results showed that the constructed liposomes had a high encapsulation efficiency for drugs (>95%), suitable particle size (109 nm), and less leakage in the blood component-containing system; were significantly able to be transported across the BBB; and exhibited efficacies in killing glioblastoma cells and in destroying glioblastoma neovasculature in vitro and in glioblastoma-bearing mice. The action mechanisms of functional targeting epirubicin liposomes correlated with the following features: the long circulation in the blood system, the ability to be transported across the BBB via glucose transporter-1, and the targeting effects on glioblastoma cells and on the endothelial cells of the glioblastoma neovasculature via the integrin β3 receptor. In conclusion, functional targeting epirubicin liposomes could be used as a potential therapy for treating brain glioblastoma and disabling neovascularization in brain glioblastomas.

  18. Cancer stem cells from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis posits that deregulated neural stem cells (NSCs) form the basis of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM, however, usually forms in the cerebral white matter while normal NSCs reside in subventricular and hippocampal regions. We attempted to characterize CSCs from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall. Methods We described isolating CSCs from a GBM involving the lateral ventricles and characterized these cells with in vitro molecular biomarker profiling, cellular behavior, ex vivo and in vivo techniques. Results The patient’s MRI revealed a heterogeneous mass with associated edema, involving the left subventricular zone. Histological examination of the tumor established it as being a high-grade glial neoplasm, characterized by polygonal and fusiform cells with marked nuclear atypia, amphophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, frequent mitotic figures, irregular zones of necrosis and vascular hyperplasia. Recurrence of the tumor occurred shortly after the surgical resection. CD133-positive cells, isolated from the tumor, expressed stem cell markers including nestin, CD133, Ki67, Sox2, EFNB1, EFNB2, EFNB3, Cav-1, Musashi, Nucleostemin, Notch 2, Notch 4, and Pax6. Biomarkers expressed in differentiated cells included Cathepsin L, Cathepsin B, Mucin18, Mucin24, c-Myc, NSE, and TIMP1. Expression of unique cancer-related transcripts in these CD133-positive cells, such as caveolin-1 and −2, do not appear to have been previously reported in the literature. Ex vivo organotypic brain slice co-culture showed that the CD133+ cells behaved like tumor cells. The CD133-positive cells also induced tumor formation when they were stereotactically transplanted into the brains of the immune-deficient NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions This brain tumor involving the neurogenic lateral ventricular wall was comprised of tumor-forming, CD133-positive cancer stem cells, which are likely

  19. Molecular crosstalk between tumour and brain parenchyma instructs histopathological features in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bougnaud, Sébastien; Golebiewska, Anna; Oudin, Anaïs; Keunen, Olivier; Harter, Patrick N.; Mäder, Lisa; Azuaje, Francisco; Fritah, Sabrina; Stieber, Daniel; Kaoma, Tony; Vallar, Laurent; Brons, Nicolaas H.C.; Daubon, Thomas; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sundstrøm, Terje; Herold-Mende, Christel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.

    2016-01-01

    The histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of glioblastomas represents a major obstacle for effective therapies. Glioblastomas do not develop autonomously, but evolve in a unique environment that adapts to the growing tumour mass and contributes to the malignancy of these neoplasms. Here, we show that patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts generated in the mouse brain from organotypic spheroids reproducibly give rise to three different histological phenotypes: (i) a highly invasive phenotype with an apparent normal brain vasculature, (ii) a highly angiogenic phenotype displaying microvascular proliferation and necrosis and (iii) an intermediate phenotype combining features of invasion and vessel abnormalities. These phenotypic differences were visible during early phases of tumour development suggesting an early instructive role of tumour cells on the brain parenchyma. Conversely, we found that tumour-instructed stromal cells differentially influenced tumour cell proliferation and migration in vitro, indicating a reciprocal crosstalk between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells. We did not detect any transdifferentiation of tumour cells into endothelial cells. Cell type-specific transcriptomic analysis of tumour and endothelial cells revealed a strong phenotype-specific molecular conversion between the two cell types, suggesting co-evolution of tumour and endothelial cells. Integrative bioinformatic analysis confirmed the reciprocal crosstalk between tumour and microenvironment and suggested a key role for TGFβ1 and extracellular matrix proteins as major interaction modules that shape glioblastoma progression. These data provide novel insight into tumour-host interactions and identify novel stroma-specific targets that may play a role in combinatorial treatment strategies against glioblastoma. PMID:27049916

  20. Intratumoral decorin gene delivery by AAV vector inhibits brain glioblastomas and prolongs survival of animals by inducing cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hsin-I; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Shui, Hao-Ai; Han, Jun-Ming; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao; Chen, Ming-Teh; Yang, Yi-Ping

    2014-03-12

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant cancer in the central nervous system with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of an anti-cancer protein, decorin, by delivering it into a xenograft U87MG glioma tumor in the brain of nude mice through an adeno-associated viral (AAV2) gene delivery system. Decorin expression from the AAV vector in vitro inhibited cultured U87MG cell growth by induction of cell differentiation. Intracranial injection of AAV-decorin vector to the glioma-bearing nude mice in vivo significantly suppressed brain tumor growth and prolonged survival when compared to control non-treated mice bearing the same U87MG tumors. Proteomics analysis on protein expression profiles in the U87MG glioma cells after AAV-mediated decorin gene transfer revealed up- and down-regulation of important proteins. Differentially expressed proteins between control and AAV-decorin-transduced cells were identified through MALDI-TOF MS and database mining. We found that a number of important proteins that are involved in apoptosis, transcription, chemotherapy resistance, mitosis, and fatty acid metabolism have been altered as a result of decorin overexpression. These findings offer valuable insight into the mechanisms of the anti-glioblastoma effects of decorin. In addition, AAV-mediated decorin gene delivery warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic approach for brain tumors.

  1. Predicting the electric field distribution in the brain for the treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Pedro C; Mekonnen, Abeye; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J

    2014-08-07

    The use of alternating electric fields has been recently proposed for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. In order to predict the electric field distribution in the brain during the application of such tumor treating fields (TTF), we constructed a realistic head model from MRI data and placed transducer arrays on the scalp to mimic an FDA-approved medical device. Values for the tissue dielectric properties were taken from the literature; values for the device parameters were obtained from the manufacturer. The finite element method was used to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain. We also included a 'virtual lesion' in the model to simulate the presence of an idealized tumor. The calculated electric field in the brain varied mostly between 0.5 and 2.0 V cm( - 1) and exceeded 1.0 V cm( - 1) in 60% of the total brain volume. Regions of local field enhancement occurred near interfaces between tissues with different conductivities wherever the electric field was perpendicular to those interfaces. These increases were strongest near the ventricles but were also present outside the tumor's necrotic core and in some parts of the gray matter-white matter interface. The electric field values predicted in this model brain are in reasonably good agreement with those that have been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The electric field distribution is highly non-uniform and depends on tissue geometry and dielectric properties. This could explain some of the variability in treatment outcomes. The proposed modeling framework could be used to better understand the physical basis of TTF efficacy through retrospective analysis and to improve TTF treatment planning.

  2. Predicting the electric field distribution in the brain for the treatment of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Pedro C.; Mekonnen, Abeye; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J.

    2014-08-01

    The use of alternating electric fields has been recently proposed for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. In order to predict the electric field distribution in the brain during the application of such tumor treating fields (TTF), we constructed a realistic head model from MRI data and placed transducer arrays on the scalp to mimic an FDA-approved medical device. Values for the tissue dielectric properties were taken from the literature; values for the device parameters were obtained from the manufacturer. The finite element method was used to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain. We also included a ‘virtual lesion’ in the model to simulate the presence of an idealized tumor. The calculated electric field in the brain varied mostly between 0.5 and 2.0 V cm - 1 and exceeded 1.0 V cm - 1 in 60% of the total brain volume. Regions of local field enhancement occurred near interfaces between tissues with different conductivities wherever the electric field was perpendicular to those interfaces. These increases were strongest near the ventricles but were also present outside the tumor’s necrotic core and in some parts of the gray matter-white matter interface. The electric field values predicted in this model brain are in reasonably good agreement with those that have been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The electric field distribution is highly non-uniform and depends on tissue geometry and dielectric properties. This could explain some of the variability in treatment outcomes. The proposed modeling framework could be used to better understand the physical basis of TTF efficacy through retrospective analysis and to improve TTF treatment planning.

  3. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) promotes the progression of brain glioblastoma via Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoko; Chiba, Shinsuke; Yano, Hirohito; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Saio, Masanao; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Iwama, Toru; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-12-02

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB), which is involved in invasion and metastasis, was found to be overexpressed in various cancers. High levels of GPNMB and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits are associated with a poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. We showed that GPNMB interacts with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits to activate PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways. However, it remains unclear whether the interaction of GPNMB and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits is involves in progression of glioma. The tumor size induced by the injection of glioma GL261 cells was larger in transgenic mice overexpressing GPNMB when compared with wild-type mice. Additionally, the interaction of GPNMB and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits was identified in the murine glioma model and in the tumors of glioblastoma patients. Ouabain, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed the glioma growth induced by the injection of glioma cells in the transgenic mice overexpressing GPNMB and blocked the GPNMB-induced migration of glioma cells. These findings indicate that GPNMB promotes glioma growth via Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α subunits. Thus, the interaction between GPNMB and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α subunits represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brain glioblastomas.

  4. Therapy targets in glioblastoma and cancer stem cells: lessons from haematopoietic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Cruceru, Maria Linda; Neagu, Monica; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2013-10-01

    Despite intense efforts to identify cancer-initiating cells in malignant brain tumours, markers linked to the function of these cells have only very recently begun to be uncovered. The notion of cancer stem cell gained prominence, several molecules and signalling pathways becoming relevant for diagnosis and treatment. Whether a substantial fraction or only a tiny minority of cells in a tumor can initiate and perpetuate cancer, is still debated. The paradigm of cancer-initiating stem cells has initially been developed with respect to blood cancers where chronic conditions such as myeloproliferative neoplasms are due to mutations acquired in a haematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which maintains the normal hierarchy to neoplastic haematopoiesis. In contrast, acute leukaemia transformation of such blood neoplasms appears to derive not only from HSCs but also from committed progenitors that cannot differentiate. This review will focus on putative novel therapy targets represented by markers described to define cancer stem/initiating cells in malignant gliomas, which have been called 'leukaemia of the brain', given their rapid migration and evolution. Parallels are drawn with other cancers, especially haematopoietic, given the similar rampant proliferation and treatment resistance of glioblastoma multiforme and secondary acute leukaemias. Genes associated with the malignant conditions and especially expressed in glioma cancer stem cells are intensively searched. Although many such molecules might only coincidentally be expressed in cancer-initiating cells, some may function in the oncogenic process, and those would be the prime candidates for diagnostic and targeted therapy. For the latter, combination therapies are likely to be envisaged, given the robust and plastic signalling networks supporting malignant proliferation.

  5. Stopping cancer in its tracks: using small molecular inhibitors to target glioblastoma migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Austin K; Li, Jing; Adamson, David C

    2012-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents one of the most common aggressive types of primary brain tumors. Despite advances in surgical resection, novel neuroimaging procedures, and the most recent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival after diagnosis is about 12-14 months. Targeting migrating GBM cells is a key research strategy in the fight against this devastating cancer. Though the vast majority of the primary tumor focus can be surgically resected, these migrating cells are responsible for its universal recurrence. Numerous strategies and technologies are being explored to target migrating glioma cells, with small molecular inhibitors as one of the most commonly studied. Small molecule inhibitors, such as protein kinase inhibitors, phosphorylation site inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and antisense oligonucleotides show promise in slowing the progression of this disease. A better understanding of these small molecule inhibitors and how they target various extra- and intracellular signaling pathways may eventually lead to a cure for GBM.

  6. Neurosurgical Techniques for Disruption of the Blood–Brain Barrier for Glioblastoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Analiz; Tatter, Stephen B.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier remains a main hurdle to drug delivery to the brain. The prognosis of glioblastoma remains grim despite current multimodal medical management. We review neurosurgical technologies that disrupt the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We will review superselective intra-arterial mannitol infusion, focused ultrasound, laser interstitial thermotherapy, and non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE). These technologies can lead to transient BBB and blood–brain tumor barrier disruption and allow for the potential of more effective local drug delivery. Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials show promise for achieving this goal. PMID:26247958

  7. Brain cancer spreads.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-07-30

    The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue).

  8. Neural Stem Cells and Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rispoli, Rossella; Conti, Carlo; Celli, Paolo; Caroli, Emanuela; Carletti, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glioblastoma multiforme represents one of the most common brain cancers with a rather heterogeneous cellular composition, as indicated by the term “multiforme". Recent reports have described the isolation and identification of cancer neural stem cells from human adult glioblastoma multiforme, which possess the capacity to establish, sustain, and expand these tumours, even under the challenging settings posed by serial transplantation experiments. Our study focused on the distribution of neural cancer stem cells inside the tumour. The study is divided into three phases: removal of tumoral specimens in different areas of the tumour (centre, periphery, marginal zone) in an operative room equipped with a 1.5 T scanner; isolation and characterization of neural cancer stem cells from human adult glioblastoma multiforme; identification of neural cancer stem cell distribution inside the tumour. PMID:24750704

  9. Therapy targets in glioblastoma and cancer stem cells: lessons from haematopoietic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Cruceru, Maria Linda; Neagu, Monica; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2013-01-01

    Despite intense efforts to identify cancer-initiating cells in malignant brain tumours, markers linked to the function of these cells have only very recently begun to be uncovered. The notion of cancer stem cell gained prominence, several molecules and signalling pathways becoming relevant for diagnosis and treatment. Whether a substantial fraction or only a tiny minority of cells in a tumor can initiate and perpetuate cancer, is still debated. The paradigm of cancer-initiating stem cells has initially been developed with respect to blood cancers where chronic conditions such as myeloproliferative neoplasms are due to mutations acquired in a haematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which maintains the normal hierarchy to neoplastic haematopoiesis. In contrast, acute leukaemia transformation of such blood neoplasms appears to derive not only from HSCs but also from committed progenitors that cannot differentiate. This review will focus on putative novel therapy targets represented by markers described to define cancer stem/initiating cells in malignant gliomas, which have been called ‘leukaemia of the brain’, given their rapid migration and evolution. Parallels are drawn with other cancers, especially haematopoietic, given the similar rampant proliferation and treatment resistance of glioblastoma multiforme and secondary acute leukaemias. Genes associated with the malignant conditions and especially expressed in glioma cancer stem cells are intensively searched. Although many such molecules might only coincidentally be expressed in cancer-initiating cells, some may function in the oncogenic process, and those would be the prime candidates for diagnostic and targeted therapy. For the latter, combination therapies are likely to be envisaged, given the robust and plastic signalling networks supporting malignant proliferation. PMID:23998913

  10. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier-stealth nanocomposites for in situ glioblastoma theranostics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chia-Hao; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chen, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Fong-Yu

    2016-04-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological structure of the blood vessels in the brain. The BBB efficiently traps most therapeutic drugs in the blood vessels and stops them from entering the brain tissue, resulting in a decreased therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we developed BBB-stealth nanocomposites composed of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as a safe nanocarrier for glioblastoma therapy. We showed the antitumor activity of Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs using in vitro and in vivo tests. We demonstrated that G23-alg-Fe3O4 NPs crossed the BBB and entered the brain. In situ glioblastoma tumor-bearing mice were used to successfully evaluate the antitumor activity of G23-Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed the BBB crossing. The BBB-stealth nanocomposites show great potential for a proof-of-concept clinical trial as a theranostics platform for human brain tumor therapy.The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological structure of the blood vessels in the brain. The BBB efficiently traps most therapeutic drugs in the blood vessels and stops them from entering the brain tissue, resulting in a decreased therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we developed BBB-stealth nanocomposites composed of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as a safe nanocarrier for glioblastoma therapy. We showed the antitumor activity of Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs using in vitro and in vivo tests. We demonstrated that G23-alg-Fe3O4 NPs crossed the BBB and entered the brain. In situ glioblastoma tumor-bearing mice were used to successfully evaluate the antitumor activity of G23-Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed the BBB crossing. The BBB-stealth nanocomposites show great potential for a proof-of-concept clinical trial as a theranostics platform for human brain tumor therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00280c

  11. Nanotechnology Applications for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Nduom, Edjah; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. While conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting the residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds much promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for the imaging and targeted therapy of GBM.. Nanoparticles have emerged as potential “theranostic” agents that can permit the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of GBM tumors. A recent human clinical trial with magnetic nanoparticles has provided feasibility and efficacy data for potential treatment of GBM patients with thermotherapy. Here we examine the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and interesting directions of further study. PMID:22748656

  12. Analysis of tumor metabolism reveals mitochondrial glucose oxidation in genetically diverse, human glioblastomas in the mouse brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Yang, Chendong; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Cho, Steve; Baek, Hyeonman; Yang, Xiao-Li; Rajagopalan, Kartik N.; Maddie, Melissa; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Zhao, Zhenze; Cai, Ling; Good, Levi; Tu, Benjamin P.; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Matés, José M.; Pascual, Juan M.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Malloy, Craig R.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Bachoo, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer cell lines, but little is known about the fate of glucose and other nutrients in tumors growing in their native microenvironment. To study tumor metabolism in vivo, we used an orthotopic mouse model of primary human glioblastoma (GBM). We infused 13C-labeled nutrients into mice bearing three independent GBM lines, each with a distinct set of mutations. All three lines displayed glycolysis, as expected for aggressive tumors. They also displayed unexpected metabolic complexity, oxidizing glucose via pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle, and using glucose to supply anaplerosis and other biosynthetic activities. Comparing the tumors to surrounding brain revealed obvious metabolic differences, notably the accumulation of a large glutamine pool within the tumors. Many of these same activities were conserved in cells cultured ex vivo from the tumors. Thus GBM cells utilize mitochondrial glucose oxidation during aggressive tumor growth in vivo. PMID:22682223

  13. Glioblastoma multiforme of the brain stem in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R; Zimmermann, M; Marquardt, Gerhard; Lanfermann, H; Nafe, R; Seifert, V

    2002-09-01

    Glioblastoma of the brain stem is rare and there is no description of such a lesion in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The majority of intracerebral mass lesions are due either to toxoplasmosis or primary central nervous system lymphomas so that it is usually not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system in these patients. A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected man presented with a four months history of slowly progressive deterioration of brainstem associated symptoms despite antitoxoplasmic therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large ring enhancing lesion in the brainstem. Clinical and neuroradiological data could not establish a proper diagnosis and a stereotactic serial biopsy was undertaken. Histological examination of the specimen showed a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as the first reported case of GBM located in the brainstem in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. Patient management and effectiveness of stereotactic serial biopsy are discussed.

  14. Chemoirradiation for Glioblastoma Multiforme: The National Cancer Institute Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer; Ondos, John; Ning, Holly; Smith, Sharon; Kreisl, Teri; Iwamoto, Fabio; Sul, Joohee; Kim, Lyndon; McNeil, Kate; Krauze, Andra; Shankavaram, Uma; Fine, Howard A.; Camphausen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) is surgery followed by radiation (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ). While there is variability in survival based on several established prognostic factors, the prognostic utility of other factors such as tumor size and location are not well established. Experimental Design The charts of ninety two patients with GBM treated with RT at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Most patients received RT with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. Topographic locations were classified using preoperative imaging. Gross tumor volumes were contoured using treatment planning systems utilizing both pre-operative and post-operative MR imaging. Results At a median follow-up of 18.7 months, the median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients was 17.9 and 7.6 months. Patients with the smallest tumors had a median OS of 52.3 months compared to 16.3 months among patients with the largest tumors, P = 0.006. The patients who received bevacizumab after recurrence had a median OS of 23.3 months, compared to 16.3 months in patients who did not receive it, P = 0.0284. The median PFS and OS in patients with periventricular tumors was 5.7 and 17.5 months, versus 8.9 and 23.3 months in patients with non-periventricular tumors, P = 0.005. Conclusions Survival in our cohort was comparable to the outcome of the defining EORTC-NCIC trial establishing the use of RT+TMZ. This study also identifies several potential prognostic factors that may be useful in stratifying patients. PMID:23940635

  15. SC-27CD13 REPRESENTS A NOVEL BRAIN TUMOR STEM CELL MARKER FOR GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Nathaniel; Markert, Tara; Oliva, Claudia; Griguer, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a very deadly and highly vascularized tumor, but targeting glioma angiogenesis by vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition has been minimally successful. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that control glioma angiogenesis and progression could lead to significant new therapies. We previously described that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion induces increased tumor angiogenesis, decreased mouse survival, increased resistance to chemotherapy, and an increase in CD133 (a well-known stem cell marker). Because glioma enriched with brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) share similar properties with mtDNA depleted glioma cells, we hypothesize that genes up-regulated in mitochondrial depleted cells could be signature markers of BTSCs. Thus, mtDNA could be essential for the maintenance and expansion of BTSC populations. We ran an RT Profiler PCR array for angiogenesis on both U251 ρ° cells depleted of mtDNA and on the parental, isogenic U251 glioma cells. CD13 mRNA expression was increased 200 fold in ρ° cells over U251 cells. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunocytochemisty we found that CD13 is significantly increased in ρ° cells over U251 cells, and is not regulated by hypoxia (1% O2). Purification of the CD13+ population by magnetic-activated cell sorting revealed that these cells form neurospheres when cultured in Neurobasal (NB) medium. In addition, 60% of CD13+ cells were also CD133+ in NB medium, while only 10% of CD13+ cells were also CD133+ in DMEM/F-12 medium. These findings suggest CD13 may be a marker of cancer stem cells in GBM. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms controlling the expression of CD13 may reveal novel therapuetic targets capable of improving the treatment of GBM.

  16. Two mature products of MIR-491 coordinate to suppress key cancer hallmarks in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liu, Y; Granberg, K J; Wang, Q; Moore, L M; Ji, P; Gumin, J; Sulman, E P; Calin, G A; Haapasalo, H; Nykter, M; Shmulevich, I; Fuller, G N; Lang, F F; Zhang, W

    2015-03-26

    MIR-491 is commonly co-deleted with its adjacent CDKN2A on chromosome 9p21.3 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, it is not known whether deletion of MIR-491 is only a passenger event or has an important role. Small-RNA sequencing of samples from GBM patients demonstrated that both mature products of MIR-491 (miR-491-5p and -3p) are downregulated in tumors compared with the normal brain. The integration of GBM data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), miRNA target prediction and reporter assays showed that miR-491-5p directly targets EGFR, CDK6 and Bcl-xL, whereas miR-491-3p targets IGFBP2 and CDK6. Functionally, miR-491-3p inhibited glioma cell invasion; overexpression of both miR-491-5p and -3p inhibited proliferation of glioma cell lines and impaired the propagation of glioma stem cells (GSCs), thereby prolonging survival of xenograft mice. Moreover, knockdown of miR-491-5p in primary Ink4a-Arf-null mouse glial progenitor cells exacerbated cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, MIR-491 is a tumor suppressor gene that, by utilizing both mature forms, coordinately controls the key cancer hallmarks: proliferation, invasion and stem cell propagation.

  17. Traumatic brain injury and subsequent glioblastoma development: Review of the literature and case reports

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Vineet; Theobald, Jason; Barger, James; Bustoros, Mark; Bayin, N. Sumru; Modrek, Aram S.; Kader, Michael; Anderer, Erich G.; Donahue, Bernadine; Fatterpekar, Girish; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous reports have proposed an association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent glioblastoma (GBM) formation. Methods: We used literature searches and radiographic evidence from two patients to assess the possibility of a link between TBI and GBM. Results: Epidemiological studies are equivocal on a possible link between brain trauma and increased risk of malignant glioma formation. We present two case reports of patients with GBM arising at the site of prior brain injury. Conclusion: The hypothesis that TBI may predispose to gliomagenesis is disputed by several large-scale epidemiological studies, but supported by some. Radiographic evidence from two cases presented here suggest that GBM formed at the site of brain injury. We propose a putative pathogenesis model that connects post-traumatic inflammation, stem and progenitor cell transformation, and gliomagenesis. PMID:27625888

  18. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model

    PubMed Central

    d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  19. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  20. Strategies to improve delivery of anticancer drugs across the blood–brain barrier to treat glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Rajneet K.; Parrish, Karen E.; Sio, Terence T.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Elmquist, William F.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal and aggressive brain tumor that is resistant to conventional radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapies. Molecularly targeted agents hold great promise in treating these genetically heterogeneous tumors, yet have produced disappointing results. One reason for the clinical failure of these novel therapies can be the inability of the drugs to achieve effective concentrations in the invasive regions beyond the bulk tumor. In this review, we describe the influence of the blood–brain barrier on the distribution of anticancer drugs to both the tumor core and infiltrative regions of GBM. We further describe potential strategies to overcome these drug delivery limitations. Understanding the key factors that limit drug delivery into brain tumors will guide future development of approaches for enhanced delivery of effective drugs to GBM. PMID:26359209

  1. Glioblastoma brain tumours: estimating the time from brain tumour initiation and resolution of a patient survival anomaly after similar treatment protocols.

    PubMed

    Murray, J D

    2012-01-01

    A practical mathematical model for glioblastomas (brain tumours), which incorporates the two key parameters of tumour growth, namely the cancer cell diffusion and the cell proliferation rate, has been shown to be clinically useful and predictive. Previous studies explain why multifocal recurrence is inevitable and show how various treatment scenarios have been incorporated in the model. In most tumours, it is not known when the cancer started. Based on patient in vivo parameters, obtained from two brain scans, it is shown how to estimate the time, after initial detection, when the tumour started. This is an input of potential importance in any future controlled clinical study of any connection between cell phone radiation and brain tumour incidence. It is also used to estimate more accurately survival times from detection. Finally, based on patient parameters, the solution of the model equation of the tumour growth helps to explain why certain patients live longer than others after similar treatment protocols specifically surgical resection (removal) and irradiation.

  2. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  3. Downregulation of solute carriers of glutamate in gliosomes and synaptosomes may explain local brain metastasis in anaplastic glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huaiyu; Yu, Xinguang; Lu, Xuechun; Wang, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Advanced grades of glioblastoma are highly aggressive, especially in terms of multisite spread within the brain or even to distant sites at the spinal cord. In advanced grades of glioblastoma, glutamate and glutamine are reported to be increased in concentration in the extracellular fluid. It has been reported that glutamate acts as an extracellular signaling molecule for facilitating local spread of advanced grades of glioblastoma. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether glutamate uptake mechanisms is impaired in advanced glioblastoma. The possible downregulated mechanisms of glutamate uptake would facilitate persistence of glutamate in the extracellular environment, rather than intracellular uptake. We obtained biobanked human specimens of glioblastoma and tested expression of proteins belonging to the solute carrier families of proteins that are known to function as membrane-located excitatory amino acid like glutamate transporters. The present study provides preliminary evidence of the downregulation of membrane expression of excitatory amino acid transporters solute carrier family 1 member 3 (SLC1A3) and its palmitoylated form in gliosomes, as well as SLC1A2 in the glio-synaptosomes. Compounds like riluzole used in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the antibiotic ceftriaxone have the potential to facilitate glutamate uptake. These medications may be examined as adjunct chemotherapy in the massively aggressive tumor glioblastoma multiforme.

  4. Repurposing some older drugs that cross the blood–brain barrier and have potential anticancer activity to provide new treatment options for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Head, Richard; Cosgrove, Leah; Martin, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a brain neoplasm with limited 5‐year survival rates. Developments of new treatment regimens that improve patient survival in patients with glioblastoma are needed. It is likely that a number of existing drugs used in other conditions have potential anticancer effects that offer significant survival benefit to glioblastoma patients. Identification of such drugs could provide a novel treatment paradigm. PMID:26374633

  5. Bilateral Triple-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer with a BRCA2 Mutation, and Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alsharedi, Mohamed; Khelfa, Yousef; Tirona, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in North America. Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adults. The majority of hereditary breast cancers are associated with deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Although few case reports have described the incidence of glioblastoma in patients previously diagnosed with breast cancer, any association between BRCA2 mutations and glioblastoma has not been demonstrated to date. Herein, we report a woman who is a carrier of a familial BRCA2 mutation, and was previously diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and subsequently with a second primary TNBC and glioblastoma. Further investigation is required to define the possible relationship between these two aggressive malignances and the BRCA2 mutation, which might be critical for the proper management and treatment of this disease. PMID:28382102

  6. Chemoresistance of glioblastoma cancer stem cells--much more complex than expected.

    PubMed

    Beier, Dagmar; Schulz, Joerg B; Beier, Christoph P

    2011-10-11

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are a paradigm for the investigation of cancer stem cells (CSC) in solid malignancies. The susceptibility of GBM CSC to standard chemotherapeutic drugs is controversial as the existing literature presents conflicting experimental data. Here, we summarize the experimental evidence on the resistance of GBM CSC to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, with a special focus on temozolomide (TMZ). The data suggests that CSC are neither resistant nor susceptible to chemotherapy per se. Detoxifying proteins such as O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) confer a strong intrinsic resistance to CSC in all studies. Extrinsic factors may also contribute to the resistance of CSC to TMZ. These may include TMZ concentrations in the brain parenchyma, TMZ dosing schemes, hypoxic microenvironments, niche factors, and the re-acquisition of stem cell properties by non-stem cells. Thus, the interaction of CSC and chemotherapy is more complex than may be expected and it is necessary to consider these factors in order to overcome chemoresistance in the patient.

  7. The Three-Layer Concentric Model of Glioblastoma: Cancer Stem Cells, Microenvironmental Regulation, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Persano, Luca; Rampazzo, Elena; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Pistollato, Francesca; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Tumors arising in the central nervous system are thought to originate from a sub-population of cells named cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells (TICs) that possess an immature phenotype, combined with self-renewal and chemotherapy resistance capacity. Moreover, in the last years, these cells have been identified in particular brain tumor niches fundamental for supporting their characteristics. In this paper, we report studies from many authors demonstrating that hypoxia or the so called “hypoxic niche” plays a crucial role in controlling CSC molecular and phenotypic profile. We recently investigated the relationship existing between Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells and their niche, defining the theory of three-concentric layers model for GBM mass. According to this model, GBM stem cells reside preferentially within the hypoxic core of the tumour mass, while more differentiated cells are mainly localized along the peripheral and vascularized part of the tumour. This GBM model provides explanation of the effects mediated by the tumour microenvironment on the phenotypic and molecular regulation of GBM stem cells, describing their spatial distribution in the tumor bulk. Moreover, we discuss the possible clinical implications of the creation of this model for future GBM patient management and novel therapeutic strategies development. PMID:22125441

  8. Transmembrane protein CD9 is glioblastoma biomarker, relevant for maintenance of glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Podergajs, Neža; Motaln, Helena; Rajčević, Uroš; Verbovšek, Urška; Koršič, Marjan; Obad, Nina; Espedal, Heidi; Vittori, Miloš; Herold-Mende, Christel; Miletic, Hrvoje; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Turnšek, Tamara Lah

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell model suggests that glioblastomas contain a subpopulation of stem-like tumor cells that reproduce themselves to sustain tumor growth. Targeting these cells thus represents a novel treatment strategy and therefore more specific markers that characterize glioblastoma stem cells need to be identified. In the present study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of glioblastoma tissues compared to normal brain tissues revealing sensible up-regulation of CD9 gene. CD9 encodes the transmembrane protein tetraspanin which is involved in tumor cell invasion, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy. Using the public REMBRANDT database for brain tumors, we confirmed the prognostic value of CD9, whereby a more than two fold up-regulation correlates with shorter patient survival. We validated CD9 gene and protein expression showing selective up-regulation in glioblastoma stem cells isolated from primary biopsies and in primary organotypic glioblastoma spheroids as well as in U87-MG and U373 glioblastoma cell lines. In contrast, no or low CD9 gene expression was observed in normal human astrocytes, normal brain tissue and neural stem cells. CD9 silencing in three CD133+ glioblastoma cell lines (NCH644, NCH421k and NCH660h) led to decreased cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and self-renewal ability, and altered expression of the stem-cell markers CD133, nestin and SOX2. Moreover, CD9-silenced glioblastoma stem cells showed altered activation patterns of the Akt, MapK and Stat3 signaling transducers. Orthotopic xenotransplantation of CD9-silenced glioblastoma stem cells into nude rats promoted prolonged survival. Therefore, CD9 should be further evaluated as a target for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:26573230

  9. Transmembrane protein CD9 is glioblastoma biomarker, relevant for maintenance of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Podergajs, Neža; Motaln, Helena; Rajčević, Uroš; Verbovšek, Urška; Koršič, Marjan; Obad, Nina; Espedal, Heidi; Vittori, Miloš; Herold-Mende, Christel; Miletic, Hrvoje; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Turnšek, Tamara Lah

    2016-01-05

    The cancer stem cell model suggests that glioblastomas contain a subpopulation of stem-like tumor cells that reproduce themselves to sustain tumor growth. Targeting these cells thus represents a novel treatment strategy and therefore more specific markers that characterize glioblastoma stem cells need to be identified. In the present study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of glioblastoma tissues compared to normal brain tissues revealing sensible up-regulation of CD9 gene. CD9 encodes the transmembrane protein tetraspanin which is involved in tumor cell invasion, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy. Using the public REMBRANDT database for brain tumors, we confirmed the prognostic value of CD9, whereby a more than two fold up-regulation correlates with shorter patient survival. We validated CD9 gene and protein expression showing selective up-regulation in glioblastoma stem cells isolated from primary biopsies and in primary organotypic glioblastoma spheroids as well as in U87-MG and U373 glioblastoma cell lines. In contrast, no or low CD9 gene expression was observed in normal human astrocytes, normal brain tissue and neural stem cells. CD9 silencing in three CD133+ glioblastoma cell lines (NCH644, NCH421k and NCH660h) led to decreased cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and self-renewal ability, and altered expression of the stem-cell markers CD133, nestin and SOX2. Moreover, CD9-silenced glioblastoma stem cells showed altered activation patterns of the Akt, MapK and Stat3 signaling transducers. Orthotopic xenotransplantation of CD9-silenced glioblastoma stem cells into nude rats promoted prolonged survival. Therefore, CD9 should be further evaluated as a target for glioblastoma treatment.

  10. Acetate is a Bioenergetic Substrate for Human Glioblastoma and Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Pichumani, Kumar; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Sirasanagandla, Shyam; Nannepaga, Suraj; Piccirillo, Sara G.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Foong, Chan; Huang, Zhiguang; Barnett, Samuel; Mickey, Bruce E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Tu, Benjamin P.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Bachoo, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas and brain metastases are highly proliferative brain tumors with short survival times. Previously, using 13C-NMR analysis of brain tumors resected from patients during infusion of 13C-glucose, we demonstrated that there is robust oxidation of glucose in the citric acid cycle, yet glucose contributes less than 50% of the carbons to the acetyl-CoA pool. Here we show that primary and metastatic mouse orthotopic brain tumors have the capacity to oxidize [1,2-13C]acetate and can do so simultaneously with [1,6-13C]glucose oxidation. The tumors do not oxidize [U-13C]glutamine. In vivo oxidation of [1,2-13C]acetate was validated in brain tumor patients and was correlated with expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme 2, ACSS2. Together the data demonstrate a strikingly common metabolic phenotype in diverse brain tumors that includes the ability to oxidize acetate in the citric acid cycle. This adaptation may be important for meeting the high biosynthetic and bioenergetic demands of malignant growth. PMID:25525878

  11. Global diffusion tensor imaging derived metrics differentiate glioblastoma multiforme vs. normal brains by using discriminant analysis: introduction of a novel whole-brain approach

    PubMed Central

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Cortez-Conradis, David; Favila, Rafael; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Background Histological behavior of glioblastoma multiforme suggests it would benefit more from a global rather than regional evaluation. A global (whole-brain) calculation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived tensor metrics offers a valid method to detect the integrity of white matter structures without missing infiltrated brain areas not seen in conventional sequences. In this study we calculated a predictive model of brain infiltration in patients with glioblastoma using global tensor metrics. Methods Retrospective, case and control study; 11 global DTI-derived tensor metrics were calculated in 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 34 controls: mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, pure isotropic diffusion, pure anisotropic diffusion, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, linear tensor, planar tensor, spherical tensor, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The multivariate discriminant analysis of these variables (including age) with a diagnostic test evaluation was performed. Results The simultaneous analysis of 732 measures from 12 continuous variables in 61 subjects revealed one discriminant model that significantly differentiated normal brains and brains with glioblastoma: Wilks’ λ = 0.324, χ2 (3) = 38.907, p < .001. The overall predictive accuracy was 92.7%. Conclusions We present a phase II study introducing a novel global approach using DTI-derived biomarkers of brain impairment. The final predictive model selected only three metrics: axial diffusivity, spherical tensor and linear tensor. These metrics might be clinically applied for diagnosis, follow-up, and the study of other neurological diseases. PMID:24991202

  12. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  13. Endoscopy-verified occult subependymal dissemination of glioblastoma and brain metastasis undetected by MRI: prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Colasanti, Roberto; Zizzi, Antonio; Gladi, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Scarpelli, Marina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Although various prognostic indices exist for patients with malignant brain tumors, the prognostic significance of the subependymal spread of intracranial tumors is still a matter of debate. In this paper, we report the cases of two intraventricular lesions, a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and a brain metastasis, each successfully treated with a neuroendoscopic approach. Thanks to this minimally invasive approach, we achieved good therapeutic results: we obtained a histological diagnosis; we controlled intracranial hypertension by treating the associated hydrocephalus and, above all, compared with a microsurgical approach, we reduced the risks related to dissection and brain retraction. Moreover, in both cases, neuroendoscopy enabled us to identify an initial, precocious subependymal tumor spreading below the threshold of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. This finding, undetected in pre-operative MRI scans, was then evident during follow-up neuroimaging studies. In light of these data, a neuroendoscopic approach might play a leading role in better defining the prognosis and optimally tailored management protocols for GBM and brain metastasis. PMID:23271915

  14. Progenitor/Stem Cell Markers in Brain Adjacent to Glioblastoma: GD3 Ganglioside and NG2 Proteoglycan Expression.

    PubMed

    Lama, Gina; Mangiola, Annunziato; Proietti, Gabriella; Colabianchi, Anna; Angelucci, Cristiana; D' Alessio, Alessio; De Bonis, Pasquale; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Lauriola, Libero; Binda, Elena; Biamonte, Filippo; Giuffrida, Maria Grazia; Vescovi, Angelo; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of tissue surrounding glioblastoma (GBM) is a focus for translational research because tumor recurrence invariably occurs in this area. We investigated the expression of the progenitor/stem cell markers GD3 ganglioside and NG2 proteoglycan in GBM, peritumor tissue (brain adjacent to tumor, BAT) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) isolated from GBM (GCSCs) and BAT (PCSCs). GD3 and NG2 immunohistochemistry was performed in paired GBM and BAT specimens from 40 patients. Double-immunofluorescence was carried out to characterize NG2-positive cells of vessel walls. GD3 and NG2 expression was investigated in GCSCs and PCSCs whose tumorigenicity was also evaluated in Scid/bg mice. GD3 and NG2 expression was higher in tumor tissue than in BAT. NG2 decreased as the distance from tumor margin increased, regardless of the tumor cell presence, whereas GD3 correlated with neoplastic infiltration. In BAT, NG2 was coexpressed with a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) in pericytes and with nestin in the endothelium. Higher levels of NG2 mRNA and protein were found in GCSCs while GD3 synthase was expressed at similar levels in the 2 CSC populations. PCSCs had lower tumorigenicity than GCSCs. These data suggest the possible involvement of GD3 and NG2 in pre/pro-tumorigenic events occurring in the complex microenvironment of the tissue surrounding GBM.

  15. Differentiation of Glioblastoma from Brain Metastasis: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Leonard; You, Sung-Hye; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sun-Won; Jung, Cheolkyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate glioblastoma (GBM) from brain metastasis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. The study population consisted of 128 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed as either GBM (n = 89) or brain metastasis (n = 39). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including ASL. For qualitative analysis, the tumors were visually graded into five categories based on ASL-CBF maps by two blinded reviewers. For quantitative analysis, the reviewers drew regions of interest (ROIs) on ASL-CBF maps upon the most hyperperfused portion within the tumor and upon peritumoral T2 hyperintensity area. Signal intensities of intratumoral and peritumoral ROIs for each subject were normalized by dividing the values by those of contralateral normal gray matter (nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral, respectively). Visual grading scales and quantitative parameters between GBM and brain metastasis were compared. In addition, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ASL-driven CBF to differentiate GBM from brain metastasis. Results For qualitative analysis, GBM group showed significantly higher grade compared to metastasis group (p = 0.001). For quantitative analysis, both nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral in GBM were significantly higher than those in metastasis (both p < 0.001). The areas under the curve were 0.677, 0.714, and 0.835 for visual grading, nCBFintratumoral, and nCBFperitumoral, respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion ASL perfusion MR imaging can aid in the differentiation of GBM from brain metastasis. PMID:27861605

  16. Modeling the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Cancer Stem Cells with Ordinary Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Kristen; Burke, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in cancer therapy and treatments, tumor recurrence is a common event in cancer patients. One explanation of recurrence is that cancer therapy focuses on treatment of tumor cells and does not eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are postulated to behave similar to normal stem cells in that their role is to maintain homeostasis. That is, when the population of tumor cells is reduced or depleted by treatment, CSCs will repopulate the tumor, causing recurrence. In this paper, we study the application of the CSC Hypothesis to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme by immunotherapy. We extend the work of Kogan et al. (2008) to incorporate the dynamics of CSCs, prove the existence of a recurrence state, and provide an analysis of possible cancerous states and their dependence on treatment levels. PMID:27022405

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 positive glioblastoma cells show brain tumor stem cell capacity.

    PubMed

    Rasper, Michael; Schäfer, Andrea; Piontek, Guido; Teufel, Julian; Brockhoff, Gero; Ringel, Florian; Heindl, Stefan; Zimmer, Claus; Schlegel, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and is resistant to all therapeutic regimens. Relapse occurs regularly and might be caused by a poorly characterized tumor stem cell (TSC) subpopulation escaping therapy. We suggest aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) as a novel stem cell marker in human GBM. Using the neurosphere formation assay as a functional method to identify brain TSCs, we show that high protein levels of ALDH1 facilitate neurosphere formation in established GBM cell lines. Even single ALDH1 positive cells give rise to colonies and neurospheres. Consequently, the inhibition of ALDH1 in vitro decreases both the number of neurospheres and their size. Cell lines without expression of ALDH1 do not form tumor spheroids under the same culturing conditions. High levels of ALDH1 seem to keep tumor cells in an undifferentiated, stem cell-like state indicated by the low expression of beta-III-tubulin. In contrast, ALDH1 inhibition induces premature cellular differentiation and reduces clonogenic capacity. Primary cell cultures obtained from fresh tumor samples approve the established GBM cell line results.

  18. Increased level of H19 long noncoding RNA promotes invasion, angiogenesis, and stemness of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaochun; Yan, Yukui; Hu, Minghua; Chen, Xiande; Wang, Yaxian; Dai, Yi; Wu, Degang; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhuang, Zhixiang; Xia, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Increased levels of H19 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) have been observed in many cancers, suggesting that overexpression of H19 may be important in the development of carcinogenesis. However, the role of H19 in human glioblastoma is still unclear. The object of this study was to examine the level of H19 in glioblastoma samples and investigate the role of H19 in glioblastoma carcinogenesis. METHODS Glioblastoma and nontumor brain tissue specimens were obtained from tissue obtained during tumor resection in 30 patients with glioblastoma. The level of H19 lncRNA was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The role of H19 in invasion, angiogenesis, and stemness of glioblastoma cells was then investigated using commercially produced cell lines (U87 and U373). The effects of H19 overexpression on glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis were detected by in vitro Matrigel invasion and endothelial tube formation assay. The effects of H19 on glioblastoma cell stemness and tumorigenicity were investigated by neurosphere formation and an in vivo murine xenograft model. RESULTS The authors found that H19 is significantly overexpressed in glioblastoma tissues, and the level of expression was associated with patient survival. In the subsequent investigations, the authors found that overexpression of H19 promotes glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. Interestingly, H19 was also significantly overexpressed in CD133(+) glioblastoma cells, and overexpression of H19 was associated with increased neurosphere formation of glioblastoma cells. Finally, stable overexpression of H19 was associated with increased tumor growth in the murine xenograft model. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that increased expression of H19 lncRNA promotes invasion, angiogenesis, stemness, and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that H19 plays an important role in tumorigenicity and

  19. The potential origin of glioblastoma initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Chesler, David A.; Berger, Mitchell S.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Despite intensive clinical and laboratory research and effort, Glioblastoma remains the most common and invariably lethal primary cancer of the central nervous system. The identification of stem cell and lineage-restricted progenitor cell populations within the adult human brain in conjunction with the discovery of stem-like cells derived from gliomas which are themselves tumorigenic and have been shown to have properties of self-renewal and multipotency, has led to the hypothesis that this population of cells may represent glioma initiating cells. Extensive research characterizing the anatomic distribution and phenotype of neural stem cells in the adult brain, and the genetic underpinnings needed for malignant transformation may ultimately lead to the identification of the cellular origin for glioblastoma. Defining the cellular origin of this lethal disease may ultimately provide new therapeutic targets and modalities finally altering an otherwise bleak outcome for patients with glioblastoma. PMID:22202053

  20. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1− and SSEA-1+ cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines. PMID:27456773

  1. Intratumoral heterogeneity in glioblastoma: don't forget the peritumoral brain zone

    PubMed Central

    Lemée, Jean-Michel; Clavreul, Anne; Menei, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Prognosis remains poor despite ongoing progress. In cases where the gadolinium-enhanced portion of the GB is completely resected, 90% of recurrences occur at the margin of surgical resection in the macroscopically normal peritumoral brain zone (PBZ). Intratumoral heterogeneity in GB is currently a hot topic in neuro-oncology, and the GB PBZ may be involved in this phenomenon. Indeed, this region, which possesses specific properties, has been less studied than the core of the GB tumor. The high rate of local recurrence in the PBZ and the limited success of targeted therapies against GB demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the PBZ. We present here a review of the literature on the GB PBZ, focusing on its radiological, cellular, and molecular characteristics. We discuss how intraoperative analysis of the PBZ is important for the optimization of surgical resection and the development of targeted therapies against GB. PMID:26203067

  2. MicroRNA-300 inhibited glioblastoma progression through ROCK1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fucheng; Li, Yang; Hao, Zhen; Liu, Xuanxi; Chen, Liang; Cao, Yu; Liang, Zuobin; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianjiao; Zheng, Yongri; Dong, Deli; Bian, Shan; Yang, Baofeng; Jiang, Chuanlu; Li, Qingsong

    2016-06-14

    Glioblastoma is a common type of brain aggressive tumors and has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous and non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in cell proliferation, survival and invasion. Deregulated expression of miR-300 has been studied in a lot of cancers. However, the role of miR-300 in glioblastoma is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-300 expression was downregulated in glioblastoma tissues compared with the normal tissues. Lower expression level of miR-300 was observed in thirty cases (75 %, 30/40) of glioblastoma samples compared with the normal samples. Moreover, the overall survival of glioblastoma patients with lower miR-300 expression level was shorter than those with higher miR-300 expression level. In addition, miR-300 expression was also downregulated in glioblastoma cell lines. Overexpression of miR-300 inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle and invasion in glioblastoma cell line U87 and U251. Moreover, we identified ROCK1 as a direct target of miR-300 in U87 and U251 cells. Overexpression of ROCK1 partially rescued the miR-300-mediated cell growth. ROCK1 expression levels in glioblastoma tissues were higher than that in normal tissues. ROCK1 expression levels were higher in thirty-one cases of glioblastoma samples than their normal samples. Furthermore, the expression level ROCK1 was inversely correlated with the expression level of miR-300. Importantly, overexpression of miR-300 suppressed glioblastoma progression in an established xenograft model. In conclusion, we revealed that miR-300 might act as a tumor suppressor gene through inhibiting ROCK1 in glioblastoma.

  3. Toosendanin Exerts an Anti-Cancer Effect in Glioblastoma by Inducing Estrogen Receptor β- and p53-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Qu, Dingding; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Sha; Jia, Chenming; Shi, Zixuan; Wang, Zongren; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor with median survival of approximately one year. This dismal poor prognosis is due to resistance to currently available chemotherapeutics; therefore, new cytotoxic agents are urgently needed. In the present study, we reported the cytotoxicity of toosendanin (TSN) in the GBM U87 and C6 cell lines in vitro and in vivo. By using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blot, we found that TSN inhibited U87 and C6 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis at a concentration as low as 10 nM. Administration of TSN also reduced tumor burden in a xenograft model of athymic nude mice. Pharmacological and molecular studies suggested that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and p53 were prominent targets for TSN. GBM cell apoptosis induced by TSN was a stepwise biological event involving the upregulation of ERβ and contextual activation of functional p53. Collectively, our study indicates, for the first time, that TSN is a candidate of novel anti-cancer drugs for GBM. Furthermore, ERβ and p53 could act as predictive biomarkers for the sensitivity of cancer to TSN. PMID:27869737

  4. A Nanoparticle Carrying the p53 Gene Targets Tumors Including Cancer Stem Cells, Sensitizes Glioblastoma to Chemotherapy and Improves Survival

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ)-resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been linked to upregulation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Wild-type (wt) p53 was previously shown to down-modulate MGMT. However, p53 therapy for GBM is limited by lack of efficient delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). We have developed a systemic nanodelivery platform (scL) for tumor-specific targeting (primary and metastatic), which is currently in multiple clinical trials. This self-assembling nanocomplex is formed by simple mixing of the components in a defined order and a specific ratio. Here, we demonstrate that scL crosses the BBB and efficiently targets GBM, as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have been implicated in recurrence and treatment resistance in many human cancers. Moreover, systemic delivery of scL-p53 down-modulates MGMT and induces apoptosis in intracranial GBM xenografts. The combination of scL-p53 and TMZ increased the antitumor efficacy of TMZ with enhanced survival benefit in a mouse model of highly TMZ-resistant GBM. scL-p53 also sensitized both CSCs and bulk tumor cells to TMZ, increasing apoptosis. These results suggest that combining scL-p53 with standard TMZ treatment could be a more effective therapy for GBM. PMID:24811110

  5. Immunosuppressive mechanisms in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nduom, Edjah K; Weller, Michael; Heimberger, Amy B

    2015-11-01

    Despite maximal surgical and medical therapy, the treatment of glioblastoma remains a seriously vexing problem, with median survival well under 2 years and few long-term survivors. Targeted therapy has yet to produce significant advances in treatment of these lesions in spite of advanced molecular characterization of glioblastoma and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising mode for some of the hardest to treat tumors, including metastatic melanoma. Although immunotherapy has been evaluated in glioblastoma in the past with limited success, better understanding of the failures of these therapies could lead to more successful treatments in the future. Furthermore, there is a persistent challenge for the use of immune therapy to treat glioblastoma secondary to the existence of redundant mechanisms of tumor-mediated immune suppression. Here we will address these mechanisms of immunosuppression in glioblastoma and therapeutic approaches.

  6. Tenascin-C: a novel candidate marker for cancer stem cells in glioblastoma identified by tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Nie, Song; Gurrea, Mikel; Zhu, Jianhui; Thakolwiboon, Smathorn; Heth, Jason A; Muraszko, Karin M; Fan, Xing; Lubman, David M

    2015-02-06

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor, with dismal survival outcomes. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been demonstrated to play a role in therapeutic resistance and are considered to be the most likely cause of cancer relapse. The identification of CSCs is an important step toward finding new and effective ways to treat GBM. Tenascin-C (TNC) protein has been identified as a potential marker for CSCs in gliomas based on previous work. Here, we have investigated the expression of TNC in tissue microarrays including 17 GBMs, 18 WHO grade III astrocytomas, 15 WHO grade II astrocytomas, 4 WHO grade I astrocytomas, and 7 normal brain tissue samples by immunohistochemical staining. TNC expression was found to be highly associated with the grade of astrocytoma. It has a high expression level in most of the grade III astrocytomas and GBMs analyzed and a very low expression in most grade II astrocytomas, whereas it is undetectable in grade I astrocytomas and normal brain tissues. Double-immunofluorescence staining for TNC and CD133 in GBM tissues revealed that there was a high overlap between theses two positive populations. The results were further confirmed by flow cytometry analysis of TNC and CD133 in GBM-derived stem-like neurospheres in vitro. A limiting dilution assay demonstrated that the sphere formation ability of CD133(+)/TNC(+) and CD133(-)/TNC(+) cell populations is much higher than that of the CD133(+)/TNC(-) and CD133(-)/TNC(-) populations. These results suggest that TNC is not only a potential prognostic marker for GBM but also a potential marker for glioma CSCs, where the TNC(+) population is identified as a CSC population overlapping with part of the CD133(-) cell population.

  7. The Cytoskeletal Adapter Protein Spinophilin Regulates Invadopodia Dynamics and Tumor Cell Invasion in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheerathodi, Mujeeburahiman; Avci, Naze G; Guerrero, Paola A; Tang, Leung K; Popp, Julia; Morales, John E; Chen, Zhihua; Carnero, Amancio; Lang, Frederick F; Ballif, Bryan A; Rivera, Gonzalo M; McCarty, Joseph H

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma is a primary brain cancer that is resistant to all treatment modalities. This resistance is due, in large part, to invasive cancer cells that disperse from the main tumor site, escape surgical resection, and contribute to recurrent secondary lesions. The adhesion and signaling mechanisms that drive glioblastoma cell invasion remain enigmatic, and as a result there are no effective anti-invasive clinical therapies. Here we have characterized a novel adhesion and signaling pathway comprised of the integrin αvβ8 and its intracellular binding partner, Spinophilin (Spn), which regulates glioblastoma cell invasion in the brain microenvironment. We show for the first time that Spn binds directly to the cytoplasmic domain of β8 integrin in glioblastoma cells. Genetically targeting Spn leads to enhanced invasive cell growth in preclinical models of glioblastoma. Spn regulates glioblastoma cell invasion by modulating the formation and dissolution of invadopodia. Spn-regulated invadopodia dynamics are dependent, in part, on proper spatiotemporal activation of the Rac1 GTPase. Glioblastoma cells that lack Spn showed diminished Rac1 activities, increased numbers of invadopodia, and enhanced extracellular matrix degradation. Collectively, these data identify Spn as a critical adhesion and signaling protein that is essential for modulating glioblastoma cell invasion in the brain microenvironment.

  8. Glucose transport: meeting the metabolic demands of cancer, and applications in glioblastoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Labak, Collin M; Wang, Paul Y; Arora, Rishab; Guda, Maheedhara R; Asuthkar, Swapna; Tsung, Andrew J; Velpula, Kiran K

    2016-01-01

    GLUT1, and to a lesser extent, GLUT3, appear to be interesting targets in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. The current review aims to give a brief history of the scientific community’s understanding of these glucose transporters and to relate their importance to the metabolic changes that occur as a result of cancer. One of the primary changes that occurs in cancer, the Warburg Effect, is characterized by an extreme shift toward glycolysis from the usual reliance on oxidative phosphorylation and is currently being investigated to target the upstream and downstream factors responsible for Warburg-induced changes. Further, it aims to explain the differential expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in glioblastoma tissue, and how these modulations in expression can serve as targets to restore a more normal metabolism. Additionally, hypoxia-induced factor-1α’s (HIF1α) role in a number of transcriptional changes typical to GBM will be discussed, including its role in GLUT upregulation. Finally, the four known subtypes of GBM [proneural, neural, mesenchymal, and classical] will be characterized in order to discuss how metabolic changes differ in each subtype. These changes have the potential to be selectively targeted in order to provide specificity to the clinical treatment options in GBM. PMID:27648352

  9. Diversified expression of NG2/CSPG4 isoforms in glioblastoma and human foetal brain identifies pericyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Girolamo, Francesco; Dallatomasina, Alice; Rizzi, Marco; Errede, Mariella; Wälchli, Thomas; Mucignat, Maria Teresa; Frei, Karl; Roncali, Luisa; Perris, Roberto; Virgintino, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    NG2/CSPG4 is a complex surface-associated proteoglycan (PG) recognized to be a widely expressed membrane component of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) cells and angiogenic pericytes. To determine the precise expression pattern of NG2/CSPG4 on glioblastoma cells and pericytes, we generated a panel of >60 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the ectodomain of human NG2/CSPG4, partially characterized the mAbs, and performed a high-resolution distributional mapping of the PG in human foetal, adult and glioblastoma-affected brains. The reactivity pattern initially observed on reference tumour cell lines indicated that the mAbs recognized 48 immunologically distinct NG2/CSPG4 isoforms, and a total of 14 mAbs was found to identify NG2/CSPG4 isoforms in foetal and neoplastic cerebral sections. These were consistently absent in the adult brain, but exhibited a complementary expression pattern in angiogenic vessels of both tumour and foetal tissues. Considering the extreme pleomorphism of tumour areas, and with the aim of subsequently analysing the distributional pattern of the NG2/CSPG4 isoforms on similar histological vessel typologies, a preliminary study was carried out with endothelial cell and pericyte markers, and with selected vascular basement membrane (VBM) components. On both tumour areas characterized by 'glomeruloid' and 'garland vessels', which showed a remarkably similar cellular and molecular organization, and on developing brain vessels, spatially separated, phenotypically diversified pericyte subsets with a polarized expression of key surface components, including NG2/CSPG4, were disclosed. Interestingly, the majority of the immunolocalized NG2/CSPG4 isoforms present in glioblastoma tissue were present in foetal brain, except for one isoform that seemed to be exclusive of tumour cells, being absent in foetal brain. The results highlight an unprecedented, complex pattern of NG2/CSPG4 isoform expression in foetal and neoplastic CNS, discriminating

  10. [Radiation-induces increased tumor cell aggressiveness of tumors of the glioblastomas?].

    PubMed

    Falk, Alexander T; Moncharmont, Coralie; Guilbert, Matthieu; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Alphonse, Gersende; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Rivoirard, Romain; Gilormini, Marion; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiform is the most common and aggressive brain tumor with a worse prognostic. Ionizing radiation is a cornerstone in the treatment of glioblastome with chemo-radiation association being the actual standard. As a paradoxal effect, it has been suggested that radiotherapy could have a deleterious effect on local recurrence of cancer. In vivo studies have studied the effect of radiotherapy on biological modification and pathogenous effect of cancer cells. It seems that ionizing radiations with photon could activate oncogenic pathways in glioblastoma cell lines. We realized a review of the literature of photon-enhanced effect on invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells by radiotherapy.

  11. Focused ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier disruption to enhance chemotherapeutic drugs (BCNU) delivery for glioblastoma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hua, Mu-Yi; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2010-03-01

    Focused ultrasound has been recently found to capable of temporally and reversibly disrupt local blood-brain barrier (BBB) and opens new frontier in delivering varies type of drugs into brain for central nerve system (CNS) disorder treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate the feasibility of delivering 1, 3-bits (2-chloroethyl) -1-nitrosourea (BCNU) to treat glioblastoma in animal models and evaluate whether this approach would gain treatment efficacy. Under the presence of microbubbles administration, a 400-kHz focused ultrasound was employed to deliver burst-tone ultrasonic energy stimulation to disrupt BBB in animal brains transcranially, and in-vivo monitored by magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). C6-glioma cells were cultured and implanted into Sprague-Dawley rats as the brain-tumor model. BCNU deposited in brain was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and brain tissues were examined histologically. MRI was employed to longitudinal evaluate the brain tumor treatment including the analysis of tumor progression and animal survival. We confirmed that the focused ultrasound, under the secure ultrasonic energy level, can significantly enhance the BCNU penetration through BBB over 300% than control without cause hemorrhage. Apparent improvement of treatment efficacy achieved by combining focused ultrasound with BCNU delivery, including significant suppression of tumor growth and a prolonged animal survival. This study highly support that this treatment strategy could be clinically-relevant and may help to provide another potential strategy in increasing local chemotherapeutic drugs for brain-tumor treatment.

  12. Inhibition of Pediatric Glioblastoma Tumor Growth by the Anti-Cancer Agent OKN-007 in Orthotopic Mouse Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Mallory, Samantha; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; Li, Xiao-Nan; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y.; Fung, Kar-Ming; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric glioblastomas (pGBM), although rare, are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, with tumors essentially refractory to existing treatments. Here, we describe the use of conventional and advanced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess a novel orthotopic xenograft pGBM mouse (IC-3752GBM patient-derived culture) model, and to monitor the effects of the anti-cancer agent OKN-007 as an inhibitor of pGBM tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry support data is also presented for cell proliferation and tumor growth signaling. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.05) and increase animal survival (p<0.05) in all OKN-007-treated mice compared to untreated animals. In a responsive cohort of treated animals, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.0001), increase survival (p<0.001), and increase diffusion (p<0.01) and perfusion rates (p<0.05). OKN-007 also significantly reduced lipid tumor metabolism in responsive animals [(Lip1.3 and Lip0.9)-to-creatine ratio (p<0.05)], as well as significantly decrease tumor cell proliferation (p<0.05) and microvessel density (p<0.05). Furthermore, in relationship to the PDGFRα pathway, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease SULF2 (p<0.05) and PDGFR-α (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) (p<0.05) immunoexpression, and significantly increase decorin expression (p<0.05) in responsive mice. This study indicates that OKN-007 may be an effective anti-cancer agent for some patients with pGBMs by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, possibly via the PDGFRα pathway, and could be considered as an additional therapy for pediatric brain tumor patients. PMID:26248280

  13. The ZEB1 pathway links glioblastoma initiation, invasion and chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Siebzehnrubl, Florian A; Silver, Daniel J; Tugertimur, Bugra; Deleyrolle, Loic P; Siebzehnrubl, Dorit; Sarkisian, Matthew R; Devers, Kelly G; Yachnis, Antony T; Kupper, Marius D; Neal, Daniel; Nabilsi, Nancy H; Kladde, Michael P; Suslov, Oleg; Brabletz, Simone; Brabletz, Thomas; Reynolds, Brent A; Steindler, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains one of the most lethal types of cancer, and is the most common brain tumour in adults. In particular, tumour recurrence after surgical resection and radiation invariably occurs regardless of aggressive chemotherapy. Here, we provide evidence that the transcription factor ZEB1 (zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1) exerts simultaneous influence over invasion, chemoresistance and tumourigenesis in glioblastoma. ZEB1 is preferentially expressed in invasive glioblastoma cells, where the ZEB1-miR-200 feedback loop interconnects these processes through the downstream effectors ROBO1, c-MYB and MGMT. Moreover, ZEB1 expression in glioblastoma patients is predictive of shorter survival and poor Temozolomide response. Our findings indicate that this regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition orchestrates key features of cancer stem cells in malignant glioma and identify ROBO1, OLIG2, CD133 and MGMT as novel targets of the ZEB1 pathway. Thus, ZEB1 is an important candidate molecule for glioblastoma recurrence, a marker of invasive tumour cells and a potential therapeutic target, along with its downstream effectors. Glioblastoma have a poor prognosis, mainly due to infiltrating and therapy resistant cells leading to cancer recurrence. Here, tumor formation, invasion and resistance are not independent but intertwined processes regulated by the EMT activator ZEB1. PMID:23818228

  14. RXFP1 is Targeted by Complement C1q Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Factor 8 in Brain Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Glogowska, Aleksandra; Burg, Maxwell; Wong, G. William; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The relaxin-like RXFP1 ligand–receptor system has important functions in tumor growth and tissue invasion. Recently, we have identified the secreted protein, CTRP8, a member of the C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP) family, as a novel ligand of the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, with functions in brain cancer. Here, we review the role of CTRP members in cancers cells with particular emphasis on CTRP8 in glioblastoma. PMID:26322020

  15. Synergistic effect of gold nanoparticles and cold plasma on glioblastoma cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Murphy, William; Recek, Nina; Yan, Dayun; Cvelbar, Uros; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetič, Miran; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael; Sherman, Jonathan H.

    2014-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been investigated as a promising reagent for cancer therapy in various fields. In the meantime, cold atmospheric plasma has shown exquisite selectivity towards cancer cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that there is a synergy between gold nanoparticles and cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy. Specifically, the concentration of AuNPs plays an important role on plasma therapy. At an optimal concentration, gold nanoparticles can significantly induce glioblastoma (U87) cell death up to a 30% overall increase compared to the control group with the same plasma dosage but no AuNPs applied. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) intensity of the corresponding conditions has a reversed trend compared to cell viability. This matches with the theory that intracellular ROS accumulation results in oxidative stress, which further changes the intracellular pathways, causing damage to the proteins, lipids and DNA. Our results show that this synergy has great potential in improving the efficiency of cancer therapy and reducing harm to normal cells.

  16. Advance Care Planning in Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Lara; Dirven, Linda; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Koekkoek, Johan A. F.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, glioblastoma is an incurable disease with a poor prognosis. During the disease course, glioblastoma patients may experience progressive neurological deficits, symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as drowsiness and headache, incontinence, seizures and progressive cognitive dysfunction. These patients not only have cancer, but also a progressive brain disease. This may seriously interfere with their ability to make their own decisions regarding treatment. It is therefore warranted to involve glioblastoma patients early in the disease trajectory in treatment decision-making on their future care, including the end of life (EOL) care, which can be achieved with Advance Care Planning (ACP). Although ACP, by definition, aims at timely involvement of patients and proxies in decision-making on future care, the optimal moment to initiate ACP discussions in the disease trajectory of glioblastoma patients remains controversial. Moreover, the disease-specific content of these ACP discussions needs to be established. In this article, we will first describe the history of patient participation in treatment decision-making, including the shift towards ACP. Secondly, we will describe the possible role of ACP for glioblastoma patients, with the specific aim of treatment of disease-specific symptoms such as somnolence and dysphagia, epileptic seizures, headache, and personality changes, agitation and delirium in the EOL phase, and the importance of timing of ACP discussions in this patient population. PMID:27834803

  17. Simultaneous targeting of Eph receptors in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferluga, Sara; Tomé, Carla Maria Lema; Herpai, Denise Mazess; D'Agostino, Ralph; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Eph tyrosine kinase receptors are frequently overexpressed and functional in many cancers, and they are attractive candidates for targeted therapy. Here, we analyzed the expression of Eph receptor A3, one of the most up-regulated factors in glioblastoma cells cultured under tumorsphere-forming conditions, together with EphA2 and EphB2 receptors. EphA3 was overexpressed in up to 60% of glioblastoma tumors tested, but not in normal brain. EphA3 was localized in scattered areas of the tumor, the invasive ring, and niches near tumor vessels. EphA3 co-localized with macrophage/leukocyte markers, suggesting EphA3 expression on tumor-infiltrating cells of bone marrow origin. We took advantage of the fact that ephrinA5 (eA5) is a ligand that binds EphA3, EphA2 and EphB2 receptors, and used it to construct a novel targeted anti-glioblastoma cytotoxin. The eA5-based cytotoxin potently and specifically killed glioblastoma cells with an IC50 of at least 10−11 M. This and similar cytotoxins will simultaneously target different compartments of glioblastoma tumors while mitigating tumor heterogeneity. PMID:27494882

  18. Brain Training for Cancer Survivors' Nerve Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Brain Training for Cancer Survivors' Nerve Damage Neurofeedback seems to offers relief from chemo-induced pain, ... brain waves with a type of training called neurofeedback seems to help cancer survivors ease symptoms of ...

  19. Focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening to enhance temozolomide delivery for glioblastoma treatment: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chu, Po-Chun; Wang, Hay-Yan Jack; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Lu, Yu-Jen; Lee, Pei-Yun; Tseng, I-Chou; Feng, Li-Ying; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liu, Hao-Li

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-monitored focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption to enhance Temozolomide (TMZ) delivery for improving Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment. MRI-monitored FUS with microbubbles was used to transcranially disrupt the BBB in brains of Fisher rats implanted with 9L glioma cells. FUS-BBB opening was spectrophotometrically determined by leakage of dyes into the brain, and TMZ was quantitated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma by LC-MS\\MS. The effects of treatment on tumor progression (by MRI), animal survival and brain tissue histology were investigated. Results demonstrated that FUS-BBB opening increased the local accumulation of dyes in brain parenchyma by 3.8-/2.1-fold in normal/tumor tissues. Compared to TMZ alone, combined FUS treatment increased the TMZ CSF/plasma ratio from 22.7% to 38.6%, reduced the 7-day tumor progression ratio from 24.03 to 5.06, and extended the median survival from 20 to 23 days. In conclusion, this study provided preclinical evidence that FUS BBB-opening increased the local concentration of TMZ to improve the control of tumor progression and animal survival, suggesting its clinical potential for improving current brain tumor treatment.

  20. Metabolic therapy: a new paradigm for managing malignant brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Flores, Roberto; Poff, Angela M; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Mukherjee, Purna

    2015-01-28

    Little progress has been made in the long-term management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), considered among the most lethal of brain cancers. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids, and high-dose radiation are generally used as the standard of care for GBM. These procedures can create a tumor microenvironment rich in glucose and glutamine. Glucose and glutamine are suggested to facilitate tumor progression. Recent evidence suggests that many GBMs are infected with cytomegalovirus, which could further enhance glucose and glutamine metabolism in the tumor cells. Emerging evidence also suggests that neoplastic macrophages/microglia, arising through possible fusion hybridization, can comprise an invasive cell subpopulation within GBM. Glucose and glutamine are major fuels for myeloid cells, as well as for the more rapidly proliferating cancer stem cells. Therapies that increase inflammation and energy metabolites in the GBM microenvironment can enhance tumor progression. In contrast to current GBM therapies, metabolic therapy is designed to target the metabolic malady common to all tumor cells (aerobic fermentation), while enhancing the health and vitality of normal brain cells and the entire body. The calorie restricted ketogenic diet (KD-R) is an anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic metabolic therapy that also reduces fermentable fuels in the tumor microenvironment. Metabolic therapy, as an alternative to the standard of care, has the potential to improve outcome for patients with GBM and other malignant brain cancers.

  1. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition kills glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor cells in part through loss of SOX2 and delays tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cathy; Fotovati, Abbas; Triscott, Joanna; Chen, James; Venugopal, Chitra; Singhal, Ash; Dunham, Christopher; Kerr, John M; Verreault, Maite; Yip, Stephen; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Jones, Chris; Jayanthan, Aarthi; Narendran, Aru; Singh, Sheila K; Dunn, Sandra E

    2012-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) ranks among the deadliest types of cancer and given these new therapies are urgently needed. To identify molecular targets, we queried a microarray profiling 467 human GBMs and discovered that polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was highly expressed in these tumors and that it clustered with the proliferative subtype. Patients with PLK1-high tumors were more likely to die from their disease suggesting that current therapies are inactive against such tumors. This prompted us to examine its expression in brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) given their association with treatment failure. BTICs isolated from patients expressed 110-470 times more PLK1 than normal human astrocytes. Moreover, BTICs rely on PLK1 for survival because the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536 inhibited their growth in tumorsphere cultures. PLK1 inhibition suppressed growth, caused G(2) /M arrest, induced apoptosis, and reduced the expression of SOX2, a marker of neural stem cells, in SF188 cells. Consistent with SOX2 inhibition, the loss of PLK1 activity caused the cells to differentiate based on elevated levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and changes in cellular morphology. We then knocked glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) down SOX2 with siRNA and showed that it too inhibited cell growth and induced cell death. Likewise, in U251 cells, PLK1 inhibition suppressed cell growth, downregulated SOX2, and induced cell death. Furthermore, BI2536 delayed tumor growth of U251 cells in an orthotopic brain tumor model, demonstrating that the drug is active against GBM. In conclusion, PLK1 level is elevated in GBM and its inhibition restricts the growth of brain cancer cells.

  2. Effect and Mechanism of Total Flavonoids Extracted from Cotinus coggygria against Glioblastoma Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, JunJie; Du, Li; Li, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a major constituent of Cotinus coggygria (CC), have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, including antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective effects; however, few studies have investigated the biological activity of the total flavonoids of Cotinus coggygria, especially in terms of its cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In the present study, the Cotinus coggygria flavonoids (CCF) were extracted from Cotinus coggygria and characterized by HPLC. These results indicated that CCF extracts could inhibit cell proliferation, with IC50 values of 128.49 µg/mL (U87), 107.62 µg/mL (U251), and 93.57 µg/mL (DBTRG-05MG). The current investigation also revealed that CCF induced apoptosis in highly malignant glioblastoma cells, a process that apparently involved the inhibition of Akt coupled with ERK protein expression. This finding suggests that the PI3K/Akt-ERK signaling pathway is regulated by CCF and leads to the inhibition of the glioblastoma cancer cells. Furthermore, a significant antitumor effect of CCF was observed in xenograft animal models of glioblastoma multiforme in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that CCF is the active component in the Cotinus coggygria plant that offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell proliferation, including the induction of apoptosis.

  3. PEITC inhibits human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cell migration and invasion through the inhibition of uPA, Rho A, and Ras with inhibition of MMP-2, -7 and -9 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Meng-Ya; Wang, Mei-Jen; Yu, Fu-Shun; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Harnod, Tomor; Hung, Chih-Huang; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain malignancy, and the efficacy of multimodality treatments remains unsatisfactory. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), one member of the isothiocyanate family, was found to inhibit the migration and invasion of many types of human cancer cells. In our previous study, PEITC induced the apoptosis of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells through the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways. In the present study, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the migration and invasion of GBM 8401 cells. PEITC decreased the migration of GBM 8401 cells in a dose-dependent manner as determined from scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. The percentage of inhibition ranged from 46.89 to 15.75%, and from 27.80 to 7.31% after a 48-h treatment of PEITC as determined from the Transwell migration assay and invasion assay, respectively. The western blot analysis indicated that PEITC decreased the levels of proteins associated with migration and invasion, Ras, uPA, RhoA, GRB2, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, p65, SOS1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that PEITC reduced the mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and RhoA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PEITC exhibited potent anticancer activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion in the GBM 8401 cells. Our findings elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of the anti-metastatic effects of PEITC on human brain glioblastoma cells, and PEITC may be considered as a therapeutic agent.

  4. Glioblastoma cancer stem cells: role of the microenvironment and therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Persano, Luca; Rampazzo, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2013-03-01

    It has been recently suggested that many types of cancer, including glioblastoma (GBM), contain functionally subsets of cells with stem-like properties named "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). These are characterized by chemotherapy resistance and considered one of the key determinants driving tumor relapse. Many studies demonstrated that Glioma stem cells (GSCs) reside in particular tumor niches, that are necessary to support their behavior. A hypoxic microenvironment has been reported to play a crucial role in controlling GSC molecular and phenotypic profile and in promoting the recruitment of vascular and stromal cells in order to sustain tumor growth. Recent advances in the field allow researches to generate models able to recapitulate, at least in part, the extreme heterogeneity found within GBM tumors. These models try to account for the presence of GSCs and more differentiated cells, the influence of different microenvironments enclosed within the mass, heterotypic interactions between GBM and stromal cells and genetic aberrations. Understanding the mechanism of action of the microenvironmental signals and the interplay between different cell types within the tumor mass, open new questions on how GSCs modulate GBM aggressiveness and response to therapy. The definition of these tumor features will allow to setup innovative multimodal therapies able to target GBM cells at multiple levels. Here, we will discuss the major advances in the study of GSC role in GBM and the therapeutic implications resulting from them, thus reporting the latest strategies applied to counteract and overcome GBM intrinsic resistance to therapy for a better management of patients.

  5. Supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme with spinal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Redhu, Rakesh; Nadkarni, Trimurti; Goel, Atul

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Metastasis of intracranial glioblastoma via the cerebrospinal fluid to the spine is a rare occurrence. We present two cases of glioblastoma multiforme with spinal leptomeningeal spread who presented with back pain and paraparesis. PMID:21572635

  6. Heparanase Mechanisms in Brain - Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    by 74%. These findings introduce a new concept that links microRNA mechanisms with brain metastatic breast cancer by downregulating HPSE, providing...the groundwork for heparanase-based therapeutics in patients with brain metastases, BMBC in particular. MicroRNA , Breast Cancer , Brain...by 74% (Figs. 4B-D). These findings introduce new concepts that links microRNA mechanisms with brain metastatic breast cancer by downregulating

  7. Metformin and Ara-a Effectively Suppress Brain Cancer by Targeting Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouhieddine, Tarek H.; Nokkari, Amaly; Itani, Muhieddine M.; Chamaa, Farah; Bahmad, Hisham; Monzer, Alissar; El-Merahbi, Rabih; Daoud, Georges; Eid, Assaad; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gliomas and neuroblastomas pose a great health burden worldwide with a poor and moderate prognosis, respectively. Many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant brain tumors. Of interest, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway was found to be associated with tumorigenesis and tumor survival, leading to many studies on AMPK drugs, especially Metformin, and their potential role as anti-cancer treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of slowly-dividing, treatment-resistant, undifferentiated cancer cells that are being discovered in a multitude of cancers. They are thought to be responsible for replenishing the tumor with highly proliferative cells and increasing the risk of recurrence. Methods: Metformin and 9-β-d-Arabinofuranosyl Adenine (Ara-a) were used to study the role of the AMPK pathway in vitro on U251 (glioblastoma) and SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) cell lines. Results: We found that both drugs are able to decrease the survival of U251 and SH-SY5Y cell lines in a 2D as well as a 3D culture model. Metformin and Ara-a significantly decreased the invasive ability of these cancer cell lines. Treatment with these drugs decreased the sphere-forming units (SFU) of U251 cells, with Ara-a being more efficient, signifying the extinction of the CSC population. However, if treatment is withdrawn before all SFUs are extinguished, the CSCs regain some of their sphere-forming capabilities in the case of Metformin but not Ara-a treatment. Conclusion: Metformin and Ara-a have proved to be effective in the treatment of glioblastomas and neuroblastomas, in vitro, by targeting their cancer stem/progenitor cell population, which prevents recurrence. PMID:26635517

  8. Engineering a Brain Cancer Chip for High-throughput Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yantao; Nguyen, Duong Thanh; Akay, Yasemin; Xu, Feng; Akay, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant of all human primary brain cancers, in which drug treatment is still one of the most effective treatments. However, existing drug discovery and development methods rely on the use of conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which have been proven to be poor representatives of native physiology. Here, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) brain cancer chip composed of photo-polymerizable poly(ethylene) glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel for drug screening. This chip can be produced after a few seconds of photolithography and requires no silicon wafer, replica molding, and plasma bonding like microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). We then cultured glioblastoma cells (U87), which formed 3D brain cancer tissues on the chip, and used the GBM chip to perform combinatorial treatment of Pitavastatin and Irinotecan. The results indicate that this chip is capable of high-throughput GBM cancer spheroids formation, multiple-simultaneous drug administration, and a massive parallel testing of drug response. Our approach is easily reproducible, and this chip has the potential to be a powerful platform in cases such as high-throughput drug screening and prolonged drug release. The chip is also commercially promising for other clinical applications, including 3D cell culture and micro-scale tissue engineering. PMID:27151082

  9. Optimization of the route of platinum drugs administration to optimize the concomitant treatment with radiotherapy for glioblastoma implanted in the Fischer rat brain.

    PubMed

    Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Léon; Fortin, David; Mathieu, David; Paquette, Benoit

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma with platinum compounds modestly improves progression-free survival and may cause toxic effects which prevent use at higher dose that would otherwise improve the antineoplastic effect. To reduce toxicity, we propose to encapsulate the platinum drug in a liposome. We have also tested three methods of drug administration (intra-venous, intra-arterial and intra-arterial combined with blood brain barrier disruption) to determine which one optimizes the tumor cell uptake, limits the toxicity and delivers the best concomitance effect with radiotherapy. Cisplatin, oxaliplatin, their respective liposomal formulations, Lipoplatin™ and Lipoxal™, and carboplatin were assessed in F98 glioma, orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. We found that the modest accumulation of drugs in tumor cells after intra-venous injection was significantly improved when the intra-arterial route was used and further increased after the transient opening of the blood brain barrier with mannitol. The liposomal formulations have largely reduced the toxicity and have allowed a better exploitation of the anti-cancer activity of platinum agent. Although the liposomes Lipoplatin™ and Lipoxal™ have shown a similar ability to that of carboplatin, to accumulate in brain tumors, the highest additive effect with radiotherapy was obtained with carboplatin. We conclude that the intra-arterial infusion of carboplatin or Lipoxal™ in concomitance with radiation therapy leads to the best tumor control as measured by an increase of mean survival time in Fischer rats implanted with the F98 glioma with a benefit in survival time of 13.4 and 6.5 days respectively compared to intra-venous.

  10. Optimization of the route of platinum drugs administration to optimize the concomitant treatment with radiotherapy for glioblastoma implanted in the Fischer rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Léon; Fortin, David; Mathieu, David; Paquette, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma with platinum compounds modestly improves progression-free survival and may cause toxic effects which prevent use at higher dose that would otherwise improve the antineoplastic effect. To reduce toxicity, we propose to encapsulate the platinum drug in a liposome. We have also tested three methods of drug administration (intra-venous, intra-arterial and intra-arterial combined with blood brain barrier disruption) to determine which one optimizes the tumor cell uptake, limits the toxicity and delivers the best concomitance effect with radiotherapy. Cisplatin, oxaliplatin, their respective liposomal formulations, Lipoplatin™ and Lipoxal™, and carboplatin were assessed in F98 glioma, orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. We found that the modest accumulation of drugs in tumor cells after intra-venous injection was significantly improved when the intra-arterial route was used and further increased after the transient opening of the blood brain barrier with mannitol. The liposomal formulations have largely reduced the toxicity and have allowed a better exploitation of the anti-cancer activity of platinum agent. Although the liposomes Lipoplatin™ and Lipoxal™ have shown a similar ability to that of carboplatin, to accumulate in brain tumors, the highest additive effect with radiotherapy was obtained with carboplatin. We conclude that the intra-arterial infusion of carboplatin or Lipoxal™ in concomitance with radiation therapy leads to the best tumor control as measured by an increase of mean survival time in Fischer rats implanted with the F98 glioma with a benefit in survival time of 13.4 and 6.5 days respectively compared to intra-venous. PMID:24026531

  11. Small molecule epigenetic screen identifies novel EZH2 and HDAC inhibitors that target glioblastoma brain tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Grinshtein, Natalie; Rioseco, Constanza C.; Marcellus, Richard; Uehling, David; Aman, Ahmed; Lun, Xueqing; Muto, Osamu; Podmore, Lauren; Lever, Jake; Shen, Yaoqing; Blough, Michael D.; Cairncross, Greg J.; Robbins, Stephen M.; Jones, Steven J.; Marra, Marco A.; Al-Awar, Rima; Senger, Donna L.; Kaplan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive adult brain tumor, requiring the development of efficacious therapeutics. Towards this goal, we screened five genetically distinct patient-derived brain-tumor initiating cell lines (BTIC) with a unique collection of small molecule epigenetic modulators from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC). We identified multiple hits that inhibited the growth of BTICs in vitro, and further evaluated the therapeutic potential of EZH2 and HDAC inhibitors due to the high relevance of these targets for GBM. We found that the novel SAM-competitive EZH2 inhibitor UNC1999 exhibited low micromolar cytotoxicity in vitro on a diverse collection of BTIC lines, synergized with dexamethasone (DEX) and suppressed tumor growth in vivo in combination with DEX. In addition, a unique brain-penetrant class I HDAC inhibitor exhibited cytotoxicity in vitro on a panel of BTIC lines and extended survival in combination with TMZ in an orthotopic BTIC model in vivo. Finally, a combination of EZH2 and HDAC inhibitors demonstrated synergy in vitro by augmenting apoptosis and increasing DNA damage. Our findings identify key epigenetic modulators in GBM that regulate BTIC growth and survival and highlight promising combination therapies. PMID:27449082

  12. Familiality in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familiality in brain tumors is not definitively substantiated. Methods: We used the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a genealogy representing the Utah pioneers and their descendants, record-linked to statewide cancer records, to describe the familial nature of primary brain cancer. We examined the familial clustering of primary brain tumors, including subgroups defined by histologic type and age at diagnosis. The UPDB includes 1,401 primary brain tumor cases defined as astrocytoma or glioblastoma, all with at least three generations of genealogy data. We tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness of brain tumor cases using the Genealogical Index of Familiality method. We estimated relative risks for brain tumors in relatives using rates of brain tumors estimated internally. Results: Significant excess relatedness was observed for astrocytomas and glioblastomas considered as a group (n = 1,401), for astrocytomas considered separately (n = 744), but not for glioblastomas considered separately (n = 658). Significantly increased risks to first- and second-degree relatives for astrocytomas were identified for relatives of astrocytomas considered separately. Significantly increased risks to first-degree relatives, but not second degree, were observed for astrocytoma and glioblastoma cases considered together, and for glioblastoma cases considered separately. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a familial contribution to primary brain cancer risk. There is evidence that this familial aspect includes not only shared environment, but also a heritable component. Extended high-risk brain tumor pedigrees identified in the UPDB may provide the opportunity to identify predisposition genes responsible for familial brain tumors. GLOSSARY GBM = glioblastoma; GIF = Genealogical Index of Familiality; HGG = high-grade gliomas; ICD-O = International Classification of Disease–Oncology; LGG = low-grade gliomas; RR = relative risks; SEER = Surveillance

  13. Molecular analysis of WWOX expression correlation with proliferation and apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Pluciennik, Elzbieta; Kurzyk, Agata; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kordek, Radzislaw; Potemski, Piotr; Bednarek, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults. WWOX is a tumor suppressor gene involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression in many different neoplasms. Reduced WWOX expression is associated with more aggressive phenotype and poor patient outcome in several cancers. We investigated alternations of WWOX expression and its correlation with proliferation, apoptosis and signal trafficking in 67 glioblastoma multiforme specimens. Moreover, we examined the level of WWOX LOH and methylation status in WWOX promoter region. Our results suggest that loss of heterozygosity (relatively frequent in glioblastoma multiforme) along with promoter methylation may decrease the expression of this tumor suppressor gene. Our experiment revealed positive correlations between WWOX and Bcl2 and between WWOX and Ki67. We also confirmed that WWOX is positively correlated with ErbB4 signaling pathway in glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:20535528

  14. MiRNA203 suppresses the expression of protumorigenic STAT1 in glioblastoma to inhibit tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuan He; Wang, Yinan; Sims, Michelle; Cai, Chun; He, Ping; Yue, Junming; Cheng, Jinjun; Boop, Frederick A.; Pfeffer, Susan R.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in regulating cancer cell proliferation, migration, survival and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The potential application of using miRNAs for cancer prognosis holds great promise but miRNAs with predictive value remain to be identified and underlying mechanisms of how they promote or suppress tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Here, we show a strong correlation between miR203 expression and brain cancer patient survival. Low miR203 expression is found in subsets of brain cancer patients, especially glioblastoma. Ectopic miR203 expression in glioblastoma cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by interferon or temozolomide in vitro, and inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. We further show that STAT1 is a direct functional target of miR203, and miR203 level is negatively correlated with STAT1 expression in brain cancer patients. Knockdown of STAT1 expression mimicked the effect of overexpression of miR203 in glioblastoma cell lines, and inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by IFN or temozolomide in vitro, and inhibited glioblastoma tumorigenesis in vivo. High STAT1 expression significantly correlated with poor survival in brain cancer patients. Mechanistically, we found that enforced miR203 expression in glioblastoma suppressed STAT1 expression directly, as well as that of a number of STAT1 regulated genes. Taken together, our data suggest that miR203 acts as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma by suppressing the pro-tumorigenic action of STAT1. MiR203 may serve as a predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in subsets of cancer patients with low miR203 expression. PMID:27705947

  15. Inhibition of notch signaling in glioblastoma targets cancer stem cells via an endothelial cell intermediate.

    PubMed

    Hovinga, Koos E; Shimizu, Fumiko; Wang, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Van Der Heijden, Maartje; Moayedpardazi, Hamideh; Correia, Ana Sofia; Soulet, Denis; Major, Tamara; Menon, Jayanthi; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous malignant tumor. Recent data suggests the presence of a hierarchical organization within the GBM cell population that involves cancer cells with stem-like behavior, capable of repopulating the tumor and contributing to its resistance to therapy. Tumor stem cells are thought to reside within a vascular niche that provides structural and functional support. However, most GBM studies involve isolated tumor cells grown under various culture conditions. Here, we use a novel three-dimensional organotypic "explant" system of surgical GBM specimens that preserves cytoarchitecture and tumor stroma along with tumor cells. Notch inhibition in explants results in decreased proliferation and self-renewal of tumor cells but is also associated with a decrease in endothelial cells. When endothelial cells are selectively eliminated from the explants via a toxin conjugate, we also observed a decrease in self-renewal of tumor stem cells. These findings support a critical role for tumor endothelial cells in GBM stem cell maintenance, mediated at least in part by Notch signaling. The explant system further highlighted differences in the response to radiation between explants and isolated tumor neurospheres. Combination treatment with Notch blockade and radiation resulted in a substantial decrease in proliferation and in self-renewal in tumor explants while radiation alone was less effective. This data suggests that the Notch pathway plays a critical role in linking angiogenesis and cancer stem cell self-renewal and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Three-dimensional explant systems provide a novel approach for the study of tumor and microenvironment interactions.

  16. Intra-operative probe for brain cancer: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu Thi, M. H.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M. A.; Lefebvre, F.; Menard, L.; Pitre, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.

    2007-07-01

    The present work aims a new medical probe for surgeons devoted to brain cancers, in particular glioblastoma multiforme. Within the last years, our group has started the development of a new intra-operative beta imaging probe. More recently, we took an alternative approach for the same application: a fluorescence probe. In both cases the purpose is to differentiate normal from tumor brain tissue. In a first step, we developed set-ups capable to measure autofluorescence. They are based on a dedicated epi-fluorescence design and on specific fiber optic probes. Relative signal amplitude, spectral shape and fluorescence lifetime measurements are foreseen to distinguish normal and cancer tissue by analyzing fluorophores like NADH, lipopigments and porphyrines. The autofluorescence spectra are recorded in the 460-640 nm range with a low resolution spectrometer. For lifetime measurements a fast detector (APD) is used together with a TCSPC-carte. Intrinsic wavelength- and time-resolutions are a few nm and 200 ps, respectively. Different samples have been analyzed to validate our new detection system and to allow a first configuration of our medical fluorescence probe. First results from the tissue measurements are shown.

  17. Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways.

    PubMed

    2008-10-23

    Human cancer cells typically harbour multiple chromosomal aberrations, nucleotide substitutions and epigenetic modifications that drive malignant transformation. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pilot project aims to assess the value of large-scale multi-dimensional analysis of these molecular characteristics in human cancer and to provide the data rapidly to the research community. Here we report the interim integrative analysis of DNA copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation aberrations in 206 glioblastomas--the most common type of adult brain cancer--and nucleotide sequence aberrations in 91 of the 206 glioblastomas. This analysis provides new insights into the roles of ERBB2, NF1 and TP53, uncovers frequent mutations of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase regulatory subunit gene PIK3R1, and provides a network view of the pathways altered in the development of glioblastoma. Furthermore, integration of mutation, DNA methylation and clinical treatment data reveals a link between MGMT promoter methylation and a hypermutator phenotype consequent to mismatch repair deficiency in treated glioblastomas, an observation with potential clinical implications. Together, these findings establish the feasibility and power of TCGA, demonstrating that it can rapidly expand knowledge of the molecular basis of cancer.

  18. Immune Evasion Strategies of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Lee, Karen E.; Jin, Benjamin E.; Aujla, Parvir S.; Gholamin, Sharareh; Li, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most devastating brain tumor, with associated poor prognosis. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation, the survival of afflicted patients has not improved significantly in the past three decades. Immunotherapy has been heralded as a promising approach in treatment of various cancers; however, the immune privileged environment of the brain usually curbs the optimal expected response in central nervous system malignancies. In addition, GBM cells create an immunosuppressive microenvironment and employ various methods to escape immune surveillance. The purpose of this review is to highlight the strategies by which GBM cells evade the host immune system. Further understanding of these strategies and the biology of this tumor will pave the way for developing novel immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment of GBM. PMID:26973839

  19. Comparative expression study of the endo-G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells, U87-MG cells and non malignant cells of neural origin unveils new potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Fève, Marie; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Zeniou, Maria; Lennon, Sarah; Carapito, Christine; Dong, Jihu; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Cianférani, Sarah; Haiech, Jacques; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies are designed as the real culprits for tumor maintenance and relapse after treatment. These cells, termed cancer stem-like cells, have been designed as prominent targets for new and more efficient cancer therapies. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a family of membrane receptors, play a prominent role in cell signaling, cell communication and crosstalk with the microenvironment. Their role in cancer has been highlighted but remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a descriptive study of the differential expression of the endo-GPCR repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSCs), U-87 MG cells, human astrocytes and fetal neural stem cells (f-NSCs). The endo-GPCR transcriptome has been studied using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Of the 356 GPCRs investigated, 138 were retained for comparative studies between the different cell types. At the transcriptomic level, eight GPCRs were specifically expressed/overexpressed in GSCs. Seventeen GPCRs appeared specifically expressed in cells with stem properties (GSCs and f-NSCs). Results of GPCR expression at the protein level using mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis are also presented. The comparative GPCR expression study presented here gives clues for new pathways specifically used by GSCs and unveils novel potential therapeutic targets.

  20. Intracranial elimination of human glioblastoma brain tumors in nude rats using the bispecific ligand-directed toxin, DTEGF13 and convection enhanced delivery.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seunguk; Ohlfest, John R; Todhunter, Deborah A; Vallera, Vincent D; Hall, Walter A; Chen, Hua; Vallera, Daniel A

    2009-12-01

    A bispecific ligand-directed toxin (BLT) consisting of human interleukin-13, epithelial growth factor, and the first 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin was assembled in order to target human glioblastoma. In vitro, DTEGF13 selectively killed the human glioblastoma cell line U87-luc as well as other human glioblastomas. DTEGF13 fulfilled the requirement of a successful BLT by having greater activity than either of its monospecific counterparts or their mixture proving it necessary to have both ligands on the same single chain molecule. Aggressive brain tumors established intracranially (IC) in nude rats with U87 glioma genetically marked with a firefly luciferase reporter gene were treated with two injections of DTEGF13 using convection enhanced delivery resulting in tumor eradication in 50% of the rats which survived with tumor free status at least 110 days post tumor inoculation. An irrelevant BLT control did not protect establishing specificity. The bispecific DTEGF13 MTD dose was measured at 2 microg/injection or 0.5 microg/kg and toxicity studies indicated safety in this dose. Combination of monospecific DTEGF and DTIL13 did not inhibit tumor growth. ELISA assay indicated that anti-DT antibodies were not generated in normal immunocompetent rats given identical intracranial DTEGF13 therapy. Thus, DTEGF13 is safe and efficacious as an alternative drug for glioblastoma therapy and warrants further study.

  1. A Metabolic Inhibitory Cocktail for Grave Cancers: Metformin, Pioglitazone and Lithium Combination in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer and Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Elmaci, İlhan; Altinoz, Meric A

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are among the human cancers with worst prognosis which require an urgent need for efficient therapies. Here, we propose to apply to treat both malignancies with a triple combination of drugs, which are already in use for different indications. Recent studies demonstrated a considerable link between risk of PC and diabetes. In experimental models, anti-diabetogenic agents suppress growth of PC, including metformin (M), pioglitazone (P) and lithium (L). L is used in psychiatric practice, yet also bears anti-diabetic potential and selectively inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β). M, a biguanide class anti-diabetic agent shows anticancer activity via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Glitazones bind to PPAR-γ and inhibit NF-κB, triggering cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines in cancer cells. Inhibition of inflammatory cytokines could simultaneously decrease tumor growth and alleviate cancer cachexia, having a major role in PC mortality. Furthermore, mutual synergistic interactions exist between PPAR-γ and GSK-3β, between AMPK and GSK-3β and between AMPK and PPAR-γ. In GBM, M blocks angiogenesis and migration in experimental models. Very noteworthy, among GBM patients with type 2 diabetes, usage of M significantly correlates with better survival while reverse is true for sulfonylureas. In experimental models, P synergies with ligands of RAR, RXR and statins in reducing growth of GBM. Further, usage of P was found to be lesser in anaplastic astrocytoma and GBM patients, indicating a protective effect of P against high-grade gliomas. L is accumulated in GBM cells faster and higher than in neuroblastoma cells, and its levels further increase with chronic exposure. Recent studies revealed anti-invasive potential of L in GBM cell lines. Here, we propose that a triple-agent regime including drugs already in clinical usage may provide a

  2. Human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) kills human glioblastoma cells in brain xenografts by an apoptosis-like mechanism and prolongs survival.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Walter; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Gronli, Janne; Mork, Sverre; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Svanborg, Catharina

    2004-03-15

    Malignant brain tumors present a major therapeutic challenge because no selective or efficient treatment is available. Here, we demonstrate that intratumoral administration of human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) prolongs survival in a human glioblastoma (GBM) xenograft model, by selective induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that is formed from alpha-lactalbumin when the protein changes its tertiary conformation and binds oleic acid as a cofactor. HAMLET induces apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cells in vitro, but the therapeutic effect in vivo has not been examined. In this study, invasively growing human GBM tumors were established in nude rats (Han:rnu/rnu Rowett, n = 20) by transplantation of human GBM biopsy spheroids. After 7 days, HAMLET was administered by intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery for 24 h into the tumor area; and alpha-lactalbumin, the native, folded variant of the same protein, was used as a control. HAMLET reduced the intracranial tumor volume and delayed the onset of pressure symptoms in the tumor-bearing rats. After 8 weeks, all alpha-lactalbumin-treated rats had developed pressure symptoms, but the HAMLET-treated rats remained asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed large differences in tumor volume (456 versus 63 mm(3)). HAMLET caused apoptosis in vivo in the tumor but not in adjacent intact brain tissue or in nontransformed human astrocytes, and no toxic side effects were observed. The results identify HAMLET as a new candidate in cancer therapy and suggest that HAMLET should be additionally explored as a novel approach to controlling GBM progression.

  3. Laser light induced modulations in metabolic activities in human brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, Darrell B.; Waynant, Ronald W.

    2008-03-01

    The role of low visible or near infra-red laser intensity in suppressing metabolic activity of malignant human brain cancer (glioblastoma) cells was investigated through the application of either a continuous wave 633nm HeNe or a pulsed picosecond 1,552nm wavelength laser. Human glioblastomas were exposed in their growth culture medium with serum for several energy doses. For both types of laser exposures the glioblastomas exhibited a maximal decline in the metabolic activity relative to their respective sham control counterparts at 10 J/cm2. The cellular metabolic activities for various treatment doses were measured through the colorimetric MTS metabolic assay after the laser exposure. Interestingly, addition of (the enzyme) catalase in the growth medium prior to the laser exposure was found to diminish the laser induced metabolic suppression for all fluence treatment conditions, thus suggesting a functional role of H IIO II in the metabolic suppression. Taken together, our findings reveal that visible or near infra-red low level light exposures could potentially be a viable tool in reducing the metabolic activity of cancers; evidence at hand implicates a role of light induced H IIO II in bringing about in part, suppression in the metabolic activity. Due to the cellular "biphasic" response to the laser exposure, further research needs to be undertaken to determine exposure parameters which would optimize metabolic and cellular growth suppression in-vivo.

  4. Analysis of angiogenesis related factors in glioblastoma, peritumoral tissue and their derived cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessio, Alessio; Proietti, Gabriella; Lama, Gina; Biamonte, Filippo; Lauriola, Libero; Moscato, Umberto; Vescovi, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato; Angelucci, Cristiana; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels represents a crucial event under both physiological and pathological circumstances. In this study, we evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and/or Western blotting and/or quantitative real time-PCR the expression of HIF1α, HIF2α, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in surgical glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and peritumoral tissue samples obtained from 50 patients as well as in cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from GBM (GCSCs) and peritumoral tissue (PCSCs) of 5 patients. We also investigated the contribution of both GCSCs and PCSCs on the behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of angiogenesis markers in both GBM and peritumoral tissue. In addition, in vitro tube formation assay indicated that both GCSCs and PCSCs stimulate EC proliferation as well as tube-like vessel formation. An increased migration aptitude was mainly observed when ECs were cultured in the presence of GCSCs rather than in the presence of PCSCs. These findings suggest that relevant neoangiogenetic events may occur in GBM. In particular, VEGF/VEGFR co-expression in PCSCs leads to hypothesize the involvement of an autocrine signaling. Moreover, our results suggest that both GCSCs and PCSCs own the skill of activating the “angiogenic switch” and the capability of modulating EC behavior, indicating that both cell types are either responsive to angiogenic stimuli or able to trigger angiogenic response. Together with our previous findings, this study adds a further piece to the challenging puzzle of the characterization of peritumoral tissue and of the definition of its real role in GBM pathophysiology. PMID:27705944

  5. Analysis of angiogenesis related factors in glioblastoma, peritumoral tissue and their derived cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Alessio; Proietti, Gabriella; Lama, Gina; Biamonte, Filippo; Lauriola, Libero; Moscato, Umberto; Vescovi, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato; Angelucci, Cristiana; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-11-29

    The formation of new blood vessels represents a crucial event under both physiological and pathological circumstances. In this study, we evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and/or Western blotting and/or quantitative real time-PCR the expression of HIF1α, HIF2α, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in surgical glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and peritumoral tissue samples obtained from 50 patients as well as in cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from GBM (GCSCs) and peritumoral tissue (PCSCs) of 5 patients. We also investigated the contribution of both GCSCs and PCSCs on the behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of angiogenesis markers in both GBM and peritumoral tissue. In addition, in vitro tube formation assay indicated that both GCSCs and PCSCs stimulate EC proliferation as well as tube-like vessel formation. An increased migration aptitude was mainly observed when ECs were cultured in the presence of GCSCs rather than in the presence of PCSCs. These findings suggest that relevant neoangiogenetic events may occur in GBM. In particular, VEGF/VEGFR co-expression in PCSCs leads to hypothesize the involvement of an autocrine signaling. Moreover, our results suggest that both GCSCs and PCSCs own the skill of activating the "angiogenic switch" and the capability of modulating EC behavior, indicating that both cell types are either responsive to angiogenic stimuli or able to trigger angiogenic response. Together with our previous findings, this study adds a further piece to the challenging puzzle of the characterization of peritumoral tissue and of the definition of its real role in GBM pathophysiology.

  6. Glioblastoma: changing expectations?

    PubMed

    Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menéndez López, Antonio; Yayá Tur, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities.

  7. Selection of DNA Aptamers against Glioblastoma Cells with High Affinity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dezhi; Wang, Jiangjie; Zhang, Weiyun; Song, Yanling; Li, Xilan; Zou, Yuan; Zhu, Mingtao; Zhu, Zhi; Chen, Fuyong; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma is the most common and most lethal form of brain tumor in human. Unfortunately, there is still no effective therapy to this fatal disease and the median survival is generally less than one year from the time of diagnosis. Discovery of ligands that can bind specifically to this type of tumor cells will be of great significance to develop early molecular imaging, targeted delivery and guided surgery methods to battle this type of brain tumor. Methodology/Principal Findings We discovered two target-specific aptamers named GBM128 and GBM131 against cultured human glioblastoma cell line U118-MG after 30 rounds selection by a method called cell-based Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (cell-SELEX). These two aptamers have high affinity and specificity against target glioblastoma cells. They neither recognize normal astraglial cells, nor do they recognize other normal and cancer cell lines tested. Clinical tissues were also tested and the results showed that these two aptamers can bind to different clinical glioma tissues but not normal brain tissues. More importantly, binding affinity and selectivity of these two aptamers were retained in complicated biological environment. Conclusion/Significance The selected aptamers could be used to identify specific glioblastoma biomarkers. Methods of molecular imaging, targeted drug delivery, ligand guided surgery can be further developed based on these ligands for early detection, targeted therapy, and guided surgery of glioblastoma leading to effective treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:23056171

  8. Genomic understanding of glioblastoma expanded

    Cancer.gov

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was the first cancer type to be systematically studied by TCGA in 2008. In a new, complementary report, TCGA experts examined more than 590 GBM samples--the largest to date utilizing genomic characterization techniques and ne

  9. Endothelial cells create a stem cell niche in glioblastoma by providing NOTCH ligands that nurture self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Thant S; Costello, Mark A; Talsma, Caroline E; Flack, Callie G; Crowley, Jessica G; Hamm, Lisa L; He, Xiaobing; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Heth, Jason A; Muraszko, Karin M; DiMeco, Francesco; Vescovi, Angelo L; Fan, Xing

    2011-09-15

    One important function of endothelial cells in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is to create a niche that helps promote self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC). However, the underlying molecular mechanism for this endothelial function is not known. Since activation of NOTCH signaling has been found to be required for propagation of GBM CSLCs, we hypothesized that the GBM endothelium may provide the source of NOTCH ligands. Here, we report a corroboration of this concept with a demonstration that NOTCH ligands are expressed in endothelial cells adjacent to NESTIN and NOTCH receptor-positive cancer cells in primary GBMs. Coculturing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC) or NOTCH ligand with GBM neurospheres promoted GBM cell growth and increased CSLC self-renewal. Notably, RNAi-mediated knockdown of NOTCH ligands in hBMECs abrogated their ability to induce CSLC self-renewal and GBM tumor growth, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our findings establish that NOTCH activation in GBM CSLCs is driven by juxtacrine signaling between tumor cells and their surrounding endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting that targeting both CSLCs and their niche may provide a novel strategy to deplete CSLCs and improve GBM treatment.

  10. Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Sun, Yi; Pu, Yang; Boydston-White, Susie; Liu, Yulong; Alfano, Robert R.

    2012-11-01

    The resonance Raman (RR) spectra of six types of human brain tissues are examined using a confocal micro-Raman system with 532-nm excitation in vitro. Forty-three RR spectra from seven subjects are investigated. The spectral peaks from malignant meningioma, stage III (cancer), benign meningioma (benign), normal meningeal tissues (normal), glioblastoma multiforme grade IV (cancer), acoustic neuroma (benign), and pituitary adenoma (benign) are analyzed. Using a 532-nm excitation, the resonance-enhanced peak at 1548 cm-1 (amide II) is observed in all of the tissue specimens, but is not observed in the spectra collected using the nonresonance Raman system. An increase in the intensity ratio of 1587 to 1605 cm-1 is observed in the RR spectra collected from meningeal cancer tissue as compared with the spectra collected from the benign and normal meningeal tissue. The peak around 1732 cm-1 attributed to fatty acids (lipids) are diminished in the spectra collected from the meningeal cancer tumors as compared with the spectra from normal and benign tissues. The characteristic band of spectral peaks observed between 2800 and 3100 cm-1 are attributed to the vibrations of methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) groups. The ratio of the intensities of the spectral peaks of 2935 to 2880 cm-1 from the meningeal cancer tissues is found to be lower in comparison with that of the spectral peaks from normal, and benign tissues, which may be used as a distinct marker for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal meningeal tissues. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and the support vector machine are used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from meningeal tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% when two principal components are used.

  11. Targeting SOX2 as a Therapeutic Strategy in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Garros-Regulez, Laura; Garcia, Idoia; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Lantero, Aquilino; Aldaz, Paula; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Arrizabalaga, Olatz; Undabeitia, Jose; Torres-Bayona, Sergio; Villanua, Jorge; Ruiz, Irune; Egaña, Larraitz; Sampron, Nicolas; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain cancer in adults. Current therapy consisting of surgery followed by radiation and temozolomide has a moderate success rate and the tumor reappears. Among the features that a cancer cell must have to survive the therapeutic treatment and reconstitute the tumor is the ability of self-renewal. Therefore, it is vital to identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate this activity. Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) is a transcription factor whose activity has been associated with the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of cancer stem cells in several tissues, including the brain. Several groups have detected increased SOX2 levels in biopsies of glioblastoma patients, with the highest levels associated with poor outcome. Therefore, SOX2 silencing might be a novel therapeutic approach to combat cancer and particularly brain tumors. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about SOX2 in glioblastoma and recapitulate several strategies that have recently been described targeting SOX2 in this malignancy. PMID:27822457

  12. Highly efficient radiosensitization of human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells by a G-quadruplex DNA binding compound

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Patrick; Gueugneau, Marine; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Müller-Barthélémy, Mélanie; Amiard, Simon; Chautard, Emmanuel; Guetta, Corinne; Dedieu, Véronique; Communal, Yves; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Gallego, Maria; White, Charles; Verrelle, Pierre; Tchirkov, Andreï

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the end of chromosomes which stabilize and protect them from nucleotidic degradation and end-to-end fusions. The G-rich telomeric single-stranded DNA overhang can adopt a four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA structure (G4). Stabilization of the G4 structure by binding of small molecule ligands enhances radiosensitivity of tumor cells, and this combined treatment represents a novel anticancer approach. We studied the effect of the platinum-derived G4-ligand, Pt-ctpy, in association with radiation on human glioblastoma (SF763 and SF767) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549 and H1299) cells in vitro and in vivo. Treatments with submicromolar concentrations of Pt-ctpy inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro with cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis. Non-toxic concentrations of the ligand were then combined with ionizing radiation. Pt-ctpy radiosensitized all cell lines with dose-enhancement factors between 1.32 and 1.77. The combined treatment led to increased DNA breaks. Furthermore, a significant radiosensitizing effect of Pt-ctpy in mice xenografted with glioblastoma SF763 cells was shown by delayed tumor growth and improved survival. Pt-ctpy can act in synergy with radiation for efficient killing of cancer cells at concentrations at which it has no obvious toxicity per se, opening perspectives for future therapeutic applications. PMID:26542881

  13. Brain Stem and Entire Spinal Leptomeningeal Dissemination of Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme in a Patient during Postoperative Radiochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Keyin; Zhou, Qiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; He, Huayu; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Yang, Yi; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Wang, Renzhi; Ma, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignancy of the central nervous system in adults. Macroscopically evident and symptomatic spinal metastases occur rarely. Autopsy series suggest that approximately 25% of patients with intracranial GBM have evidence of spinal subarachnoid seeding, although the exact incidence is not known as postmortem examination of the spine is not routinely performed.1–3 Herein, we present a rare case of symptomatic brain stem and entire spinal dissemination of GBM in a 36-year-old patient during postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin. Visual deterioration, intractable stomachache, and limb paralysis were the main clinical features. The results of cytological and immunohistochemical tests on the cerebrospinal fluid cells were highly suggestive of spinal leptomeningeal dissemination. After 1 month, the patient's overall condition deteriorated and succumbed to his disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GBM dissemination presenting in this manner. Because GBM extracranial dissemination is rare, we also reviewed pertinent literature regarding this uncommon entity. Although metastases to spinal cord from GBM are uncommon, it is always important to have in mind when patients with a history of GBM present with symptoms that do not correlate with the primary disease pattern. PMID:26091464

  14. Classification of glioblastoma and metastasis for neuropathology intraoperative diagnosis: a multi-resolution textural approach to model the background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Fauzi, Mohammad Faizal; Gokozan, Hamza Numan; Elder, Brad; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Otero, Jose J.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2014-03-01

    Brain cancer surgery requires intraoperative consultation by neuropathology to guide surgical decisions regarding the extent to which the tumor undergoes gross total resection. In this context, the differential diagnosis between glioblastoma and metastatic cancer is challenging as the decision must be made during surgery in a short time-frame (typically 30 minutes). We propose a method to classify glioblastoma versus metastatic cancer based on extracting textural features from the non-nuclei region of cytologic preparations. For glioblastoma, these regions of interest are filled with glial processes between the nuclei, which appear as anisotropic thin linear structures. For metastasis, these regions correspond to a more homogeneous appearance, thus suitable texture features can be extracted from these regions to distinguish between the two tissue types. In our work, we use the Discrete Wavelet Frames to characterize the underlying texture due to its multi-resolution capability in modeling underlying texture. The textural characterization is carried out in primarily the non-nuclei regions after nuclei regions are segmented by adapting our visually meaningful decomposition segmentation algorithm to this problem. k-nearest neighbor method was then used to classify the features into glioblastoma or metastasis cancer class. Experiment on 53 images (29 glioblastomas and 24 metastases) resulted in average accuracy as high as 89.7% for glioblastoma, 87.5% for metastasis and 88.7% overall. Further studies are underway to incorporate nuclei region features into classification on an expanded dataset, as well as expanding the classification to more types of cancers.

  15. Inflammatory landscape of human brain tumors reveals an NFκB dependent cytokine pathway associated with mesenchymal glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gonçalves, Rosângela Mayer; Klafke, Karina; de Souza, Priscila Oliveira; Dillenburg, Fabiane Cristine; Carro, Luigi; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2017-04-01

    The tumor microenvironment is being increasingly recognized as a key factor in cancer aggressiveness. In this study, we characterized the inflammatory gene signatures altered in glioma cell lines and tumor specimens of differing histological and molecular subtypes. The results showed that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) shows upregulation of a subset of inflammatory genes when compared to astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. With molecular subtypes of GBM, the expression of inflammatory genes is heterogeneous, being enriched in mesenchymal and downregulated in Proneural/GCIMP. Other inflammation-associated processes such as tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) signatures are upregulated in mesenchymal, and a subset of 33 mesenchymal-enriched inflammatory and TAM markers showed correlation with poor survival. We found that various GBM tumor-upregulated genes such as IL6, IL8 and CCL2 are also actively expressed in glioma cell lines, playing differential and cooperative roles in promoting proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and macrophage polarization in vitro. These genes can be stimulated by pathways typically altered in GBM, including the EGFR, PDGFR, MEK1/2-ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt and NFκB cascades. Taken together, the results presented herein depict some inflammatory pathways altered in gliomas and highlight potentially relevant targets to therapy improvement.

  16. Arsenic trioxide depletes cancer stem-like cells and inhibits repopulation of neurosphere derived from glioblastoma by downregulation of Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianing; Ji, Zhiyong; Liu, Huailei; Liu, Yaohua; Han, Dayong; Shi, Chen; Shi, Changbin; Wang, Chunlei; Yang, Guang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Chen; Li, Huadong; Bi, Yunke; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhao, Shiguang

    2013-06-20

    Notch signaling has been demonstrated to have a central role in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have recently demonstrated the inhibitory effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on CSLCs in glioblastoma cell lines. In this study we used neurosphere recovery assay that measured neurosphere formation at three time points to assess the capacity of the culture to repopulate after ATO treatment. Our results provided strong evidence that ATO depleted CSLCs in GBM, and inhibited neurosphere recovery and secondary neurosphere formation. ATO inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of AKT and STAT3 through Notch signaling blockade. These data show that the ATO is a promising new approach to decrease glioblastoma proliferation and recurrence by downregulation of Notch pathway.

  17. Isolation of cancer stem cells from three human glioblastoma cell lines: characterization of two selected clones.

    PubMed

    Iacopino, Fortunata; Angelucci, Cristiana; Piacentini, Roberto; Biamonte, Filippo; Mangiola, Annunziato; Maira, Giulio; Grassi, Claudio; Sica, Gigliola

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) were isolated via a non-adherent neurosphere assay from three glioma cell lines: LI, U87, and U373. Using a clonal assay, two clones (D2 and F11) were selected from spheres derived from LI cells and were characterized for the: expression of stem cell markers (CD133, Nestin, Musashi-1 and Sox2); proliferation; differentiation capability (determined by the expression of GalC, βIII-Tubulin and GFAP); Ca(2+) signaling and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Both D2 and F11 clones expressed higher levels of all stem cell markers with respect to the parental cell line. Clones grew more slowly than LI cells with a two-fold increase in duplication time. Markers of differentiation (βIII-Tubulin and GFAP) were expressed at high levels in both LI cells and in neurospheres. The expression of Nestin, Sox2, and βIII-Tubulin was down-regulated in D2 and F11 when cultured in serum-containing medium, whereas Musashi-1 was increased. In this condition, duplication time of D2 and F11 increased without reaching that of LI cells. D2, F11 and parental cells did not express voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channels but they exhibited increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in response to ATP. These Ca(2+) signals were larger in LI cells and in spheres cultured in serum-containing medium, while they were smaller in serum-free medium. The ATP treatment did not affect cell proliferation. Both D2 and F11 induced the appearance of tumors when ortotopically injected in athymic nude mice at a density 50-fold lower than that of LI cells. All these data indicate that both clones have characteristics of CSC and share the same stemness properties. The findings regarding the expression of differentiation markers and Ca(2+)-channels show that both clones are unable to reach the terminal differentiation. Both D2 and F11 might represent a good model to improve the knowledge on CSC in glioblastoma and to identify new therapeutic approaches.

  18. Nanoparticles for imaging and treating brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Joseph D; Doane, Tennyson; Burda, Clemens; Basilion, James P

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer tumors cause disruption of the selective properties of vascular endothelia, even causing disruptions in the very selective blood–brain barrier, which are collectively referred to as the blood–brain–tumor barrier. Nanoparticles (NPs) have previously shown great promise in taking advantage of this increased vascular permeability in other cancers, which results in increased accumulation in these cancers over time due to the accompanying loss of an effective lymph system. NPs have therefore attracted increased attention for treating brain cancer. While this research is just beginning, there have been many successes demonstrated thus far in both the laboratory and clinical setting. This review serves to present the reader with an overview of NPs for treating brain cancer and to provide an outlook on what may come in the future. For NPs, just like the blood–brain–tumor barrier, the future is wide open. PMID:23256496

  19. Advances in Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Boyuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Ye, Bainxin

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Patients with GBM have poor outcomes, even with the current gold-standard first-line treatment: maximal safe resection combined with radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that advances in antigen-specific cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade in other advanced tumors may provide an appealing promise for immunotherapy in glioma. The future of therapy for GBM will likely incorporate a combinatorial, personalized approach, including current conventional treatments, active immunotherapeutics, plus agents targeting immunosuppressive checkpoints. PMID:28299344

  20. A Zebrafish Live Imaging Model Reveals Differential Responses of Microglia Toward Glioblastoma Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lloyd; Astell, Katy R.; Velikova, Gergana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastomas are infiltrated by a high number of microglia, which promote tumor growth and surrounding tissue invasion. However, it is unclear how microglia and glioma cells physically interact and if there are differences, depending on glioma cell type. Hence, we have developed a novel live imaging assay to study microglia–glioma interactions in vivo in the zebrafish brain. We transplanted well-established human glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U251, into transgenic zebrafish lines with labelled macrophages/microglia. Our confocal live imaging results show distinct interactions between microglia and U87, as well as U251 glioblastoma cells that differ in number and nature. Importantly these interactions do not appear to be antitumoral as zebrafish microglia do not engulf and phagocytose the human glioblastoma cells. Finally, xenotransplants into the irf8−/− zebrafish mutant that lacks microglia, as well as pharmacological inhibition of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) on microglia, confirm a prominent role for zebrafish microglia in promoting human glioblastoma cell growth. This new model will be an important tool for drug screening and the development of future immunotherapeutics targeting microglia within glioma. PMID:27779463

  1. Pharmacological inhibition of lipid droplet formation enhances the effectiveness of curcumin in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Issan; Cui, Yiming; Amiri, Abdolali; Ding, Yidan; Campbell, Robert E; Maysinger, Dusica

    2016-03-01

    Increased lipid droplet number and fatty acid synthesis allow glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive type of brain cancer, to withstand accelerated metabolic rates and resist therapeutic treatments. Lipid droplets are postulated to sequester hydrophobic therapeutic agents, thereby reducing drug effectiveness. We hypothesized that the inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation in glioblastoma cells using pyrrolidine-2, a cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 alpha inhibitor, can sensitize cancer cells to the killing effect of curcumin, a promising anticancer agent isolated from the turmeric spice. We observed that curcumin localized in the lipid droplets of human U251N glioblastoma cells. Reduction of lipid droplet number using pyrrolidine-2 drastically enhanced the therapeutic effect of curcumin in both 2D and 3D glioblastoma cell models. The mode of cell death involved was found to be mediated by caspase-3. Comparatively, the current clinical chemotherapeutic standard, temozolomide, was significantly less effective in inducing glioblastoma cell death. Together, our results suggest that the inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation is an effective way to enhance the chemotherapeutic effect of curcumin against glioblastoma multiforme.

  2. Treatment of brain metastasis from lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takuya; Phi, Ji Hoon; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Kim, Dong Gyu; Barfod, Bierta E; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastasis from lung cancer occupies a significant portion of all brain metastases. About 15-20% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop brain metastasis during the course of the disease. The prognosis of brain metastasis is poor with median survival of less than 1 year. Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is widely used for the treatment of brain metastasis. WBRT can also be used as adjuvant treatment along with surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).Surgery provides a rapid relief of mass effects and may be the best choice for a large single metastasis. SRS confers local control rates comparable to those for surgery with minimal toxicities and versatility that makes it applicable to multiple lesions, deep-seated lesions, and to patients with poor medical conditions. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes are widely used for prognostic stratification. However, the validity of RPA classes, especially for NSCLC, has been questioned and other scoring systems are being developed. Synchronous presentation of primary NSCLC and brain metastases is a special situation in which surgery for the lung lesion and surgery or SRS for brain lesions are recommended if the thoracic disease is in early stages. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a higher likelihood for brain metastasis than NSCLC and prophylactic cranial irradiation and subsequent WBRT are usually recommended. Recently, SRS for brain metastasis from SCLC has been tried, but requires further verification.

  3. A phase 2 trial of verubulin for recurrent glioblastoma: a prospective study by the Brain Tumor Investigational Consortium (BTIC).

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C; Grimm, Sean; Phuphanich, Surasak; Recht, Larry; Zhu, Jay Z; Kim, Lyndon; Rosenfeld, Steve; Fadul, Camilo E

    2014-06-01

    Treatment options are limited for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Verubulin is a microtubule destabilizer and vascular disrupting agent that achieve high brain concentration relative to plasma in animals. Adults with recurrent GBM who failed prior standard therapy were eligible. The primary endpoint was 1-month progression-free survival (PFS-1) for bevacizumab refractory (Group 2) and 6-month progression-free survival (PFS-6) for bevacizumab naïve patients (Group 1). Verubulin was administered at 3.3 mg/m(2) as a 2-h intravenous infusion once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks in a 4-week cycle. The planned sample size was 34 subjects per cohort. 56 patients (37 men, 19 women) were enrolled, 31 in Group 1 and 25 in Group 2. The PFS-6 for Group 1 was 14% and the PFS-1 for Group 2 was 20%. Median survival from onset of treatment was 9.5 months in Group 1 and 3.4 months in Group 2. Best overall response was partial response (n = 3; 10% in Group 1; n = 1; 4.2% in Group 2) and stable disease (n = 7; 23% in Group 1; n = 5; 21% in Group 2). In Group 1, 38.7% of patients experienced a serious adverse event; however only 3.2% were potentially attributable to study drug. In Group 2, 44% of patients experienced a serious adverse event although none were attributable to study drug. Accrual was terminated early for futility. Single agent verubulin, in this dose and schedule, is well tolerated, associated with moderate but tolerable toxicity but has limited activity in either bevacizumab naïve or refractory recurrent GBM.

  4. Breast Cancer Cells May Change When They Spread to Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Cells May Change When They Spread to Brain: Study Finding might lead to better treatment, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- When breast cancer spreads to the brain, important molecular changes may occur in the cancer, ...

  5. Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells Evade Innate Immune Suppression of Self-Renewal through Reduced TLR4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Alvaro G; Thiagarajan, Praveena S; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Silver, Daniel J; Hale, James S; Alban, Tyler J; Turaga, Soumya M; Jarrar, Awad; Reizes, Ofer; Longworth, Michelle S; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Lathia, Justin D

    2016-12-27

    Tumors contain hostile inflammatory signals generated by aberrant proliferation, necrosis, and hypoxia. These signals are sensed and acted upon acutely by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to halt proliferation and activate an immune response. Despite the presence of TLR ligands within the microenvironment, tumors progress, and the mechanisms that permit this growth remain largely unknown. We report that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma have low TLR4 expression that allows them to survive by disregarding inflammatory signals. Non-CSCs express high levels of TLR4 and respond to ligands. TLR4 signaling suppresses CSC properties by reducing retinoblastoma binding protein 5 (RBBP5), which is elevated in CSCs. RBBP5 activates core stem cell transcription factors, is necessary and sufficient for self-renewal, and is suppressed by TLR4 overexpression in CSCs. Our findings provide a mechanism through which CSCs persist in hostile environments because of an inability to respond to inflammatory signals.

  6. Environmental effects on molecular biomarkers expression in pancreatic and brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Lawrence; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Massodi, Iqbal; Anbil, Sriram; Mai, Zhiming; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-03-01

    A complete understanding of the biological mechanisms regulating devastating disease such as cancer remains elusive. Pancreatic and brain cancers are primary among the cancer types with poor prognosis. Molecular biomarkers have emerged as group of proteins that are preferentially overexpressed in cancers and with a key role in driving disease progression and resistance to chemotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cell proliferative biomarker is particularly highly expressed in most cancers including brain and pancreatic cancers. The ability of EGFR to sustain prolong cell proliferation is augmented by biomarkers such as Bax, Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, proteins regulating the apoptotic process. To better understand the role and effect of the microenvironment on these biomarkers in pancreatic cancer (PaCa); we analysed two pancreatic tumor lines (AsPc-1 and MiaPaCa-2) in 2D, 3D in-vitro cultures and in orthotopic tumors at different growth stages. We also investigated in patient derived glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cultures, the ability to utilize the EGFR expression to specifically deliver photosensitizer to the cells for photodynamic therapy. Overall, our results suggest that (1) microenvironment changes affect biomarker expression; thereby it is critical to understand these effects prior to designing combination therapies and (2) EGFR expression in tumor cells indeed could serve as a reliable and a robust biomarker that could be used to design targeted and image-guided photodynamic therapy.

  7. Comparison of microRNA expression levels between initial and recurrent glioblastoma specimens.

    PubMed

    Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Widhalm, Georg; Marosi, Christine; Wagner, Ludwig; Preusser, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumour in adults. Recent therapeutic advances increased patient's survival, but tumour recurrence inevitably occurs. The pathobiological mechanisms involved in glioblastoma recurrence are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small RNAs proposed o have important roles for cancer including proliferation, aggressiveness and metastases development. There exist only few data on the involvement of microRNAs in glioblastoma recurrence. We selected the following 7 microRNAs with potential relevance for glioblastoma pathobiology by means of a comprehensive literature search: microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222. We further selected 15 primary glioblastoma patients, of whom formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) of the initial and recurrence surgery were available. All patients had received first line treatment consisting of postoperative combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (n = 15). Non-neoplastic brain tissue samples from 3 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy served as control. The expression of the microRNAs were analysed by RT-qPCR. These were correlated with each other and with clinical parameters. All microRNAs showed detectable levels of expressions in glioblastoma group, whereas microRNA-10b was not detectable in epilepsy patients. MicroRNAs except microRNA-21 showed significantly higher levels in epilepsy patients when compared to the levels of first resection of glioblastoma. Comparison of microRNA levels between first and second resections revealed no significant change. Cox regression analyses showed no significant association of microRNA expression levels in the tumor tissue with progression free survival times. Expression levels of microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 do not differ significantly between initial and recurrent glioblastoma.

  8. Robust discrimination of glioblastomas from metastatic brain tumors on the basis of single-voxel (1)H MRS.

    PubMed

    Vellido, A; Romero, E; Julià-Sapé, M; Majós, C; Moreno-Torres, Á; Pujol, J; Arús, C

    2012-06-01

    This article investigates methods for the accurate and robust differentiation of metastases from glioblastomas on the basis of single-voxel (1)H MRS information. Single-voxel (1)H MR spectra from a total of 109 patients (78 glioblastomas and 31 metastases) from the multicenter, international INTERPRET database, plus a test set of 40 patients (30 glioblastomas and 10 metastases) from three different centers in the Barcelona (Spain) metropolitan area, were analyzed using a robust method for feature (spectral frequency) selection coupled with a linear-in-the-parameters single-layer perceptron classifier. For the test set, a parsimonious selection of five frequencies yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86, and an area under the convex hull of the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91. Moreover, these accurate results for the discrimination between glioblastomas and metastases were obtained using a small number of frequencies that are amenable to metabolic interpretation, which should ease their use as diagnostic markers. Importantly, the prediction can be expressed as a simple formula based on a linear combination of these frequencies. As a result, new cases could be straightforwardly predicted by integrating this formula into a computer-based medical decision support system. This work also shows that the combination of spectra acquired at different TEs (short TE, 20-32 ms; long TE, 135-144 ms) is key to the successful discrimination between glioblastomas and metastases from single-voxel (1)H MRS.

  9. Targeting ROR1 inhibits the self-renewal and invasive ability of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Hwa; Lee, Han-Na; Han, Gi-Yeon; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant of brain tumours and is difficult to cure because of interruption of drug delivery by the blood-brain barrier system, its high metastatic capacity and the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although CSCs are present as a small population in malignant tumours, CSCs have been studied as they are responsible for causing recurrence, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. CSCs have self-renewal characteristics like normal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is involved in stem cell maintenance and malignant properties in human glioblastoma. Knockdown of ROR1 caused reduction of stemness and sphere formation capacity. Moreover, down-regulation of ROR1 suppressed the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes and the tumour migratory and invasive abilities. The results of this study indicate that targeting ROR1 can induce differentiation of CSCs and inhibit metastasis in glioblastoma. In addition, ROR1 may be used as a potential marker for glioblastoma stem cells as well as a potential target for glioblastoma stem cell therapy.

  10. Quantitating Cell-Cell Interaction Functions, with Applications to Glioblastoma Multiforme Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tham, Douglas; Wei, Wei; Shin, Young Shik; Ma, Chao; Ahmad, Habib; Shi, Qihui; Yu, Jenkan; Levine, Raphael D.; Heath, James R.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a method for quantitating the distance dependence of cell-cell interactions. We employ a microchip design that permits a multiplex, quantitative protein assay from statistical numbers of cell pairs, as a function of cell separation, with a 0.15 nanoliter volume microchamber. We interrogate interactions between pairs of model brain cancer cells by assaying for 6 functional proteins associated with PI3k signaling. At short incubation times, cells do not appear to influence each other, regardless of cell separation. For 6 hour incubation times, the cells exert an inhibiting influence on each other at short separations, and a predominately activating influence at large separation. Protein-specific cell-cell interaction functions are extracted, and by assuming pairwise additivity of those interactions, the functions are shown to correctly predict the results from 3-cell experiments carried out under the identical conditions. PMID:23130660

  11. The SOX2-interactome in brain cancer cells identifies the requirement of MSI2 and USP9X for the growth of brain tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jesse L; Wilder, Phillip J; Gilmore, Joshua M; Wuebben, Erin L; Washburn, Michael P; Rizzino, Angie

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastomas and glioblastomas, the most common primary brain tumors in children and adults, respectively, are extremely difficult to treat. Efforts to identify novel proteins essential for the growth of these tumors may help to further our understanding of the biology of these tumors, as well as, identify targets for future therapies. The recent identification of multiple transcription factor-centric protein interaction landscapes in embryonic stem cells has identified numerous understudied proteins that are essential for the self-renewal of these stem cells. To identify novel proteins essential for the fate of brain tumor cells, we examined the protein interaction network of the transcription factor, SOX2, in medulloblastoma cells. For this purpose, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) identified >280 SOX2-associated proteins in the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY. To begin to understand the roles of SOX2-associated proteins in brain cancer, we focused on two SOX2-associated proteins, Musashi 2 (MSI2) and Ubiquitin Specific Protease 9x (USP9X). Recent studies have implicated MSI2, a putative RNA binding protein, and USP9X, a deubiquitinating enzyme, in several cancers, but not brain tumors. We demonstrate that knockdown of MSI2 significantly reduces the growth of DAOY cells as well as U87 and U118 glioblastoma cells. We also demonstrate that the knockdown of USP9X in DAOY, U87 and U118 brain tumor cells strongly reduces their growth. Together, our studies identify a large set of SOX2-associated proteins in DAOY medulloblastoma cells and identify two proteins, MSI2 and USP9X, that warrant further investigation to determine whether they are potential therapeutic targets for brain cancer.

  12. Comparative Expression Study of the Endo–G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Repertoire in Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem-like Cells, U87-MG Cells and Non Malignant Cells of Neural Origin Unveils New Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Sarah; Carapito, Christine; Dong, Jihu; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Cianférani, Sarah; Haiech, Jacques; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies are designed as the real culprits for tumor maintenance and relapse after treatment. These cells, termed cancer stem-like cells, have been designed as prominent targets for new and more efficient cancer therapies. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a family of membrane receptors, play a prominent role in cell signaling, cell communication and crosstalk with the microenvironment. Their role in cancer has been highlighted but remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a descriptive study of the differential expression of the endo-GPCR repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSCs), U-87 MG cells, human astrocytes and fetal neural stem cells (f-NSCs). The endo-GPCR transcriptome has been studied using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Of the 356 GPCRs investigated, 138 were retained for comparative studies between the different cell types. At the transcriptomic level, eight GPCRs were specifically expressed/overexpressed in GSCs. Seventeen GPCRs appeared specifically expressed in cells with stem properties (GSCs and f-NSCs). Results of GPCR expression at the protein level using mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis are also presented. The comparative GPCR expression study presented here gives clues for new pathways specifically used by GSCs and unveils novel potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24662753

  13. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Julia; Rai, Karan G.; Funk, Cory C.; Arora, Sonali; Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Jun; Price, Nathan D.; Paddison, Patrick J.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Rostomily, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance. PMID:28264064

  14. Phase II study of thalidomide and radiation in children with newly diagnosed brain stem gliomas and glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher D; Chi, Susan; Marcus, Karen J; MacDonald, Tobey; Packer, Roger J; Poussaint, Tina Young; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Ullrich, Nicole; Goumnerova, Liliana C; Scott, R Michael; Briody, Caitlin; Chordas, Christine; Zimmerman, Mary Ann; Kieran, Mark W

    2007-03-01

    A phase II study was conducted to assess the efficacy of administering daily thalidomide concomitantly with radiation and continuing for up to 1 year following radiation in children with brain stem gliomas (BSG) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Secondary objectives were to obtain preliminary evidence of biologic activity of thalidomide and to evaluate toxicities from chronic administration of thalidomide in this population. Thirteen patients (2-14 years old) with newly diagnosed BSG (12 patients) or GBM (one patient) were enrolled between July 1999 and June 2000. All patients received focal radiotherapy to a total dose of 5,580 cGy. Thalidomide was administered once daily beginning on the first day of radiation and continued for 12 months or until the patient came off study. The starting dose was 12 mg/kg (rounded down to the nearest 50 mg) and was increased by 20% weekly, if tolerated, to 24 mg/kg or 1,000 mg (whichever was lower). Advanced imaging techniques and urine and serum analysis for anti-angiogenic markers were performed in some patients in an attempt to correlate changes with clinical effect of therapy. No patients completed the planned 12 months of thalidomide therapy and all have since died of disease progression. The median duration of therapy was 5 months (range 2-11 months). Nine patients came off study for progressive disease (PD), three patients due to toxicity and one patient withdrew consent. Several patients on this study required more extended courses of high dose steroids than would have been otherwise expected for this population due to significant peritumoral edema and necrosis. No consistent pattern emerged from the biologic correlative studies from 11 patients. However, advanced imaging with techniques such as MR spectroscopy, MR perfusion and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were helpful in distinguishing growing tumor from treatment effect and necrosis in some patients. The median time to progression (TTP

  15. KLRC3, a Natural Killer receptor gene, is a key factor involved in glioblastoma tumourigenesis and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Cheray, Mathilde; Bessette, Barbara; Lacroix, Aurélie; Mélin, Carole; Jawhari, Soha; Pinet, Sandra; Deluche, Elise; Clavère, Pierre; Durand, Karine; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Battu, Serge; Lalloué, Fabrice

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumour with a poor prognosis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) were proposed to be the most aggressive cells allowing brain tumour recurrence and aggressiveness. Current challenge is to determine CSC signature to characterize these cells and to develop new therapeutics. In a previous work, we achieved a screening of glycosylation-related genes to characterize specific genes involved in CSC maintenance. Three genes named CHI3L1, KLRC3 and PRUNE2 were found overexpressed in glioblastoma undifferentiated cells (related to CSC) compared to the differentiated ones. The comparison of their roles suggest that KLRC3 gene coding for NKG2E, a protein initially identified in NK cells, is more important than both two other genes in glioblastomas aggressiveness. Indeed, KLRC3 silencing decreased self-renewal capacity, invasion, proliferation, radioresistance and tumourigenicity of U87-MG glioblastoma cell line. For the first time we report that KLRC3 gene expression is linked to glioblastoma aggressiveness and could be a new potential therapeutic target to attenuate glioblastoma.

  16. Integrin αvβ3-Targeted IRDye 800CW Near-Infrared Imaging of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruimin; Vider, Jelena; Kovar, Joy L.; Olive, D. Michael; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Kircher, Moritz F.; Blasberg, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. We have tested a targeted probe to visualize integrin receptor expression in glioblastomas using near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging. Experimental design A transgenic glioblastoma mouse model (RCAS-PDGF-driven/tv-a glioblastoma, which mimics the infiltrative growth pattern of human glioblastomas), and two human orthotopic glioblastoma models, (U-87 MG with high integrin β3 expression and TS543 with low integrin β3 expression), were studied. An integrin-targeting NIRF probe, IRDye 800CW-cyclic-RGD peptide (IRDye 800CW-RGD), was tested by in vivo and ex vivo NIRF imaging. Results We demonstrate that the IRDye 800CW-RGD peptide: 1) specifically binds to integrin receptors, 2) is selectively localized to glioblastoma tissue with overexpressed integrin receptors and is retained over prolonged periods of time, 3) is associated with minimal autofluorescence and photobleaching due to imaging at 800 nm, 4) provides delineation of tumor tissue with high precision due to a high tumor-to-normal brain fluorescence ratio (79.7±6.9, 31.2±2.8, and 16.3±1.3) in the U-87 MG, RCAS-PDGF, and TS543 models, respectively; p<0.01) and 5) enables fluorescence-guided glioblastoma resection. Importantly, small foci of residual fluorescence were observed after resection was completed using white light imaging alone, and these fluorescent foci were shown to represent residual tumor tissue by histology. Conclusions NIRF imaging with the IRDye 800CW-RGD probe provides a simple, rapid, low-cost, non-radioactive and highly translatable approach for improved intraoperative glioblastoma visualization and resection. It also has the potential to serve as an imaging platform for noninvasive cancer detection and drug efficacy evaluation studies. PMID:22914772

  17. Elucidating the cancer-specific genetic alteration spectrum of glioblastoma derived cell lines from whole exome and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2015-01-01

    Cell lines derived from tumor tissues have been used as a valuable system to study gene regulation and cancer development. Comprehensive characterization of the genetic background of cell lines could provide clues on novel genes responsible for carcinogenesis and help in choosing cell lines for particular studies. Here, we have carried out whole exome and RNA sequencing of commonly used glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines (U87, T98G, LN229, U343, U373 and LN18) to unearth single nucleotide variations (SNVs), indels, differential gene expression, gene fusions and RNA editing events. We obtained an average of 41,071 SNVs out of which 1,594 (3.88%) were potentially cancer-specific. The cell lines showed frequent SNVs and indels in some of the genes that are known to be altered in GBM- EGFR, TP53, PTEN, SPTA1 and NF1. Chromatin modifying genes- ATRX, MLL3, MLL4, SETD2 and SRCAP also showed alterations. While no cell line carried IDH1 mutations, five cell lines showed hTERT promoter activating mutations with a concomitant increase in hTERT transcript levels. Five significant gene fusions were found of which NUP93-CYB5B was validated. An average of 18,949 RNA editing events was also obtained. Thus we have generated a comprehensive catalogue of genetic alterations for six GBM cell lines. PMID:26496030

  18. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    PubMed

    Vidak, Marko; Rozman, Damjana; Komel, Radovan

    2015-10-23

    Quercetin, catechins and proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are prominently featured in foodstuffs and dietary supplements, and may possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most dangerous form of glioma, a malignancy of the brain connective tissue. This review assesses molecular structures of these flavonoids, their importance as components of diet and dietary supplements, their bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, their reported beneficial health effects, and their effects on non-malignant glial as well as glioblastoma tumor cells. The reviewed flavonoids appear to protect glial cells via reduction of oxidative stress, while some also attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and reduce neuroinflammation. Most of the reviewed flavonoids inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induce their death. Moreover, some of them inhibit pro-oncogene signaling pathways and intensify the effect of conventional anti-cancer therapies. However, most of these anti-glioblastoma effects have only been observed in vitro or in animal models. Due to limited ability of the reviewed flavonoids to access the brain, their normal dietary intake is likely insufficient to produce significant anti-cancer effects in this organ, and supplementation is needed.

  19. Study Casts Doubt on A Brain Cancer's Link to Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... between a common type of herpes virus and aggressive brain cancers, according to a new study that ... researchers analyzed tumor tissue from 125 patients with aggressive brain cancers called gliomas. Ninety-nine of the ...

  20. Seniors with Brain Cancer May Have Better Treatment Option

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164102.html Seniors With Brain Cancer May Have Better Treatment Option ... More Health News on: Brain Tumors Cancer Chemotherapy Seniors' Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  1. Therapeutic potential of cyclooxygenase-3 inhibitors in the management of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oksuz, Ersoy; Atalar, Fatmahan; Tanırverdi, Gamze; Bilir, Ayahan; Shahzadi, Andleeb; Yazici, Zeliha

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the expression of COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3 mRNA in C6 glioblastoma and normal brain tissues and the effects of acetaminophen, indomethacin or metamizole treatments on the development of C6 glioblastoma in relation with COX inhibition. Glioblastoma cells were inoculated intracerebrally into frontal lobe of adult male Wistar albino rats. 10 days after inoculation, rats were treated with 150 mg/kg acetaminophen, 10 mg/kg indomethacin or 150 mg/kg metamizole. The tumor size was measured histologically and total RNA was isolated from tumor or normal brain tissue and mRNA levels of COX isoforms were determined by qRT-PCR. Our results showed the presence of COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3 expressions in both C6 glioblastoma and normal brain tissues. In tumor tissues COX-3 expression was significantly higher than normal brain tissue (p < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in COX-1 and COX-2 expressions. Acetaminophen and indomethacin decreased the tumor size by 71 and 43 % by inhibiting COX-3 mRNA expression around 87 and 91 % respectively. For the first time our study proposes a possible relationship between COX-3 mRNA expression and C6 glioblastoma development. We also suggested that the inhibition of COX-3 enzyme may be responsible for decrease in tumor size in part, the mechanism by which acetaminophen and indomethacin decreased rat C6 glioblastoma growth. However, the molecular events responsible for COX-3 effects on tumor development are still unresolved as these drugs exert their anti-cancer effect via both COX-3 dependent and independent mechanisms.

  2. Hematopoietic stem cells as a tool for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bryukhovetskiy, Igor S.; Dyuizen, Inessa V.; Shevchenko, Valeriy E.; Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey S.; Mischenko, Polina V.; Milkina, Elena V.; Khotimchenko, Yuri S.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive malignant brain tumor with terminal consequences. A primary reason for its resistance to treatment is associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs), of which there are currently no effective ways to destroy. It remains unclear what cancer cells become a target of stem cell migration, what the role of this process is in oncogenesis and what stem cell lines should be used in developing antitumor technologies. Using modern post-genome technologies, the present study investigated the migration of human stem cells to cancer cells in vitro, the comparative study of cell proteomes of certain stem cells (including CSCs) was conducted and stem cell migration in vivo was examined. Of all glioblastoma cells, CSCs have the stability to attract normal stem cells. Critical differences in cell proteomes allow the consideration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as an instrument for interaction with glioblastoma CSCs. Following injection into the bloodstream of animals with glioblastoma, the majority of HSCs migrated to the tumor-containing brain hemisphere and penetrated the tumor tissue. HSCs therefore are of potential use in the development of methods to target CSCs. PMID:27748891

  3. Decoding brain cancer dynamics: a quantitative histogram-based approach using temporal MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mu; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Russo, Robin; Gillies, Robert J.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    Brain tumor heterogeneity remains a challenge for probing brain cancer evolutionary dynamics. In light of evolution, it is a priority to inspect the cancer system from a time-domain perspective since it explicitly tracks the dynamics of cancer variations. In this paper, we study the problem of exploring brain tumor heterogeneity from temporal clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Our goal is to discover evidence-based knowledge from such temporal imaging data, where multiple clinical MRI scans from Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients are generated during therapy. In particular, we propose a quantitative histogram-based approach that builds a prediction model to measure the difference in histograms obtained from pre- and post-treatment. The study could significantly assist radiologists by providing a metric to identify distinctive patterns within each tumor, which is crucial for the goal of providing patient-specific treatments. We examine the proposed approach for a practical application - clinical survival group prediction. Experimental results show that our approach achieved 90.91% accuracy.

  4. Proscillaridin A is cytotoxic for glioblastoma cell lines and controls tumor xenograft growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Carré, Manon; Colin, Carole; Jiglaire, Carine Jiguet; Mercurio, Sandy; Beclin, Christophe; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults. Because of molecular and cellular heterogeneity, high proliferation rate and significant invasive ability, prognosis of patients is poor. Recent therapeutic advances increased median overall survival but tumor recurrence remains inevitable. In this context, we used a high throughput screening approach to bring out novel compounds with anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties for glioblastoma treatment. Screening of the Prestwick chemical library® of 1120 molecules identified proscillaridin A, a cardiac glycoside inhibitor of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump, with most significant effects on glioblastoma cell lines. In vitro effects of proscillaridin A were evaluated on GBM6 and GBM9 stem-like cell lines and on U87-MG and U251-MG cell lines. We showed that proscillaridin A displayed cytotoxic properties, triggered cell death, induced G2/M phase blockade in all the glioblastoma cell lines and impaired GBM stem self-renewal capacity even at low concentrations. Heterotopic and orthotopic xenotransplantations were used to confirm in vivo anticancer effects of proscillaridin A that both controls xenograft growth and improves mice survival. Altogether, results suggest that proscillaridin A is a promising candidate as cancer therapies in glioblastoma. This sustains previous reports showing that cardiac glycosides act as anticancer drugs in other cancers. PMID:25400117

  5. Radiation-induced glioblastoma signaling cascade regulates viability, apoptosis and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC).

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2014-12-01

    summary, intercellular communication between glioblastoma cells and bystander NSC/NPC could be involved in the amplification of cancer pathology in the brain.

  6. MicroRNA-34a targets notch1 and inhibits cell proliferation in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Bo; Ma, Min-Wang; Dong, Li-Jie; Wang, Fei; Chen, Lu-Xia; Li, Xiao-Rong

    2011-09-15

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we found that microRNA-34a (miR-34a) is significantly downregulated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens compared with normal brain tissues. Growth curve and colony formation assays revealed that miR-34a suppresses proliferation of U373MG and SHG44 glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of miR-34a could induce apoptosis of glioblastoma cells. Also, we identified notch1 as a direct target gene of miR-34a. Knockdown of notch1 showed similar cellular functions as overexpression of miR-34a both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings show that miR-34a is downregulated in GBM cells and inhibits GBM growth by targeting notch1.

  7. Glioblastoma Circulating Cells: Reality, Trap or Illusion?

    PubMed

    Lombard, A; Goffart, N; Rogister, B

    2015-01-01

    Metastases are the hallmark of cancer. This event is in direct relationship with the ability of cancer cells to leave the tumor mass and travel long distances within the bloodstream and/or lymphatic vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent primary brain neoplasm, is mainly characterized by a dismal prognosis. The usual fatal issue for GBM patients is a consequence of local recurrence that is observed most of the time without any distant metastases. However, it has recently been documented that GBM cells could be isolated from the bloodstream in several studies. This observation raises the question of the possible involvement of glioblastoma-circulating cells in GBM deadly recurrence by a "homing metastasis" process. Therefore, we think it is important to review the already known molecular mechanisms underlying circulating tumor cells (CTC) specific properties, emphasizing their epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) abilities and their possible involvement in tumor initiation. The idea is here to review these mechanisms and speculate on how relevant they could be applied in the forthcoming battles against GBM.

  8. Glioblastoma Circulating Cells: Reality, Trap or Illusion?

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, A.; Goffart, N.; Rogister, B.

    2015-01-01

    Metastases are the hallmark of cancer. This event is in direct relationship with the ability of cancer cells to leave the tumor mass and travel long distances within the bloodstream and/or lymphatic vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent primary brain neoplasm, is mainly characterized by a dismal prognosis. The usual fatal issue for GBM patients is a consequence of local recurrence that is observed most of the time without any distant metastases. However, it has recently been documented that GBM cells could be isolated from the bloodstream in several studies. This observation raises the question of the possible involvement of glioblastoma-circulating cells in GBM deadly recurrence by a “homing metastasis” process. Therefore, we think it is important to review the already known molecular mechanisms underlying circulating tumor cells (CTC) specific properties, emphasizing their epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) abilities and their possible involvement in tumor initiation. The idea is here to review these mechanisms and speculate on how relevant they could be applied in the forthcoming battles against GBM. PMID:26078762

  9. Narciclasine as well as other Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyrils are promising GTP-ase targeting agents against brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Kornienko, Alexander; Evidente, Antonio; Kiss, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The anticancer activity of Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyrils is well documented. At pharmacological concentrations, that is, approximately 1 μM in vitro and approximately 10 mg/kg in vivo, narciclasine displays marked proapoptotic and cytotoxic activity, as does pancratistatin, and significant in vivo anticancer effects in various experimental models, but it is also associated with severe toxic side effects. At physiological doses, that is, approximately 50 nM in vitro and approximately 1 mg/kg in vivo, narciclasine is not cytotoxic but cytostatic and displays marked anticancer activity in vivo in experimental models of brain cancer (including gliomas and brain metastases), but it is not associated with toxic side effects. The cytostatic activity of narciclasine involves the impairment of actin cytoskeleton organization by targeting GTPases, including RhoA and the elongation factor eEF1A. We have demonstrated that chronic treatments of narciclasine (1 mg/kg) significantly increased the survival of immunodeficient mice orthotopically xenografted with highly invasive human glioblastomas and apoptosis-resistant brain metastases, including melanoma- and non-small-cell-lung cancer- (NSCLC) related brain metastases. Thus, narciclasine is a potentially promising agent for the treatment of primary brain cancers and various brain metastases. To date, efforts to develop synthetic analogs with anticancer properties superior to those of narciclasine have failed; thus, research efforts are now focused on narciclasine prodrugs.

  10. Treatment of breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Silvia; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2013-10-05

    Breast cancer represents the second most frequent cause of brain metastases. Treatment planning should consider several tumor and patient factors to estimate prognosis based on the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), age, extent of extra-cerebral disease as well as genetic subtype. When systemic disease is under control patients with up to three metastases qualify for local therapy, such as surgical excision or stereotactic radiotherapy. After the local treatment the addition of whole brain radiation therapy may be postponed until disease progression in the brain is observed and overall survival will not be compromised. Asymptomatic brain metastases may be first approached with a systemic treatment to which the primary tumor is considered to be sensitive.

  11. Low Incidence along with Low mRNA Levels of EGFRvIII in Prostate and Colorectal Cancers Compared to Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Peciak, Joanna; Stec, Wojciech J; Treda, Cezary; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena; Janik, Karolina; Popeda, Marta; Smolarz, Maciej; Rosiak, Kamila; Hulas-Bigoszewska, Krystyna; Och, Waldemar; Rieske, Piotr; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    Background: The presence as well as the potential role of EGFRvIII in tumors other than glioblastoma still remains a controversial subject with many contradictory data published. Previous analyses, however, did not consider the level of EGFRvIII mRNA expression in different tumor types. Methods: Appropriately designed protocol for Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (Real-time qRT-PCR) was applied to analyze EGFRvIII and EGFRWT mRNA expression in 155 tumor specimens. Additionally, Western Blot (WB) analysis was performed for selected samples. Stable cell lines showing EGFRvIII expression (CAS-1 and DK-MG) were analyzed by means of WB, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Our analyses revealed EGFRvIII expression in 27.59% of glioblastomas (8/29), 8.11% of colorectal cancers (3/37), 6.52% of prostate cancers (3/46) and none of breast cancers (0/43). Despite the average relative expression of EGFRvIII varying greatly among tumors of different tissues (approximately 800-fold) or even within the same tissue group (up to 8000-fold for GB), even the marginal expression of EGFRvIII mRNA can be detrimental to cancer progression, as determined by the analysis of stable cell lines endogenously expressing the oncogene. Conclusion: EGFRvIII plays an unquestionable role in glioblastomas with high expression of this oncogene. Our data suggests that EGFRvIII importance should not be underestimated even in tumors with relatively low expression of this oncogene. PMID:28123609

  12. Low Incidence along with Low mRNA Levels of EGFR(vIII) in Prostate and Colorectal Cancers Compared to Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Peciak, Joanna; Stec, Wojciech J; Treda, Cezary; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena; Janik, Karolina; Popeda, Marta; Smolarz, Maciej; Rosiak, Kamila; Hulas-Bigoszewska, Krystyna; Och, Waldemar; Rieske, Piotr; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    Background: The presence as well as the potential role of EGFR(vIII) in tumors other than glioblastoma still remains a controversial subject with many contradictory data published. Previous analyses, however, did not consider the level of EGFR(vIII) mRNA expression in different tumor types. Methods: Appropriately designed protocol for Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (Real-time qRT-PCR) was applied to analyze EGFR(vIII) and EGFR(WT) mRNA expression in 155 tumor specimens. Additionally, Western Blot (WB) analysis was performed for selected samples. Stable cell lines showing EGFR(vIII) expression (CAS-1 and DK-MG) were analyzed by means of WB, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Our analyses revealed EGFR(vIII) expression in 27.59% of glioblastomas (8/29), 8.11% of colorectal cancers (3/37), 6.52% of prostate cancers (3/46) and none of breast cancers (0/43). Despite the average relative expression of EGFR(vIII) varying greatly among tumors of different tissues (approximately 800-fold) or even within the same tissue group (up to 8000-fold for GB), even the marginal expression of EGFR(vIII) mRNA can be detrimental to cancer progression, as determined by the analysis of stable cell lines endogenously expressing the oncogene. Conclusion: EGFR(vIII) plays an unquestionable role in glioblastomas with high expression of this oncogene. Our data suggests that EGFR(vIII) importance should not be underestimated even in tumors with relatively low expression of this oncogene.

  13. Incorporating Cancer Stem Cells in Radiation Therapy Treatment Response Modeling and the Implication in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Victoria Y.; Nguyen, Dan; Pajonk, Frank; Kupelian, Patrick; Kaprealian, Tania; Selch, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a preliminary exploration with a simplistic mathematical cancer stem cell (CSC) interaction model to determine whether the tumor-intrinsic heterogeneity and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and differentiated cancer cells (DCCs) can better explain radiation therapy treatment response with a dual-compartment linear-quadratic (DLQ) model. Methods and Materials: The radiosensitivity parameters of CSCs and DCCs for cancer cell lines including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and prostate, cervical, and breast cancer were determined by performing robust least-square fitting using the DLQ model on published clonogenic survival data. Fitting performance was compared with the single-compartment LQ (SLQ) and universal survival curve models. The fitting results were then used in an ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of DCCs and CSCs in response to 2- to 14.3-Gy fractionated treatments. The total dose to achieve tumor control and the fraction size that achieved the least normal biological equivalent dose were calculated. Results: Smaller cell survival fitting errors were observed using DLQ, with the exception of melanoma, which had a low α/β = 0.16 in SLQ. Ordinary differential equation simulation indicated lower normal tissue biological equivalent dose to achieve the same tumor control with a hypofractionated approach for 4 cell lines for the DLQ model, in contrast to SLQ, which favored 2 Gy per fraction for all cells except melanoma. The DLQ model indicated greater tumor radioresistance than SLQ, but the radioresistance was overcome by hypofractionation, other than the GBM cells, which responded poorly to all fractionations. Conclusion: The distinct radiosensitivity and dynamics between CSCs and DCCs in radiation therapy response could perhaps be one possible explanation for the heterogeneous intertumor response to hypofractionation and in some cases superior outcome from

  14. Inhibition of the Autophagy Pathway Synergistically Potentiates the Cytotoxic Activity of Givinostat (ITF2357) on Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Angeletti, Francesca; Fossati, Gianluca; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Würth, Roberto; Solari, Agnese; Daga, Antonio; Masiello, Irene; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio; Comincini, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence highlighted the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the development of tumor resistance to therapy, particularly in glioblastoma (GBM). Therefore, the development of new therapies, specifically directed against GBM CSCs, constitutes an important research avenue. Considering the extended range of cancer-related pathways modulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation processes, we studied the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic efficacy of givinostat (GVS), a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, on cell cultures enriched in CSCs, isolated from nine human GBMs. We report that GVS induced a significant reduction of viability and self-renewal ability in all GBM CSC cultures; conversely, GVS exposure did not cause a significant cytotoxic activity toward differentiated GBM cells and normal mesenchymal human stem cells. Analyzing the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved, we demonstrated that GVS affected CSC viability through the activation of programmed cell death pathways. In particular, a marked stimulation of macroautophagy was observed after GVS treatment. To understand the functional link between GVS treatment and autophagy activation, different genetic and pharmacological interfering strategies were used. We show that the up-regulation of the autophagy process, obtained by deprivation of growth factors, induced a reduction of CSC sensitivity to GVS, while the pharmacological inhibition of the autophagy pathway and the silencing of the key autophagy gene ATG7, increased the cell death rate induced by GVS. Altogether these findings suggest that autophagy represents a pro-survival mechanism activated by GBM CSCs to counteract the efficacy of the anti-proliferative activity of GVS. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GVS is a novel pharmacological tool able to target GBM CSC viability and its efficacy can be enhanced by autophagy inhibitory strategies. PMID:27833530

  15. Elimination of cancer stem-like cells and potentiation of temozolomide sensitivity by Honokiol in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chun; Shih, Ping-Hsiao; Yao, Chih-Jung; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Chuang, Suang-En; Hu, Tsai-Shu; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Lai, Gi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult malignant glioma with poor prognosis due to the resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which might be critically involved in the repopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) after treatment. We had investigated the characteristics of cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells sorted from GBM cells, and studied the effect of Honokiol targeting on CSCs. GBM8401 SP cells possessed the stem cell markers, such as nestin, CD133 and Oct4, and the expressions of self-renewal related stemness genes, such as SMO, Notch3 and IHH (Indian Hedgehog). Honokiol inhibited the proliferation of both GBM8401 parental cells and SP cells in a dose-dependent manner, the IC50 were 5.3±0.72 and 11±1.1 μM, respectively. The proportions of SP in GBM8401 cells were diminished by Honokiol from 1.5±0.22% down to 0.3±0.02% and 0.2±0.01% at doses of 2.5 μM and 5 μM, respectively. The SP cells appeared to have higher expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and be more resistant to Temozolomide (TMZ). The resistance to TMZ could be only slightly reversed by MGMT inhibitor O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG), but markedly further enhanced by Honokiol addition. Such significant enhancement was accompanied with the higher induction of apoptosis, greater down-regulation of Notch3 as well as its downstream Hes1 expressions in SP cells. Our data indicate that Honokiol might have clinical benefits for the GBM patients who are refractory to TMZ treatment.

  16. Brain metastases from breast cancer during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish; Nguyen, Ha Son; Lozen, Andrew; Sharma, Abhishiek; Mueller, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain metastasis during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. In particular, there have only been three prior cases regarding breast cancer metastasis. We report a patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain during pregnancy and review the literature. Case Description: The patient was a 35-year-old female with a history of breast cancer (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu positive, status post-neoadjuvant docetaxel/carboplatin/trastuzumab/pertuzumab therapy, status post-bilateral mastectomies), and prior right frontal brain metastases (status post-resection, capecitabine/lapatinib/temozolomide therapy, and cyberknife treatment). Patient was found to be pregnant at 9 weeks’ gestation while on chemotherapy; the patient elected to continue with the pregnancy and chemotherapy was discontinued. At 14 weeks’ gestation, she returned with recurrent right frontal disease. She was taken for a craniotomy at 16 weeks’ gestation, which confirmed metastases. Six weeks later, patient returned with worsening headaches and fatigue, with more recurrent right frontal disease. She was started on decadron and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide). Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated enlarging right frontal lesions. She underwent a craniotomy at 27 weeks’ gestation, and chemotherapy was discontinued promptly. Starting at 30 weeks’ gestation, she received whole brain radiation for 2 weeks. Subsequently, she delivered a baby girl via cesarean section at 32 weeks’ gestation. At 6 weeks follow-up, an MRI brain demonstrated no new intracranial disease, with stable postoperative findings. Conclusion: There is a lack of guidelines and clinical consensus on medical and surgical treatment for breast cancer metastases in pregnant patients. Treatment usually varies based upon underlying tumor burden, location, gestational age of the fetus, and patient's preference and

  17. Second Generation Amphiphilic Poly-Lysine Dendrons Inhibit Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation without Toxicity for Neurons or Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Janiszewska, Jolanta; Posadas, Inmaculada; Játiva, Pablo; Bugaj-Zarebska, Marta; Urbanczyk-Lipkowska, Zofia; Ceña, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumours in adults and one of the most aggressive and difficult-to-treat cancers. No effective treatment exits actually for this tumour and new therapeutic approaches are needed for this disease. One possible innovative approach involves the nanoparticle-mediated specific delivery of drugs and/or genetic material to glioblastoma cells where they can provide therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we have synthesised and characterised several second generation amphiphilic polylysine dendrons to be used as siRNA carriers. We have found that, in addition to their siRNA binding properties, these new compounds inhibit the proliferation of two glioblastoma cell lines while being nontoxic for non-tumoural central nervous system cells like neurons and glia, cell types that share the anatomical space with glioblastoma cells during the course of the disease. The selective toxicity of these nanoparticles to glioblastoma cells, as compared to neurons and glial cells, involves mitochondrial depolarisation and reactive oxygen species production. This selective toxicity, together with the ability to complex and release siRNA, suggests that these new polylysine dendrons might offer a scaffold in the development of future nanoparticles designed to restrict the proliferation of glioblastoma cells. PMID:27832093

  18. The evolution of the EGFRvIII (rindopepimut) immunotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme patients

    PubMed Central

    Paff, Michelle; Alexandru-Abrams, Daniela; Hsu, Frank P K; Bota, Daniela A

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of brain tumor and it is uniformly fatal. The community standard of treatment for this disease is gross or subtotal resection of the tumor, followed by radiation and temozolomide. At recurrence bevacizumab can be added for increased progression free survival. Many challenges are encountered while trying to devise new drugs to treat GBM, such as the presence of the blood brain barrier which is impermeable to most drugs. Therefore in the past few years attention was turned to immunological means for the treatment of this devastating disease. EGFRvIII targeting has proven a good way to attack glioblastoma cells by using the immune system. Although in still in development, this approach holds the promise as a great first step toward immune-tailored drugs for the treatment of brain cancers. PMID:25625931

  19. Functional analysis of [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake in glioblastoma cells: Influence of anti-cancer and central nervous system drugs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chiaki; Inazu, Masato; Saiki, Iwao; Yara, Miki; Hara, Naomi; Yamanaka, Tsuyoshi; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET-CT) studies with (11)C- or (18)F-labeled choline derivatives are used for PET imaging in glioblastoma patients. However, the nature of the choline transport system in glioblastoma is poorly understood. In this study, we performed a functional characterization of [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake and sought to identify the transporters that mediate choline uptake in the human glioblastoma cell lines A-172 and U-251MG. In addition, we examined the influence of anti-cancer drugs and central nervous system drugs on the transport of [methyl-(3)H]choline. High- and low-affinity choline transport systems were present in A-172 cells, U-251MG cells and astrocytes, and these were Na(+)-independent and pH-dependent. Cell viability in A-172 cells was not affected by choline deficiency. However, cell viability in U-251MG cells was significantly inhibited by choline deficiency. Both A-172 and U-251MG cells have two different choline transporters, choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2. In A-172 cells, CTL1 is predominantly expressed, whereas in U-251MG cells, CTL2 is predominantly expressed. Treatment with anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and vincristine influenced [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake in U-251MG cells, but not A-172 cells. Central nervous system drugs such as imipramine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, reboxetine, citalopram and donepezil did not affect cell viability or [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake. The data presented here suggest that CTL1 and CTL2 are functionally expressed in A-172 and U-251MG cells and are responsible for [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake that relies on a directed H(+) gradient as a driving force. Furthermore, while anti-cancer drugs altered [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake, central nervous system drugs did not affect [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake.

  20. Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huiming; Tan, Hua; Zhao, Weiling; Jin, Guangxu; Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with advanced malignancies. A better understanding of the mechanism of this disease will help us to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the systems biology approaches used in this area, including bioinformatics and mathematical modeling. Bioinformatics has been used for identifying the molecular mechanisms driving brain metastasis and mathematical modeling methods for analyzing dynamics of a system and predicting optimal therapeutic strategies. We will illustrate the strategies, procedures, and computational techniques used for studying systems biology in cancer brain metastases. We will give examples on how to use a systems biology approach to analyze a complex disease. Some of the approaches used to identify relevant networks, pathways, and possibly biomarkers in metastasis will be reviewed into details. Finally, certain challenges and possible future directions in this area will also be discussed.

  1. Outcome and prognostic factors in cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme in adults: A retrospective study from the Rare Cancer Network

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Damien C. . E-mail: damien.weber@hcuge.ch; Miller, Robert C.; Villa, Salvador; Hanssens, Patrick; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Castadot, Pierre; Varlet, Pascale; Abacioglu, Ufuk; Igdem, Sefik; Szutowicz, Ewa; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Hofer, Silvia; Rutz, Hans Peter; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Taghian, Alphonse; Mirimanoff, Rene O.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome in patients with cerebellar glioblastoma (GBM) treated in 15 institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Methods and Materials: Data from a series of 45 adult patients with cerebellar GBM were collected in a retrospective multicenter study. Median age was 50.3 years. Brainstem invasion was observed in 9 (20%) patients. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered to 36 patients (with concomitant chemotherapy, 7 patients). Adjuvant chemotherapy after RT was administered in 8 patients. Median RT dose was 59.4 Gy. Median follow-up was 7.2 months (range, 3.4-39.0). Results: The 1-year and 2-year actuarial overall survival rate was 37.8% and 14.7%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by salvage treatment (p = 0.048), tumor volume (p = 0.044), extent of neurosurgical resection (p = 0.019), brainstem invasion (p = 0.0013), additional treatment after surgery (p < 0.001), and completion of the initial treatment (p < 0.001) on univariate analysis. All patients experienced local progression: 8 and 22 had progression with and without a distant failure, respectively. The 1- and 2-year actuarial progression free survival was 25% and 10.7%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by brainstem invasion (p = 0.002), additional treatment after surgery (p = 0.0016), and completion of the initial treatment (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, survival was negatively influenced by the extent of surgery (p = 0.03) and brainstem invasion (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In this multicenter retrospective study, the observed pattern of failure was local in all cases, but approximately 1 patient of 4 presented with an extracerebellar component. Brainstem invasion was observed in a substantial number of patients and was an adverse prognostic factor.

  2. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  3. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  4. Agomelatine or ramelteon as treatment adjuncts in glioblastoma and other M1- or M2-expressing cancers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The impressive but sad list of over forty clinical studies using various cytotoxic chemotherapies published in the last few years has failed to increase median survival of glioblastoma beyond two years after diagnosis. In view of this apparent brick wall, adjunctive non-cytotoxic growth factor blocking drugs are being tried, as in the CUSP9* protocol. A related theme is searching for agonists at growth inhibiting receptors. One such dataset is that of melatonin agonism at M1 or M2 receptors found on glioblastoma cells, being a negative regulator of these cells’ growth. Melatonin itself is an endogenous hormone, but when used as an exogenously administered drug it has many disadvantages. Agomelatine, marketed as an antidepressant, and ramelteon, marketed as a treatment for insomnia, are currently-available melatonin receptor agonists. These melatonin receptor agonists have significant advantages over the natural ligand: longer half-life, better oral absorption, and higher affinity to melatonin receptors. They have an eminently benign side effect profile. As full agonists they should function to inhibit glioblastoma growth, as demonstrated for melatonin. A potentially helpful ancillary attribute of melatonergic agonists in glioblastoma treatment is an increase in interleukin-2 synthesis, expected, at least partially, to reverse some of the immunosuppression associated with glioblastoma. PMID:26034396

  5. Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

    2015-01-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series.

  6. Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Human cancer cells typically harbor multiple chromosomal aberrations, nucleotide substitutions and epigenetic modifications that drive malignant transformation. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pilot project aims to assess the value of large-scale multidimensional analysis of these molecular characteristics in human cancer and to provide the data rapidly to the research community. Here, we report the interim integrative analysis of DNA copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation aberrations in 206 glioblastomas (GBM), the most common type of adult brain cancer, and nucleotide sequence aberrations in 91 of the 206 GBMs. This analysis provides new insights into the roles of ERBB2, NF1 and TP53, uncovers frequent mutations of the PI3 kinase regulatory subunit gene PIK3R1, and provides a network view of the pathways altered in the development of GBM. Furthermore, integration of mutation, DNA methylation and clinical treatment data reveals a link between MGMT promoter methylation and a hypermutator phenotype consequent to mismatch repair deficiency in treated glioblastomas, an observation with potential clinical implications. Together, these findings establish the feasibility and power of TCGA, demonstrating that it can rapidly expand knowledge of the molecular basis of cancer. PMID:18772890

  7. Major vault protein supports glioblastoma survival and migration by upregulating the EGFR/PI3K signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Daniela; Steiner, Elisabeth; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Pirker, Christine; Hlavaty, Juraj; Petznek, Helga; Hegedus, Balazs; Garay, Tamas; Mohr, Thomas; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in a previous study we demonstrated that human astrocytic brain tumours including glioblastoma are generally high in vault levels while MVP expression in normal brain is comparably low. However a direct contribution to the malignant phenotype in general and that of glioblastoma in particular has not been established so far. Thus we address the questions whether MVP itself has a pro-tumorigenic function in glioblastoma. Based on a large tissue collection, we re-confirm strong MVP expression in gliomas as compared to healthy brain. Further, the impact of MVP on human glioblastoma aggressiveness was analysed by using gene transfection, siRNA knock-down and dominant-negative genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate that MVP/vaults significantly support migratory and invasive competence as well as starvation resistance of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced aggressiveness was based on MVP-mediated stabilization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling axis. Consequently, MVP overexpression resulted in enhanced growth and brain invasion in human glioblastoma xenograft models. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that vaults have a tumour-promoting potential by stabilizing EGFR/PI3K-mediated migration and survival pathways in human glioblastoma. PMID:24243798

  8. Mechanisms of CTC Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0214 TITLE: Mechanisms of CTC Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dario...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mechanisms of CTC Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0214 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is devastating and increasing in frequency, however, BCBM mechanisms are

  9. Solitary brain metastasis from prostate cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Tasneem; Agarwal, Arnav; McDonald, Rachel; Ganesh, Vithusha; Vuong, Sherlyn; Borean, Michael; Chow, Edward; Soliman, Hany

    2016-07-01

    Brain metastases arising from prostate cancer are exceedingly rare and typically occur late in the course of the disease. Most patients have widespread metastatic disease before developing brain metastases from prostate cancer. We report the case of a 67-year-old male with prostate cancer presenting with an isolated symptomatic brain metastasis. Aggressive treatment of the metastatic site included tumor resection and adjuvant stereotactic radiation treatment (RT) to the surgical bed, resulting in a favorable outcome.

  10. Gene therapy for brain cancer: combination therapies provide enhanced efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M; Muhammad, A K M G; Yagiz, Kader; Farrokhi, Catherine; Pechnick, Robert N; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2009-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer in adults. Despite significant advances in treatment and intensive research, the prognosis for patients with GBM remains poor. Therapeutic challenges for GBM include its invasive nature, the proximity of the tumor to vital brain structures often preventing total resection, and the resistance of recurrent GBM to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Gene therapy has been proposed as a useful adjuvant for GBM, to be used in conjunction with current treatment. Work from our laboratory has shown that combination of conditional cytotoxic with immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of GBM elicits regression of large intracranial tumor masses and anti-tumor immunological memory in syngeneic rodent models of GBM. In this review we examined the currently available animal models for GBM, including rodent transplantable models, endogenous rodent tumor models and spontaneous GBM in dogs. We discuss non-invasive surrogate end points to assess tumor progression and therapeutic efficacy, such as behavioral tests and circulating biomarkers. Growing preclinical and clinical data contradict the old dogma that cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy would lead to an immune-suppression that would impair the ability of the immune system to mount an anti-tumor response. The implications of the findings reviewed indicate that combination of cytotoxic therapy with immunotherapy will lead to synergistic antitumor efficacy with reduced neurotoxicity and supports the clinical implementation of combined cytotoxic-immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with GBM.

  11. Bioengineered 3D brain tumor model to elucidate the effects of matrix stiffness on glioblastoma cell behavior using PEG-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christine; Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-07-07

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor with a median survival of 12-15 months, and the mechanisms underlying GBM tumor progression remain largely elusive. Given the importance of tumor niche signaling in driving GBM progression, there is a strong need to develop in vitro models to facilitate analysis of brain tumor cell-niche interactions in a physiologically relevant and controllable manner. Here we report the development of a bioengineered 3D brain tumor model to help elucidate the effects of matrix stiffness on GBM cell fate using poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels with brain-mimicking biochemical and mechanical properties. We have chosen PEG given its bioinert nature and tunable physical property, and the resulting hydrogels allow tunable matrix stiffness without changing the biochemical contents. To facilitate cell proliferation and migration, CRGDS and a MMP-cleavable peptide were chemically incorporated. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was also incorporated to mimic the concentration in the brain extracellular matrix. Using U87 cells as a model GBM cell line, we demonstrate that such biomimetic hydrogels support U87 cell growth, spreading, and migration in 3D over the course of 3 weeks in culture. Gene expression analyses showed U87 cells actively deposited extracellular matrix and continued to upregulate matrix remodeling genes. To examine the effects of matrix stiffness on GBM cell fate in 3D, we encapsulated U87 cells in soft (1 kPa) or stiff (26 kPa) hydrogels, which respectively mimics the matrix stiffness of normal brain or GBM tumor tissues. Our results suggest that changes in matrix stiffness induce differential GBM cell proliferation, morphology, and migration modes in 3D. Increasing matrix stiffness led to delayed U87 cell proliferation inside hydrogels, but cells formed denser spheroids with extended cell protrusions. Cells cultured in stiff hydrogels also showed upregulation of HA synthase 1 and matrix

  12. Glioblastoma Multiforme: Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Arsenio M.; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Manna, Sunil; Mahali, Sidharth; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

    2012-01-01

    The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme involves total surgical resection followed by combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide. Unfortunately, the efficacy for such current therapy is limited, and newer approaches are sorely needed to treat this deadly disease. We have recently described the isolation of bacterial proteins and peptides with anticancer activity. In phase I human clinical trials, one such peptide, p28, derived from a bacterial protein azurin, showed partial and complete regression of tumors in several patients among 15 advanced-stage cancer patients with refractory metastatic tumors where the tumors were no longer responsive to current conventional drugs. An azurin-like protein called Laz derived from Neisseria meningitides demonstrates efficient entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Laz differs from azurin in having an additional 39-amino-acid peptide called an H.8 epitope, which allows entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Since p28 has been shown to have very little toxicity and high anti-tumor activity in advanced-stage cancer patients, it will be worthwhile to explore the use of H.8-p28, H.8-azurin, and Laz in toxicity studies and glioblastoma therapy in preclinical and human clinical trials. PMID:22462021

  13. RNA nanoparticle as a vector for targeted siRNA delivery into glioblastoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Yoo, Ji Young; Li, Hui; Yokel, Robert A; Horbinski, Craig; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Nakano, Ichiro; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-06-20

    Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues.

  14. Salinomycin induced ROS results in abortive autophagy and leads to regulated necrosis in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Xipell, Enric; Gonzalez-Huarriz, Marisol; de Irujo, Juan Jose Martinez; García-Garzón, Antonia; Lang, Fred F.; Jiang, Hong; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Alonso, Marta M.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor. Even with aggressive treatment, prognosis for patients is poor. One characteristic of glioblastoma cells is its intrinsic resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, drugs that induce alternative cell deaths could be interesting to evaluate as alternative therapeutic candidates for glioblastoma. Salinomycin (SLM) was identified through a chemical screening as a promising anticancer drug, but its mechanism of cell death remains unclear. In the present work we set out to elucidate how SLM causes cell death in glioblastoma cell lines (both established cell lines and brain tumor stem cell lines), aiming to find a potential antitumor candidate. In addition, we sought to determine the mechanism of action of SLM so that this mechanism can be can be exploited in the fight against cancer. Our data showed that SLM induces a potent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress followed by the trigger of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and an aberrant autophagic flux that culminated in necrosis due to mitochondria and lysosomal alterations. Of importance, the aberrant autophagic flux was orchestrated by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Alleviation of ROS production restored the autophagic flux. Altogether our data suggest that in our system the oxidative stress blocks the autophagic flux through lipid oxidation. Importantly, oxidative stress could be instructing the type of cell death in SLM-treated cells, suggesting that cell death modality is a dynamic concept which depends on the cellular stresses and the cellular mechanism activated. PMID:27121320

  15. RNA nanoparticle as a vector for targeted siRNA delivery into glioblastoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Yoo, Ji Young; Li, Hui; Yokel, Robert A.; Horbinski, Craig; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Nakano, Ichiro; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues. PMID:25885522

  16. Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Paula D; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Nadal, Cristina; Shu, Weiping; Gomis, Roger R; Nguyen, Don X; Minn, Andy J; van de Vijver, Marc J; Gerald, William L; Foekens, John A; Massagué, Joan

    2009-06-18

    The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. Brain relapse typically occurs years after the removal of a breast tumour, suggesting that disseminated cancer cells must acquire specialized functions to take over this organ. Here we show that breast cancer metastasis to the brain involves mediators of extravasation through non-fenestrated capillaries, complemented by specific enhancers of blood-brain barrier crossing and brain colonization. We isolated cells that preferentially infiltrate the brain from patients with advanced disease. Gene expression analysis of these cells and of clinical samples, coupled with functional analysis, identified the cyclooxygenase COX2 (also known as PTGS2), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand HBEGF, and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC5 as mediators of cancer cell passage through the blood-brain barrier. EGFR ligands and COX2 were previously linked to breast cancer infiltration of the lungs, but not the bones or liver, suggesting a sharing of these mediators in cerebral and pulmonary metastases. In contrast, ST6GALNAC5 specifically mediates brain metastasis. Normally restricted to the brain, the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in breast cancer cells enhances their adhesion to brain endothelial cells and their passage through the blood-brain barrier. This co-option of a brain sialyltransferase highlights the role of cell-surface glycosylation in organ-specific metastatic interactions.

  17. 'Chemo Brain' Lasts for Months in Many Breast Cancer Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162990.html 'Chemo Brain' Lasts for Months in Many Breast Cancer Survivors Altered thinking must ... after breast cancer treatment -- can persist for six months, new research shows. The finding comes from one ...

  18. Gastrointestinal cancer and brain metastasis: a rare and ominous sign.

    PubMed

    Go, Pauline H; Klaassen, Zachary; Meadows, Michael C; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2011-08-15

    Metastatic brain tumors represent 20% to 40% of all intracranial neoplasms and are found most frequently in association with lung cancer (50%) and breast cancer (12%). Although brain metastases occur in <4% of all tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the incidence of GI brain metastasis is rising in part due to more effective systemic treatments and prolonged survival of patients with GI cancer. Data were collected from 25 studies (11 colorectal, 7 esophageal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 intestinal, 3 all-inclusive GI tract cancer) and 13 case reports (4 pancreatic, 4 gallbladder, and 5 small bowel cancer). Brain metastases are found in 1% of colorectal cancer, 1.2% of esophageal cancer, 0.62% of gastric cancer, and 0.33% of pancreatic cancer cases. Surgical resection with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been associated with the longest median survival (38.4-262 weeks) compared with surgery alone (16.4-70.8 weeks), stereotactic radiosurgery (20-38 weeks), WBRT alone (7.2-16 weeks), or steroids (4-7 weeks). Survival in patients with brain metastasis from GI cancer was found to be diminished compared with metastases arising from the breast, lung, or kidney. Prolonged survival and improvement in clinical symptoms has been found to be best achieved with surgical resection and WBRT. Although early treatment has been linked to prolonged survival and improved quality of life, brain metastases represent a late manifestation of GI cancers and remain an ominous sign.

  19. MicroRNAs/TP53 feedback circuitry in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Yoo, Ji Young; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Jeon, Young-Jun; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Tae Jin; Kim, Taewan; Bakàcs, Arianna; Alder, Hansjuerg; Kaur, Balveen; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Pichiorri, Flavia; Croce, Carlo M.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating cancer initiation and progression. In this study, two miRNAs, miR-25 and -32, are identified as p53-repressed miRNAs by p53-dependent negative regulation of their transcriptional regulators, E2F1 and MYC. However, miR-25 and -32 result in p53 accumulation by directly targeting Mdm2 and TSC1, which are negative regulators of p53 and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, respectively, leading to inhibition of cellular proliferation through cell cycle arrest. Thus, there is a recurrent autoregulatory circuit involving expression of p53, E2F1, and MYC to regulate the expression of miR-25 and -32, which are miRNAs that, in turn, control p53 accumulation. Significantly, overexpression of transfected miR-25 and -32 in glioblastoma multiforme cells inhibited growth of the glioblastoma multiforme cells in mouse brain in vivo. The results define miR-25 and -32 as positive regulators of p53, underscoring their role in tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. PMID:22431589

  20. MicroRNAs/TP53 feedback circuitry in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Yoo, Ji Young; Nuovo, Gerard J; Jeon, Young-Jun; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Tae Jin; Kim, Taewan; Bakàcs, Arianna; Alder, Hansjuerg; Kaur, Balveen; Aqeilan, Rami I; Pichiorri, Flavia; Croce, Carlo M

    2012-04-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating cancer initiation and progression. In this study, two miRNAs, miR-25 and -32, are identified as p53-repressed miRNAs by p53-dependent negative regulation of their transcriptional regulators, E2F1 and MYC. However, miR-25 and -32 result in p53 accumulation by directly targeting Mdm2 and TSC1, which are negative regulators of p53 and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, respectively, leading to inhibition of cellular proliferation through cell cycle arrest. Thus, there is a recurrent autoregulatory circuit involving expression of p53, E2F1, and MYC to regulate the expression of miR-25 and -32, which are miRNAs that, in turn, control p53 accumulation. Significantly, overexpression of transfected miR-25 and -32 in glioblastoma multiforme cells inhibited growth of the glioblastoma multiforme cells in mouse brain in vivo. The results define miR-25 and -32 as positive regulators of p53, underscoring their role in tumorigenesis in glioblastoma.

  1. Role of the neural niche in brain metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Termini, John; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul

    2014-08-01

    Metastasis is the relentless pursuit of cancer to escape its primary site and colonize distant organs. This malignant evolutionary process is biologically heterogeneous, yet one unifying element is the critical role of the microenvironment for arriving metastatic cells. Historically, brain metastases were rarely investigated because patients with advanced cancer were considered terminal. Fortunately, advances in molecular therapies have led to patients living longer with metastatic cancer. However, one site remains recalcitrant to our treatment efforts, the brain. The central nervous system is the most complex biologic system, which poses unique obstacles but also harbors opportunities for discovery. Much of what we know about the brain microenvironment comes from neuroscience. We suggest that the interrelated cellular responses in traumatic brain injury may guide us toward new perspectives in understanding brain metastases. In this view, brain metastases may be conceptualized as progressive oncologic injury to the nervous system. This review discusses our evolving understanding of bidirectional interactions between the brain milieu and metastatic cancer.

  2. Toward intracellular targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics: progress and clinical outlook for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Hetal; Debinski, Waldemar

    2012-08-01

    A number of anti-cancer drugs have their targets localized to particular intracellular compartments. These drugs reach the targets mainly through diffusion, dependent on biophysical and biochemical forces that allow cell penetration. This means that both cancer cells and normal cells will be subjected to such diffusion; hence many of these drugs, like chemotherapeutics, are potentially toxic and the concentration achieved at the site of their action is often suboptimal. The same relates to radiation that indiscriminately affects normal and diseased cells. However, nature-designed systems enable compounds present in the extracellular environment to end up inside the cell and even travel to more specific intracellular compartments. For example, viruses and bacterial toxins can more or less specifically recognize eukaryotic cells, enter these cells, and direct some protein portions to designated intracellular areas. These phenomena have led to creative thinking, such as employing viruses or bacterial toxins for cargo delivery to cells and, more specifically, to cancer cells. Proteins can be genetically engineered in order to not only mimic what viruses and bacterial toxins can do, but also to add new functions, extending or changing the intracellular routes. It is possible to make conjugates or, more preferably, single-chain proteins that recognize cancer cells and deliver cargo inside the cells, even to the desired subcellular compartment. These findings offer new opportunities to deliver drugs/labels only to cancer cells and only to their site of action within the cells. The development of such dual-specificity vectors for targeting cancer cells is an attractive and potentially safer and more efficacious way of delivering drugs. We provide examples of this approach for delivering brain cancer therapeutics, using a specific biomarker on glioblastoma tumor cells.

  3. SC-02CONVERSION OF DIFFERENTIATED CANCER CELLS INTO CANCER STEM-LIKE CELLS IN A GLIOBLASTOMA MODEL AFTER PRIMARY CHEMOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex; Han, Yu; Lee, Gina; Guo, Donna; Dey, Mahua; Lesniak, Maciej; Ahmed, Atique

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme patients have a poor prognosis due to therapeutic resistance and tumor relapse. It has been suggested that gliomas are driven by a rare subset of tumor cells known as glioma stem cells (GSCs). This hypothesis states that only a few GSCs are able to divide, differentiate and initiate a new tumor. It has also been shown that this subpopulation is more resistant to conventional therapies than its differentiated counterpart. In order to understand glioma recurrence post therapy, we investigated the behavior of GSCs after primary chemotherapy. We first show that exposure of patient-derived as well as established glioma cell lines to therapeutic doses of temozolomide (TMZ), the most commonly used anti-glioma chemotherapy, consistently increases the GSC pool over time both in vitro and in vivo. Secondly, lineage-tracing analysis of the expanded GSC pool suggests that such amplification is a result of a phenotypic shift in the non-GSC population to GSC-like state in the presence of TMZ. The newly converted GSC population expresses markers associated with pluripotency and stemness, such as CD133, SOX2, Oct4 and Nestin. Furthermore, we show that intracranial implantation of the newly converted GSCs in nude mice results in a more efficient grafting and invasive phenotype. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that glioma cells exposed to chemotherapeutic agents are able to interconvert between non-GSCs and GSCs, thereby replenishing the original tumor population, leading to a more infiltrative phenotype and enhanced chemoresistance. This may represent a potential mechanism for therapeutic relapse.

  4. EGFRvIII antibody-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging-guided convection-enhanced delivery and targeted therapy of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hadjipanayis, Costas G; Machaidze, Revaz; Kaluzova, Milota; Wang, Liya; Schuette, Albert J; Chen, Hongwei; Wu, Xinying; Mao, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The magnetic nanoparticle has emerged as a potential multifunctional clinical tool that can provide cancer cell detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement as well as targeted cancer cell therapy. A major barrier in the use of nanotechnology for brain tumor applications is the difficulty in delivering nanoparticles to intracranial tumors. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP; 10 nm in core size) conjugated to a purified antibody that selectively binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) deletion mutant (EGFRvIII) present on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells were used for therapeutic targeting and MRI contrast enhancement of experimental glioblastoma, both in vitro and in vivo, after convection-enhanced delivery (CED). A significant decrease in glioblastoma cell survival was observed after nanoparticle treatment and no toxicity was observed with treatment of human astrocytes (P < 0.001). Lower EGFR phosphorylation was found in glioblastoma cells after EGFRvIIIAb-IONP treatment. Apoptosis was determined to be the mode of cell death after treatment of GBM cells and glioblastoma stem cell-containing neurospheres with EGFRvIIIAb-IONPs. MRI-guided CED of EGFRvIIIAb-IONPs allowed for the initial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles within or adjacent to intracranial human xenograft tumors and continued dispersion days later. A significant increase in animal survival was found after CED of magnetic nanoparticles (P < 0.01) in mice implanted with highly tumorigenic glioblastoma xenografts (U87DeltaEGFRvIII). IONPs conjugated to an antibody specific to the EGFRvIII deletion mutant constitutively expressed by human glioblastoma tumors can provide selective MRI contrast enhancement of tumor cells and targeted therapy of infiltrative glioblastoma cells after CED.

  5. Delivery of Small Interfering RNA to Inhibit Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Zebrafish Using Natural Brain Endothelia Cell-Secreted Exosome Nanovesicles for the Treatment of Brain Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianzhi; Fogarty, Brittany; LaForge, Bret; Aziz, Salma; Pham, Thuy; Lai, Leanne; Bai, Shuhua

    2017-03-01

    Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p < 0.05). In the transport study, exosomes also enhanced the permeability of rhodamine 123 in a co-cultured monolayer of brain endothelial bEND.3 cell and astrocyte. Inhibition at the expression of VEGF RNA and protein levels was observed in glioblastoma-astrocytoma U-87 MG cells treated with exosome-delivered siRNAs. Imaging results showed that exosome delivered more siRNAs across the BBB in Tg(fli1:GFP) zebrafish. In a xenotransplanted brain tumor model, exosome-delivered VEGF siRNAs decreased the fluorescence intensity of labeled cancer cells in the brain of zebrafish. Brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could be potentially used as a natural carrier for the brain delivery of exogenous siRNA.

  6. Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Johnathan E.; Cook, Nicholas J.; Rovin, Richard A.; Winn, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The hormone leptin has a variety of functions. Originally known for its role in satiety and weight loss, leptin more recently has been shown to augment tumor growth in a variety of cancers. Within gliomas, there is a correlation between tumor grade and tumor expression of leptin and its receptor. This suggests that autocrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment may promote the growth of high-grade gliomas. Leptin does this through stimulation of cellular pathways that are also advantageous for tumor growth and recurrence: antiapoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration. Conversely, a loss of leptin expression attenuates tumor growth. In animal models of colon cancer and melanoma, a decline in the expression and secretion of leptin resulted in a reduction of tumor growth. In these models, positive mental stimulation through environmental enrichment decreased leptin secretion and improved tumor outcome. This review explores the link between leptin and glioblastoma. PMID:22263109

  7. Down-regulation of MicroRNA-126 in Glioblastoma and its Correlation with Patient Prognosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Han, In Bo; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Soo Hong; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Se Hoon; Chang, Jong Hee; Teng, Yang D

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the adult human brain. Although microRNA-126 (miR-126) has been reported to exhibit expression abnormalities in various types of cancer, to date very few studies have examined changes in miR-126 level in glioblastoma. In this pilot study, we investigated the changes in miR-126 expression in newly-dissected primary glioblastoma to explore possible roles of miR-126 in patient prognosis. Total RNA was extracted from tumoral and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 14 patients' paired frozen specimens. Using an established quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR protocol, the levels of miR-126 in glioblastoma and adjacent non-tumor brain tissues were compared against small nucleolar RNA U48 (RNU48) as a reference gene. The expression of miR-126 in glioblastoma samples was significantly lower than in paired non-tumoral controls (p<0.05). Importantly, age-adjusted analyses suggest that glioblastoma patients with higher relative intratumoral miR-126 expression (i.e. 53-79% relative to that of the control tissue; n=7) had significantly improved survival duration than patients whose miR-126 levels were lower (i.e. 12-48%, n=7; stratified log-rank analysis p=0.011 when the dividing threshold was set at ≥51%; total: n=14, male: 8; female: 6). Thus, intraglioblastoma miR-126 may be down-regulated relative to normal tissue and patients with less down-regulation of intratumoral miR-126 expression could have improved postsurgical prognosis. Future clinical studies with larger sample sizes should be performed to validate this observation.

  8. What next for newly diagnosed glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Musibay, Evidio; Galanis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current multimodality treatment including surgical resection and temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy, median survival is only 14–16 months. Characterization of molecular alterations in glioblastoma has identified prognostic subgroups and therapeutic opportunities for clinical trials across glioblastoma subsets. Following a number of negative Phase III trials testing temozolomide dose intensification and angiogenesis inhibition, recent interim analysis data indicate survival prolongation with use of a device (Optune™) delivering alternating electrical field therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. In this review, we present an overview of the data supporting the current standard of care and discuss novel experimental therapies in early and late phase clinical testing including devices, small molecule drugs, angiogenesis inhibitors, oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy. PMID:26558493

  9. CS-20TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF THE OSMOTIC ENGINE BY TEAD4 POTENTIATES INVASION AND CONFERS POOR PROGNOSIS IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Shah, Sagar R.; Ruiz-Valls, Alejandro; Tippens, Nathaniel D.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas are characterized by their ability to disseminate into the local brain parenchyma; thus, confounding surgical excision and radiotherapy. Hence, it is imperative to identify and decipher the signaling networks that drive invasion. Glioblastoma cells utilize molecular transporters at both their leading (inward facing) and lagging (outward facing) edge to modulate cell volume and invade the confined microenvironment of the brain. These transporters include solute transporters as well as the aquaporins, and collectively behave as an osmotic engine for cellular invasion. However, the transcriptional regulators of these transporters have not been fully identified. Here, we report that TEAD4, a transcription factor implicated in neural development, is a potent regulator of the osmotic engine through transcriptional control of solute and water transporters. In particular, our data demonstrates that loss of TEAD4 decreases glioblastoma cells ability to migrate and invade through small pores (Boyden chamber and Matrigel transwell, respectively) mimicking the confined microenvironment of the brain (p < 0.05). Additionally, we uncover the role of TEAD4 in regulating members of the Na + /H+ exchanger, chloride co-transporter and aquaporin families, as well as the volume regulated anion channel to enable water permeation (p < 0.05). Apart from regulating cell dispersal, our data also shows that TEAD4 regulates glioblastoma proliferation (p < 0.05). Using the TCGA and REMBRANDT datasets, we observed TEAD4 is selectively overexpressed and hyperactive in glioblastomas compared to non-cancer cortex and lower grade gliomas (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that patients with elevated TEAD4 expression have a significantly shorter progression free survival and overall survival (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results show that TEAD4 is a potent regulator of cell dispersal through transcriptional control of the osmotic engine and has relevance to clinical outcomes of

  10. Comprehensive portrait of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in molecular and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Chen, Xincheng; You, Yongping; Wang, Xiefeng; Liu, Yanwei; Hu, Qi; Yan, Wei

    2015-10-13

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. In addition to poor response to treatment, a high recurrence rate contributes to the poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetical and clinical characteristics of recurrent glioblastoma. We used whole transcriptome sequencing data to examine the distribution of molecular subtypes and gene signatures in 22 recurrent glioblastoma taken from the Chinese population, and further analyzed biological progression of the tumors, when compared with primary glioblastoma. The proportion of the classical subtype in recurrent ones (22%) was lower than that in primary glioblastoma (36%). The frequency of IDH1 mutations in recurrent glioblastomas was nearly twice that in primary glioblastomas. TP53 mutations were fewer in proneural recurrent glioblastomas (20%) but frequent in classical recurrent glioblastomas (80%). The most common sites of recurrent glioblastomas were the temporal lobe (41%). In patients diagnosed with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, 64% were younger than 50 years. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that chromatin fracture, repair, and remodeling genes were enriched in recurrent glioblastoma. Our results highlight the differences in clinical features, molecular subtypes and gene alterations between primary and recurrent glioblastoma and may be helpful for targeted therapy for recurrent glioblastoma.

  11. Glioblastoma care in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Justin T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Cahill, Daniel P; Plotkin, Scott R

    2016-01-15

    Glioblastoma is common among elderly patients, a group in which comorbidities and a poor prognosis raise important considerations when designing neuro-oncologic care. Although the standard of care for nonelderly patients with glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide, the safety and efficacy of these modalities in elderly patients are less certain given the population's underrepresentation in many clinical trials. The authors reviewed the clinical trial literature for reports on the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma to provide evidence-based guidance for practitioners. In elderly patients with glioblastoma, there is a survival advantage for those who undergo maximal safe resection, which likely includes an incremental benefit with increasing completeness of resection. Radiotherapy extends survival in selected patients, and hypofractionation appears to be more tolerable than standard fractionation. In addition, temozolomide chemotherapy is safe and extends the survival of patients with tumors that harbor O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. The combination of standard radiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide has not been studied in this population. Although many questions remain unanswered regarding the treatment of glioblastoma in elderly patients, the available evidence provides a framework on which providers may base individual treatment decisions. The importance of tumor biomarkers is increasingly apparent in elderly patients, for whom the therapeutic efficacy of any treatment must be weighed against its potential toxicity. MGMT promoter methylation status has specifically demonstrated utility in predicting the efficacy of temozolomide and should be considered in treatment decisions when possible. Cancer 2016;122:189-197. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Evo-Devo and the evolution of cancer: a hypothesis for metamorphic therapies for the cancers of prolactin-influenced tumourigenesis: with special reference to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

    PubMed

    Pearson, Roy Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Recalling the remarkable developmental similarities between cancer cells and embryonic tissues, this paper argues that, by the process of retrodifferentiation and heterochronization, stem cells that have become neoplastic could be said to have undergone "cellular heterochrony." It theorizes, therefore, that hormones are the major factor in the non-random regulation of cellular heterochrony in tumourigenesis. Two recent articles confirm that there is low thyroxine and high prolactin in glioblastomas. Thyroxine metamorphoses vertebrates' tissues so as to mature the tissues, e.g., in amphibian metamorphosis. In 1896, thyroxine (horse thyroid extract) was the first successful hormonal product to be used against a fulminating breast cancer. Recent work confirms the important role of prolactin in the induction and progression of mammary, prostate and colorectal tumours. Although the pituitary is the main source of prolactin in vertebrates, there is also placental production of prolactin, and paracrine production of prolactin by tumours themselves. Since tumours produce their own prolactin, shutting down the pituitary source has not proven wholly successful. Research to find prolactin receptor antagonists is ongoing. Therefore, prolactin inhibitors (dopamine agonists), prolactin receptor antagonists, plus thyroxine comprise a plausible metamorphic therapy for shrinking solid tumour mass. By contrast with "differentiation" therapies currently sought by stem cell oncologists, this paper advocates "metamorphic" therapies, to introduce hormonal oncological knowledge of how to modulate signalling pathways that are aberrant in the stem cells that give rise to tumours. Despite subtle differences in these signalling translation pathways and cascades, strategies exist that will allow these evolved populations, going back to their stem precursors, to "metamorphose" or perhaps apoptotically cease proliferation.

  13. Pathogenesis and Blood-Brain Barrier Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    diagnosis and treatment and improve our understanding of the role of BBB in chemotherapy of brain tumors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer, Brain...of the pathobiology of brain metastasis may lead to novel targeted treatment paradigms and a better prognosis for patients with brain metastatic...metastasis (Fenner and Possinger, 2002; Walsh, 1996) may be incorrect. The development of rational therapeutic strategies for the treatment of brain

  14. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Bender, Thomas John; Bonner, Eileen M.; Bodner, Kenneth M.; Kreft, Alisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated. Methods Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death. Results As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66–2.37), but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels. Conclusion With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure. PMID:25493437

  15. Heat Shock Factor 1 Depletion Sensitizes A172 Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Suppression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties

    PubMed Central

    Im, Chang-Nim; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) interacting cell death suppressor (BIS). HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP)-forming conditions. Consistent with BIS depletion, HSF1 knockdown also reduced sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) expression, a marker of stemness, accompanying the decrease in SP-forming ability and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) activity. When HSF1 or BIS knockdown was combined with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, a standard drug used in glioblastoma therapy, apoptosis increased, as measured by an increase in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, whereas cancer stem-like properties, such as colony-forming activity and SOX2 protein expression, decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting BIS or HSF1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy for GSCs resistant to conventional TMZ treatment. PMID:28241425

  16. Suppression of the Eag1 potassium channel sensitizes glioblastoma cells to injury caused by temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Thais Torquato; Resende, Fernando Francisco Borges; Chaves, Natália Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza; Báo, Sônia Nair; Brettas, Marcella Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of human primary brain tumor. The standard treatment protocol includes radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Despite advances in GBM treatment, the survival time of patients diagnosed with glioma is 14.5 months. Regarding tumor biology, various types of cancer cell overexpress the ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel. Therefore, the present study examined the role of Eag1 in the cell damage caused by TMZ on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Eag1 was inhibited using a channel blocker (astemizole) or silenced by a short-hairpin RNA expression vector (pKv10.1-3). pKv10.1-3 (0.2 µg) improved the Eag1 silencing caused by 250 µM TMZ, as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, inhibiting Eag1 with the vector or astemizole (5 µM) reduced glioblastoma cell viability and sensitized cells to TMZ. Cell viability decreased by 63% for pKv10.1-3 + TMZ compared with 34% for TMZ alone, and by 77% for astemizole + TMZ compared with 46% for TMZ alone, as determined by MTT assay. In addition, both the vector and astemizole increased the apoptosis rate of glioblastoma cells triggered by TMZ, as determined by an Annexin V apoptosis assay. Collectively, the current data reveal that Eag1 has a role in the damage caused to glioblastoma by TMZ. Furthermore, suppression of this channel can improve the action of TMZ on U87MG glioblastoma cells. Thus, silencing Eag1 is a promising strategy to improve GBM treatment and merits additional studies in animal models of glioma. PMID:27698831

  17. MicroRNA-197 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting GAB2 in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Qiang; Liu, En-Qin; Zhu, Xi-De; Wang, Xin-Gong; Li, Jian; Xu, Guang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, and is usually fatal in a short duration. Acquiring a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of glioblastoma is essential to the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Grb2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) is a member of the daughter of sevenless/Gab family of scaffolding adapters, and has been reported to be important in the development and progression of human cancer. Previously, it has been reported that GAB2 is expressed at high levels in glioma, and may serve as a useful prognostic marker for glioma and a novel therapeutic target for glioma invasion intervention. Elucidating why GAB2 is overexpressed in glioma, and investigating how to downregulate it will assist in further understanding the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, and to offer novel targets for therapy. The present study used in situ hybridization to detect microRNA (miR)‑197 expression levels and Targetscan to predict that the 3'-UTR of GAB2 was targeted by miR-197. Northern blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were also conducted in the current study. miR-197 is downregulated in glioblastoma tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues, however it involvement continues to be detected in the disease. The results of the present study demonstrated that miR‑197, as a tumor suppressor gene, inhibited proliferation by regulating GAB2 in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, GAB2 was not only upregulated in glioma, but its expression levels were also associated with the grades of glioma severity. In addition, overexpression of GAB2 suppressed the expression of miR‑197 in glioblastoma cells. Therefore, restoration of miR‑197 and targeting GAB2 may be used, in conjunction with other therapies, to prevent the progression of glioblastoma.

  18. Caffeine-mediated inhibition of calcium release channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtype 3 blocks glioblastoma invasion and extends survival.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Soo; Han, Kyung-Seok; Ku, Bo Mi; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Jinpyo; Shin, Hye Young; Almonte, Antoine G; Woo, Dong Ho; Brat, Daniel J; Hwang, Eun Mi; Yoo, Seung Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung-Hye; Paek, Sun Ha; Roh, Eun Joo; Lee, Sung Joong; Park, Jae-Yong; Traynelis, Stephen F; Lee, C Justin

    2010-02-01

    Calcium signaling is important in many signaling processes in cancer cell proliferation and motility including in deadly glioblastomas of the brain that aggressively invade neighboring tissue. We hypothesized that disturbing Ca(2+) signaling pathways might decrease the invasive behavior of giloblastoma, extending survival. Evaluating a panel of small-molecule modulators of Ca(2+) signaling, we identified caffeine as an inhibitor of glioblastoma cell motility. Caffeine, which is known to activate ryanodine receptors, paradoxically inhibits Ca(2+) increase by inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate receptor subtype 3 (IP(3)R3), the expression of which is increased in glioblastoma cells. Consequently, by inhibiting IP(3)R3-mediated Ca(2+) release, caffeine inhibited migration of glioblastoma cells in various in vitro assays. Consistent with these effects, caffeine greatly increased mean survival in a mouse xenograft model of glioblastoma. These findings suggest IP(3)R3 as a novel therapeutic target and identify caffeine as a possible adjunct therapy to slow invasive growth of glioblastoma.

  19. From glioblastoma to endothelial cells through extracellular vesicles: messages for angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Ilaria; Delle Monache, Simona; Di Francesco, Marianna; Sanità, Patrizia; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Festuccia, Claudio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma has one of the highest mortality rates among cancers, and it is the most common and malignant form of brain cancer. Among the typical features of glioblastoma tumors, there is an aberrant vascularization: all gliomas are among the most vascularized/angiogenic tumors. In recent years, it has become clear that glioblastoma cells can secrete extracellular vesicles which are spherical and membrane-enclosed particles released, in vitro or in vivo, by both normal and tumor cells; they are involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes; among the latter, cancer is the most widely studied. Extracellular vesicles from tumor cells convey messages to other tumor cells, but also to normal stromal cells in order to create a microenvironment that supports cancer growth and progression and are implicated in drug resistance, escape from immunosurveillance and from apoptosis, as well as in metastasis formation; they are also involved in angiogenesis stimulation, inducing endothelial cells proliferation, and other pro-angiogenic activities. To this aim, the present paper assesses in detail the extracellular vesicles phenomenon in the human glioblastoma cell line U251 and evaluates extracellular vesicles ability to promote the processes required to achieve the formation of new blood vessels in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, highlighting that they stimulate proliferation, motility, and tube formation in a dose-response manner. Moreover, a molecular characterization shows that extracellular vesicles are fully equipped for angiogenesis stimulation in terms of proteolytic enzymes (gelatinases and plasminogen activators), pro-angiogenic growth factors (VEGF and TGFβ), and the promoting-angiogenic CXCR4 chemokine receptor.

  20. Combining NK cells and mAb9.2.27 to combat NG2-dependent and anti-inflammatory signals in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kmiecik, Justyna; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Poli, Aurelie; Planagumà, Jesús Planagumà; Zimmer, Jacques; Chekenya, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a deadly brain cancer with limited treatment options. Targeting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4, best known as NG2) with the monoclonal antibody mAb9.2.27 and activated natural killer (NK) cells abrogated the tumor growth and prolonged the survival of glioblastoma-bearing animals by favoring the establishment of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. The combination of NK cells and mAb9.2.27 recruited ED1(+)CCR2(low) macrophages that stimulated ED1(+)ED2(low)MHCII(high) microglial cells to exert robust cytotoxicity. Our findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting salient tumor associated-antigens.

  1. Targeting Phosphatidylserince for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0316 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Brain metastasis occurs in ~30% of metastatic breast cancer patients. The prognosis is extremely poor, with a...Introduction Brain metastasis is the most common intracranial malignancy in adults. The prognosis is extremely poor, with a median survival of 4-6 months even

  2. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  3. HMGCR positively regulated the growth and migration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhihua; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Chenzhi; Liu, Chao; Huang, Yongkai; Han, Deqing; Huang, Qinghui

    2016-01-15

    The metabolic program of cancer cells is significant different from the normal cells, which makes it possible to develop novel strategies targeting cancer cells. Mevalonate pathway and its rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) have shown important roles in the progression of several cancer types. However, their roles in glioblastoma cells remain unknown. In this study, up-regulation of HMGCR in the clinical glioblastoma samples was observed. Forced expression of HMGCR promoted the growth and migration of U251 and U373 cells, while knocking down the expression of HMGCR inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that HMGCR positively regulated the expression of TAZ, an important mediator of Hippo pathway, and the downstream target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), suggesting HMGCR might activate Hippo pathway in glioblastoma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the oncogenic roles of HMGCR in glioblastoma cells and HMGCR might be a promising therapeutic target.

  4. Cediranib Maleate and Whole Brain Radiation Therapy in Patients With Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-07

    Male Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  5. Differential Reactions of Microglia to Brain Metastasis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Bei Ping; Wang, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xian; Wu, Yan; Wang, Miao; Bay, Boon-Huat; Chang, Alex Yuang-Chi

    2006-01-01

    The brain is a common metastatic site for various types of cancers, especially lung cancer. Patients with brain metastases have a poor prognosis in spite of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. It is postulated that immune cells in the brain may play a major role in cancer metastasis, dormancy, and relapse. Although microglia may serve as a major component in the brain immune system, the interaction between metastatic cancer cells and microglia is still largely unknown and remains to be elucidated. In this study, we have investigated microglial reactions in brain tissues with metastatic lung cancer cells and evaluated the cytotoxic effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia on metastatic lung cancer cells in vitro. In the vicinity of metastatic lung cancer mass in the brain, microglia showed signs of significant activation. There was an obvious increase in the number of microglia labeled with ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) antibody, a specific marker of microglia. The microglia were observed to form a clear boundary between the tumor mass and normal brain tissue. In the region where the tumor mass was situated, only a few microglia expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), indicating differential activation in those microglia. The supernatant from LPS-activated microglia induced apoptosis of metastatic lung cancer cells in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, at lower concentrations of activated microglial supernatant, trophic effects on cancer cells were observed, some lung cancer cells being insensitive to microglial cytotoxicity. Together with the observation that TNF-α alone induced proliferation of the tumor cells, the findings provide possible clues to the mechanism involved in metastasis of lung cancer cells to the brain. PMID:17088948

  6. Synthesis of tetrahydrohonokiol derivates and their evaluation for cytotoxic activity against CCRF-CEM leukemia, U251 glioblastoma and HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bernaskova, Marketa; Kretschmer, Nadine; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Huefner, Antje; Weis, Robert; Bauer, Rudolf

    2014-01-20

    Biphenyl neolignans such as honokiol and magnolol, which are the major active constituents of the Asian medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, are known to exert a multitude of pharmacological and biological activities. Among these, cytotoxic and tumor growth inhibitory activity against various tumour cell lines are well-documented. To further elucidate the cytotoxic effects of honokiol derivatives, derivatizations were performed using tetrahydrohonokiol as a scaffold. The derivatizations comprised the introduction of functional groups, e.g., nitro and amino groups, as well as alkylation. This way, 18 derivatives, of which 13 were previously undescribed compounds, were evaluated against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, U251 glioblastoma and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The results revealed no significant cytotoxic effects in any of the three tested cell lines at a test concentration of 10 µM.

  7. Sex steroids in human brain tumors and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    von Schoultz, E; Bixo, M; Bäckström, T; Silfvenius, H; Wilking, N; Henriksson, R

    1990-02-15

    The concentrations of three sex steroids, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, were analyzed by radioimmunoassay after celite chromatography in brain tumor and breast cancer tissues. The concentrations in malignant gliomas and breast cancers showed interindividual variations, especially evident with regard to estradiol. High estradiol concentrations were recorded in two patients with malignant astrocytoma. The concentrations of 1.00 pg/mg and 3.32 pg/mg were 10 to 30 times as high as in normal female brain. In five of ten astrocytomas the estradiol concentration was higher than the lowest breast cancer value. The distribution of progesterone seemed more even, and the level was significantly lower in brain tumors and breast cancers as compared with female brain, perhaps indicating an increased metabolism. Testosterone levels were somewhat higher in brain tumors, as compared with breast cancers, but not different from values in brain tissue. There were no significant age or sex correlation or differences in the concentrations of steroids in the brain tumors. The results suggest that manipulation of sex steroid metabolism in malignant brain tumors can be of beneficial therapeutic value as has been shown for breast cancer and prostatic carcinoma.

  8. Brain cancer mortality at a manufacturer of aerospace electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Silverstein, M A; Green, M A; Mirer, F E

    1990-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios and mortality odds ratios were calculated for 583 deaths between 1950 and 1986 among employees who had worked for at least 10 years at a facility manufacturing missile and aircraft guidance systems. There was a statistically significant excess of brain cancer proportional mortality (PMR = 16/3.8 = 4.2, p = .0001). Among hourly employees, 12 brain cancer deaths occurred for 2.7 expected (PMR = 4.4, p = .00005). The PMR for brain cancer increased from 1.8 (p = .45) among hourly workers with less than 20 years to 8.7 (p = .000003) in those with more than 20 years employment. Work in "clean rooms," where gyroscopes were assembled, was associated with the brain cancer excess but did not fully account for it. Among 105 deceased hourly women, all three brain cancer deaths occurred among gyro assemblers working in clean rooms, and the risk increased with duration in clean rooms. Although the proportion of brain cancer deaths among hourly men with clean-room experience was similar to that for women, only three of the seven male brain cancer deaths occurred in this group. The suspect agents include gyro fluids and chlorofluorocarbon solvents.

  9. Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor κB signaling in glioblastoma cancer stem cells regulates the Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Garner, Jo Meagan; Fan, Meiyun; Yang, Chuan He; Du, Ziyun; Sims, Michelle; Davidoff, Andrew M; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2013-09-06

    Malignant gliomas are locally aggressive, highly vascular tumors that have a dismal prognosis, and present therapies provide little improvement in the disease course and outcome. Many types of malignancies, including glioblastoma, originate from a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are able to initiate and maintain tumors. Although CSCs only represent a small fraction of cells within a tumor, their high tumor-initiating capacity and therapeutic resistance drives tumorigenesis. Therefore, it is imperative to identify pathways associated with CSCs to devise strategies to selectively target them. In this study, we describe a novel relationship between glioblastoma CSCs and the Notch pathway, which involves the constitutive activation of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling. Glioma CSCs were isolated and maintained in vitro using an adherent culture system, and the biological properties were compared with the traditional cultures of CSCs grown as multicellular spheres under nonadherent culture conditions. Interestingly, both adherent and spheroid glioma CSCs show constitutive activation of the STAT3/NF-κB signaling pathway and up-regulation of STAT3- and NF-κB-dependent genes. Gene expression profiling also identified components of the Notch pathway as being deregulated in glioma CSCs, and the deregulated expression of these genes was sensitive to treatment with STAT3 and NF-κB inhibitors. This finding is particularly important because Notch signaling appears to play a key role in CSCs in a variety of cancers and controls cell fate determination, survival, proliferation, and the maintenance of stem cells. The constitutive activation of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways that leads to the regulation of Notch pathway genes in glioma CSCs identifies novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of glioma.

  10. Nanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reatul; Palazzo, Claudio; Evrard, Brigitte; Piel, Geraldine

    2016-04-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-the-art technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3-5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood-brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief.

  11. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio . E-mail: ccd29400@nyc.odn.ne.jp; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-08-31

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche.

  12. PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Echizen, Kanae; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Tomoatsu; Sabit, Hemragul; Furuta, Takuya; Nakai, Miyuki; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Nishimura, Yukiko; Taniue, Kenzui; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Terai, Kenta; Todo, Tomoki; Ino, Yasushi; Mukasa, Akitake; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Ohtani, Ryohei; Saito, Nobuhito; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • PCDH10 is required for the proliferation, survival and self-renewal of glioblastoma cells. • PCDH10 is required for glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. • PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma. - Abstract: Protocadherin10 (PCDH10)/OL-protocadherin is a cadherin-related transmembrane protein that has multiple roles in the brain, including facilitating specific cell–cell connections, cell migration and axon guidance. It has recently been reported that PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor and that its overexpression inhibits proliferation or invasion of multiple tumor cells. However, the function of PCDH10 in glioblastoma cells has not been elucidated. In contrast to previous reports on other tumors, we show here that suppression of the expression of PCDH10 by RNA interference (RNAi) induces the growth arrest and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that knockdown of PCDH10 inhibits the growth of glioblastoma cells xenografted into immunocompromised mice. These results suggest that PCDH10 is required for the proliferation and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We speculate that PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma.

  13. Association between RAD 51 rs1801320 and susceptibility to glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, S; Tomei, S; Mazzanti, C M; Lessi, F; Aretini, P; La Ferla, M; De Gregorio, V; Pasqualetti, F; Zavaglia, K; Bevilacqua, G; Naccarato, A G

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. Despite decades of research and the advent of new therapies, patients with glioblastoma continue to have a very poor prognosis. Radiation therapy has a major role as adjuvant treatment for glioblastoma following surgical resection. Many studies have shown that polymorphisms of genes involved in pathways of DNA repair may affect the sensitivity of the cells to treatment. Although the role of these polymorphisms has been investigated in relation to response to radiotherapy, their role as predisposing factors to glioblastoma has not been clarified yet. In the present study, we evaluated the association between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, namely: XRCC1 rs25487, XRCC3 rs861539 and RAD51 rs1801320, with the susceptibility to develop glioblastoma. Eighty-five glioblastoma patients and 70 matched controls were recruited for this study. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project (98 Tuscans) were also downloaded and used for the association analysis. Subjects carrying RAD51 rs1801320 GC genotype showed an increased risk of glioblastoma (GC vs GG, χ(2) = 10.75; OR 3.0087; p = 0.0010). The C allele was also significantly associated to glioblastoma (χ(2) = 8.66; OR 2.5674; p = 0.0032). Moreover, RAD51 rs1801320 C allele increased the risk to develop glioblastoma also when combined to XRCC1 rs25487 G allele and XRCC3 rs861539 C allele (χ(2) = 6.558; p = 0.0053).

  14. A Unique Four-Hub Protein Cluster Associates to Glioblastoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, Pasquale; Trerotola, Marco; Urbanella, Andrea; Lattanzio, Rossano; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Di Giuseppe, Fabrizio; Eleuterio, Enrica; Sulpizio, Marilisa; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Pession, Annalisa; Piantelli, Mauro; Alberti, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors. Among them, glioblastomas are malignant and largely resistant to available treatments. Histopathology is the gold standard for classification and grading of brain tumors. However, brain tumor heterogeneity is remarkable and histopathology procedures for glioma classification remain unsatisfactory for predicting disease course as well as response to treatment. Proteins that tightly associate with cancer differentiation and progression, can bear important prognostic information. Here, we describe the identification of protein clusters differentially expressed in high-grade versus low-grade gliomas. Tissue samples from 25 high-grade tumors, 10 low-grade tumors and 5 normal brain cortices were analyzed by 2D-PAGE and proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry. This led to identify 48 differentially expressed protein markers between tumors and normal samples. Protein clustering by multivariate analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) provided discrimination between pathological samples to an unprecedented extent, and revealed a unique network of deranged proteins. We discovered a novel glioblastoma control module centered on four major network hubs: Huntingtin, HNF4α, c-Myc and 14-3-3ζ. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and unbiased proteome-wide meta-analysis revealed altered expression of this glioblastoma control module in human glioma samples as compared with normal controls. Moreover, the four-hub network was found to cross-talk with both p53 and EGFR pathways. In summary, the findings of this study indicate the existence of a unifying signaling module controlling glioblastoma pathogenesis and malignant progression, and suggest novel targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:25050814

  15. Clinical Applications of a Peptide-Based Vaccine for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, Charles W; Ding, Dale; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant, relentless brain cancer with no known cure, and standard therapies leave significant room for the development of better, more effective treatments. Immunotherapy is a promising approach to the treatment of solid tumors that directs the patient’s own immune system to destroy tumor cells. The most widespread and successful immunologically-based cancer therapy to date involves the passive administration of monoclonal antibodies, but significant antitumor responses have also been generated with active vaccination strategies and cell-transfer therapies as well. This article summarizes the important components of the immune system, discusses the specific difficulty of immunologic privilege in the central nervous system (CNS), and reviews the variety of treatment approaches that are being attempted, with an emphasis on active immunotherapy using peptide vaccines in the treatment of GBM. PMID:19944970

  16. RO4929097 and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Non-coding RNAs in cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kerui; Sharma, Sambad; Venkat, Suresh; Liu, Keqin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2016-01-01

    More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can't penetrate blood-brain-barrier and tumor cells find the brain as sanctuary site. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of brain metastases to introduce the latest understandings of metastatic brain malignancies. This review also particularly focuses on non-coding RNAs and their roles in cancer brain metastasis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of the extracellular vesicles as they are known to transport information between cells to initiate cancer cell-microenvironment communication. The potential clinical translation of non-coding RNAs as a tool for diagnosis and for treatment is also discussed in this review. At the end, the computational aspects of non-coding RNA detection, the sequence and structure calculation and epigenetic regulation of non-coding RNA in brain metastasis are discussed.

  18. PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status

    PubMed Central

    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D.; Hägerstrand, Daniel; Carlson, Joseph; Lysiak, Malgorzata; Henriksson, Roger; Pontén, Fredrik; Rosell, Johan; Söderkvist, Peter; Stupp, Roger; Tchougounova, Elena; Nistér, Monica; Malmström, Annika; Smits, Anja

    2016-01-01

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing low-grade tumors and harbor IDH mutations. PMID:27626492

  19. PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status.

    PubMed

    Roodakker, Kenney R; Elsir, Tamador; Edqvist, Per-Henrik D; Hägerstrand, Daniel; Carlson, Joseph; Lysiak, Malgorzata; Henriksson, Roger; Pontén, Fredrik; Rosell, Johan; Söderkvist, Peter; Stupp, Roger; Tchougounova, Elena; Nistér, Monica; Malmström, Annika; Smits, Anja

    2016-11-08

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing low-grade tumors and harbor IDH mutations.

  20. Pediatric Glioblastoma Therapies Based on Patient-Derived Stem Cell Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0756 TITLE: Pediatric Glioblastoma Therapies Based on Patient-Derived Stem Cell Resources PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pediatric Glioblastoma Therapies Based on Patient-Derived Stem Cell Resources 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11...TERMS Glioblastoma multiforme , glioma stem cell, brain tumor-initiating cell, pediatric brain tumor, RNAi, functional genetics 16. SECURITY

  1. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Primary Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kased, Norbert; Binder, Devin K.; McDermott, Michael W.; Nakamura, Jean L.; Huang, Kim; Berger, Mitchel S.; Wara, William M.; Sneed, Penny K.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The relative roles of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) vs. whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in the treatment of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer remain undefined. In this study, we reviewed our experience with these patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated between 1991 and 2005 with Gamma Knife SRS for brain metastases from breast cancer. The actuarial survival and freedom from progression endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Between 1991 and 2005, 176 patients underwent SRS for brain metastases from breast cancer. The median survival time was 16.0 months for 95 newly diagnosed patients and 11.7 months for 81 patients with recurrent brain metastases. In the newly diagnosed patients, omission of upfront WBRT did not significantly affect the MST (p = .20), brain freedom from progression (p = .75), or freedom from new brain metastases (p = .83). Longer survival was associated with age <50 years, Karnofsky performance score >=70, primary tumor control, estrogen receptor positivity, and Her2/neu overexpression. No association was found between the number of treated brain metastases and the survival time. Conclusion: We have described prognostic factors for breast cancer patients treated with SRS for newly diagnosed or recurrent brain metastases. Most patient subsets had a median survival time of >=11 months. Unexpectedly, upfront WBRT did not appear to improve brain freedom from progression, and a larger number of brain metastases was not associated with a shorter survival time. Breast cancer might be distinct from other primary sites in terms of prognostic factors and the roles of WBRT and SRS for brain metastases.

  2. Leptomeningeal metastasis from gynecologic cancers diagnosed by brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masafumi; Tsuji, Keita; Shigeta, Shogo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Ito, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Yoh; Yoshinaga, Kosuke; Otsuki, Takeo; Niikura, Hitoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is rarely observed in gynecologic cancers. As gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) is highly effective for diagnosing LM, the aim of this study is to describe the clinical behaviors and outcomes of LM patients who were diagnosed by Gd-MRI. After securing institutional review board approvals, we retrospectively reviewed patient records. Eight patients were found to have LM from gynecological malignancies. Primary tumors included three ovarian cancers, one tubal cancer, one peritoneal cancer, two endometrial cancers, and one cervical cancer. Gd-MRI of the brain and the spine is indicated as the high-priority inspection for the diagnosis of this devastating complication.

  3. MiR-224 expression increases radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Upraity, Shailendra; Kazi, Sadaf; Padul, Vijay; Shirsat, Neelam Vishwanath

    2014-05-30

    Highlights: • MiR-224 expression in established glioblastoma cell lines and sporadic tumor tissues is low. • Exogenous miR-224 expression was found to increase radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. • MiR-224 expression brought about 55–60% reduction in API5 expression levels. • Transfection with API5 siRNA increased radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. • Low miR-224 and high API5 expression correlated with worse survival of GBM patients. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and highly aggressive primary malignant brain tumor. The intrinsic resistance of this brain tumor limits the efficacy of administered treatment like radiation therapy. In the present study, effect of miR-224 expression on growth characteristics of established GBM cell lines was analyzed. MiR-224 expression in the cell lines as well as in primary GBM tumor tissues was found to be low. Exogenous transient expression of miR-224 using either synthetic mimics or stable inducible expression using doxycycline inducible lentiviral vector carrying miR-224 gene, was found to bring about 30–55% reduction in clonogenic potential of U87 MG cells. MiR-224 expression reduced clonogenic potential of U87 MG cells by 85–90% on irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy, a dose that brought about 50% reduction in clonogenic potential in the absence of miR-224 expression. MiR-224 expression in glioblastoma cells resulted in 55–65% reduction in the expression levels of API5 gene, a known target of miR-224. Further, siRNA mediated down-regulation of API5 was also found to have radiation sensitizing effect on glioblastoma cell lines. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas data showed lower miR-224 expression levels in male GBM patients to correlate with poorer survival. Higher expression levels of miR-224 target API5 also showed significant correlation with poorer survival of GBM patients. Up-regulation of miR-224 or down-regulation of its target API5 in combination with radiation therapy

  4. Applications of dendrimers for brain delivery and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Somani, Sukrut; Dufès, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Dendrimers are emerging as potential nonviral vectors for the efficient delivery of drugs and nucleic acids to the brain and cancer cells. These polymers are highly branched, 3D macromolecules with modifiable surface functionalities and available internal cavities that make them attractive as delivery systems for drug and gene delivery applications. This article highlights the recent therapeutic advances resulting from the use of dendrimers for brain targeting and cancer treatment.

  5. Improving Goals of Care Discussion in Advanced Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-20

    Primary Stage IV Hepatobiliary; Esophageal; Colorectal Cancer; Glioblastoma; Cancer of Stomach; Cancer of Pancreas; Melanoma; Head or Neck Cancer; Stage III; Stage IV; Lung Cancers; Pancreatic Cancers

  6. TCGA Workshop: Genomics and Biology of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) held a workshop entitled, “Genomics and Biology of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM),” to review the initial GBM data from the TCGA pilot project.

  7. Current data and strategy in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Dinca, EB

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or astrocytoma grade Ⅳ on WHO classification is the most aggressive and the most frequent of all primary brain tumors. Glioblastoma is multiforme , resistant to therapeutic interventions illustrating the heterogeneity exhibited by this tumor in its every aspect, including clinical presentation, pathology, genetic signature. Current data and treatment strategy in GBM are presented focusing on basic science data and key clinical aspects like surgery, including personal experience; adjuvant modalities: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, but also for experimental approaches. Therapeutic attitude in recurrent GBM is also widely discussed. PMID:20108752

  8. Brain metastasis from ovarian cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pakneshan, Shabnam; Safarpour, Damoun; Tavassoli, Fattaneh; Jabbari, Bahman

    2014-08-01

    To review the existing literature on brain metastasis (BM) from ovarian cancer and to assess the frequency, anatomical, clinical and paraclinical information and factors associated with prognosis. Ovarian cancer is a rare cause of brain metastasis with a recently reported increasing prevalence. Progressive neurologic disability and poor prognosis is common. A comprehensive review on this subject has not been published previously. This systematic literature search used the Pubmed and Yale library. A total of 66 publications were found, 57 of which were used representing 591 patients with BM from ovarian cancer. The median age of the patients was 54.3 years (range 20-81). A majority of patients (57.3 %) had multiple brain lesions. The location of the lesion was cerebellar (30 %), frontal (20 %), parietal (18 %) and occipital (11 %). Extracranial metastasis was present in 49.8 % of cases involving liver (20.7 %), lung (20.4 %), lymph nodes (12.6 %), bones (6.6 %) and pelvic organs (4.3 %). The most common symptoms were weakness (16 %), seizures (11 %), altered mentality (11 %) visual disturbances (9 %) and dizziness (8 %). The interval from diagnosis of breast cancer to BM ranged from 0 to 133 months (median 24 months) and median survival was 8.2 months. Local radiation, surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery and medical therapy were used. Factors that significantly increased the survival were younger age at the time of ovarian cancer diagnosis and brain metastasis diagnosis, lower grade of the primary tumor, higher KPS score and multimodality treatment for the brain metastases. Ovarian cancer is a rare cause of brain metastasis. Development of brain metastasis among older patients and lower KPS score correlate with less favorable prognosis. The more prolonged survival after using multimodality treatment for brain metastasis is important due to potential impact on management of brain metastasis in future.

  9. JNK contributes to temozolomide resistance of stem-like glioblastoma cells via regulation of MGMT expression.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masashi; Sato, Atsushi; Shibuya, Keita; Watanabe, Eriko; Seino, Shizuka; Suzuki, Shuhei; Seino, Manabu; Narita, Yoshitaka; Shibui, Soichiro; Kayama, Takamasa; Kitanaka, Chifumi

    2014-02-01

    While elimination of the cancer stem cell population is increasingly recognized as a key to successful treatment of cancer, the high resistance of cancer stem cells to conventional chemoradiotherapy remains a therapeutic challenge. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which is frequently expressed in cancer stem cells of glioblastoma, has been implicated in their resistance to temozolomide, the first-line chemotherapeutic agent against newly diagnosed glioblastoma. However, much remains unknown about the molecular regulation that underlies MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance of glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Here, we identified JNK as a novel player in the control of MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance of glioblastoma cancer stem cells. We showed that inhibition of JNK, either pharmacologically or by RNA interference, in stem-like glioblastoma cells derived directly from glioblastoma tissues reduces their MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance. Importantly, sensitization of stem-like glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by JNK inhibition was dependent on MGMT expression, implying that JNK controls temozolomide resistance of stem-like glioblastoma cells through MGMT expression. Our findings suggest that concurrent use of JNK inhibitors with temozolomide may be a rational therapeutic approach to effectively target the cancer stem cell population in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  10. Time-Frequency Analysis of Peptide Microarray Data: Application to Brain Cancer Immunosignatures

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Brian; Maurer, Alexander; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Stafford, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One of the gravest dangers facing cancer patients is an extended symptom-free lull between tumor initiation and the first diagnosis. Detection of tumors is critical for effective intervention. Using the body’s immune system to detect and amplify tumor-specific signals may enable detection of cancer using an inexpensive immunoassay. Immunosignatures are one such assay: they provide a map of antibody interactions with random-sequence peptides. They enable detection of disease-specific patterns using classic train/test methods. However, to date, very little effort has gone into extracting information from the sequence of peptides that interact with disease-specific antibodies. Because it is difficult to represent all possible antigen peptides in a microarray format, we chose to synthesize only 330,000 peptides on a single immunosignature microarray. The 330,000 random-sequence peptides on the microarray represent 83% of all tetramers and 27% of all pentamers, creating an unbiased but substantial gap in the coverage of total sequence space. We therefore chose to examine many relatively short motifs from these random-sequence peptides. Time-variant analysis of recurrent subsequences provided a means to dissect amino acid sequences from the peptides while simultaneously retaining the antibody–peptide binding intensities. We first used a simple experiment in which monoclonal antibodies with known linear epitopes were exposed to these random-sequence peptides, and their binding intensities were used to create our algorithm. We then demonstrated the performance of the proposed algorithm by examining immunosignatures from patients with Glioblastoma multiformae (GBM), an aggressive form of brain cancer. Eight different frameshift targets were identified from the random-sequence peptides using this technique. If immune-reactive antigens can be identified using a relatively simple immune assay, it might enable a diagnostic test with sufficient sensitivity to detect tumors

  11. Secondary Data Analytics of Aquaporin Expression Levels in Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Isokpehi, Raphael D; Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C; Graham, Barbara E; Pacurari, Maricica; Sims, Jennifer N; Udensi, Udensi K; Ndebele, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults in which recurrence has been attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. On the basis of tumor formation in vivo and growth type in vitro, two published microarray gene expression profiling studies grouped nine glioblastoma stem-like (GS) cell lines into one of two groups: full (GSf) or restricted (GSr) stem-like phenotypes. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are water transport proteins that are highly expressed in primary glial-derived tumors. However, the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 have not been previously described in a panel of 92 glioma samples. Therefore, we designed secondary data analytics methods to determine the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 in GS cell lines and glioblastoma neurospheres. Our investigation also included a total of 2,566 expression levels from 28 Affymetrix microarray probe sets encoding 13 human aquaporins (AQP0–AQP12); CXCR4 (the receptor for stromal cell derived factor-1 [SDF-1], a potential glioma stem cell therapeutic target]); and PROM1 (gene encoding CD133, the widely used glioma stem cell marker). Interactive visual representation designs for integrating phenotypic features and expression levels revealed that inverse expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 correlate with distinct phenotypes in a set of cell lines grouped into full and restricted stem-like phenotypes. Discriminant function analysis further revealed that AQP1 and AQP4 expression are better predictors for tumor formation and growth types in glioblastoma stem-like cells than are CXCR4 and PROM1. Future investigations are needed to characterize the molecular mechanisms for inverse expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 in the glioblastoma stem-like neurospheres. PMID:26279619

  12. The NSL Chromatin-Modifying Complex Subunit KANSL2 Regulates Cancer Stem-like Properties in Glioblastoma That Contribute to Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra Solari, Nazarena E; Belforte, Fiorella S; Canedo, Lucía; Videla-Richardson, Guillermo A; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Rossi, Mario; Serna, Eva; Riudavets, Miguel A; Martinetto, Horacio; Sevlever, Gustavo; Perez-Castro, Carolina

    2016-09-15

    KANSL2 is an integral subunit of the nonspecific lethal (NSL) chromatin-modifying complex that contributes to epigenetic programs in embryonic stem cells. In this study, we report a role for KANSL2 in regulation of stemness in glioblastoma (GBM), which is characterized by heterogeneous tumor stem-like cells associated with therapy resistance and disease relapse. KANSL2 expression is upregulated in cancer cells, mainly at perivascular regions of tumors. RNAi-mediated silencing of KANSL2 in GBM cells impairs their tumorigenic capacity in mouse xenograft models. In clinical specimens, we found that expression levels of KANSL2 correlate with stemness markers in GBM stem-like cell populations. Mechanistic investigations showed that KANSL2 regulates cell self-renewal, which correlates with effects on expression of the stemness transcription factor POU5F1. RNAi-mediated silencing of POU5F1 reduced KANSL2 levels, linking these two genes to stemness control in GBM cells. Together, our findings indicate that KANSL2 acts to regulate the stem cell population in GBM, defining it as a candidate GBM biomarker for clinical use. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5383-94. ©2016 AACR.

  13. Cholesterol: An Achilles' Heel for Glioblastoma?

    PubMed

    An, Zhenyi; Weiss, William A

    2016-11-14

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Villa et al. report that survival of glioblastoma cells is dependent on uptake of cholesterol. A synthetic agonist of the Liver X receptor depleted cholesterol in GBM cells, slowing growth of GBM xenografts.

  14. Resveratrol sensitizes glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide by inducing cell apoptosis and promoting differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Liu, Yaodong; Jiao, Yumin; Guo, Anchen; Xu, Xiaoxue; Qu, Xianjun; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong; Li, Ye; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma-initiating cells play crucial roles in the origin, growth, and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme. The elimination of glioblastoma-initiating cells is believed to be a key strategy for achieving long-term survival of glioblastoma patients due to the highly resistant property of glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been widely studied as a promising candidate for cancer prevention and treatment. Whether resveratrol could enhance the sensitivity of glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide therapy has not yet been reported. Here, using patient-derived glioblastoma-initiating cell lines, we found that resveratrol sensitized glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that resveratrol enhanced glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide-induced apoptosis through DNA double-stranded breaks/pATM/pATR/p53 pathway activation, and promoted glioblastoma-initiating cell differentiation involving p-STAT3 inactivation. Our results propose that temozolomide and resveratrol combination strategy may be effective in the management of glioblastoma patients, particularly for those patients who have been present with a high abundance of glioblastoma-initiating cells in their tumors and show slight responsiveness to temozolomide.

  15. Role of the neural niche in brain metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Termini, John; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the relenteless pursuit of cancer to escape its primary site and colonize distant organs. This malignant evolutionary process is biologically heterogeneous, yet one unifying element is the critical role of the microenvironment for arriving metastatic cells. Historically brain metastases were rarely investigated since patients with advanced cancer were considered terminal. Fortunately, advances in molecular therapies have led to patients living longer with metastatic cancer. However, one site remains recalcitrant to our treatment efforts – the brain. The central nervous system is the most complex biological system, which poses unique obstacles but also harbors opportunities for discovery. Much of what we know about the brain microenvironment comes from neuroscience. We suggest that the interrelated cellular responses in traumatic brain injury may guide us towards new perspectives in understanding brain metastases. In this view, brain metastases may be conceptualized as progressive oncologic injury to the nervous system. This review discusses our evolving understanding of the bidirectional interactions between the brain milieu and metastatic cancer. PMID:25035392

  16. Adaptive Chromatin Remodeling Drives Glioblastoma Stem Cell Plasticity and Drug Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liau, Brian B; Sievers, Cem; Donohue, Laura K; Gillespie, Shawn M; Flavahan, William A; Miller, Tyler E; Venteicher, Andrew S; Hebert, Christine H; Carey, Christopher D; Rodig, Scott J; Shareef, Sarah J; Najm, Fadi J; van Galen, Peter; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Cahill, Daniel P; Rich, Jeremy N; Aster, Jon C; Suvà, Mario L; Patel, Anoop P; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2017-02-02

    Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, is propagated by stem-like cancer cells refractory to existing therapies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) proliferation and drug resistance may reveal opportunities for therapeutic interventions. Here we show that GSCs can reversibly transition to a slow-cycling, persistent state in response to targeted kinase inhibitors. In this state, GSCs upregulate primitive developmental programs and are dependent upon Notch signaling. This transition is accompanied by widespread redistribution of repressive histone methylation. Accordingly, persister GSCs upregulate, and are dependent on, the histone demethylases KDM6A/B. Slow-cycling cells with high Notch activity and histone demethylase expression are present in primary glioblastomas before treatment, potentially contributing to relapse. Our findings illustrate how cancer cells may hijack aspects of native developmental programs for deranged proliferation, adaptation, and tolerance. They also suggest strategies for eliminating refractory tumor cells by targeting epigenetic and developmental pathways.

  17. Hippocampal-Sparing Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren; Kong, Wei; Shang, Jun; Zhe, Hong; Wang, Yan-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20% to 40% of lung cancer patients. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has long been considered the treatment of choice for many patients with lung cancer, because of its wide availability, ease of delivery, and effectiveness in prolonging survival. However, WBRT is also associated with several side effects, such as decline in memory and other cognitive functions. There exists significant preclinical and clinical evidence that radiation-induced injury to the hippocampus correlates with neurocognitive decline of patients who receive WBRT. Technological advances in treatment planning and delivery facilitate the use of hippocampal-sparing (HS) WBRT as prophylactic cranial irradiation or the primary treatment modality for lung cancer patients with brain metastases. In this review, we provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of the safety profile, techniques for hippocampus-sparing, and the clinical evidence of HS-WBRT for lung cancer patients.

  18. Characterization of PTEN mutations in brain cancer reveals that pten mono-ubiquitination promotes protein stability and nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jr-M; Schiapparelli, P; Nguyen, H-N; Igarashi, A; Zhang, Q; Abbadi, S; Amzel, L M; Sesaki, H; Quiñones-Hinojosa, A; Iijima, M

    2017-03-06

    PTEN is a PIP3 phosphatase that antagonizes oncogenic PI3-kinase signalling. Due to its critical role in suppressing the potent signalling pathway, it is one of the most mutated tumour suppressors, especially in brain tumours. It is generally thought that PTEN deficiencies predominantly result from either loss of expression or enzymatic activity. By analysing PTEN in malignant glioblastoma primary cells derived from 16 of our patients, we report mutations that block localization of PTEN at the plasma membrane and nucleus without affecting lipid phosphatase activity. Cellular and biochemical analyses as well as structural modelling revealed that two mutations disrupt intramolecular interaction of PTEN and open its conformation, enhancing polyubiquitination of PTEN and decreasing protein stability. Moreover, promoting mono-ubiquitination increases protein stability and nuclear localization of mutant PTEN. Thus, our findings provide a molecular mechanism for cancer-associated PTEN defects and may lead to a brain cancer treatment that targets PTEN mono-ubiquitination.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 March 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.493.

  19. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHIEN-MIN; SYU, JHIH-PU; WAY, TZONG-DER; HUANG, LI-JIAU; KUO, SHENG-CHU; LIN, CHUNG-TIEN; LIN, CHIH-LI

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti-glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti-proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell-cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy-mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B-induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug-resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ. PMID:26329365

  20. γ knife radiosurgery of brain metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Laetitia; Muracciole, Xavier; Régis, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer ranges from 14 to 16%.Age, number of metastatic sites, short disease-free survival and molecular subtypes are associated with the occurrence of brain metastasis. Patients classified in the triple-negative group more frequently presented brain metastasis as the first site (26%) than those in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (6%) or luminal (12%) subtypes. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is still the standard treatment for breast cancer patients with brain metastasis. The 1- and 2-year survival rates of patients with brain metastasis were 25 and 10%, respectively, with a median survival of 6 months. In selected patients with single brain metastasis, majority of lung cancer, three randomized controlled trials underlined the significant survival benefit in adding local treatment such as surgery or stereotactic radio surgery to WBRT. Similarly, the upfront stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone did not affect survival rate in three other randomized studies and represents an alternative treatment for patients with stage 1-4. Metastatic breast cancer patients with Karnofsky Performance Scale ≥70, single or oligometastatic brain metastases and well-controlled extracranial disease or favorable disease-specific graded prognostic assessment group presented a median overall survival of 16 months. Delaying WBRT could spare patients of neurocognitive toxicity due to full-dose whole brain irradiation. Nevertheless, the real WBRT neurocognitive impact is still unclear. These patients should be followed with serial magnetic resonance image every 3 months and treated with WBRT or additional SRS at recurrence to control brain disease.

  1. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer strategy for new drug development in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Denis; Brandes, Alba A; van den Bent, Martin

    2003-12-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) has carried out clinical trials for nearly 30 years. During this time, several disease-oriented groups within the EORTC have been shaped by rapidly changing regulations in the area of drug development. Continual networking, dissemination of knowledge, and the establishment of specialized administrative units have allowed the EORTC to play a leading role in the development of improved treatment options for patients with brain tumors. Recently, the EORTC Brain Tumor Group and the EORTC New Drug Development Group have been integrated to create a network of institutions dedicated to screening new chemotherapy agents for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. Indeed, several new regimens and agents have already been investigated by this collaboration. Most notable are the recently closed study on temozolomide (Temodar [US], Temodal [international]; Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ) in the adjuvant setting and in combination with radiotherapy in patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, and the ongoing study on oral STI571 for the treatment of gliomas. Within the current networks, a well-defined strategy has been implemented to select specific and targeted agents for the drug screening process. By sharing their expertise with the EORTC networks, medical oncologists, neuro-oncologists, and radiologists can assist in the clinical development of potentially active agents in patients with brain tumors.

  2. Micro-masters of glioblastoma biology and therapy: increasingly recognized roles for microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Desiree; Purow, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs encoded in eukaryotic genomes that have been found to play critical roles in most biological processes, including cancer. This is true for glioblastoma, the most common and lethal primary brain tumor, for which microRNAs have been shown to strongly influence cell viability, stem cell characteristics, invasiveness, angiogenesis, metabolism, and immune evasion. Developing microRNAs as prognostic markers or as therapeutic agents is showing increasing promise and has potential to reach the clinic in the next several years. This succinct review summarizes current progress and future directions in this exciting and steadily expanding field. PMID:24723563

  3. Limited advances in therapy of glioblastoma trigger re-consideration of research policy.

    PubMed

    Frosina, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma (GB - WHO grade IV) is the most frequent and lethal primary brain tumour with median overall survival of 7-15 months after diagnosis. As in other cancer research areas, an overwhelming amount of pre-clinical research acquisitions in the GB field have not been translated to patients' benefit, potentially due to inappropriate treatment schedules and/or trial designs in the clinical setting. The recent failure of promising anti-VEGF bevacizumab to improve GB patients' overall survival recapitulates this sense of frustration. The following measures are proposed.

  4. Targeted Therapies for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venur, Vyshak Alva; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of various driver pathways and targeted small molecule agents/antibodies have revolutionized the management of metastatic breast cancer. Currently, the major targets of clinical utility in breast cancer include the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK-4/6) pathway. Brain metastasis, however, remains a thorn in the flesh, leading to morbidity, neuro-cognitive decline, and interruptions in the management of systemic disease. Approximately 20%–30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer develop brain metastases. Surgery, whole brain radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery are the traditional treatment options for patients with brain metastases. The therapeutic paradigm is changing due to better understanding of the blood brain barrier and the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Several of these agents are in clinical practice and several others are in early stage clinical trials. In this article, we will review the common targetable pathways in the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases, and the current state of the clinical development of drugs against these pathways. PMID:27649142

  5. Glioblastoma multiforme in a child with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, Aglaia; Lesma, Elena; Alfano, Rosa Maria; Peron, Angela; Scornavacca, Giulia Federica; Massimino, Maura; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Ancona, Silvia; Cerati, Michele; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Gorio, Alfredo; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2015-10-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is characterized by the presence of benign tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. The typical brain lesions are cortical tubers, subependimal nodules and subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas. The occurrence of malignant astrocytomas such as glioblastoma is rare. We report on a child with a clinical diagnosis of TSC and a rapidly evolving glioblastoma multiforme. Genetic analysis identified a de novo mutation in TSC2. Molecular characterization of the tumor was performed and discussed, as well as a review of the literature where cases of TSC and glioblastoma multiforme are described. Although the co-occurrence of TSC and glioblastoma multiforme seems to be rare, this possible association should be kept in mind, and proper clinical and radiological follow up should be recommended in these patients.

  6. Cancer Stem Cell-Secreted Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Stimulates Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function and Facilitates Glioblastoma Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Balint; Silver, Daniel J; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Alvarado, Alvaro G; Turaga, Soumya M; Sorensen, Mia D; Rayman, Patricia; Flavahan, William A; Hale, James S; Stoltz, Kevin; Sinyuk, Maksim; Wu, Qiulian; Jarrar, Awad; Kim, Sung-Hak; Fox, Paul L; Nakano, Ichiro; Rich, Jeremy N; Ransohoff, Richard M; Finke, James; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Lathia, Justin D

    2016-08-01

    Shifting the balance away from tumor-mediated immune suppression toward tumor immune rejection is the conceptual foundation for a variety of immunotherapy efforts currently being tested. These efforts largely focus on activating antitumor immune responses but are confounded by multiple immune cell populations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which serve to suppress immune system function. We have identified immune-suppressive MDSCs in the brains of GBM patients and found that they were in close proximity to self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). MDSCs were selectively depleted using 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in a low-dose administration paradigm, which resulted in prolonged survival in a syngeneic mouse model of glioma. In coculture studies, patient-derived CSCs but not nonstem tumor cells selectively drove MDSC-mediated immune suppression. A cytokine screen revealed that CSCs secreted multiple factors that promoted this activity, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was produced at high levels by CSCs. Addition of MIF increased production of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase-1 in MDSCs in a CXCR2-dependent manner, whereas blocking MIF reduced arginase-1 production. Similarly to 5-FU, targeting tumor-derived MIF conferred a survival advantage to tumor-bearing animals and increased the cytotoxic T cell response within the tumor. Importantly, tumor cell proliferation, survival, and self-renewal were not impacted by MIF reduction, demonstrating that MIF is primarily an indirect promoter of GBM progression, working to suppress immune rejection by activating and protecting immune suppressive MDSCs within the GBM tumor microenvironment. Stem Cells 2016;34:2026-2039.

  7. PARP-1 protein expression in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Galia, A.; Calogero, A.E.; Condorelli, R.A.; Fraggetta, F.; La Corte, C.; Ridolfo, F.; Bosco, P.; Castiglione, R.; Salemi, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most common type of primary brain tumors in adults is the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (World Health Organization grade IV astrocytoma). It is the most common malignant and aggressive form of glioma and it is among the most lethal ones. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene, located to 1q42, plays an important role for the efficient maintenance of genome integrity. PARP-1 protein is required for the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation from the mitochondria to the nucleus. PARP-1 is proteolytically cleaved at the onset of apoptosis by caspase-3. Microarray analysis of PARP-1 gene expression in more than 8000 samples revealed that PARP-1 is more highly expressed in several types of cancer compared with the equivalent normal tissues. Overall, the most differences in PARP-1 gene expression have been observed in breast, ovarian, endometrial, lung, and skin cancers, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We evaluated the expression of PARP-1 protein in normal brain tissues and primary GBM by immunohistochemistry. Positive nuclear PARP-1 staining was found in all samples with GBM, but not in normal neurons from controls (n=4) and GBM patients (n=27). No cytoplasmic staining was observed in any sample. In conclusion, PARP-1 gene is expressed in GBM. This finding may be envisioned as an attempt to trigger apoptosis in this tumor, as well as in many other malignancies. The presence of the protein exclusively at the nucleus further support the function played by this gene in genome integrity maintenance and apoptosis. Finally, PARP-1 staining may be used as GBM cell marker. PMID:22472897

  8. The interplay between intracellular progesterone receptor and PKC plays a key role in migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Marquina-Sánchez, Brenda; González-Jorge, Jesús; Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; Wegman-Ostrosky, Talia; Baranda-Ávila, Noemi; Mejía-Pérez, Sonia; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; González-Arenas, Aliesha

    2016-10-04

    Intracellular progesterone receptors (PRs) and protein kinases C (PKCs) are known regulators of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Both PRs and PKCs are found overexpressed in grade IV human astrocytomas, also known as glioblastomas, which are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether PR activation by PKC induces the migration and invasion of glioblastoma derived cell lines and if PKCα and δ isoforms are involved in PR activation. We observed that PKC activation with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) increases the migration and invasion capacity of two human glioblastoma derived human cell lines (U251 MG and U87) and that the treatment with the PR receptor antagonist RU486 blocks these processes. Interestingly, the pharmacological inhibition of the isoenzymes PKCα and PKCδ also resulted in a blocked PR transcriptional activity. Also, TPA-dependent PR activation increases the expression of progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), a known PR target gene. These results hint to an existing cross-talk between PKCs and PRs in regulating the infiltration process of human glioblastomas.

  9. Concurrent therapy to enhance radiotherapeutic outcomes in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most fatal and incurable human cancers characterized by nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, intense microvascular proliferation and necrosis. The current standard of care includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). The prognosis remains poor with median survival of 14.6 months with RT plus TMZ. Majority will have a recurrence within 2 years from diagnosis despite adequate treatment. Radiosensitizers, radiotherapy dose escalation and altered fractionation have failed to improve outcome. The molecular biology of glioblastoma is complex and poses treatment challenges. High rate of mutation, genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity, rapid development of resistance, existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB), multiple intracellular and intercellular signalling pathways, over-expression of growth factor receptors, angiogenesis and antigenic diversity renders the tumor cells differentially susceptible to various treatment modalities. Thus, the treatment strategies require personalised or individualized approach based on the characteristics of tumor. Several targeted agents have been evaluated in clinical trials but the results have been modest despite these advancements. This review summarizes the current standard of care, results of concurrent chemoradiation trials, evolving innovative treatments that use targeted therapy with standard chemoradiation or RT alone, outcome of various recent trials and future outlook. PMID:26904576

  10. Robust Cell Segmentation for Histological Images of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jun; Zhang, Pengyue; Liang, Yanhui; Teodoro, George; Brat, Daniel J.; Wang, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with uniformly dismal prognosis. Quantitative analysis of GBM cells is an important avenue to extract latent histologic disease signatures to correlate with molecular underpinnings and clinical outcomes. As a prerequisite, a robust and accurate cell segmentation is required. In this paper, we present an automated cell segmentation method that can satisfactorily address segmentation of overlapped cells commonly seen in GBM histology specimens. This method first detects cells with seed connectivity, distance constraints, image edge map, and a shape-based voting image. Initialized by identified seeds, cell boundaries are deformed with an improved variational level set method that can handle clumped cells. We test our method on 40 histological images of GBM with human annotations. The validation results suggest that our cell segmentation method is promising and represents an advance in quantitative cancer research.

  11. Master regulators, regulatory networks, and pathways of glioblastoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Serdar; Li, Aiguo; Baysan, Mehmet; Fine, Howard A

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor. GBM samples are classified into subtypes based on their transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles. Despite numerous studies to better characterize GBM biology, a comprehensive study to identify GBM subtype- specific master regulators, gene regulatory networks, and pathways is missing. Here, we used FastMEDUSA to compute master regulators and gene regulatory networks for each GBM subtype. We also ran Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis on GBM expression dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project to compute GBM- and GBM subtype-specific pathways. Our analysis was able to recover some of the known master regulators and pathways in GBM as well as some putative novel regulators and pathways, which will aide in our understanding of the unique biology of GBM subtypes.

  12. Transferrin liposomes of docetaxel for brain-targeted cancer applications: formulation and brain theranostics.

    PubMed

    Sonali; Singh, Rahul Pratap; Singh, Nitesh; Sharma, Gunjan; Vijayakumar, Mahalingam R; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Usha; Dash, Debabrata; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L; Muthu, Madaswamy S

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis and therapy of brain cancer was often limited due to low permeability of delivery materials across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and their poor penetration into the brain tissue. This study explored the possibility of utilizing theranostic d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mono-ester (TPGS) liposomes as nanocarriers for minimally invasive brain-targeted imaging and therapy (brain theranostics). The aim of this work was to formulate transferrin conjugated TPGS coated theranostic liposomes, which contain both docetaxel and quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and therapy of brain cancer. The theranostic liposomes with and without transferrin decoration were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro release study and brain theranostics. The particle sizes of the non-targeted and targeted theranostic liposomes were found below 200 nm. Nearly, 71% of drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved with liposomes. The drug release from transferrin conjugated theranostic liposomes was sustained for more than 72 h with 70% of drug release. The in-vivo results indicated that transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic liposomes could be a promising carrier for brain theranostics due to nano-sized delivery and its permeability which provided an improved and prolonged brain targeting of docetaxel and QDs in comparison to the non-targeted preparations.

  13. Patterns of DNA damage response in intracranial germ cell tumors versus glioblastomas reflect cell of origin rather than brain environment: implications for the anti-tumor barrier concept and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bartkova, Jirina; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Krizova, Katerina; Hamerlik, Petra; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Bartek, Jiri

    2014-12-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) machinery becomes commonly activated in response to oncogenes and during early stages of development of solid malignancies, with an exception of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The active DDR signaling evokes cell death or senescence but this anti-tumor barrier can be breached by defects in DDR factors, such as the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, thereby allowing tumor progression. The DDR barrier is strongly activated in brain tumors, particularly gliomas, due to oxidative damage and replication stress. Here, we took advantage of rare human primary intracranial germ cell tumors (PIGCTs), to address the roles of cell-intrinsic factors including cell of origin, versus local tissue environment, in the constitutive DDR activation in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of 7 biomarkers on a series of 21 PIGCTs (germinomas and other subtypes), 20 normal brain specimens and 20 glioblastomas, revealed the following: i) The overall DDR signaling (γH2AX) and activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway were very low among the PIGCTs, reminiscent of TGCTs, and contrasting sharply with strong DDR activation in glioblastomas; ii) Except for one case of embryonal carcinoma, there were no clear aberrations in the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway components among the PIGCT cohort; iii) Subsets of PIGCTs showed unusual cytosolic localization of Chk2 and/or ATM. Collectively, these results show that PIGCTs mimic the DDR activation patterns of their gonadal germ cell tumor counterparts, rather than the brain tumors with which they share the tissue environment. Hence cell-intrinsic factors and cell of origin dictate the extent of DDR barrier activation and also the ensuing pressure to select for DDR defects. Our data provide conceptually important insights into the role of DNA damage checkpoints in intracranial tumorigenesis, with implications for the differential biological responses of diverse tumor types to endogenous stress as well as to genotoxic treatments such as

  14. Breast Cancer Brain Metastases: Clonal Evolution in Clinical Context

    PubMed Central

    Saunus, Jodi M.; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Lim, Zhun Leong; Lakhani, Sunil R.

    2017-01-01

    Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake. However, emerging data are beginning to paint a more complex picture where the brain acts as a sanctuary for dormant, subclinical proliferations that are initially protected by the BBB, but then exposed to dynamic selection pressures as tumours mature and vascular permeability increases. Here, we review key experimental approaches and landmark studies that have charted the genomic landscape of breast cancer brain metastases. These findings are contextualised with the factors impacting on clonal outgrowth in the brain: intrinsic breast tumour cell capabilities required for brain metastatic fitness, and the neural niche, which is initially hostile to invading cells but then engineered into a tumour-support vehicle by the successful minority. We also discuss how late detection, abnormal vascular perfusion and interstitial fluid dynamics underpin the recalcitrant clinical behaviour of brain metastases, and outline active clinical trials in the context of precision management. PMID:28098771

  15. The NSL chromatin-modifying complex subunit KANSL2 regulates cancer stem-like properties in glioblastoma that contribute to tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra-Solari, Nazarena; Belforte, Fiorella S.; Canedo, Lucía; Videla-Richardson, Guillermo A.; Espinosa, Joaquín M.; Rossi, Mario; Serna, Eva; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Martinetto, Horacio; Sevlever, Gustavo; Perez-Castro, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    KANSL2 is an integral subunit of the Non-Specific Lethal (NSL) chromatin-modifying complex which contributes to epigenetic programs in embryonic stem cells. In this study, we report a role for KANSL2 in regulation of stemness in glioblastoma (GBM), which is characterized by heterogeneous tumor stem-like cells associated with therapy resistance and disease relapse. KANSL2 expression is upregulated in cancer cells, mainly at perivascular regions of tumors. RNAi-mediated silencing of KANSL2 in GBM cells impairs their tumorigenic capacity in mouse xenograft models. In clinical specimens, we found that expression levels of KANSL2 correlate with stemness markers in GBM stem-like cell populations. Mechanistic investigations showed that KANSL2 regulates cell self-renewal, which correlates with effects on expression of the stemness transcription factor POU5F1. RNAi-mediated silencing of POU5F1 reduced KANSL2 levels, linking these two genes to stemness control in GBM cells. Together, our findings indicate that KANSL2 acts to regulate the stem cell population in GBM, defining it as a candidate GBM biomarker for clinical use. PMID:27406830

  16. Degradable Organically-Derivatized Polyoxometalate with Enhanced Activity against Glioblastoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    She, Shan; Bian, Shengtai; Huo, Ruichao; Chen, Kun; Huang, Zehuan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Hao, Jian; Wei, Yongge

    2016-01-01

    High efficacy and low toxicity are critical for cancer treatment. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been reported as potential candidates for cancer therapy. On accounts of the slow clearance of POMs, leading to long-term toxicity, the clinical application of POMs in cancer treatment is restricted. To address this problem, a degradable organoimido derivative of hexamolybdate is developed by modifying it with a cleavable organic group, leading to its degradation. Of note, this derivative exhibits favourable pharmacodynamics towards human malignant glioma cell (U251), the ability to penetrate across blood brain barrier and low toxicity towards rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12). This line of research develops an effective POM-based agent for glioblastoma inhibition and will pave a new way to construct degradable anticancer agents for clinical cancer therapy. PMID:27658479

  17. Degradable Organically-Derivatized Polyoxometalate with Enhanced Activity against Glioblastoma Cell Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Shan; Bian, Shengtai; Huo, Ruichao; Chen, Kun; Huang, Zehuan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Hao, Jian; Wei, Yongge

    2016-09-01

    High efficacy and low toxicity are critical for cancer treatment. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been reported as potential candidates for cancer therapy. On accounts of the slow clearance of POMs, leading to long-term toxicity, the clinical application of POMs in cancer treatment is restricted. To address this problem, a degradable organoimido derivative of hexamolybdate is developed by modifying it with a cleavable organic group, leading to its degradation. Of note, this derivative exhibits favourable pharmacodynamics towards human malignant glioma cell (U251), the ability to penetrate across blood brain barrier and low toxicity towards rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12). This line of research develops an effective POM-based agent for glioblastoma inhibition and will pave a new way to construct degradable anticancer agents for clinical cancer therapy.

  18. CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes are prognostic markers of glioblastoma and cooperate with EGFR to drive tumor cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Erfani, Sonia; Liu, Zeyi; Jia, Changhe; Chen, Yecang; Xu, Bingwei; Deng, Xinyu; Alfáro, Jose E; Chen, Li; Napier, Dana; Lu, Michael; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Chunming; Thibault, Olivier; Segal, Rosalind; Zhou, Binhua P; Kyprianou, Natasha; Horbinski, Craig; Yang, Xiuwei H

    2015-10-06

    Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive forms of brain cancer, is featured by high tumor cell motility and invasiveness, which not only fuel tumor infiltration, but also enable escape from surgical or other clinical interventions. Thus, better understanding of how these malignant traits are controlled will be key to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapies against this deadly disease. Tetraspanin CD151 and its associated α3β1 integrin have been implicated in facilitating tumor progression across multiple cancer types. How these adhesion molecules are involved in the progression of glioblastoma, however, remains largely unclear. Here, we examined an in-house tissue microarray-based cohort of 96 patient biopsies and TCGA dataset to evaluate the clinical significance of CD151 and α3β1 integrin. Functional and signaling analyses were also conducted to understand how these molecules promote the aggressiveness of glioblastoma at molecular and cellular levels. Results from our analyses showed that CD151 and α3 integrin were significantly elevated in glioblastomas at both protein and mRNA levels, and exhibited strong inverse correlation with patient survival (p < 0.006). These adhesion molecules also formed tight protein complexes and synergized with EGF/EGFR to accelerate tumor cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, disruption of such complexes enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenograft model, and impaired activation of FAK and small GTPases. Also, knockdown- or pharmacological agent-based attenuation of EGFR, FAK or Graf (ARHGAP26)/small GTPase-mediated pathways markedly mitigated the aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. Collectively, our findings provide clinical, molecular and cellular evidence of CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes as promising prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for glioblastoma.

  19. CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes are prognostic markers of glioblastoma and cooperate with EGFR to drive tumor cell motility and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingwei; Deng, Xinyu; Alfáro, Jose E.; Chen, Li; Napier, Dana; Lu, Michael; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Chunming; Thibault, Olivier; Segal, Rosalind; Zhou, Binhua P.; Kyprianou, Natasha; Horbinski, Craig; Yang, Xiuwei H.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive forms of brain cancer, is featured by high tumor cell motility and invasiveness, which not only fuel tumor infiltration, but also enable escape from surgical or other clinical interventions. Thus, better understanding of how these malignant traits are controlled will be key to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapies against this deadly disease. Tetraspanin CD151 and its associated α3β1 integrin have been implicated in facilitating tumor progression across multiple cancer types. How these adhesion molecules are involved in the progression of glioblastoma, however, remains largely unclear. Here, we examined an in-house tissue microarray-based cohort of 96 patient biopsies and TCGA dataset to evaluate the clinical significance of CD151 and α3β1 integrin. Functional and signaling analyses were also conducted to understand how these molecules promote the aggressiveness of glioblastoma at molecular and cellular levels. Results from our analyses showed that CD151 and α3 integrin were significantly elevated in glioblastomas at both protein and mRNA levels, and exhibited strong inverse correlation with patient survival (p < 0.006). These adhesion molecules also formed tight protein complexes and synergized with EGF/EGFR to accelerate tumor cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, disruption of such complexes enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenograft model, and impaired activation of FAK and small GTPases. Also, knockdown- or pharmacological agent-based attenuation of EGFR, FAK or Graf (ARHGAP26)/small GTPase-mediated pathways markedly mitigated the aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. Collectively, our findings provide clinical, molecular and cellular evidence of CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes as promising prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for glioblastoma. PMID:26377974

  20. Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Aneta; Nandhu, Mohan S.; Behera, Prajna; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Viapiano, Mariano S.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer, with a dismal prognosis and extremely low percentage of survivors. Novel therapies are in dire need to improve the clinical management of these tumors and extend patient survival. Genetic therapies for GBM have been postulated and attempted for the past twenty years, with variable degrees of success in pre-clinical models and clinical trials. Here we review the most common approaches to treat GBM by gene therapy, including strategies to deliver tumor-suppressor genes, suicide genes, immunomodulatory cytokines to improve immune response, and conditionally-replicating oncolytic viruses. The review focuses on the strategies used for gene delivery, including the most common and widely used vehicles (i.e., replicating and non-replicating viruses) as well as novel therapeutic approaches such as stem cell-mediated therapy and nanotechnologies used for gene delivery. We present an overview of these strategies, their targets, different advantages, and challenges for success. Finally, we discuss the potential of gene therapy-based strategies to effectively attack such a complex genetic target as GBM, alone or in combination with conventional therapy. PMID:24202446

  1. Integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis of breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Salhia, Bodour; Kiefer, Jeff; Ross, Julianna T D; Metapally, Raghu; Martinez, Rae Anne; Johnson, Kyle N; DiPerna, Danielle M; Paquette, Kimberly M; Jung, Sungwon; Nasser, Sara; Wallstrom, Garrick; Tembe, Waibhav; Baker, Angela; Carpten, John; Resau, Jim; Ryken, Timothy; Sibenaller, Zita; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Berens, Michael E; Tran, Nhan L

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, CRYAB and HSPB2 genes were commonly deleted and underexpressed. Knowledge mining revealed enrichment in cell cycle and G2/M transition pathways, which contained AURKA, AURKB and FOXM1. Using the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic classifier, Luminal B, Her2+/ER negative, and basal-like tumors were identified as the most commonly represented breast cancer subtypes in our brain metastasis cohort. While overall methylation levels were increased in breast cancer brain metastasis, basal-like brain metastases were associated with significantly lower levels of methylation. Integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed defects in cell migration and adhesion due to hypermethylation and downregulation of PENK, EDN3, and ITGAM. Hypomethylation and upregulation of KRT8 likely affects adhesion and permeability. Genomic and epigenomic profiling of breast brain metastasis has provided insight into the somatic events underlying this disease, which have potential in forming the basis of future therapeutic strategies.

  2. Mortality from brain cancer and leukaemia among electrical workers.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D P; Savitz, D A

    1990-01-01

    The relation of brain cancer and mortality from leukaemia to electrical occupations was investigated in a case-control study based on all deaths in 1985 and 1986 in the 16 states in the United States that report occupational data from death certificates to the national vital statistics registry. The case series comprised all 2173 men who died of primary brain cancer (International Classification of Diseases-9 ((ICD-9) code 191) and all 3400 who died of leukaemia (ICD-9 codes 204-208). Each was matched with 10 controls who died of other causes in the same year. Men employed in any electrical occupation had age race adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.7) for brain cancer and 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.2) for leukaemia, compared with men in all other occupations. Brain cancer odds ratios were larger for electrical engineers and technicians (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.1-3.4), telephone workers (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4), electric power workers (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), and electrical workers in manufacturing industries (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4). There was some evidence of excess leukaemia among the same groups (ORs of 1.1-1.5) despite absence of an association for all electrical workers. The excess of deaths from brain cancer was concentrated among men aged 65 or older, whereas leukaemia was associated with electrical work only among younger decedents and those with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. These results from a large and geographically diverse population corroborate reports of increased mortality from brain cancer among electrical workers, but gives only limited support to suggestions of excess deaths from leukaemia. PMID:2207035

  3. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jie; Li, Zhiyong; Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth. PMID:26934465

  4. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jie; Li, Zhiyong; Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth.

  5. Breast cancer brain metastases: biology and new clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Isabell; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Pantel, Klaus; Müller, Volkmar; Wikman, Harriet

    2016-01-19

    Because of improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer, the development of brain metastases (BM) has become a major limitation of life expectancy and quality of life for many breast cancer patients. The improvement of management strategies for BM is thus an important clinical challenge, especially among high-risk patients such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative patients. However, the formation of BM as a multistep process is thus far poorly understood. To grow in the brain, single tumor cells must pass through the tight blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB represents an obstacle for circulating tumor cells entering the brain, but it also plays a protective role against immune cell and toxic agents once metastatic cells have colonized the cerebral compartment. Furthermore, animal studies have shown that, after passing the BBB, the tumor cells not only require close contact with endothelial cells but also interact closely with many different brain residential cells. Thus, in addition to a genetic predisposition of the tumor cells, cellular adaptation processes within the new microenvironment may also determine the ability of a tumor cell to metastasize. In this review, we summarize the biology of breast cancer that has spread into the brain and discuss the implications for current and potential future treatment strategies.

  6. Exosome Delivered Anticancer Drugs Across the Blood-Brain Barrier for Brain Cancer Therapy in Danio Rerio

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianzhi; Martin, Paige; Fogarty, Brittany; Brown, Alison; Schurman, Kayla; Phipps, Roger; Yin, Viravuth P.; Lockman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The blood–brain barrier (BBB) essentially restricts therapeutic drugs from entering into the brain. This study tests the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell derived exosomes can deliver anticancer drug across the BBB for the treatment of brain cancer in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Materials and Methods Four types of exosomes were isolated from brain cell culture media and characterized by particle size, morphology, total protein, and transmembrane protein markers. Transport mechanism, cell uptake, and cytotoxicity of optimized exosome delivery system were tested. Brain distribution of exosome delivered anticancer drugs was evaluated using transgenic zebrafish TG (fli1: GFP) embryos and efficacies of optimized formations were examined in a xenotransplanted zebrafish model of brain cancer model. Results Four exosomes in 30–100 diameters showed different morphologies and exosomes derived from brain endothelial cells expressed more CD63 tetraspanins transmembrane proteins. Optimized exosomes increased the uptake of fluorescent marker via receptor mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in cancer cells. Images of the zebrafish showed exosome delivered anticancer drugs crossed the BBB and entered into the brain. In the brain cancer model, exosome delivered anticancer drugs significantly decreased fluorescent intensity of xenotransplanted cancer cells and tumor growth marker. Conclusions Brain endothelial cell derived exosomes could be potentially used as a carrier for brain delivery of anticancer drug for the treatment of brain cancer. PMID:25609010

  7. Intravenous, non-viral RNAi gene therapy of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, William M

    2004-07-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential to knock down oncogenes in cancer, including brain cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of RNAi will not be realised until the rate-limiting step of delivery is solved. The development of RNA-based therapeutics is not practical, due to the instability of RNA in vivo. However, plasmid DNA can be engineered to express short hairpin RNA (shRNA), similar to endogenous microRNAs. Intravenous, non-viral RNAi-based gene therapy is enabled with a new gene-targeting technology, which encapsulates the plasmid DNA inside receptor-specific pegylated immunoliposomes (PILs). The feasibility of this RNAi approach was evaluated by showing it was possible to achieve a 90% knockdown of brain tumour-specific gene expression with a single intravenous injection in adult rats or mice with intracranial brain cancer. The survival of mice with intracranial human brain cancer was extended by nearly 90% with weekly intravenous injections of PILs carrying plasmid DNA expressing a shRNA directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor. RNAi-based gene therapy can be coupled with gene therapy that replaces mutated tumour suppressor genes to build a polygenic approach to the gene therapy of cancer.

  8. Brain metastasis: analysis of patients without known cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dhopesh, V.P.; Yagnik, P.M.

    1985-02-01

    A retrospective review of the charts of patients receiving radiation therapy for brain metastasis revealed that one third presented neurologic symptoms without prior diagnosis of cancer. Lung cancer was detected in two thirds of this group, and in one third, the primary site remained unknown. There was good clinical and CT correlation. CT scans with and without contrast injection were evaluated in the study. 6 references, 4 tables.

  9. An analysis of occupational risks for brain cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Reif, J S; Chang, J C; Davis, J R

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the risks of brain cancer in relation to employment history in a case-control study of 312 cases and 1,248 cancer controls. Subjects were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1984 through 1988. Job classification was based on data routinely abstracted from hospital records. Elevated risks were identified for certain white collar occupations: for men employed in engineering, the odds ratio (OR) = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 10.3; for social science professionals, the OR = 6.1; 95% CI = 1.5, 26.1. Among occupations with potential exposure to occupational carcinogens, increased risks were observed for men employed in agricultural crop production (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.4), printing and publishing (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.0, 8.3), and brickmasons and tilesetters (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.5, 11.5). Most of elevated brain cancer risks were due to astrocytic cancers, but the excess among agricultural workers occurred in other cell types. No increase in risk was noted for current cigarette smokers (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.7, 1.5) or ex-smokers (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.7, 1.5). This exploratory study indicates a need for further studies of occupational risks of brain cancer. PMID:2297060

  10. EGFR and HER2 signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sirkisoon, Sherona R.; Carpenter, Richard L.; Rimkus, Tadas; Miller, Lance; Metheny-Barlow, Linda; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer occurs in approximately 1 in 8 women and 1 in 37 women with breast cancer succumbed to the disease. Over the past decades, new diagnostic tools and treatments have substantially improved the prognosis of women with local diseases. However, women with metastatic disease still have a dismal prognosis without effective treatments. Among different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes typically have higher rates of metastasis to the brain. Basal-like metastatic breast tumors frequently express EGFR. Consequently, HER2- and EGFR-targeted therapies are being used in the clinic and/or evaluated in clinical trials for treating breast cancer patients with brain metastases. In this review, we will first provide an overview of the HER2 and EGFR signaling pathways. The roles that EGFR and HER2 play in breast cancer metastasis to the brain will then be discussed. Finally, we will summarize the preclinical and clinical effects of EGFR- and HER2-targeted therapies on breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26709660

  11. What Are the Key Statistics about Brain and Spinal Cord Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Adults What Are the Key Statistics About Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors? The American Cancer Society’s ... Spinal Cord Tumor Research and Treatment? More In Brain And Spinal Cord Tumors In Adults About Brain ...

  12. Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent Towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mameri, Samir; Dong, Jihu; Salomé, Christophe; Chen, Wanyin; El-Habr, Elias A.; Bousson, Fanny; Sy, Mohamadou; Obszynski, Julie; Boh, Alexandre; Villa, Pascal; Assad Kahn, Suzana; Didier, Bruno; Bagnard, Dominique; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Haiech, Jacques; Hibert, Marcel; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells reside in hypoxic and slightly acidic tumor niches. Such microenvironments favor more aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes and a slow growing "quiescent state" which preserves them from chemotherapeutic agents that essentially target proliferating cells. Our objective was to identify compounds active on glioblastoma stem-like cells, including under conditions that mimick those found in vivo within this most severe and incurable form of brain malignancy. We screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing "quiescent" phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. Compound effects were assessed by ATP-level determination using a cell-based assay. Twenty active molecules belonging to different pharmacological classes have thus been identified. Among those, the stimulant laxative drug bisacodyl was the sole to inhibit in a potent and specific manner the survival of quiescent glioblastoma stem-like cells. Subsequent structure-function relationship studies led to identification of 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-2-pyridyl-methane (DDPM), the deacetylated form of bisacodyl, as the pharmacophore. To our knowledge, bisacodyl is currently the only known compound targeting glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells in their quiescent, more resistant state. Due to its known non-toxicity in humans, bisacodyl appears as a new potential anti-tumor agent that may, in association with classical chemotherapeutic compounds, participate in tumor eradication. PMID:26270679

  13. Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent Towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeniou, Maria; Fève, Marie; Mameri, Samir; Dong, Jihu; Salomé, Christophe; Chen, Wanyin; El-Habr, Elias A; Bousson, Fanny; Sy, Mohamadou; Obszynski, Julie; Boh, Alexandre; Villa, Pascal; Assad Kahn, Suzana; Didier, Bruno; Bagnard, Dominique; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Haiech, Jacques; Hibert, Marcel; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells reside in hypoxic and slightly acidic tumor niches. Such microenvironments favor more aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes and a slow growing "quiescent state" which preserves them from chemotherapeutic agents that essentially target proliferating cells. Our objective was to identify compounds active on glioblastoma stem-like cells, including under conditions that mimick those found in vivo within this most severe and incurable form of brain malignancy. We screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing "quiescent" phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. Compound effects were assessed by ATP-level determination using a cell-based assay. Twenty active molecules belonging to different pharmacological classes have thus been identified. Among those, the stimulant laxative drug bisacodyl was the sole to inhibit in a potent and specific manner the survival of quiescent glioblastoma stem-like cells. Subsequent structure-function relationship studies led to identification of 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-2-pyridyl-methane (DDPM), the deacetylated form of bisacodyl, as the pharmacophore. To our knowledge, bisacodyl is currently the only known compound targeting glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells in their quiescent, more resistant state. Due to its known non-toxicity in humans, bisacodyl appears as a new potential anti-tumor agent that may, in association with classical chemotherapeutic compounds, participate in tumor eradication.

  14. Analysis of the Cytotoxicity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles, Diamond and Graphite, in Human Glioblastoma and Hepatoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests. PMID:25816103

  15. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests.

  16. Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Duane A; Batich, Kristen A; Gunn, Michael D; Huang, Min-Nung; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Nair, Smita K; Congdon, Kendra L; Reap, Elizabeth A; Archer, Gary E; Desjardins, Annick; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Herndon, James E; Coan, April; McLendon, Roger E; Reardon, David A; Vredenburgh, James J; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2015-03-19

    After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we show that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumour-antigen-specific DCs. To assess the effect of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with glioblastoma to pre-conditioning with either mature DCs or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with DCs pulsed with Cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) RNA. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in more than 90% of glioblastoma specimens but not in surrounding normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumour-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumour growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve anti-tumour immunotherapy.

  17. Incidence of brain metastasis at initial presentation of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villano, J. Lee; Durbin, Eric B.; Normandeau, Chris; Thakkar, Jigisha P.; Moirangthem, Valentina; Davis, Faith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background No reliable estimates are available on the incidence of brain metastasis (BM) in cancer patients. This information is valuable for planning patient care and developing measures that may prevent or decrease the likelihood of metastatic brain disease. Methods We report the first population-based analysis on BM incidence at cancer diagnosis using the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). All cancer cases with BM were identified from KCR and ACR, with subsequent focus on metastases from lung primaries; the annual number of BMs at initial presentation was derived. Comparisons were made between Kentucky and Alberta for the stage and site of organ involvement of lung cancer. Results Low incidence of BM was observed in the United States until mandatory reporting began in 2010. Both the KCR and ACR recorded the highest incidence of BM from lung cancer, with total BM cases at initial presentation occurring at 88% and 77%, respectively. For lung cancer, stage IV was the most common stage at presentation for both registries and ranged from 45.9% to 57.2%. When BM from lung was identified, the most common synchronous organ site of metastasis was osseous, occurring at 28.4%. Conclusion Our analysis from the Kentucky and Alberta cancer registries similarly demonstrated the aggressive nature of lung cancer and its propensity for BM at initial presentation. Besides widespread organ involvement, no synchronous organ site predicted BM in lung cancer. BM is a common and important clinical outcome, and use of registry data is becoming more available. PMID:24891450

  18. [Systemic treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Conforti, R; Bonneterre, J; Bachelot, T; Le Rhun, E; Bernard-Marty, C

    2015-02-01

    An increase in the incidence of breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been observed over the last years, mainly because the recent development of new drugs including therapies targeting HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) resulted in an increased survival of these patients. With HER2+ patients living longer and the well-known neurotropism of HER2+ tumour cells, the resulting high incidence of brain metastases is not really surprising. Moreover, brain metastases more often occur within a context of existing extracranial metastases. These need to be treated at the same time in order to favourably impact patients' survival. Consequently, the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases clearly relies on a multidisciplinary approach, including systemic treatment. A working group including neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and oncologists was created in order to provide French national guidelines for the management of brain metastases within the "Association des neuro-oncologues d'expression française" (ANOCEF). The recommendations regarding the systemic treatment in breast cancer patients are reported here including key features of their management.

  19. Brain cancer probed by native fluorescence and stokes shift spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Pu, Yang; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.

    2012-12-01

    Optical biopsy spectroscopy was applied to diagnosis human brain cancer in vitro. The spectra of native fluorescence, Stokes shift and excitation spectra were obtained from malignant meningioma, benign, normal meningeal tissues and acoustic neuroma benign tissues. The wide excitation wavelength ranges were used to establish the criterion for distinguishing brain diseases. The alteration of fluorescence spectra between normal and abnormal brain tissues were identified by the characteristic fluorophores under the excitation with UV to visible wavelength range. It was found that the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both spectra of fluorescence and Stokes shift may be used to diagnose human brain meninges diseases. The preliminary analysis of fluorescence spectral data from cancer and normal meningeal tissues by basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and Bayes classification model based on statistical methods revealed the changes of components, and classified the difference between cancer and normal human brain meningeal tissues in a predictions accuracy rate is 0.93 in comparison with histopathology and immunohistochemistry reports (gold standard).

  20. Glioblastoma: A Pathogenic Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Garcia, Carolina; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Cancers likely originate in progenitor zones containing stem cells and perivascular stromal cells. Much evidence suggests stromal cells play a central role in tumor initiation and progression. Brain perivascular cells (pericytes) are contractile and function normally to regulate vessel tone and morphology, have stem cell properties, are interconvertible with macrophages and are involved in new vessel formation during angiogenesis. Nevertheless, how pericytes contribute to brain tumor infiltration is not known. In this study we have investigated the underlying mechanism by which the most lethal brain cancer, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) interacts with pre-existing blood vessels (co-option) to promote tumor initiation and progression. Here, using mouse xenografts and laminin-coated silicone substrates, we show that GBM malignancy proceeds via specific and previously unknown interactions of tumor cells with brain pericytes. Two-photon and confocal live imaging revealed that GBM cells employ novel, Cdc42-dependent and actin-based cytoplasmic extensions, that we call flectopodia, to modify the normal contractile activity of pericytes. This results in the co-option of modified pre-existing blood vessels that support the expansion of the tumor margin. Furthermore, our data provide evidence for GBM cell/pericyte fusion-hybrids, some of which are located on abnormally constricted vessels ahead of the tumor and linked to tumor-promoting hypoxia. Remarkably, inhibiting Cdc42 function impairs vessel co-option and converts pericytes to a phagocytic/macrophage-like phenotype, thus favoring an innate immune response against the tumor. Our work, therefore, identifies for the first time a key GBM contact-dependent interaction that switches pericyte function from tumor-suppressor to tumor-promoter, indicating that GBM may harbor the seeds of its own destruction. These data support the development of therapeutic strategies directed against co-option (preventing incorporation and

  1. Serpins promote cancer cell survival and vascular co-option in brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Valiente, Manuel; Obenauf, Anna C; Jin, Xin; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Lee, Derek J; Chaft, Jamie E; Kris, Mark G; Huse, Jason T; Brogi, Edi; Massagué, Joan

    2014-02-27

    Brain metastasis is an ominous complication of cancer, yet most cancer cells that infiltrate the brain die of unknown causes. Here, we identify plasmin from the reactive brain stroma as a defense against metastatic invasion, and plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitory serpins in cancer cells as a shield against this defense. Plasmin suppresses brain metastasis in two ways: by converting membrane-bound astrocytic FasL into a paracrine death signal for cancer cells, and by inactivating the axon pathfinding molecule L1CAM, which metastatic cells express for spreading along brain capillaries and for metastatic outgrowth. Brain metastatic cells from lung cancer and breast cancer express high levels of anti-PA serpins, including neuroserpin and serpin B2, to prevent plasmin generation and its metastasis-suppressive effects. By protecting cancer cells from death signals and fostering vascular co-option, anti-PA serpins provide a unifying mechanism for the initiation of brain metastasis in lung and breast cancers.

  2. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  3. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis. PMID:26818603

  4. Prospective of curcumin, a pleiotropic signalling molecule from Curcuma longa in the treatment of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Lal, Neetika

    2016-02-15

    GBM (Glioblastoma) is the most malignant human brain tumor with median survival of one year. The treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy mostly with the alkylation agents such as temozolomide (TMZ). Dietary polyphenol curcumin, isolated from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa (turmeric), has emerged as remarkable anti-cancer agent in the treatment of various peripheral cancers such as blood, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, melanoma as well as skin, lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic and colorectal epithelial cancers with a pleiotropic mode of action and also showed promise in alleviation of GBM. In this review, the mechanism of anticancer effect of curcumin in GBM has been discussed extensively. The clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of curcumin has been scrutinized to combat the challenges for the treatment of GBM.

  5. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Cancer.gov

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  6. A Study Evaluating INIPARIB in Combination With Chemotherapy to Treat Triple Negative Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative (ER-Negative) Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Negative (PR-Negative) Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Negative (HER2-Negative) Breast Cancer; Brain Metastases

  7. Phosphatidylserine-selective targeting and anticancer effects of SapC-DOPS nanovesicles on brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Víctor M; Chu, Zhengtao; Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya D; Sulaiman, Mahaboob K; Kendler, Ady; Rixe, Olivier; Warnick, Ronald E; Franco, Robert S; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2014-08-30

    Brain tumors, either primary (e.g., glioblastoma multiforme) or secondary (metastatic), remain among the most intractable and fatal of all cancers. We have shown that nanovesicles consisting of Saposin C (SapC) and dioleylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) are able to effectively target and kill cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. These actions are a consequence of the affinity of SapC-DOPS for phosphatidylserine, an acidic phospholipid abundantly present in the outer membrane of a variety of tumor cells and tumor-associated vasculature. In this study, we first characterize SapC-DOPS bioavailability and antitumor effects on human glioblastoma xenografts, and confirm SapC-DOPS specificity towards phosphatidylserine by showing that glioblastoma targeting is abrogated after in vivo exposure to lactadherin, which binds phosphatidylserine with high affinity. Second, we demonstrate that SapC-DOPS selectively targets brain metastases-forming cancer cells both in vitro, in co-cultures with human astrocytes, and in vivo, in mouse models of brain metastases derived from human breast or lung cancer cells. Third, we demonstrate that SapC-DOPS have cytotoxic activity against metastatic breast cancer cells in vitro, and prolong the survival of mice harboring brain metastases. Taken together, these results support the potential of SapC-DOPS for the diagnosis and therapy of primary and metastatic brain tumors.

  8. Bafetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent High-Grade Glioma or Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma

  9. Integrated genomic analyses identify ERRFI1 and TACC3 as glioblastoma-targeted genes

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Cathy A.; Lampson, Benjamin; Chen, William C.; Liu, Jeff; Solomon, David; Waldman, Todd; Towers, Aaron J.; Gregory, Simon G.; McDonald, Kerrie L.; McLendon, Roger E.; Bigner, Darell D.; Yan, Hai

    2010-01-01

    The glioblastoma genome displays remarkable chromosomal aberrations, which harbor critical glioblastoma-specific genes contributing to several oncogenetic pathways. To identify glioblastoma-targeted genes, we completed a multifaceted genome-wide analysis to characterize the most significant aberrations of DNA content occurring in glioblastomas. We performed copy number analysis of 111 glioblastomas by Digital Karyotyping and Illumina BeadChip assays and validated our findings using data from the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) glioblastoma project. From this study, we identified recurrent focal copy number alterations in 1p36.23 and 4p16.3. Expression analyses of genes located in the two regions revealed genes which are dysregulated in glioblastomas. Specifically, we identify EGFR negative regulator, ERRFI1, within the minimal region of deletion in 1p36.23. In glioblastoma cells with a focal deletion of the ERRFI1 locus, restoration of ERRFI1 expression slowed cell migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TACC3, an Aurora-A kinase substrate, on 4p16.3, displays gain of copy number, is overexpressed in a glioma-grade-specific pattern, and correlates with Aurora kinase overexpression in glioblastomas. Our multifaceted genomic evaluation of glioblastoma establishes ERRFI1 as a potential candidate tumor suppressor gene and TACC3 as a potential oncogene, and provides insight on targets for oncogenic pathway-based therapy. PMID:21113414

  10. Immunotherapeutic Advancements for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ampie, Leonel; Woolf, Eric C.; Dardis, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy seeks to improve the body’s immune response to a tumor. Currently, the principal mechanisms employed are: (1) to improve an aspect of the immune response (e.g., T cell activation) and (2) to encourage the targeting of particular antigens. The latter is typically achieved by exposing the immune system to the antigen in question, in vivo, or in vitro followed by re-introduction of the primed cells to the body. The clinical relevance of these approaches has already been demonstrated for solid tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. The central nervous system was previously thought to be immune privileged. However, we know now that the immune system is highly active in the brain and interacts with brain tumors. Thus, harnessing and exploiting this interaction represents an important approach for treating malignant brain tumors. We present a summary of progress in this area, focusing particularly on immune-checkpoint inhibition, vaccines, and T cell engineering. PMID:25688335

  11. Engagement of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-15

    End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin

  12. Messenger RNA Methylation Regulates Glioblastoma Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Deobrat; Xie, Qi; Rich, Jeremy N; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2017-04-10

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) modification provides an additional layer of gene regulation in cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhang et al. report that ALKBH5, a demethylase of the mRNA modification N(6)-methyladenosine, regulates proliferation and self-renewal of glioblastoma stem-like cells by modulating pre-mRNA stability and expression of the FOXM1 gene.

  13. Brain metastasis reirradiation in patients with advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhou; Sun, Bing; Shen, Ge; Cha, Lei; Meng, Xiangying; Wang, Junliang; Zhou, Zhenshan; Wu, Shikai

    2017-01-01

    The outcome of recurrent brain metastasis is dismal. This study aims to assess the clinical outcomes and toxicity of reirradiation as a salvage treatment for progressive brain metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer. Between July 2005 and September 2014, the medical records of 56 patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 39 received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) reirradiation (Group 1), and 17 received SRS followed by WBRT reirradiation (Group 2). Overall survival (OS) and brain progression-free survival rates/times were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Change in neurologic function was also assessed. The median OS was 10.8 months (range, 1.3–56.8 months). In Group 1, the median PFS time (PFS-1) was 6.5 months and the OS time was 11.4 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer OS was significantly associated with a high Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (P = 0.004), controlled extracranial metastasis (P = 0.001) and a good response to reirradiation (P = 0.034). In Group 2, the median PFS time (PFS-2) after reirradiation was 8.5 months and the OS time was 10.8 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer OS was significantly associated with a high KPS (P = 0.018). The majority of the patients had improved or stable neurological function. Reirradiation is an effective and a safe treatment for patients with brain metastases from breast cancer. It might delay the progression of intracranial disease and improve neurological function. A suitable patient selection for reirradiation was suggested. PMID:27707842

  14. Direct transfection of miR-137 mimics is more effective than DNA demethylation of miR-137 promoter to augment anti-tumor mechanisms of delphinidin in human glioblastoma U87MG and LN18 cells.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2015-11-15

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. Recent studies suggested that 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (AzaC) could inhibit cell cycle progression in human glioblastoma stem cells by an indirect increase in expression of the tumor suppressor microRNA-137 (miR-137). Delphinidin (DPN), a new anthocyanidin, inhibits cell growth in different cancers. We investigated inhibition of glioblastoma growth after indirect or direct overexpression of miR-137 and then DPN treatment. The highest inhibition of cell growth occurred due to treatment with combination of 10 μM AzaC and 50 μM DPN in human glioblastoma U87MG and LN18 cells. The methylation sensitive-polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) results showed that AzaC inhibited methylation of miR-137 promoter region, which was hypermethylated in both glioblastoma cell lines, to cause indirect increase in miR-137 expression. Our results also indicated the highest miR-137 expression after direct transfection of miR-137 mimics and DPN treatment. Combination of miR-137 mimics transfection and DPN treatment caused the highest inhibition of cell invasion and prevented angiogenic network formation due to the least expression of angiogenic factor (VEGF) in human glioblastoma cells in co-culture with human microvascular endothelial cells. This combination strategy most effectively inhibited survival factors (p-Akt and NF-κB), angiogenic factors (VEGF and b-FGF), growth factor receptor (EGFR), and invasive factors (MMP-9 and MMP-2). Direct overexpression of miR-137 most effectively augmented efficacy of DPN to induce apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. So, sequential miR-137 overexpression and DPN treatment could be a promising combination treatment to inhibit growth of human glioblastoma cells.

  15. Current therapeutic paradigms in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Quick, Allison; Patel, Disha; Hadziahmetovic, Mersiha; Chakravarti, Arnab; Mehta, Minesh

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal adult primary brain tumor. Median survival rates range from 12-15 months. The current standard of care for GBM has evolved from resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to resection, concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiation, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy. The expression of specific molecular biomarkers, especially O-6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) status, may determine the response of the tumor to treatment, and helps in identifying the magnitude of benefit from this regimen. By identifying further biological subtypes of GBM at the molecular level, specific targeted therapies could be developed and used in the future for more individualized therapeutic regimens. This article will review the current therapies for GBM and the investigation of new molecular and targeted therapies, such as EGFR inhibitors, mTOR/PI3Kinase inhibitors, and anti-angiogenesis agents.

  16. Protein Kinase CK2 Content in GL261 Mouse Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Alcaraz, Estefania; Plana, Maria; Candiota, Ana Paula; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive human glial tumour with a median survival of 14-15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment. Unfortunately, chemoresistence always ensues with concomitant tumour regrowth. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in cancer and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Targeting CK2 in GBM treatment may benefit patients. With this translational perspective in mind, we have studied the CK2 expression level by Western blot analysis in a preclinical model of GBM: GL261 cells growing orthotopically in C57BL/6 mice. The expression level of the CK2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) was higher in tumour (about 4-fold) and in contralateral brain parenchyma (more than 2-fold) than in normal brain parenchyma (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were found in CK2 regulatory subunit (CK2β) expression, suggesting an increased unbalance of CK2α/CK2β in GL261 tumours with respect to normal brain parenchyma, in agreement with a differential role of these two subunits in tumours.

  17. Rationale for the use of upfront whole brain irradiation in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tallet, Agnes V; Azria, David; Le Rhun, Emilie; Barlesi, Fabrice; Carpentier, Antoine F; Gonçalves, Antony; Taillibert, Sophie; Dhermain, Frédéric; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Metellus, Philippe

    2014-05-08

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases and deserves particular attention in relation to current prolonged survival of patients with metastatic disease. Advances in both systemic therapies and brain local treatments (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery) have led to a reappraisal of brain metastases management. With respect to this, the literature review presented here was conducted in an attempt to collect medical evidence-based data on the use of whole-brain radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer. In addition, this study discusses here the potential differences in outcomes between patients with brain metastases from breast cancer and those with brain metastases from other primary malignancies and the potential implications within a treatment strategy.

  18. 18F FPPRGD2 PET/CT or PET/MRI in Predicting Early Response in Patients With Cancer Receiving Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-12

    Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Male Breast Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Tongue Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Association between SET expression and glioblastoma cell apoptosis and proliferation.

    PubMed

    He, Kunyan; Shi, Lihong; Jiang, Tingting; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yao; Meng, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was one of the first cancer types systematically studied at a genomic and transcriptomic level due to its high incidence and aggressivity; however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear, even though it is known that numerous cytokines are involved in the occurrence and development of GBM. The present study aimed to determine whether the SET gene has a role in human glioblastoma carcinogenesis. A total of 32 samples, including 18 cases of glioma, 2 cases of meningioma and 12 normal brain tissue samples, were detected using the streptavidin-peroxidase method through immunohistochemistry. To reduce SET gene expression in U251 and U87MG cell lines, the RNA interference technique was used and transfection with small interfering (si)RNA of the SET gene was performed. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, cell migration was examined by Transwell migration assay and cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8. SET, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression levels were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Positive protein expression of SET was observed in the cell nucleus, with the expression level of SET significantly higher in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissue (P=0.001). Elevated expression of SET was significantly associated with gender (P=0.002), tumors classified as World Health Organization grade II (P=0.031), III (P=0.003) or IV (P=0.001), and moderately (P=0.031) or poorly differentiated (P=0.001) tumors. Compared with the negative and non-treatment (blank) control cells, SET gene expression was significantly inhibited (P=0.006 and P<0.001), cell apoptosis was significantly increased (P=0.001 and P<0.001), cell proliferation was significantly inhibited (P=0.002 and P=0.015), and cell migration was significantly decreased (P=0.001 and P=0.001) in siRNA-transfected U87MG(-SET) and U251(-SET) cells, respectively. In

  20. Brain-targeted delivery of docetaxel by glutathione-coated nanoparticles for brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Grover, Aditya; Hirani, Anjali; Pathak, Yashwant; Sutariya, Vijaykumar

    2014-12-01

    Gliomas are some of the most aggressive types of cancers but the blood-brain barrier acts as an obstacle to therapeutic intervention in brain-related diseases. The blood-brain barrier blocks the permeation of potentially toxic compounds into neural tissue through the interactions of brain endothelial cells with glial cells (astrocytes and pericytes) which induce the formation of tight junctions in endothelial cells lining the blood capillaries. In the present study, we characterize a glutathione-coated docetaxel-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticle, show its in vitro drug release data along with cytotoxicity data in C6 and RG2 cells, and investigate its trans-blood-brain barrier permeation through the establishment of a Transwell cellular co-culture. We show that the docetaxel-loaded nanoparticle's size enables its trans-blood-brain barrier permeation; the nanoparticle exhibits a steady, sustained release of docetaxel; the drug is able to induce cell death in glioma models; and the glutathione-coated nanoparticle is able to permeate through the Transwell in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

  1. Glioblastoma following treatment with fingolimod for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sharim, Justin; Tashjian, Randy; Golzy, Nima; Pouratian, Nader

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma is an uncommon and aggressive primary brain tumor with incidence of 3 per 100,000 annually. We report a 50-year-old woman diagnosed with glioblastoma within threeyears of induction of fingolimod therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod, an immunomodulating agent used in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, has also been suggested to impart a cardioprotective role in heart failure and arrhythmia via activation of P21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1). In the brain, Pak1 activation has been shown to correlate with decreased survival time amongst patients with glioblastoma. A molecular mechanism underlying a link between fingolimod use and glioblastoma development may involve activation of Pak1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a potential association between fingolimod use and glioblastoma development.

  2. Glioblastoma of the cerebellum and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Stark, Andreas Martin; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Hugo, Heinz Hermann; Mahvash, Mehran; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian

    2010-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GB) is the most common and most malignant primary intracranial tumor. Of the 577 patients who underwent surgery for newly diagnosed GB (World Health Organization grade IV) between January 1991 and March 2008 at our department, seven had infratentorial GB (iGB) (incidence 1.2%). Patients younger than 21years of age, as well as patients with gliomatosis cerebri, were excluded from the analysis. We concluded that iGB is rare in adults. Because of its rarity and the non-specific radiological features of iGB, it can easily be misdiagnosed as a brain metastasis, ependymoma or even as a benign lesion such as vestibular schwannoma or meningioma. Surgical removal, or at least stereotactic biopsy, is essential to establish the diagnosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy similar to that for supratentorial glioblastoma is indicated. We analysed the clinical characteristics and therapy of our patients with iGB and reviewed the literature.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yun; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Eunjin; Ahn, TaeJin; Jung, Hae Hyun; Lim, Sung Hee; Hong, Mineui; Do, In-Gu; Cho, Eun Yoon; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    The biology of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is poorly understood. We aimed to explore genes that are implicated in the process of brain metastasis of primary breast cancer (BC). NanoString nCounter Analysis covering 252 target genes was used for comparison of gene expression levels between 20 primary BCs that relapsed to brain and 41 BCBM samples. PAM50-based intrinsic subtypes such as HER2-enriched and basal-like were clearly over-represented in BCBM. A panel of 22 genes was found to be significantly differentially expressed between primary BC and BCBM. Five of these genes, CXCL12, MMP2, MMP11, VCAM1, and MME, which have previously been associated with tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, clearly discriminated between primary BC and BCBM. Notably, the five genes were significantly upregulated in primary BC compared to BCBM. Conversely, SOX2 and OLIG2 genes were upregulated in BCBM. These genes may participate in metastatic colonization but not in primary tumor development. Among patient-matched paired samples (n = 17), a PAM50 molecular subtype conversion was observed in eight cases (47.1%), with a trend toward unfavorable subtypes in patients with the distinct gene expression. Our findings, although not conclusive, reveal differentially expressed genes that might mediate the brain metastasis process. PMID:27340107

  4. Aberrant expression of Notch1, HES1, and DTX1 genes in glioblastoma formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Narayanappa, Rajeswari; Rout, Pritilata; Aithal, Madhuri G S; Chand, Ashis Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor accounting for more than 54 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive treatments, median survival remains less than 1 year. This might be due to the unavailability of effective molecular diagnostic markers and targeted therapy. Thus, it is essential to discover molecular mechanisms underlying disease by identifying dysregulated pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Notch signaling is one such pathway which plays an important role in determining cell fates. Since it is found to play a critical role in many cancers, we investigated the role of Notch genes in glioblastoma with an aim to identify biomarkers that can improve diagnosis. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of Notch genes including receptors (Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, and Notch4), ligands (JAG1, JAG2, and DLL3), downstream targets (HES1 and HEY2), regulator Deltex1 (DTX1), inhibitor NUMB along with transcriptional co-activator MAML1, and a component of gamma-secretase complex APH1A in 15 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) patient samples. Relative quantification was done by the 2(-ΔΔCt) method; the data are presented as fold change in gene expression normalized to an internal control gene and relative to the calibrator. The data revealed aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma compared to normal brain. More than 85 % of samples showed high Notch1 (P = 0.0397) gene expression and low HES1 (P = 0.011) and DTX1 (P = 0.0001) gene expression. Our results clearly show aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma which can be used as putative biomarkers together with histopathological observation to improve diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and patient prognosis.

  5. Columbia University: Computational Human High-grade Glioblastoma Multiforme Interactome - miRNA (Post-transcriptional) Layer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Human High-Grade Glioma Interactome (HGi) contains a genome-wide complement of molecular interactions that are Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)-specific. HGi v3 contains the post-transcriptional layer of the HGi, which includes the miRNA-target (RNA-RNA) layer of the interactome. Read the Abstract

  6. Banking Brain Tumor Specimens Using a University Core Facility.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Amade; Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Faber, David A; Shah, Ashish H; Gomez, Carmen R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Egea, Sophie C

    2015-08-01

    Within the past three decades, the significance of banking human cancer tissue for the advancement of cancer research has grown exponentially. The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in collecting brain tumor specimens in collaboration with the University of Miami/Sylvester Tissue Bank Core Facility (UM-TBCF), to ensure the availability of high-quality samples of central nervous system tumor tissue for research. Successful tissue collection begins with obtaining informed consent from patients following institutional IRB and federal HIPAA guidelines, and it needs a well-trained professional staff and continued maintenance of high ethical standards and record keeping. Since starting in 2011, we have successfully banked 225 brain tumor specimens for research. Thus far, the most common tumor histology identified among those specimens has been glioblastoma (22.1%), followed by meningioma (18.1%). The majority of patients were White, non-Hispanics accounting for 45.1% of the patient population; Hispanic/Latinos accounted for 23%, and Black/African Americans accounted for 14%, which represent the particular population of the State of Florida according to the 2010 census data. The most common tumors found in each subgroup were as follows: Black/African American, glioblastoma and meningioma; Hispanic, metastasis and glioblastoma; White, glioblastoma and meningioma. The UM-TBCF is a valuable repository, offering high-quality tumor samples from a unique patient population.

  7. Alkylphospholipids deregulate cholesterol metabolism and induce cell-cycle arrest and autophagy in U-87 MG glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Marco, Pablo; Martín-Fernández, Mario; Soria-Bretones, Isabel; Ríos, Antonio; Carrasco, María P; Marco, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour in adults and one of the most lethal of all cancers. Growing evidence suggests that human tumours undergo abnormal lipid metabolism, characterised by an alteration in the mechanisms that regulate cholesterol homeostasis. We have investigated the effect that different antitumoural alkylphospholipids (APLs) exert upon cholesterol metabolism in the U-87 MG glioblastoma cell line. APLs altered cholesterol homeostasis by interfering with its transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus hindering its esterification. At the same time they stimulated the synthesis of cholesterol from radiolabelled acetate and its internalisation from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), inducing both 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and LDL receptor (LDLR) genes. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that these effects promoted the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol. Filipin staining demonstrated that this accumulation was not confined to the late endosome/lysosome (LE/LY) compartment since it did not colocalise with LAMP2 lysosomal marker. Furthermore, APLs inhibited cell growth, producing arrest at the G2/M phase. We also used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate ultrastructural alterations induced by APLs and found an abundant presence of autophagic vesicles and autolysosomes in treated cells, indicating the induction of autophagy. Thus our findings clearly demonstrate that antitumoural APLs interfere with the proliferation of the glioblastoma cell line via a complex mechanism involving cholesterol metabolism, cell-cycle arrest or autophagy. Knowledge of the interrelationship between these processes is fundamental to our understanding of tumoural response and may facilitate the development of novel therapeutics to improve treatment of glioblastoma and other types of cancer.

  8. SIMS ion microscopy imaging of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine in human glioblastoma cells: Relevance of subcellular scale observations to BPA-mediated boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey, Daniel R., II

    2007-02-01

    p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a clinically approved boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent currently being used in clinical trials of glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma and liver metastases. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations from the Cornell SIMS Laboratory provided support for using a 6 h infusion of BPA, instead of a 2 h infusion, for achieving higher levels of boron in brain tumor cells. These observations were clinically implemented in Phase II experimental trials of glioblastoma multiforme in Sweden. However, the mechanisms for higher BPA accumulation with longer infusions have remained unknown. In this work, by using 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine and T98G human glioblastoma cells, comparisons between the 10B-delivery of BPA and the accumulation of labeled phenylalanine after 2 and 6 h treatments were made with a Cameca IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution in fast frozen, freeze-fractured, freeze-dried cells. Due to the presence of the Na-K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, the cells maintain an approximately 10/1 ratio of K/Na in the intracellular milieu. Therefore, the quantitative imaging of these highly diffusible species in the identical cell in which the boron or labeled amino acid was imaged provides a rule-of-thumb criterion for validation of SIMS observations and the reliability of the cryogenic sampling. The labeled phenylalanine was detected at mass 28, as the 28(13C15N)- molecular ion. Correlative analysis with optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that fractured freeze-dried glioblastoma cells contained well-preserved ultrastructural details with three discernible subcellular regions: a nucleus or multiple nuclei, a mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region and the remaining cytoplasm. SIMS analysis revealed that the overall cellular signals of both 10B from BPA and 28CN- from labeled phenylalanine increased approximately 1.6-fold between the 2 and 6 h exposures

  9. The pleiotrophin-ALK axis is required for tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koyama-Nasu, R; Haruta, R; Nasu-Nishimura, Y; Taniue, K; Katou, Y; Shirahige, K; Todo, T; Ino, Y; Mukasa, A; Saito, N; Matsui, M; Takahashi, R; Hoshino-Okubo, A; Sugano, H; Manabe, E; Funato, K; Akiyama, T

    2014-04-24

    Increasing evidence suggests that brain tumors arise from the transformation of neural stem/precursor/progenitor cells. Much current research on human brain tumors is focused on the stem-like properties of glioblastoma. Here we show that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and its ligand pleiotrophin are required for the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Furthermore, we demonstrate that pleiotrophin is transactivated directly by SOX2, a transcription factor essential for the maintenance of both neural stem cells and GSCs. We speculate that the pleiotrophin-ALK axis may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma.

  10. A Phase 1 trial of intravenous boronophenylalanine-fructose complex in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E.; Chadha, M.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.

    1996-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of glioblastoma multiforme was initially performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the early 1950`s While this treatment for malignant brain tumors has continued in Japan, new worldwide interest has been stimulated by the development of new and more selective boron compounds. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a blood-brain barrier penetrating compound that has been used in BNCT of malignant melanomas. SPA has been employed experimentally in BNCT of rat gliosarcoma and has potential use in the treatment of human glioblastoma. As a preface to clinical BNCT trials, we studied the biodistribution of SPA in patients with glioblastoma.

  11. Glioblastoma multiforme associated with klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasayama, Takashi; Mizukawa, Katsu; Sakagami, Yoshio; Mizowaki, Takashi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kohmura, Eiji

    2009-11-01

    A 54-year-old man with Klinefelter syndrome presented with glioblastoma multiforme manifesting as a 2-week history of motor weakness of the bilateral extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple heterogeneously enhanced tumors in the bilateral frontal lobes. Angiography showed no tumor stain or arteriovenous shunt. The tumor was partially removed through a right craniotomy. The histological diagnosis was glioblastoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed no O(6)-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase protein expression. Postoperative local radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) combined with temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) x 42 days) and interferon-beta (3,000,000 U, 3 times/week) was performed. The patient's clinical status rapidly deteriorated during chemoradiotherapy, and he died of tumor progression 3.5 months after the surgery. Postmortem examination revealed widespread glioblastoma infiltrating the basal ganglia and thalamus. Klinefelter syndrome is associated with increased cancer predisposition, especially for male breast cancer and germ cell tumors, but glioma is extremely rare. The abnormal genetic constitution of this patient may have been directly responsible for the poor outcome.

  12. Detection of Human Brain Cancer Infiltration ex vivo and in vivo Using Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography*

    PubMed Central

    Kut, Carmen; Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Xi, Jiefeng; Raza, Shaan M.; Ye, Xiaobu; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde

    2015-01-01

    More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from non-cancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (e.g. speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from non-cancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grades II-IV brain cancer and 5 patients with non-cancer brain pathologies. Based on volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues (both high-grade and low-grade) had significantly lower optical attenuation values at both cancer core and infiltrated zones when compared with non-cancer white matter, and OCT achieved high sensitivity and specificity at an attenuation threshold of 5.5 mm-1 for brain cancer patients. We also used this attenuation threshold to confirm the intraoperative feasibility of performing in vivo OCT-guided surgery using a murine model harboring human brain cancer. Our OCT system was capable of processing and displaying a color-coded optical property map in real time at a rate of 110-215 frames per second, or 1.2-2.4 seconds for an 8-16 mm3 tissue volume, thus providing direct visual cues for cancer versus non-cancer areas. Our study demonstrates the translational and practical potential of OCT in differentiating cancer from non-cancer tissue. Its intraoperative use may facilitate safe and extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers and consequently lead to improved outcomes when compared with current clinical standards. PMID:26084803

  13. The potential of polymeric micelles in the context of glioblastoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Ramin A.; Cheng, Yu; Auffinger, Brenda; Wegscheid, Michelle L.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a type of malignant glioma, is the most common form of brain cancer found in adults. The current standard of care for GBM involves adjuvant temozolomide-based chemotherapy in conjunction with radiotherapy, yet patients still suffer from poor outcomes with a median survival of 14.6 months. Many novel therapeutic agents that are toxic to GBM cells in vitro cannot sufficiently accumulate at the site of an intracranial tumor after systemic administration. Thus, new delivery strategies must be developed to allow for adequate intratumoral accumulation of such therapeutic agents. Polymeric micelles offer the potential to improve delivery to brain tumors as they have demonstrated the capacity to be effective carriers of chemotherapy drugs, genes, and proteins in various preclinical GBM studies. In addition to this, targeting moieties and trigger-dependent release mechanisms incorporated into the design of these particles can promote more specific delivery of a therapeutic agent to a tumor site. However, despite these advantages, there are currently no micelle formulations targeting brain cancer in clinical trials. Here, we highlight key aspects of the design of polymeric micelles as therapeutic delivery systems with a review of their clinical applications in several non-brain tumor cancer types. We also discuss their potential to serve as nanocarriers targeting GBM, the major barriers preventing their clinical implementation in this disease context, as well as current approaches to overcome these limitations. PMID:24416018

  14. The Impact of Phenotypic Switching on Glioblastoma Growth and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Gerlee, Philip; Nelander, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The brain tumour glioblastoma is characterised by diffuse and infiltrative growth into surrounding brain tissue. At the macroscopic level, the progression speed of a glioblastoma tumour is determined by two key factors: the cell proliferation rate and the cell migration speed. At the microscopic level, however, proliferation and migration appear to be mutually exclusive phenotypes, as indicated by recent in vivo imaging data. Here, we develop a mathematical model to analyse how the phenotypic switching between proliferative and migratory states of individual cells affects the macroscopic growth of the tumour. For this, we propose an individual-based stochastic model in which glioblastoma cells are either in a proliferative state, where they are stationary and divide, or in motile state in which they are subject to random motion. From the model we derive a continuum approximation in the form of two coupled reaction-diffusion equations, which exhibit travelling wave solutions whose speed of invasion depends on the model parameters. We propose a simple analytical method to predict progression rate from the cell-specific parameters and demonstrate that optimal glioblastoma growth depends on a non-trivial trade-off between the phenotypic switching rates. By linking cellular properties to an in vivo outcome, the model should be applicable to designing relevant cell screens for glioblastoma and cytometry-based patient prognostics. PMID:22719241

  15. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi R; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M; Fidler, Isaiah J; Cantley, Lewis C; Locasale, Jason W; Weihua, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells, but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the nonoxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBP) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients.

  16. Segmentation of corpus callosum using diffusion tensor imaging: validation in patients with glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) method for segmenting corpus callosum in normal subjects and brain cancer patients with glioblastoma. Methods Nineteen patients with histologically confirmed treatment naïve glioblastoma and eleven normal control subjects underwent DTI on a 3T scanner. Based on the information inherent in diffusion tensors, a similarity measure was proposed and used in the proposed algorithm. In this algorithm, diffusion pattern of corpus callosum was used as prior information. Subsequently, corpus callosum was automatically divided into Witelson subdivisions. We simulated the potential rotation of corpus callosum under tumor pressure and studied the reproducibility of the proposed segmentation method in such cases. Results Dice coefficients, estimated to compare automatic and manual segmentation results for Witelson subdivisions, ranged from 94% to 98% for control subjects and from 81% to 95% for tumor patients, illustrating closeness of automatic and manual segmentations. Studying the effect of corpus callosum rotation by different Euler angles showed that although segmentation results were more sensitive to azimuth and elevation than skew, rotations caused by brain tumors do not have major effects on the segmentation results. Conclusions The proposed method and similarity measure segment corpus callosum by propagating a hyper-surface inside the structure (resulting in high sensitivity), without penetrating into neighboring fiber bundles (resulting in high specificity). PMID:22591335

  17. Brain microvascular endothelium induced-annexin A1 secretion contributes to small cell lung cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Shuo; Wu, Peng-Fei; Li, Qiang; Dai, Wu-Min; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Ting-Ting; Miao, Zi-Wei; Fang, Wen-Gang; Chen, Yu-Hua; Li, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Small cell lung cancer is the most aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer, with a strong predilection for metastasizing to brain early. However, the cellular and molecular basis is poorly known. Here, we provided evidence to reveal the role of annexin A1 in small cell lung cancer metastasis to brain. Firstly, the elevated annexin A1 serum levels in small cell lung cancer patients were associated with brain metastasis. The levels of annexin A1 were also upregulated in NCI-H446 cells, a small cell lung cancer cell line, upon migration into the mice brain. More interestingly, annexin A1 was secreted by NCI-H446 cells in a time-dependent manner when co-culturing with human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which was identified with the detections of annexin A1 in the co-cultured cellular supernatants by ELISA and western blot. Further results showed that blockage of annexin A1 in the co-cultured cellular supernatants using a neutralized antibody significantly inhibited NCI-H446 cells adhesion to brain endothelium and its transendothelial migration. Conversely, the addition of Ac2-26, an annexin A1 mimic peptide, enhanced these effects. Furthermore, knockdown of annexin A1 in NCI-H446 cells prevented its transendothelial migration in vitro and metastasis to mice brain in vivo. Our data showed that small cell lung cancer cell in brain microvasculature microenvironment could express much more annexin A1 and release it outside, which facilitated small cell lung cancer cell to gain malignant properties of entry into brain. These findings provided a potential target for the management of SCLC brain metastasis.

  18. Heterogeneous glioblastoma cell cross-talk promotes phenotype alterations and enhanced drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Motaln, Helena; Koren, Ana; Gruden, Kristina; Ramšak, Živa; Schichor, Christian; Lah, Tamara T.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal of brain cancer, and it comprises a heterogeneous mixture of functionally distinct cancer cells that affect tumor progression. We examined the U87, U251, and U373 malignant cell lines as in vitro models to determine the impact of cellular cross-talk on their phenotypic alterations in co-cultures. These cells were also studied at the transcriptome level, to define the mechanisms of their observed mutually affected genomic stability, proliferation, invasion and resistance to temozolomide. This is the first direct demonstration of the neural and mesenchymal molecular fingerprints of U87 and U373 cells, respectively. U87-cell conditioned medium lowered the genomic stability of U373 (U251) cells, without affecting cell proliferation. In contrast, upon exposure of U87 cells to U373 (U251) conditioned medium, U87 cells showed increased genomic stability, decreased proliferation rates and increased invasion, due to a plethora of produced cytokines identified in the co-culture media. This cross talk altered the expression 264 genes in U87 cells that are associated with proliferation, inflammation, migration, and adhesion, and 221 genes in U373 cells that are associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and migration. Indirect and direct co-culturing of U87 and U373 cells showed mutually opposite effects on temozolomide resistance. In conclusion, definition of transcriptional alterations of distinct glioblastoma cells upon co-culturing provides better understanding of the mechanisms of glioblastoma heterogeneity, which will provide the basis for more informed glioma treatment in the future. PMID:26517510

  19. Gene therapeutics: the future of brain tumor therapy?

    PubMed

    Cutter, Jennifer L; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Chiocca, E Antonio; Kaur, Balveen

    2006-07-01

    Primary glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive brain tumor that has no cure. Current treatments include gross resection of the tumor, radiation and chemotherapy. Despite valiant efforts, prognosis remains dismal. A promising new technique involves the use of oncolytic viruses that can specifically replicate and lyse in cancers, without spreading to normal tissues. Currently, these are being tested in relevant preclinical models and clinical trials as a therapeutic modality for many types of cancer. Results from recent clinical trials with oncolytic viruses have revealed the safety of this approach, although evidence for efficacy remains elusive. Oncolytic viral strategies are summarized in this review, with a focus on therapies used in brain tumors.

  20. Transforming fusions of FGFR and TACC genes in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devendra; Chan, Joseph Minhow; Zoppoli, Pietro; Niola, Francesco; Sullivan, Ryan; Castano, Angelica; Liu, Eric Minwei; Reichel, Jonathan; Porrati, Paola; Pellegatta, Serena; Qiu, Kunlong; Gao, Zhibo; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Riccardo; Brat, Daniel J; Guha, Abhijit; Aldape, Ken; Golfinos, John G; Zagzag, David; Mikkelsen, Tom; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Lasorella, Anna; Rabadan, Raul; Iavarone, Antonio

    2012-09-07

    The brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most lethal forms of human cancer. Here, we report that a small subset of GBMs (3.1%; 3 of 97 tumors examined) harbors oncogenic chromosomal translocations that fuse in-frame the tyrosine kinase coding domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes (FGFR1 or FGFR3) to the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) coding domains of TACC1 or TACC3, respectively. The FGFR-TACC fusion protein displays oncogenic activity when introduced into astrocytes or stereotactically transduced in the mouse brain. The fusion protein, which localizes to mitotic spindle poles, has constitutive kinase activity and induces mitotic and chromosomal segregation defects and triggers aneuploidy. Inhibition of FGFR kinase corrects the aneuploidy, and oral administration of an FGFR inhibitor prolongs survival of mice harboring intracranial FGFR3-TACC3-initiated glioma. FGFR-TACC fusions could potentially identify a subset of GBM patients who would benefit from targeted FGFR kinase inhibition.

  1. Therapeutic targets in malignant glioblastoma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Newcomb, Elizabeth W; Zagzag, David; Narayana, Ashwatha

    2009-07-01

    There is considerable evidence that the tissue microenvironment can suppress cancer and that microenvironment disruption is required for cancer growth and progression. Distortion of the microenvironment by tumor cells can promote growth, recruit nonmalignant cells that provide physiological resources, and facilitate invasion. Compared with the variable routes taken by cells to become cancers, the response of normal tissue to cancer is relatively consistent such that controlling cancer may be more readily achieved indirectly via the microenvironment. Here, we discuss 3 ideas about how the microenvironment, consisting of a vasculature, inflammatory cells, immune cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix, might provide therapeutic targets in glioblastoma (GBM) in the context of radiotherapy (RT): (1) viable therapeutic targets exist in the GBM microenvironment, (2) RT alters the microenvironment of tissues and tumors; and (3) a potential benefit may be achieved by targeting the microenvironments induced by RT.

  2. Parental Exposure to Pesticides and Childhood Brain Cancer: U.S. Atlantic Coast Childhood Brain Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Youn K.; Mlynarek, Steven P.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Background The etiology of childhood brain cancer remains largely unknown. However, previous studies have yielded suggestive associations with parental pesticide use. Objectives We aimed to evaluate parental exposure to pesticides at home and on the job in relation to the occurrence of brain cancer in children. Methods We included 526 one-to-one–matched case–control pairs. Brain cancer cases were diagnosed at < 10 years of age, and were identified from statewide cancer registries of four U.S. Atlantic Coast states. We selected controls by random digit dialing. We conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews with mothers. Using information on residential pesticide use and jobs held by fathers during the 2-year period before the child’s birth, we assessed potential exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. For each job, two raters independently classified the probability and intensity of exposure; 421 pairs were available for final analysis. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, after adjustment for maternal education. Results A significant risk of astrocytoma was associated with exposures to herbicides from residential use (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–3.0). Combining parental exposures to herbicides from both residential and occupational sources, the elevated risk remained significant (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1). We observed little association with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) for any of the pesticide classes or exposure sources considered. Conclusions Our observation is consistent with a previous literature reporting suggestive associations between parental exposure to pesticides and risk of astrocytoma in offspring but not PNET. However, these findings should be viewed in light of limitations in exposure assessment and effective sample size. PMID:19590697

  3. Congenital glioblastoma coexisting with vascular developmental anomaly.

    PubMed

    Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Szymanska, Krystyna; Biekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Gierowska-Bogusz, Barbara; Michalak, Elżbieta; Klepacka, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Congenital central nervous tumours form a unique group of neoplasms. They are different from other tumour groups not only due to the onset time but also to their histopathology, anatomic location, and biologic behaviour. Congenital glioblastoma is one of the rarest types of congenital brain tumours and is uncommon in the prenatal period. We report a rare case of congenital glioblastoma detected prenatally by ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging at 26 gestational weeks. Based on MRI findings and consultation of a team of specialists, pregnancy was terminated at 28 weeks. The newborn presented hydrops foetal. The child died shortly after birth due to cardiorespiratory insufficiency. At autopsy a large tumour with a spongy-like appearance was found. The tumour involved nearly the whole right cerebral hemisphere and led to marked hydrocephalus. In the histological and immunohistochemical examination, the tumour presented features of glioblastoma. Neoplastic cells were immunopositive for GFAP, S-100 protein and negative for neuronal markers. Frequent mitoses and high MIB-1 labelling index were seen in the tumour areas. The coexistence of tumour and vascular developmental anomaly was stated. The conglomerates of numerous, distended, thin-walled foetal-like blood vessels were located beside the tumour tissue, which presented disturbance in differentiation and maturation of the vascular net. Such coexistence of malignant glioma with vascular developmental anomaly is unique.

  4. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells.

  5. Bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy for metastatic brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Staples, Meaghan; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Sanberg, Paul R; Freeman, Thomas B; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    We propose that stem cell therapy may be a potent treatment for metastatic melanoma in the brain. Here we discuss the key role of a leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) that accompanies the development of brain metastases. We review the need to characterize the immunological and inflammatory responses associated with tumor-derived BBB damage in order to reveal the contribution of this brain pathological alteration to the formation and growth of brain metastatic cancers. Next, we discuss the potential repair of the BBB and attenuation of brain metastasis through transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with the endothelial progenitor cell phenotype. In particular, we review the need for evaluation of the efficacy of stem cell therapy in repairing a disrupted BBB in an effort to reduce neuroinflammation, eventually attenuating brain metastatic cancers. The demonstration of BBB repair through augmented angiogenesis and vasculogenesis will be critical to establishing the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment/prevention of metastatic brain tumors. The overarching hypothesis we advanced here is that BBB breakdown is closely associated with brain metastatic cancers of melanoma, exacerbating the inflammatory response of the brain during metastasis, and ultimately worsening the outcome of metastatic brain cancers. Abrogating this leaky BBB-mediated inflammation via stem cell therapy represents a paradigm-shifting approach to treating brain cancer. This review article discusses the pros and cons of cell therapy for melanoma brain metastases.

  6. Inhibition of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 in in vitro cultured human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Said, Harun M; Polat, Buelent; Stein, Susanne; Guckenberger, Mathias; Hagemann, Carsten; Staab, Adrian; Katzer, Astrid; Anacker, Jelena; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study short dsRNA oligonucleotides (siRNA) as a potent tool for artificially modulating gene expression of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene induced under different physiological conditions (Normoxia and hypoxia) modulating NDRG1 transcription, mRNA stability and translation. METHODS: A cell line established from a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Plasmid DNA for transfections was prepared with the Endofree Plasmid Maxi kit. From plates containing 5 × 107 cells, nuclear extracts were prepared according to previous protocols. The pSUPER-NDRG1 vectors were designed, two sequences were selected from the human NDRG1 cDNA (5’-GCATTATTGGCATGGGAAC-3’ and 5’-ATGCAGAGTAACGTGGAAG-3’. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers designed using published information on β-actin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA sequences in GenBank. NDRG1 mRNA and protein level expression results under different conditions of hypoxia or reoxygenation were compared to aerobic control conditions using the Mann-Whitney U test. Reoxygenation values were also compared to the NDRG1 levels after 24 h of hypoxia (P < 0.05 was considered significant). RESULTS: siRNA- and iodoacetate (IAA)-mediated downregulation of NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro in human glioblastoma cell lines showed a nearly complete inhibition of NDRG1 expression when compared to the results obtained due to the inhibitory role of glycolysis inhibitor IAA. Hypoxia responsive elements bound by nuclear HIF-1 in human glioblastoma cells in vitro under different oxygenation conditions and the clearly enhanced binding of nuclear extracts from glioblastoma cell samples exposed to extreme hypoxic conditions confirmed the HIF-1 Western blotting results. CONCLUSION: NDRG1 represents an additional diagnostic marker for brain tumor detection, due to the role of hypoxia in regulating this gene, and it can represent a potential target for tumor treatment in human

  7. A comprehensive characterization of mitochondrial DNA mutations in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Vidone, Michele; Clima, Rosanna; Santorsola, Mariangela; Calabrese, Claudia; Girolimetti, Giulia; Kurelac, Ivana; Amato, Laura Benedetta; Iommarini, Luisa; Trevisan, Elisa; Leone, Marco; Soffietti, Riccardo; Morra, Isabella; Faccani, Giuliano; Attimonelli, Marcella; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Gasparre, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain cancer in adults, with a poor prognosis, whose molecular stratification still represents a challenge in pathology and clinics. On the other hand, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in most tumors as modifiers of the bioenergetics state, albeit in GBM a characterization of the mtDNA status is lacking to date. Here, a characterization of the burden of mtDNA mutations in GBM samples was performed. First, investigation of tumor-specific vs. non tumor-specific mutations was carried out with the MToolBox bioinformatics pipeline by analyzing 45 matched tumor/blood samples, from whole genome or whole exome sequencing datasets obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium. Additionally, the entire mtDNA sequence was obtained in a dataset of 104 fresh-frozen GBM samples. Mitochondrial mutations with potential pathogenic interest were prioritized based on heteroplasmic fraction, nucleotide variability, and in silico prediction of pathogenicity. A preliminary biochemical analysis of the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes was also performed on fresh-frozen GBM samples. Although a high number of mutations was detected, we report that the large majority of them does not pass the prioritization filters. Therefore, a relatively limited burden of pathogenic mutations is indeed carried by GBM, which did not appear to determine a general impairment of the respiratory chain. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  8. Annexin 2A sustains glioblastoma cell dissemination and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Maule, Francesca; Bresolin, Silvia; Rampazzo, Elena; Boso, Daniele; Puppa, Alessandro Della; Esposito, Giovanni; Porcù, Elena; Mitola, Stefania; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Accordi, Benedetta; Tumino, Manuela; Basso, Giuseppe; Persano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most devastating tumor of the brain, characterized by an almost inevitable tendency to recur after intensive treatments and a fatal prognosis. Indeed, despite recent technical improvements in GBM surgery, the complete eradication of cancer cell disseminated outside the tumor mass still remains a crucial issue for glioma patients management. In this context, Annexin 2A (ANXA2) is a phospholipid-binding protein expressed in a variety of cell types, whose expression has been recently associated with cell dissemination and metastasis in many cancer types, thus making ANXA2 an attractive putative regulator of cell invasion also in GBM. Here we show that ANXA2 is over-expressed in GBM and positively correlates with tumor aggressiveness and patient survival. In particular, we associate the expression of ANXA2 to a mesenchymal and metastatic phenotype of GBM tumors. Moreover, we functionally characterized the effects exerted by ANXA2 inhibition in primary GBM cultures, demonstrating its ability to sustain cell migration, matrix invasion, cytoskeletal remodeling and proliferation. Finally, we were able to generate an ANXA2-dependent gene signature with a significant prognostic potential in different cohorts of solid tumor patients, including GBM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ANXA2 acts at multiple levels in determining the disseminating and aggressive behaviour of GBM cells, thus proving its potential as a possible target and strong prognostic factor in the future management of GBM patients. PMID:27429043

  9. Immunological Evasion in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Magaña-Maldonado, Roxana; Chávez-Cortez, Elda Georgina; Olascoaga-Arellano, Nora Karen; López-Mejía, Mariana; Maldonado-Leal, Fernando Manuel; Sotelo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive tumor in Central Nervous System in adults. Among its features, modulation of immune system stands out. Although immune system is capable of detecting and eliminating tumor cells mainly by cytotoxic T and NK cells, tumor microenvironment suppresses an effective response through recruitment of modulator cells such as regulatory T cells, monocyte-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, and microglia as well as secretion of immunomodulators including IL-6, IL-10, CSF-1, TGF-β, and CCL2. Other mechanisms that induce immunosuppression include enzymes as indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. For this reason it is important to develop new therapies that avoid this immune evasion to promote an effective response against glioblastoma. PMID:27294132

  10. Association of brain cancer with dental x-rays and occupation in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, J.S.; Brownson, R.C.; Morantz, R.A.; Chin, T.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This investigation of a brain cancer cluster in Missouri used two approaches to investigate associations with potential risk factors. In a case-control study in a rural town, we interviewed surrogates of cases and controls about potential risk factors. We found a statistically significant positive association of brain cancer with reported exposure to dental x-rays. Occupation was not associated with the cluster in the rural town. In a standardized proportional mortality study for the state of Missouri, we calculated the observed and expected proportion of brain cancers by occupation and industry in Missouri decedents. We found that motor vehicle manufacturers, beauty shop workers, managers and administrators, elementary school teachers, and hairdressers and cosmetologists had significantly elevated proportions of brain cancer. Brain tumors are inconsistently associated with occupation in the literature. Further study of brain cancer etiology with respect to dental x-ray exposures seems warranted.

  11. βIII-Tubulin Regulates Breast Cancer Metastases to the Brain.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Deepak; Morshed, Ramin A; Zhang, Lingjiao; Miska, Jason M; Qiao, Jian; Kim, Julius W; Pytel, Peter; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Lesniak, Maciej S; Ahmed, Atique U

    2015-05-01

    Brain metastases occur in about 10% to 30% of breast cancer patients, which culminates in a poor prognosis. It is, therefore, critical to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying brain metastatic processes to identify relevant targets. We hypothesized that breast cancer cells must express brain-associated markers that would enable their invasion and survival in the brain microenvironment. We assessed a panel of brain-predominant markers and found an elevation of several neuronal markers (βIII-tubulin, Nestin, and AchE) in brain metastatic breast cancer cells. Among these neuronal predominant markers, in silico analysis revealed overexpression of βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) and its expression was significantly associated with distant metastases. TUBB3 knockdown studies were conducted in breast cancer models (MDA-Br, GLIM2, and MDA-MB-468), which revealed significant reduction in their invasive capabilities. MDA-Br cells with suppressed TUBB3 also demonstrated loss of key signaling molecules such as β3 integrin, pFAK, and pSrc in vitro. Furthermore, TUBB3 knockdown in a brain metastatic breast cancer cell line compromised its metastatic ability in vivo, and significantly improved survival in a brain metastasis model. These results implicate a critical role of TUBB3 in conferring brain metastatic potential to breast cancer cells.

  12. Brain network alterations and vulnerability to simulated neurodegeneration in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Shelli R; Watson, Christa L; Blayney, Douglas W

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer and its treatments are associated with mild cognitive impairment and brain changes that could indicate an altered or accelerated brain aging process. We applied diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory to measure white matter organization and connectivity in 34 breast cancer survivors compared with 36 matched healthy female controls. We also investigated how brain networks (connectomes) in each group responded to simulated neurodegeneration based on network attack analysis. Compared with controls, the breast cancer group demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy, altered small-world connectome properties, lower brain network tolerance to systematic region (node), and connection (edge) attacks and significant cognitive impairment. Lower tolerance to network attack was associated with cognitive impairment in the breast cancer group. These findings provide further evidence of diffuse white matter pathology after breast cancer and extend the literature in this area with unique data demonstrating increased vulnerability of the post-breast cancer brain network to future neurodegenerative processes.

  13. Growth factors from tumor microenvironment possibly promote the proliferation of glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, JingJing; Niu, Rui; Huang, Wenhui; Zhou, Mengliang; Shi, Jixing; Zhang, Luyong; Liao, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiform is a lethal brain glial tumor characterized by low survival and high recurrence, partially attributed to the glioblastoma stem cells according to recent researches. Microenvironment or niche in tumor tissue is believed to provide essential support for the aberrant growth of tumor stem cells. In order to explore the effect of growth factors in tumor microenvironment on glioblastoma stem cells behavior, glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells (GDSCs) were isolated from adult human glioblastoma specimen with antibody against surface marker CD133 and were co-cultured with various tumor cells including U87MG cells, unsorted glioblastoma tumor cells, CD133(-) cells and normal rat primary astrocytes. Results suggested that tumor cells could promote GDSCs proliferation while non-tumor cells could not, and several growth factors were exclusively detected in the co-culture system with tumor cells. It was concluded that growth factors derived from tumor microenvironment possibly contributed to the uncontrolled proliferation of GDSCs.

  14. Activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells treated with sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Weinberg, M S; Banik, N L; Patel, S J; Ray, S K

    2006-09-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant and prevalent brain tumor that still remains incurable. Recent studies reported anti-cancer effect of the broccoli-derived compound sulforaphane. We explored the mechanisms of sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Wright staining and ApopTag assay confirmed apoptosis in glioblastoma cells treated with sulforaphane. Increase in intracellular free Ca2+ was detected by fura-2 assay, suggesting activation of Ca2+-dependent pathways for apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins resulting in increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio that indicated a commitment of glioblastoma cells to apoptosis. Upregulation of calpain, a Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, activated caspase-12 that in turn caused activation of caspase-9. With the increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol for sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Increased calpain and caspase-3 activities generated 145 kD spectrin breakdown product and 120 kD spectrin breakdown product, respectively. Activation of caspase-3 also cleaved the inhibitor-of-caspase-activated-DNase. Accumulation of apoptosis-inducing-factor in cytosol suggested caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis as well. Two of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins were downregulated because of an increase in 'second mitochondrial activator of caspases/Direct inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein binding protein with low pI.' Decrease in nuclear factor kappa B and increase in inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha expression favored the process of apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicated activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in glioblastoma cells following treatment with sulforaphane.

  15. Phenethyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression and the levels of protein associated with cell cycle regulation in human glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Meng-Ya; Wang, Mei-Jen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Chang, Shu-Jen; Harnod, Tomor; Hung, Chih-Huang; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a member of the isothiocyanate family, can induce apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous study disclosed that PEITC induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, dysfunction of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway in human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 8401 cells. To the best of our knowledge, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels of GBM 8401 cells in vitro. PEITC may induce G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest through affecting the proteins such as cdk2, cyclin E, and p21 in GBM 8401 cells. Many genes associated with cell-cycle regulation of GBM 8401 cells were changed after PEITC treatment: 48 genes were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. The cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 homolog beta (BUB1B), and cyclin B1 were downregulated, and clusterin was upregulated in GBM 8401 cells treated with PEITC. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels and potential biomarkers for glioblastoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 176-187, 2017.

  16. Extraneural Metastases of Glioblastoma without Simultaneous Central Nervous System Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonki; Yoo, Heon; Shin, Sang Hoon; Gwak, Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is well known as the most common malignant primary brain tumor. It could easily spread into the adjacent or distant brain tissue by infiltration, direct extension and cerebro-spinal fluid dissemination. The extranueural metastatic spread of GBM is relatively rare but it could have more progressive disease course. We report a 39-year-old man who had multiple bone metastases and malignant pleural effusion of the GBM without primary site recurrence. PMID:25408938

  17. Glioblastoma Multiforme and Adult Neurogenesis in the Ventricular-Subventricular Zone: A Review.

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Claudia; Rodríguez Vázquez, Lucía; Martí, Joaquín

    2017-07-01

    Brain cancers account for <1,5% of all new cancer cases reported in the United States each year. Due to their invasive and heterogeneous nature, in addition to their resistance to multimodal treatments, these tumors are usually fatal. Gliomas, and in particular high-grade astrocytomas such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common and lethal primary tumors of the central nervous system. The median survival of most patients is less than 1 year after application of multimodal therapies. The question is why are these cancers so injurious? And above all, how is it possible for a so carefully orchestrated area like the brain to develop such tumors? This brings us to the study of glioma stem cells, their specialized niches (perivascular and hypoxic), and the neurogenic phenomena that takes place within the adult ventricular-subventricular zone: a structure that lies at the intersection between brain development and gliomagenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1596-1601, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Johnson P; Zick, Suzanna M; Khabir, Tohfa; Wright, Benjamin D; Harris, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF) disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued) who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI). Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected). This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52) and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52) in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected). Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN) connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected) among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82) and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = -0.88). These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. As

  19. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Johnson P.; Zick, Suzanna M.; Khabir, Tohfa; Wright, Benjamin D.; Harris, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF) disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued) who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI). Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected). This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52) and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52) in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected). Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN) connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected) among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82) and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88). These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. As

  20. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B; Erridge, Sara C; McLaughlin, Stephen; Nailon, William H

    2015-10-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required.

  1. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B.; Erridge, Sara C.; McLaughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required. PMID:26609418

  2. Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

  3. Inhibition of deubiquitinases primes glioblastoma cells to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Karpel-Massler, Georg; Banu, Matei A; Shu, Chang; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D

    2016-03-15

    It remains a challenge in oncology to identify novel drug regimens to efficiently tackle glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Here, we target deubiquitinases for glioblastoma therapy by utilizing the small-molecule inhibitor WP1130 which has been characterized as a deubiquitinase inhibitor that interferes with the function of Usp9X. Expression analysis data confirm that Usp9X expression is increased in glioblastoma compared to normal brain tissue indicating its potential as a therapeutic. Consistently, increasing concentrations of WP1130 decrease the cellular viability of established, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and stem cell-like glioblastoma cells. Specific down-regulation of Usp9X reduces viability in glioblastoma cells mimicking the effects of WP1130. Mechanistically, WP1130 elicits apoptosis and increases activation of caspases. Moreover, WP1130 and siRNAs targeting Usp9X reduce the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins, XIAP and Survivin. Pharmacological and genetic interference with Usp9X efficiently sensitized glioblastoma cells to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. In addition, single treatment with WP1130 elicited anti-glioma activity in an orthotopic proneural murine model of glioblastoma. Finally, the combination treatment of WP1130 and ABT263 inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than each reagent by its own in vivo without detectable side effects or organ toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting deubiquitinases for glioma therapy is feasible and effective.

  4. Inhibition of deubiquitinases primes glioblastoma cells to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Karpel-Massler, Georg; Banu, Matei A.; Shu, Chang; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D.

    2016-01-01

    It remains a challenge in oncology to identify novel drug regimens to efficiently tackle glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Here, we target deubiquitinases for glioblastoma therapy by utilizing the small-molecule inhibitor WP1130 which has been characterized as a deubiquitinase inhibitor that interferes with the function of Usp9X. Expression analysis data confirm that Usp9X expression is increased in glioblastoma compared to normal brain tissue indicating its potential as a therapeutic. Consistently, increasing concentrations of WP1130 decrease the cellular viability of established, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and stem cell-like glioblastoma cells. Specific down-regulation of Usp9X reduces viability in glioblastoma cells mimicking the effects of WP1130. Mechanistically, WP1130 elicits apoptosis and increases activation of caspases. Moreover, WP1130 and siRNAs targeting Usp9X reduce the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins, XIAP and Survivin. Pharmacological and genetic interference with Usp9X efficiently sensitized glioblastoma cells to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. In addition, single treatment with WP1130 elicited anti-glioma activity in an orthotopic proneural murine model of glioblastoma. Finally, the combination treatment of WP1130 and ABT263 inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than each reagent by its own in vivo without detectable side effects or organ toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting deubiquitinases for glioma therapy is feasible and effective. PMID:26872380

  5. Synergistic anti-tumor actions of luteolin and silibinin prevented cell migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in glioblastoma SNB19 cells and glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2015-12-10

    Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumor. Failure of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for treatment of glioblastoma. Plant-derived flavonoids could be alternative medicine for inhibiting not only glioblastoma cells but also glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Two plant-derived flavonoids are luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL). We investigated anti-tumor mechanisms of LUT and SIL in different human glioblastoma cells and GSC and found significant synergistic inhibition of human glioblastoma LN18 and SNB19 cells and GSC following treatment with combination of 20µM LUT and 50µM SIL. Combination of 20µM LUT and 50µM SIL was more effective than a conventional chemotherapeutic agent (BCNU or TMZ). We continued our studies with SNB19 cells and GSC and found dramatic inhibition of cell migration from spheroids and also cell invasion through matrigel following treatment with combination of LUT and SIL. This combination was highly effective to block angiogenesis and survival pathways leading to induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of PKCα, XIAP, and iNOS ultimately caused induction of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Collectively, synergistic efficacy of LUT and SIL could be a promising therapy to inhibit cell migration and invasion and induce apoptosis in different glioblastoma cells including GSC.

  6. Glioblastoma expression of vitronectin and the alpha v beta 3 integrin. Adhesion mechanism for transformed glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gladson, C L; Cheresh, D A

    1991-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant astroglial-derived tumor, grows as an adherent mass and locally invades normal brain. An examination of adult cerebral glioblastoma biopsy material for the expression of adhesive proteins that might potentiate adhesion and invasion demonstrated tumor cell-associated vitronectin (5/5). In contrast, vitronectin was not detected associated with glial cells in low grade astroglial tumors (0/4), reactive astrogliosis (0/4), or in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter (0/5). Also, a wide variety of other adhesive ligands were absent from the glioblastoma tumor parenchyma. The alpha v beta 3 integrin was the only vitronectin receptor identified in glioblastoma tumors in situ, and was also not expressed on low grade astroglial-derived tumors, reactive astrogliosis, or on glia or neurons in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter. In a cell attachment assay, cultured glioblastoma cells attached to the parenchyma of glioblastoma tumor cryostat sections at the sites of vitronectin expression, but failed to attach to normal brain. This adhesion was inhibited by antibodies directed against vitronectin, the alpha v beta 3 integrin, and with an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. These data provide evidence for a cell adhesion mechanism in glioblastoma tumors that might potentiate glioblastoma cell invasion of normal brain. Images PMID:1721625

  7. Brain damage following prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simó, Marta; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Fuentes, Rafael; Cardenal, Felipe; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bruna, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Long-term toxic effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on cognition in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have not yet been well-established. The aim of our study was to examine the cognitive toxic effects together with brain structural changes in a group of long-term SCLC survivors treated with PCI. Eleven SCLC patients, who underwent PCI ≥ 2 years before, were compared with an age and education matched healthy control group. Both groups were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery and multimodal structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Tract-based Spatial Statistics were used to study gray matter density (GMD) and white matter (WM) microstructural changes. Cognitive deterioration was correlated with GMD and Fractional Anisotropy (FA). Finally, we carried out a single-subject analysis in order to evaluate individual structural brain changes. Nearly half of the SCLC met criteria for cognitive impairment, all exhibiting a global worsening of cognitive functioning. Patients showed significant decreases of GMD in basal ganglia bilaterally (putamen and caudate), bilateral thalamus and right insula, together with WM microstructural changes of the entire corpus callosum. Cognitive deterioration scores correlated positively with mean FA values in the corpus callosum. Single-subject analysis revealed that GMD and WM changes were consistently observed in nearly all patients. This study showed neuropsychological deficits together with brain-specific structural differences in long-term SCLC survivors. Our results suggest that PCI therapy, possibly together with platinum-based chemotherapy, was associated to permanent long-term cognitive and structural brain effects in a SCLC population.

  8. Glioblastoma multiforme following cranial irradiation and chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Menon, R; Muzumdar, D; Shah, A; Goel, A

    2007-01-01

    The most common secondary neoplasms which occur following cranial radiation therapy are sarcoma and meningioma. The occurrence of glioblastoma multiforme following radiation and chemotherapy in acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is rare. We report 3 cases of glioblastoma multiforme in children developing 11-72 months following completion of chemotherapy/radiotherapy for ALL. The exact cause for the development of glioblastoma multiforme following therapy for ALL is not clear. A genetic predisposition may be essential for the occurrence of such a highly malignant primary brain tumour in leukaemia patients, irrespective of radiation and/or chemotherapy. The pathogenesis and surgical management are discussed, and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

  9. Contributions to drug resistance in glioblastoma derived from malignant cells in the sub-ependymal zone.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Sara G M; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Sottoriva, Andrea; Touloumis, Anestis; Ber, Suzan; Price, Stephen J; Heywood, Richard; Francis, Nicola-Jane; Howarth, Karen D; Collins, Vincent P; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Curtis, Christina; Marioni, John C; Tavaré, Simon; Watts, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive adult brain tumor, is characterized by extreme phenotypic diversity and treatment failure. Through fluorescence-guided resection, we identified fluorescent tissue in the sub-ependymal zone (SEZ) of patients with glioblastoma. Histologic analysis and genomic characterization revealed that the SEZ harbors malignant cells with tumor-initiating capacity, analogous to cells isolated from the fluorescent tumor mass (T). We observed resistance to supramaximal chemotherapy doses along with differential patterns of drug response between T and SEZ in the same tumor. Our results reveal novel insights into glioblastoma growth dynamics, with implications for understanding and limiting treatment resistance.

  10. Targeting and killing glioblastoma with monoclonal antibody to O-acetyl GD2 ganglioside

    PubMed Central

    Fougeray, Sophie; Oliver, Lisa; Geraldo, Fanny; Terme, Mickaël; Dorvillius, Mylène; Loussouarn, Delphine; Vallette, François; Paris, François; Birklé, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    There are still unmet medical needs in the treatment of glioblastoma, the most common and the most aggressive glioma of all brain tumors. Here, we found that O-acetyl GD2 is expressed in surgically resected human glioblastoma tissue. In addition, we demonstrated that 8B6 monoclonal antibody specific for O-acetylat GD2 could effectively inhibit glioblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that O-acetylated GD2 represents a novel antigen for immunotherapeutic-based treatment of high-grade gliomas. PMID:27172791

  11. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V. ); Moore, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  12. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V.; Moore, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  13. Differential distribution of erbB receptors in human glioblastoma multiforme: expression of erbB3 in CD133-positive putative cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Duhem-Tonnelle, Véronique; Bièche, Ivan; Vacher, Sophie; Loyens, Anne; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Collier, Francis; Baroncini, Marc; Blond, Serge; Prevot, Vincent; Sharif, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common CNS tumors in adults, and they remain resistant to current treatments. ErbB1 signaling is frequently altered in these tumors, which indicates that the erbB receptor family is a promising target for molecular therapy. However, data on erbB signaling in glioblastomas are still sparse. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of erbB receptor and ligand expression profiles in a panel of nine glioblastomas that were compared to non-neoplastic cerebral tissue containing neocortex and corresponding portions of subcortical convolutional white matter and we determined the distribution patterns of erbB receptors among the main neural cell types that are present in these tumors, particularly the putative tumoral stem cell population. Using quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, we showed that erbB1 signaling and erbB2 receptors exhibited highly variable deregulation profiles among tumors, ranging from under- to overexpression, while erbB3 and erbB4 were down-regulated. Immunohistochemistry revealed an important inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity in all four erbB expression profiles. However, each receptor exhibited a distinct repartition pattern among the GFAP-, Olig2-, NeuN- and CD133-positive populations. Interestingly, while erbB1 immunoreactivity was only detected in small subsets of CD133-positive putative tumoral stem cells, erbB3 immunoreactivity was prominent in this cell population thus suggesting that erbB3 may represent a new potential target for molecular therapy. PMID:20467331

  14. Adoptive Cell Therapies for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bielamowicz, Kevin; Khawja, Shumaila; Ahmed, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy and, as it stands, is virtually incurable. With the current standard of care, maximum feasible surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, survival rates are at a median of 14.6 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients (1). Collectively, the current knowledge suggests that the continued tumor growth and survival is in part due to failure to mount an effective immune response. While this tolerance is subtended by the tumor being utterly “self,” it is to a great extent due to local and systemic immune compromise mediated by the tumor. Different cell modalities including lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and transgenic chimeric antigen receptor or αβ T cell receptor grafted T cells are being explored to recover and or redirect the specificity of the cellular arm of the immune system toward the tumor complex. Promising phase I/II trials of such modalities have shown early indications of potential efficacy while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy will need to be formally tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Given the high morbidity and mortality of GBM, it is imperative to further investigate and possibly integrate such novel cell-based therapies into the current standards-of-care and herein we collectively assess and critique the state-of-the-knowledge pertaining to these efforts. PMID:24273748

  15. Over-expression of CHAF1A promotes cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance in glioblastoma cells via AKT/FOXO3a/Bim pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Honghai; Du, Bin; Jiang, Huili; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-22

    Chromatinassembly factor 1 subunit A (CHAF1A) has been reported to be involved in several human diseases including cancer. However, the biological and clinical significance of CHAF1A in glioblastoma progression remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that up-regulation of CHAF1A happens frequently in glioblastoma tissues and is associated with glioblastoma prognosis. Knockout of CHAF1A by CRISPR/CAS9 technology induce G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma cell U251 and U87. In addition, inhibition of CHAF1A influenced the signal transduction of the AKT/FOXO3a/Bim axis, which is required for glioblastoma cell proliferation. Taken together, these results show that CHAF1A contributes to the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and may be developed as a de novo drug target and prognosis biomarker of glioblastoma.

  16. Alterations in cellular metabolome after pharmacological inhibition of Notch in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Ulf D; Cheng, Menglin; Koch, Katharina; Marchionni, Luigi; Fan, Xing; Raabe, Eric H; Maciaczyk, Jarek; Glunde, Kristine; Eberhart, Charles G

    2016-03-01

    Notch signaling can promote tumorigenesis in the nervous system and plays important roles in stem-like cancer cells. However, little is known about how Notch inhibition might alter tumor metabolism, particularly in lesions arising in the brain. The gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 was used to treat glioblastoma neurospheres, and they were subdivided into sensitive and insensitive groups in terms of canonical Notch target response. Global metabolomes were then examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and changes in intracellular concentration of various metabolites identified which correlate with Notch inhibition. Reductions in glutamate were verified by oxidation-based colorimetric assays. Interestingly, the alkylating chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, the mTOR-inhibitor MLN0128, and the WNT inhibitor LGK974 did not reduce glutamate levels, suggesting that changes to this metabolite might reflect specific downstream effects of Notch blockade in gliomas rather than general sequelae of tumor growth inhibition. Global and targeted expression analyses revealed that multiple genes important in glutamate homeostasis, including glutaminase, are dysregulated after Notch inhibition. Treatment with an allosteric inhibitor of glutaminase, compound 968, could slow glioblastoma growth, and Notch inhibition may act at least in part by regulating glutaminase and glutamate.

  17. Current Challenges in Glioblastoma: Intratumour Heterogeneity, Residual Disease, and Models to Predict Disease Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Hayley P; Greenslade, Mark; Powell, Ben; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Sottoriva, Andrea; Kurian, Kathreena M

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, and despite the availability of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to combat the disease, overall survival remains low with a high incidence of tumor recurrence. Technological advances are continually improving our understanding of the disease, and in particular, our knowledge of clonal evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and possible reservoirs of residual disease. These may inform how we approach clinical treatment and recurrence in GB. Mathematical modeling (including neural networks) and strategies such as multiple sampling during tumor resection and genetic analysis of circulating cancer cells, may be of great future benefit to help predict the nature of residual disease and resistance to standard and molecular therapies in GB.

  18. Current Challenges in Glioblastoma: Intratumour Heterogeneity, Residual Disease, and Models to Predict Disease Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Hayley P.; Greenslade, Mark; Powell, Ben; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Sottoriva, Andrea; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, and despite the availability of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to combat the disease, overall survival remains low with a high incidence of tumor recurrence. Technological advances are continually improving our understanding of the disease, and in particular, our knowledge of clonal evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and possible reservoirs of residual disease. These may inform how we approach clinical treatment and recurrence in GB. Mathematical modeling (including neural networks) and strategies such as multiple sampling during tumor resection and genetic analysis of circulating cancer cells, may be of great future benefit to help predict the nature of residual disease and resistance to standard and molecular therapies in GB. PMID:26636033

  19. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  20. Oncogenic effects of miR-10b in glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guessous, Fadila; Alvarado-Velez, Melissa; Marcinkiewicz, Lukasz; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Jungeun; Heister, Simon; Kefas, Benjamin; Godlewski, Jakub; Schiff, David; Purow, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs and cancer stem cells have emerged as critical players in glioblastoma, one of the deadliest human cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of microRNA-10b in glioblastoma cells and stem cells. An analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data revealed a correlation between high miR-10b levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. We measured the levels of miR-10b and found that it is upregulated in human glioblastoma tissues, glioblastoma cell and stem cell lines as compared to normal human tissues or astrocytes. Inhibition of miR-10b with a specific antagomir inhibited the proliferation of glioblastoma established and stem cell lines. Inhibition of miR-10b strongly reduced cell invasion and migration in glioblastoma cell and stem cell lines while overexpression of miR-10b induced cell migration and invasion. We also investigated several predicted targets of miR-10b but could not verify any of them experimentally. Additionally, miR-10b inhibition significantly decreased the in vivo growth of stem cell-derived orthotopic GBM xenografts. Altogether, our findings confirm the oncogenic effects of miR-10b in GBM cells and show for the first time a role of this microRNA in GBM stem cells. Targeting miR-10b might therefore inhibit glioblastoma stem cells, which are thought to be at the origin of glioblastoma and to contribute its recurrence and resistance to therapy. PMID:23307328

  1. Expression of lncRNAs in Low-Grade Gliomas and Glioblastoma Multiforme: An In Silico Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reon, Brian J.; Anaya, Jordan; Zhang, Ying; Abounader, Roger; Dutta, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Background Each year, over 16,000 patients die from malignant brain cancer in the US. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis and brain tumor progression. To better understand the role of lncRNAs in brain cancer, we performed a global analysis to identify and characterize all annotated and novel lncRNAs in both grade II and III gliomas as well as grade IV glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]). Methods and Findings We determined the expression of all lncRNAs in over 650 brain cancer and 70 normal brain tissue RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other publicly available datasets. We identified 611 induced and 677 repressed lncRNAs in glial tumors relative to normal brains. Hundreds of lncRNAs were specifically expressed in each of the three lower grade glioma (LGG) subtypes (IDH1/2 wt, IDH1/2 mut, and IDH1/2 mut 1p19q codeletion) and the four subtypes of GBMs (classical, mesenchymal, neural, and proneural). Overlap between the subtype-specific lncRNAs in GBMs and LGGs demonstrated similarities between mesenchymal GBMs and IDH1/2 wt LGGs, with 2-fold higher overlap than would be expected by random chance. Using a multivariate Cox regression survival model, we identified 584 and 282 lncRNAs that were associated with a poor and good prognosis, respectively, in GBM patients. We developed a survival algorithm for LGGs based on the expression of 64 lncRNAs that was associated with patient prognosis in a test set (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.168, 95% CI = 1.765–2.807, p < 0.001) and validation set (HR = 1.921, 95% CI = 1.333–2.767, p < 0.001) of patients from TCGA. The main limitations of this study are that further work is needed to investigate the clinical relevance of our findings, and that validation in an independent dataset is needed to determine the robustness of our survival algorithm. Conclusions This work identifies a panel of lncRNAs that appear to be prognostic in

  2. Role of connexins in metastatic breast cancer and melanoma brain colonization.

    PubMed

    Stoletov, Konstantin; Strnadel, Jan; Zardouzian, Erin; Momiyama, Masashi; Park, Frederick D; Kelber, Jonathan A; Pizzo, Donald P; Hoffman, Robert; VandenBerg, Scott R; Klemke, Richard L

    2013-02-15

    Breast cancer and melanoma cells commonly metastasize to the brain using homing mechanisms that are poorly understood. Cancer patients with brain metastases display poor prognosis and survival due to the lack of effective therapeutics and treatment strategies. Recent work using intravital microscopy and preclinical animal models indicates that metastatic cells colonize the brain, specifically in close contact with the existing brain vasculature. However, it is not known how contact with the vascular niche promotes microtumor formation. Here, we investigate the role of connexins in mediating early events in brain colonization using transparent zebrafish and chicken embryo models of brain metastasis. We provide evidence that breast cancer and melanoma cells utilize connexin gap junction proteins (Cx43, Cx26) to initiate brain metastatic lesion formation in association with the vasculature. RNAi depletion of connexins or pharmacological blocking of connexin-mediated cell-cell communication with carbenoxolone inhibited brain colonization by blocking tumor cell extravasation and blood vessel co-option. Activation of the metastatic gene twist in breast cancer cells increased Cx43 protein expression and gap junction communication, leading to increased extravasation, blood vessel co-option and brain colonization. Conversely, inhibiting twist activity reduced Cx43-mediated gap junction coupling and brain colonization. Database analyses of patient histories revealed increased expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in primary melanoma and breast cancer tumors, respectively, which correlated with increased cancer recurrence and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that Cx43 and Cx26 mediate cancer cell metastasis to the brain and suggest that connexins might be exploited therapeutically to benefit cancer patients with metastatic disease.

  3. Pharmacological effects of asiatic acid in glioblastoma cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Flourina Kumar; Wan, Ka-Wai; Welsby, Philip John; Welsby, Gail

    2017-02-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment options including surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin, the median survival rate remains low (<16 months). Combined with increasing drug resistance and the inability of some compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier, novel compounds are being sought for the treatment of this disease. Here, we aimed to examine the pharmacological effect of Asiatic acid (AA) in glioblastoma under hypoxia. To investigate the effects of AA on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and wound healing, SVG p12 fetal glia and U87-MG grade IV glioblastoma cells were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. In normoxia, AA reduced cell viability in U87-MG cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. A significant decrease in viability, compared to cisplatin, was observed following 2 h of AA treatment with no significant changes in cell proliferation or cell cycle progression observed. Under hypoxia, a significantly greater number of cells underwent apoptosis in comparison to cisplatin. While cisplatin showed a reduction in wound healing in normoxia, a significantly greater reduction was observed following AA treatment. An overall reduction in wound healing was observed under hypoxia. The results of this study show that AA has cytotoxic effects on glioma cell lines and has the potential to become an alternative treatment for glioblastoma.

  4. SOX9-mediated upregulation of LGR5 is important for glioblastoma tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraoka, Koji; Hayashi, Tomoatsu; Kaneko, Ryusuke; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2015-05-01

    LGR5 plays an important role in the self-renewal of stem cells and is used as a marker identifying self-renewing stem cells in small intestine and hair follicles. Moreover, LGR5 has been reported to be overexpressed in several cancers. SOX9 is a transcription factor that plays a key role in development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues. It has also been reported that SOX9 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and contributes to their malignant phenotype. Here we show that LGR5 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We further show that SOX9 is upregulated in glioblastoma cells and directly enhances the expression of LGR5. We also demonstrate that knockdown of SOX9 suppresses the proliferation and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that SOX9-mediated transcriptional regulation of LGR5 is critical for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We speculate that the SOX9-LGR5 pathway could be a potentially promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • LGR5 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. • SOX9 directly enhances the expression of LGR5. • SOX9 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells.

  5. MicroRNA-153 regulates glutamine metabolism in glioblastoma through targeting glutaminase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenyang; Wang, Junyu; Li, Yunjun; Fan, Juan; Chen, Lihua; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive manifestation of malignant gliomas and considered to be among the deadliest forms of human cancers. MicroRNAs are found to tightly regulate diverse biological processes and considered to play important roles in cancer etiology. In this study, we found that microRNA-153 was significantly downregulated in glioblastoma tissues compared to matched non-tumor tissues and in glioblastoma cell lines. To investigate the potential function of microRNA-153 in glioblastoma, we transfected glioblastoma cell line U87MG as well as U373MG with synthetic microRNA-153 oligos and observed decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We further found that microRNA-153 restrained glutamine utilization and glutamate generation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that glutaminase, which catalyzed the formation of glutamate from glutamine, is the potential target of microRNA-153. Indeed, microRNA-153 cannot further reduce glutamine utilization when glutaminase was knocked down. Overexpression of glutaminase abrogates the effect of microRNA-153 on glutamine utilization. Furthermore, the relative expression of microRNA-153 and glutaminase in glioblastoma versus matched non-tumor tissues showed a reverse correlation, further indicating that microRNA-153 may negatively regulate glutaminase in vivo. These results demonstrate an unexpected role of microRNA-153 in regulating glutamine metabolism and strengthen the role of microRNA-153 as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.

  6. A chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate thermo-sensitive gel for the delivery of ellagic acid for the treatment of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwoo; Nishimoto, Satoru K; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O; Gaber, M Waleed; Yang, Yunzhi

    2010-05-01

    We report here the development of a chitosan/beta-glycerophosphate(Ch/beta-GP) thermo-sensitive gel to deliver ellagic acid (EA) for cancer treatment. The properties of the Ch/beta-GP gels were characterized regarding chemical structure, surface morphology, and viscoelasticity. In vitro EA release rate from the EA loaded Ch/beta-GP gel and chitosan degradation rate were investigated. The anti-tumor effect of the EA loaded Ch/beta-GP gel on brain cancer cells (human U87 glioblastomas and rat C6 glioma cells) was evaluated by examining cell viability. Cell number and activity were monitored by the MTS assay. The Ch/beta-GP solution formed a heat-induced gel at body temperature, and the gelation temperature and time were affected by the final pH of the Ch/beta-GP solution. The lysozyme increased the EA release rate by 2.5 times higher than that in the absence of lysozyme. Dialyzed chitosan solution with final pH 6.3 greatly reduced the beta-GP needed for gelation, thereby significantly improving the biocompatibility of gel (p < 0.001). The chitosan gels containing 1% (w/v) of ellagic acid significantly reduced viability of U87 cells and C6 cells compared with the chitosan gels at 3 days incubation (p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively).

  7. Effectiveness of Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jacob; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy plays a central role in the definitive treatment of glioblastoma. However, the optimal management of elderly patients with glioblastoma remains controversial, as the relative benefit in this patient population is unclear. To better understand the role that radiation plays in the treatment of glioblastoma in the elderly, we analyzed factors influencing patient survival using a large population-based registry. Methods and Materials: A total of 2,836 patients more than 70 years of age diagnosed with glioblastoma between 1993 and 2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Demographic and clinical variables used in the analysis included gender, ethnicity, tumor size, age at diagnosis, surgery, and radiotherapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using Cox regression. Results: Radiotherapy was administered in 64% of these patients, and surgery was performed in 68%. Among 2,836 patients, 46% received surgery and radiotherapy, 22% underwent surgery only, 18% underwent radiotherapy only, and 14% did not undergo either treatment. The median survival for patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy was 8 months. The median survival for patients who underwent radiotherapy only was 4 months, and for patients who underwent surgery only was 3 months. Those who received neither surgery nor radiotherapy had a median survival of 2 months (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that radiotherapy significantly improved cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.49) after adjusting for surgery, tumor size, gender, ethnicity, and age at diagnosis. Other factors associated with Cancer-specific survival included surgery, tumor size, age at diagnosis, and ethnicity. Analysis using overall survival as the endpoint yielded very similar results. Conclusions: Elderly

  8. Expression of cancer-testis genes in brain tumors: implications for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Modarressi, Mohammad-Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) genes have a restricted expression in normal tissues except testis and a wide range of tumor types. Testis is an immune-privileged site as a result of a blood barrier and lack of HLA class I expression on the surface of germ cells. Hence, if testis-specific genes are expressed in other tissues, they can be immunogenic. Expression of some CT genes in a high percentage of brain tumors makes them potential targets for immunotherapy. In addition, expression of CT genes in cancer stem cells may provide special targets for treatment of cancer recurrences and metastasis. The presence of antibodies against different CT genes in patients with advanced tumors has raised the possibility of polyvalent antitumor vaccine application.

  9. Oncolytic Virus Therapy of Glioblastoma Multiforme – Concepts and Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of oncolytic virus (OV) development have created a field that is driven by the potential promise of lasting impact on our cancer treatment repertoire. With the field constantly expanding – over 20 viruses have been recognized as potential OVs – new virus candidates continue to emerge even as established viruses reach clinical trials. They all share the defining commonalities of selective replication in tumors, subsequent tumor cell lysis, and dispersion within the tumor. Members from diverse virus classes with distinctly different biologies and host species have been identified. Of these viruses, 15 have been tested on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). So far, 20 clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using attenuated strains of 7 different oncolytic viruses against GBM. In this review, we present an overview of viruses that have been developed or considered for GBM treatment. We outline the principles of tumor targeting and selective viral replication, which include mechanisms of tumor-selective binding, and molecular elements usurping cellular biosynthetic machinery in transformed cells. Results from clinical trials have clearly established the proof of concept and have confirmed the general safety of OV application in the brain. The moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the promising preclinical lab results; next-generation OVs that are either “armed” with therapeutic genes or that are embedded in a multimodality treatment regimen should enhance the clinical results. PMID:22290260

  10. Zinc enhances temozolomide cytotoxicity in glioblastoma multiforme model systems

    PubMed Central

    Toren, Amos; Pismenyuk, Tatyana; Yalon, Michal; Freedman, Shani; Simon, Amos J.; Fisher, Tamar; Moshe, Itai; Reichardt, Juergen K.V.; Constantini, Shlomi; Mardor, Yael; Last, David; Guez, David; Daniels, Dianne; Assoulin, Moria; Mehrian-Shai, Ruty

    2016-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent that has become the mainstay treatment of the most malignant brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Unfortunately only a limited number of patients positively respond to it. It has been shown that zinc metal reestablishes chemosensitivity but this effect has not been tested with TMZ. Using both in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches, we investigated whether addition of zinc to TMZ enhances its cytotoxicity against GBM. In vitro cell viability analysis showed that the cytotoxic activity of TMZ was substantially increased with addition of zinc and this response was accompanied by an elevation of p21, PUMA, BAX and Caspase-3 expression and a decrease in growth fraction as manifested by low ki67 and lower colony formation. Analysis of GBM as intracranial xenografts in athymic mice and administration of concurrent TMZ and zinc yielded results consistent with those of the in vitro analyses. The co-treatment resulted in significant reduction in tumor volume in TMZ/zinc treated mice relative to treatment with TMZ alone. Our results suggest that zinc may serve as a potentiator of TMZ therapy in GBM patients. PMID:27556862

  11. Case-specific potentiation of glioblastoma drugs by pterostilbene

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Linnéa; Baskaran, Sathishkumar; Johansson, Patrik; Padhan, Narendra; Matuszewski, Damian; Green, Lydia C; Elfineh, Ludmila; Wee, Shimei; Häggblad, Maria; Martens, Ulf; Westermark, Bengt; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Uhrbom, Lene; Claesson-Welsh, Lena; Andäng, Michael; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Lundgren, Bo; Lönnstedt, Ingrid; Krona, Cecilia; Nelander, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, astrocytoma grade IV) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Addressing the shortage of effective treatment options for this cancer, we explored repurposing of existing drugs into combinations with potent activity against GBM cells. We report that the phytoalexin pterostilbene is a potentiator of two drugs with previously reported anti-GBM activity, the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and the antidepressant sertraline. Combinations of either of these two compounds with pterostilbene suppress cell growth, viability, sphere formation and inhibit migration in tumor GBM cell (GC) cultures. The potentiating effect of pterostilbene was observed to a varying degree across a panel of 41 patient-derived GCs, and correlated in a case specific manner with the presence of missense mutation of EGFR and PIK3CA and a focal deletion of the chromosomal region 1p32. We identify pterostilbene-induced cell cycle arrest, synergistic inhibition of MAPK activity and induction of Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) as possible mechanisms behind pterostilbene's effect. Our results highlight a nontoxic stilbenoid compound as a modulator of anticancer drug response, and indicate that pterostilbene might be used to modulate two anticancer compounds in well-defined sets of GBM patients. PMID:27689322

  12. Neural networks improve brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in the presence of light artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Michael; Desroches, Joannie; Mercier, Jeanne; St-Arnaud, Karl; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frederic

    2016-03-01

    It is often difficult to identify cancer tissue during brain cancer (glioma) surgery. Gliomas invade into areas of normal brain, and this cancer invasion is frequently not detected using standard preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This results in enduring invasive cancer following surgery and leads to recurrence. A hand-held Raman spectroscopy is able to rapidly detect cancer invasion in patients with grade 2-4 gliomas. However, ambient light sources can produce spectral artifacts which inhibit the ability to distinguish between cancer and normal tissue using the spectral information available. To address this issue, we have demonstrated that artificial neural networks (ANN) can accurately classify invasive cancer versus normal brain tissue, even when including measurements with significant spectral artifacts from external light sources. The non-parametric and adaptive model used by ANN makes it suitable for detecting complex non-linear spectral characteristics associated with different tissues and the confounding presence of light artifacts. The use of ANN for brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy, in the presence of light artifacts, improves the robustness and clinical translation potential for intraoperative use. Integration with the neurosurgical workflow is facilitated by accounting for the effect of light artifacts which may occur, due to operating room lights, neuronavigation systems, windows, or other light sources. The ability to rapidly detect invasive brain cancer under these conditions may reduce residual cancer remaining after surgery, and thereby improve patient survival.

  13. Cisplatin-tethered gold nanospheres for multimodal chemo-radiotherapy of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setua, Sonali; Ouberai, Myriam; Piccirillo, Sara G.; Watts, Colin; Welland, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the most aggressive and challenging brain tumour to treat. We report the first successful chemo-radiotherapy on patient derived treatment resistant GBM cells using a cisplatin-tethered gold nanosphere. After intracellular uptake, the nanosphere effects DNA damage which initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis in those cells. In the presence of radiation, both gold and platinum of cisplatin, serve as high atomic number radiosensitizers leading to the emission of ionizing photoelectrons and Auger electrons. This resulted in enhanced synergy between cisplatin and radiotherapy mediated cytotoxicity, and photo/Auger electron mediated radiosensitisation leading to complete ablation of the tumour cells in an in vitro model system. This study demonstrates the potential of designed nanoparticles to target aggressive cancers in the patient derived cell lines providing a platform to move towards treatment strategies.Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the most aggressive and challenging brain tumour to treat. We report the first successful chemo-radiotherapy on patient derived treatment resistant GBM cells using a cisplatin-tethered gold nanosphere. After intracellular uptake, the nanosphere effects DNA damage which initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis in those cells. In the presence of radiation, both gold and platinum of cisplatin, serve as high atomic number radiosensitizers leading to the emission of ionizing photoelectrons and Auger electrons. This resulted in enhanced synergy between cisplatin and radiotherapy mediated cytotoxicity, and photo/Auger electron mediated radiosensitisation leading to complete ablation of the tumour cells in an in vitro model system. This study demonstrates the potential of designed nanoparticles to target aggressive cancers in the patient derived cell lines providing a platform to move towards treatment strategies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c

  14. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  15. Raman spectroscopy detects distant invasive brain cancer cells centimeters beyond MRI capability in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jermyn, Michael; Desroches, Joannie; Mercier, Jeanne; St-Arnaud, Karl; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Leblond, Frederic; Petrecca, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of brain cancer is limited by the inability of current imaging capabilities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect the entirety of this locally invasive cancer. This results in residual cancer cells remaining following surgery, leading to recurrence and death. We demonstrate that intraoperative Raman spectroscopy can detect invasive cancer cells centimeters beyond pathological T1-contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted MRI signals. This intraoperative optical guide can be used to detect invasive cancer cells and minimize post-surgical cancer burden. The detection of distant invasive cancer cells beyond MRI signal has the potential to increase the effectiveness of surgery and directly lengthen patient survival. PMID:28018730

  16. SRC family kinases as novel therapeutic targets to treat breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Huang, Wen-Chien; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chenyu; Lowery, Frank J; Ding, Zhaoxi; Guo, Hua; Wang, Hai; Huang, Suyun; Sahin, Aysegul A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Steeg, Patricia S; Yu, Dihua

    2013-09-15

    Despite better control of early-stage disease and improved overall survival of patients with breast cancer, the incidence of life-threatening brain metastases continues to increase in some of these patients. Unfortunately, other than palliative treatments there is no effective therapy for this condition. In this study, we reveal a critical role for Src activation in promoting brain metastasis in a preclinical model of breast cancer and we show how Src-targeting combinatorial regimens can treat HER2(+) brain metastases in this model. We found that Src was hyperactivated in brain-seeking breast cancer cells derived from human cell lines or from patients' brain metastases. Mechanistically, Src activation promoted tumor cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma via permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier. When combined with the EGFR/HER2 dual-targeting drug lapatinib, an Src-targeting combinatorial regimen prevented outgrowth of disseminated breast cancer cells through the induction of cell-cycle arrest. More importantly, this combinatorial regimen inhibited the outgrowth of established experimental brain metastases, prolonging the survival of metastases-bearing mice. Our results provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of Src-targeting regimens to treat patients with breast cancer suffering from brain metastasis.

  17. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab and docetaxel reduced the recurrence of brain metastasis from breast cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Senda, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Ayane; Nishimura, Hideaki; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Tsuyuki, Shigeru

    2016-03-01

    The CLEOPATRA trial reported the survival benefit of pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. However, there are a few case reports concerning the effects of a pertuzumab-containing regimen on brain metastases. A 55-year-old woman, who underwent curative surgery for breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy 5 years previously, developed repeated solitary brain metastasis in her right occipital lobe. Whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and 3 times of surgical resection were performed. Lapatinib and capecitabine plus tamoxifen were administered. The metastasis recurred in the stump of the previous surgery. Pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel was initiated as second-line chemotherapy. A complete response of the brain metastasis was achieved, which persisted for 5 months. Pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel was effective in reducing the brain metastases from breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to confirm the effect of this regimen on brain metastases.

  18. Remodelling the vascular microenvironment of glioblastoma with alpha-particles

    PubMed Central

    Behling, Katja; Maguire, William F.; Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Heeb, Lukas E.M.; Hassan, Iman F.; Veach, Darren R.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Gutin, Philip H.; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Tumors escape anti-angiogenic therapy by activation of pro-angiogenic signaling pathways. Bevacizumab is approved for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma, but patients inevitably develop resistance to this angiogenic inhibitor. We investigated targeted α-particle therapy with 225Ac-E4G10 as an anti-vascular approach and previously showed increased survival and tumor control in a high-grade transgenic orthotopic glioblastoma model. Here we investigate changes in tumor-vascular morphology and functionality caused by 225Ac-E4G10. Methods We investigated remodeling of tumor microenvironment in transgenic Ntva glioblastoma mice using a therapeutic 7.4 kBq dose of 225Ac-E4G10. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analyses imaged morphological changes in the tumor blood brain barrier microenvironment. Multi-color flow cytometry quantified the endothelial progenitor cell population in the bone marrow. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaged functional changes of the tumor vascular network. Results The mechanism of drug action is a combination of glioblastoma vascular microenvironment remodeling, edema relief, and depletion of regulatory T and endothelial progenitor cells. The primary remodeling event is the reduction of both endothelial and perivascular cell populations. Tumor-associated edema and necrosis was lessened and resulted in increased perfusion and reduced diffusion. Pharmacological uptake of dasatinib into tumor was enhanced following α-particle therapy. Conclusion Targeted anti-vascular α-particle radiation remodels the glioblastoma vascular microenvironment via a multimodal mechanism of action and provides insight into the vascular architecture of Platelet-derived growth factor driven glioblastoma. PMID:27261519

  19. Vascular Targeted Radioimmunotherapy for the Treatment of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, William F.; López Puebla, José Carlos; Sprinkle, Shanna R.; Ruggiero, Alessandro; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Gutin, Philip H.; Scheinberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is characterized by an aggressive and aberrant vascular network that promotes tumor progression and hinders effective treatment; the median survival is 16 mo despite standard-of-care therapies. There is a need to improve therapeutic options for this disease. We hypothesized that antibody targeting of the vascular endothelium of glioblastoma with cytotoxic short-range, high-energy α-particles would be an effective therapeutic approach. Methods: E4G10, an antibody directed at an epitope of monomeric vascular endothelium cadherin that is expressed in tumor neovasculature and on endothelial progenitor cells in the bone marrow, was labeled with α-particle-emitting 225Ac. Pharmacokinetic studies investigated the tissue distribution and blood clearance of the 225Ac-E4G10 radioimmunoconstruct in a transgenic Nestin-tumor virus A (Ntva) mouse model of high-grade glioblastoma. Histologic analysis was used to demonstrate local therapeutic effects in treated brain tumor sections. Radioimmunotherapy with 225Ac-E4G10 was performed in Ntva mice to assess overall survival alone and in combination with temozolomide, the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic agent. Results: 225Ac-E4G10 was found to accumulate in tissues expressing the target antigen. Antivascular α-particle therapy of glioblastoma in the transgenic Ntva model resulted in significantly improved survival compared with controls and potent control of tumor growth. Adding the chemotherapeutic temozolomide to the treatment increased survival to 30 d (vs. 9 d for vehicle-treated animals). Histologic analyses showed a remodeled glioblastoma vascular microenvironment. Conclusion: Targeted α-particle antivascular therapy is shown for the first time to be effective in increasing overall survival in a solid tumor in a clinically relevant transgenic glioblastoma mouse model. PMID:27127217

  20. Targeting glioblastoma multiforme with an IL-13/diphtheria toxin fusion protein in vitro and in vivo in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunbin; Hall, Walter A; Jin, Ni; Todhunter, Deborah A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Vallera, Daniel A

    2002-05-01

    Fusion proteins composed of tumor binding agents and potent catalytic toxins show promise for intracranial therapy of brain cancer and an advantage over systemic therapy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of brain cancer and overexpresses IL-13R. Thus, we developed an interleukin-13 receptor targeting fusion protein, DT(390)IL13, composed of human interleukin-13 and the first 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin. To measure its ability to inhibit GBM, DT(390)IL13 was tested in vitro and found to inhibit selectively the U373 MG GBM cell line with an IC(50) around 12 pmol/l. Cytotoxicity was neutralized by anti-human-interleukin-13 antibody, but not by control antibodies. In vivo, small U373 MG glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice completely regressed in most animals after five intratumoral injections of 1 microg of DT(390)IL13 q.o.d., but not by the control fusion protein DT(390)IL-2. DT(390)IL13 was also tested against primary explant GBM cells of a patient's excised tumor and the IC(50) was similar to that measured for U373 MG. Further studies showed a therapeutic window for DT(390)IL13 of 1-30 microg/injection and histology studies and enzyme measurements showed that the maximum tolerated dose of DT(390)IL13 had little effect on kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart in non-tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice. Together, these data suggest that DT(390)IL13 may provide an important, alternative therapy for brain cancer.

  1. Prognostic value of health-related quality of life for death risk stratification in patients with unresectable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Brice; Vernerey, Dewi; Chauffert, Bruno; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Feuvret, Loic; Taillandier, Luc; Frappaz, Didier; Taillia, Hervé; Schott, Roland; Ducray, François; Fabbro, Michel; Tennevet, Isabelle; Ghiringhelli, François; Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien; Durando, Xavier; Castera, Daniel; Frenay, Marc; Campello, Chantal; Dalban, Cécile; Skrzypski, Jérome; Chinot, Olivier; Anota, Amélie; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Baseline health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a major subject of concern for these patients. We aimed to assess the independent prognostic value of HRQoL in unresectable glioblastoma (UGB) patients for death risk stratification. One hundred and thirty-four patients with UGB were enrolled from the TEMAVIR trial. HRQoL was evaluated at baseline using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20 brain cancer module. Clinical and HRQoL parameters were evaluated in univariable and multivariable Cox analysis as prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Performance assessment and internal validation of the final model were evaluated with Harrel's C-index, calibration plot, and bootstrap sample procedure. Two OS independent predictors were identified: future uncertainty and sensitivity deficit. The final model exhibited good calibration and acceptable discrimination (C statistic = 0.63). The internal validity of the model was verified with robust uncertainties around the hazard ratio. The prognostic score identified three groups of patients with distinctly different risk profiles with median OS estimated at 16.2, 9.2, and 4.5 months. We demonstrated the additional prognostic value of HRQoL in UGB for death risk stratification and provided a score that may help to guide clinical management and stratification in future clinical trials.

  2. Highlights of Children with Cancer UK’s Workshop on Drug Delivery in Paediatric Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Nailor, Audrey; Walker, David A; Jacques, Thomas S; Warren, Kathy E; Brem, Henry; Kearns, Pamela R; Greenwood, John; Penny, Jeffrey I; Pilkington, Geoffrey J; Carcaboso, Angel M; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Macarthur, Donald; Slavc, Irene; Meijer, Lisethe; Gill, Steven; Lowis, Stephen; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Pearl, Monica S; Clifford, Steven C; Morrissy, Sorana; Ivanov, Delyan P; Beccaria, Kévin; Gilbertson, Richard J; Straathof, Karin; Green, Jordan J; Smith, Stuart; Rahman, Ruman; Kilday, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The first Workshop on Drug Delivery in Paediatric Brain Tumours was hosted in London by the charity Children with Cancer UK. The goals of the workshop were to break down the barriers to treating central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, leading to new collaborations and further innovations in this under-represented and emotive field. These barriers include the physical delivery challenges presented by the blood–brain barrier, the underpinning reasons for the intractability of CNS cancers, and the practical difficulties of delivering cancer treatment to the brains of children. Novel techniques for overcoming these problems were discussed, new models brought forth, and experiences compared. PMID:27110286

  3. Antibody-targeted nanovectors for the treatment of brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Martyn A; Marcano, Daniela C; Berlin, Jacob M; Widmayer, Marsha A; Baskin, David S; Tour, James M

    2012-04-24

    Introduced here is the hydrophilic carbon clusters (HCCs) antibody drug enhancement system (HADES), a methodology for cell-specific drug delivery. Antigen-targeted, drug-delivering nanovectors are manufactured by combining specific antibodies with drug-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-HCCs (PEG-HCCs). We show that HADES is highly modular, as both the drug and antibody component can be varied for selective killing of a range of cultured human primary glioblastoma multiforme. Using three different chemotherapeutics and three different antibodies, without the need for covalent bonding to the nanovector, we demonstrate extreme lethality toward glioma, but minimal toxicity toward human astrocytes and neurons.

  4. In vivo brain macromolecule signals in healthy and glioblastoma mouse models: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, post-processing and metabolite quantification at 14.1 T.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Mélanie; Clément-Schatlo, Virginie; Marino, Denis; Gruetter, Rolf; Cudalbu, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    In (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, macromolecule signals underlay metabolite signals, and knowing their contribution is necessary for reliable metabolite quantification. When macromolecule signals are measured using an inversion-recovery pulse sequence, special care needs to be taken to correctly remove residual metabolite signals to obtain a pure macromolecule spectrum. Furthermore, since a single spectrum is commonly used for quantification in multiple experiments, the impact of potential macromolecule signal variability, because of regional differences or pathologies, on metabolite quantification has to be assessed. In this study, we introduced a novel method to post-process measured macromolecule signals that offers a flexible and robust way of removing residual metabolite signals. This method was applied to investigate regional differences in the mouse brain macromolecule signals that may affect metabolite quantification when not taken into account. However, since no significant differences in metabolite quantification were detected, it was concluded that a single macromolecule spectrum can be generally used for the quantification of healthy mouse brain spectra. Alternatively, the study of a mouse model of human glioma showed several alterations of the macromolecule spectrum, including, but not limited to, increased mobile lipid signals, which had to be taken into account to avoid significant metabolite quantification errors.

  5. Cancer stem cells from human glioblastoma resemble but do not mimic original tumors after in vitro passaging in serum-free media

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Rubio, Susana; Rackov, Gorjana; Rodríguez-Fanjul, Vanessa; Cruz, Jorge Oliver-De La; Prat-Acín, Ricardo; Peris-Celda, María; Blesa, David; Ramírez-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Gómez, Pilar; Perona, Rosario; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Human gliomas harbour cancer stem cells (CSCs) that evolve along the course of the disease, forming highly heterogeneous subpopulations within the tumour mass. These cells possess self-renewal properties and appear to contribute to tumour initiation, metastasis and resistance to therapy. CSC cultures isolated from surgical samples are considered the best preclinical in vitro model for primary human gliomas. However, it is not yet well characterized to which extent their biological and functional properties change during in vitro passaging in the serum-free culture conditions. Here, we demonstrate that our CSC-enriched cultures harboured from one to several CSC clones from the human glioma sample. When xenotransplanted into mouse brain, these cells generated tumours that reproduced at least three different dissemination patterns found in original tumours. Along the passages in culture, CSCs displayed increased expression of stem cell markers, different ratios of chromosomal instability events, and a varied response to drug treatment. Our findings highlight the need for better characterization of CSC-enriched cultures in the context of their evolution in vitro, in order to uncover their full potential as preclinical models in the studies aimed at identifying molecular biomarkers and developing new therapeutic approaches of human gliomas. PMID:27589567

  6. A Review of VEGF/VEGFR-Targeted Therapeutics for Recurrent Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David A.; Turner, Scott; Peters, Katherine B.; Desjardins, Annick; Gururangan, Sridharan; Sampson, John H.; McLendon, Roger E.; Herndon, James E.; Jones, Lee W.; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Friedman, Allan H.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Bigner, Darell D.; Friedman, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor among adults, is a highly angiogenic and deadly tumor. Angiogenesis in glioblastoma, driven by hypoxia-dependent and independent mechanisms, is primarily mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and generates blood vessels with distinctive features. The outcome for patients with recurrent glioblastoma is poor because of ineffective therapies. However, recent encouraging rates of radiographic response and progression-free survival, and adequate safety, led the FDA to grant accelerated approval of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF, for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in May 2009. These results have triggered significant interest in additional antiangiogenic agents and therapeutic strategies for patients with both recurrent and newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Given the potent antipermeability effect of VEGF inhibitors, the Radiologic Assessment in Neuro- Oncology (RANO) criteria were recently implemented to better assess response among patients with glioblastoma. Although bevacizumab improves survival and quality of life, eventual tumor progression is the norm. Better understanding of resistance mechanisms to VEGF inhibitors and identification of effective therapy after bevacizumab progression are currently a critical need for patients with glioblastoma. PMID:21464146

  7. Results of the Phase I Dose-Escalating Study of Motexafin Gadolinium With Standard Radiotherapy in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Judith M. Seiferheld, Wendy; Alger, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Genevieve; Endicott, Thyra J.; Mehta, Minesh; Curran, Walter; Phan, See-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is a putative radiation enhancer initially evaluated in patients with brain metastases. This Phase I trial studied the safety and tolerability of a 2-6-week course (10-22 doses) of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 glioblastoma multiforme patients received one of seven MGd regimens starting at 10 doses of 4 mg/kg/d MGd and escalating to 22 doses of 5.3 mg/kg/d MGd (5 or 10 daily doses then three times per week). The National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program toxicity and stopping rules were applied. Results: The maximal tolerated dose was 5.0 mg/kg/d MGd (5 d/wk for 2 weeks, then three times per week) for 22 doses. The dose-limiting toxicity was reversible transaminase elevation. Adverse reactions included rash/pruritus (45%), chills/fever (30%), and self-limiting vesiculobullous rash of the thumb and fingers (42%). The median survival of 17.6 months prompted a case-matched analysis. In the case-matched analysis, the MGd patients had a median survival of 16.1 months (n = 31) compared with the matched Radiation Therapy Oncology Group database patients with a median survival of 11.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.94). Conclusion: The maximal tolerated dose of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme in this study was 5 mg/kg/d for 22 doses (daily for 2 weeks, then three times weekly). The baseline survival calculations suggest progression to Phase II trials is appropriate, with the addition of MGd to radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

  8. Roles of the cyclooxygenase 2 matrix metalloproteinase 1 pathway in brain metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kerui; Fukuda, Koji; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Yingyu; Sharma, Sambad; Liu, Yin; Chan, Michael D; Zhou, Xiaobo; Qasem, Shadi A; Pochampally, Radhika; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2015-04-10

    Brain is one of the major sites of metastasis in breast cancer; however, the pathological mechanism of brain metastasis is poorly understood. One of the critical rate-limiting steps of brain metastasis is the breaching of blood-brain barrier, which acts as a selective interface between the circulation and the central nervous system, and this process is considered to involve tumor-secreted proteinases. We analyzed clinical significance of 21 matrix metalloproteinases on brain metastasis-free survival of breast cancer followed by verification in brain metastatic cell lines and found that only matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is significantly correlated with brain metastasis. We have shown that MMP1 is highly expressed in brain metastatic cells and is capable of degrading Claudin and Occludin but not Zo-1, which are key components of blood-brain barrier. Knockdown of MMP1 in brain metastatic cells significantly suppressed their ability of brain metastasis in vivo, whereas ectopic expression of MMP1 significantly increased the brain metastatic ability of the cells that are not brain metastatic. We also found that COX2 was highly up-regulated in brain metastatic cells and that COX2-induced prostaglandins were directly able to promote the expression of MMP1 followed by augmenting brain metastasis. Furthermore, we found that COX2 and prostaglandin were able to activate astrocytes to release chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7), which in turn promoted self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells in the brain and that knockdown of COX2 significantly reduced the brain metastatic ability of tumor cells. Our results suggest the COX2-MMP1/CCL7 axis as a novel therapeutic target for brain metastasis.

  9. Ex vivo cultures of glioblastoma in three-dimensional hydrogel maintain the original tumor growth behavior and are suitable for preclinical drug and radiation sensitivity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Jiguet Jiglaire, Carine; Baeza-Kallee, Nathalie; Denicolaï, Emilie; Barets, Doriane; Metellus, Philippe; and others

    2014-02-15

    Identification of new drugs and predicting drug response are major challenges in oncology, especially for brain tumors, because total surgical resection is difficult and radiation therapy or chemotherapy is often ineffective. With the aim of developing a culture system close to in vivo conditions for testing new drugs, we characterized an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system based on a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel and compared it with classical two-dimensional culture conditions. U87-MG glioblastoma cells and seven primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas were subjected to radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs. It appears that 3D hydrogel preserves the original cancer growth behavior and enables assessment of the sensitivity of malignant gliomas to radiation and drugs with regard to inter-tumoral heterogeneity of therapeutic response. It could be used for preclinical assessment of new therapies. - Highlights: • We have compared primary glioblastoma cell culture in a 2D versus 3D-matrix system. • In 3D morphology, organization and markers better recapitulate the original tumor. • 3D-matrix culture might represent a relevant system for more accurate drug screening.

  10. Cerebral cryptococcoma mimicking glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ulett, Kimberly B; Cockburn, James W J; Jeffree, Rosalind; Woods, Marion L

    2017-02-10

    Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii cause invasive fungal disease, with meningitis being the most common manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Encapsulated cryptococcomas occur rarely, predominantly in immunocompetent hosts, usually related to C. gattii Our patient was an immunocompetent man who presented with headache and a large cystic CNS lesion thought to be glioblastoma. Biopsy of a concomitant lung lesion confirmed cryptococcoma and empiric antifungal therapy was started for presumed CNS cryptococcoma. Antifungal therapy failed to shrink the CNS lesion, and surgical excision confirmed C. gattii CNS cryptococcoma. Following surgery he had complete resolution of symptoms. This case highlights that cryptococcoma cannot be distinguished from tumour on clinical or imaging findings. A combined medical and surgical approach is optimal for the management of large or surgically accessible cryptococcomas, as antifungal therapy alone is unlikely to penetrate large lesions sufficiently to lead to a cure.

  11. Cytogenomic profiling of breast cancer brain metastases reveals potential for repurposing targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Dyson, Greg; Kruger, Adele; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Choi, Lydia; Alosh, Baraa; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-06-10

    Breast cancer brain metastases remain a significant clinical problem. Chemotherapy is ineffective and a lack of treatment options result in poor patient outcomes. Targeted therapeutics have proven to be highly effective in primary breast cancer, but lack of molecular genomic characterization of metastatic brain tumors is hindering the development of new treatment regimens. Here we contribute to fill this void by reporting on gene copy number variation (CNV) in 10 breast cancer metastatic brain tumors, assayed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Results were compared to a list of cancer genes verified by others to influence cancer. Cancer gene aberrations were identified in all specimens and pathway-level analysis was applied to aggregate data, which identified stem cell pluripotency pathway enrichment and highlighted recurring, significant amplification of SOX2, PIK3CA, NTRK1, GNAS, CTNNB1, and FGFR1. For a subset of the metastatic brain tumor samples (n = 4) we compared patient-matched primary breast cancer specimens. The results of our CGH analysis and validation by alternative methods indicate that oncogenic signals driving growth of metastatic tumors exist in the original cancer. This report contributes support for more rapid development of new treatments of metastatic brain tumors, the use of genomic-based diagnostic tools and repurposed drug treatments.

  12. Pharmacology of novel small-molecule tubulin inhibitors in glioblastoma cells with enhanced EGFR signalling.

    PubMed

    Phoa, Athena F; Browne, Stephen; Gurgis, Fadi M S; Åkerfeldt, Mia C; Döbber, Alexander; Renn, Christian; Peifer, Christian; Stringer, Brett W; Day, Bryan W; Wong, Chin; Chircop, Megan; Johns, Terrance G; Kassiou, Michael; Munoz, Lenka

    2015-12-15

    We recently reported that CMPD1, originally developed as an inhibitor of MK2 activation, primarily inhibits tubulin polymerisation and induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. In the present study we provide detailed pharmacological investigation of CMPD1 analogues with improved molecular properties. We determined their anti-cancer efficacy in glioblastoma cells with enhanced EGFR signalling, as deregulated EGFR often leads to chemoresistance. Eight analogues of CMPD1 with varying lipophilicity and basicity were synthesised and tested for efficacy in the cell viability assay using established glioblastoma cell lines and patient-derived primary glioblastoma cells. The mechanism of action for the most potent analogue 15 was determined using MK2 activation and tubulin polymerisation assays, together with the immunofluorescence analysis of the mitotic spindle formation. Apoptosis was analysed by Annexin V staining, immunoblotting analysis of bcl-2 proteins and PARP cleavage. The apoptotic activity of CMPD1 and analogue 15 was comparable across glioblastoma cell lines regardless of the EGFR status. Primary glioblastoma cells of the classical subtype that are characterized by enhanced EGFR activity were most sensitive to the treatment with CMPD1 and 15. In summary, we present mechanism of action for a novel small molecule tubulin inhibitor, compound 15 that inhibits tubulin polymerisation and mitotic spindle formation, induces degradation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 proteins and leads to apoptosis of glioblastoma cells. We also demonstrate that the enhanced EGFR activity does not decrease the efficacy of tubulin inhibitors developed in this study.

  13. Clinical study and numerical simulation of brain cancer dynamics under radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocki, S.; Zubik-Kowal, B.

    2015-05-01

    We perform a clinical and numerical study of the progression of brain cancer tumor growth dynamics coupled with the effects of radiotherapy. We obtained clinical data from a sample of brain cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and compare it to our numerical simulations to a mathematical model of brain tumor cell population growth influenced by radiation treatment. We model how the body biologically receives a physically delivered dose of radiation to the affected tumorous area in the form of a generalized LQ model, modified to account for the conversion process of sublethal lesions into lethal lesions at high radiation doses. We obtain good agreement between our clinical data and our numerical simulations of brain cancer progression given by the mathematical model, which couples tumor growth dynamics and the effect of irradiation. The correlation, spanning a wide dataset, demonstrates the potential of the mathematical model to describe the dynamics of brain tumor growth influenced by radiotherapy.

  14. Eribulin Mesylate Combined with Local Treatment for Brain Metastasis from Breast Cancer: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyung-Do; Ahn, Sung Gwe; Baik, Hyung Joo; Lee, Anbok; Bae, Ki Beom; An, Min Sung; Kim, Kwang Hee; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Ha Kyoung; Cho, Heunglae; Jeong, Joon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The prognosis associated with brain metastasis arising from breast cancer is very poor. Eribulin is a microtubule dynamic inhibitor synthesized from halichondrin B, a natural marine product. In a phase III study (EMBRACE), eribulin improved overall survival in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancers. However, these studies included few patients with brain metastases. Metastatic brain tumors (MBT) were detected during first-line palliative chemotherapy in a 43-year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the lung and mediastinal nodes; the genetic subtype was luminal B-like human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by eribulin treatment continuously decreased the size, and induced regression, of the MBT with systemic disease stability for 12 months. Another 48-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer (HER2+ subtype) presented with MBT. Following surgical resection of the tumor, eribulin with concurrent WBRT showed regression of the MBT without systemic progression for 18 months.

  15. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  16. Prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme using textural properties on MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Maysam

    This thesis addresses the challenge of prognosis, in terms of survival prediction, for patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme brain tumors. Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor, which has a median survival time of no more than a year. Accurate assessment of prognostic factors is critical in deciding amongst different treatment options and in designing stratified clinical trials. This thesis is motivated by two observations. Firstly, clinicians often refer to properties of glioblastoma tumors based on magnetic resonance images when assessing prognosis. However, clinical data, along with histological and most recently, molecular and gene expression data, have been more widely and systematically studied and used in prognosis assessment than image based information. Secondly, patient survival times are often used along with clinical data to conduct population studies on brain tumor patients. Recursive Partitioning Analysis is typically used in these population studies. However, researchers validate and assess the predictive power of these models by measuring the statistical association between survival groups and survival times. In this thesis, we propose a learning approach that uses historical training data to produce a system that predicts patient survival. We introduce a classification model for predicting patient survival class, which uses texture based features extracted from magnetic resonance images as well as other patient properties. Our prognosis approach is novel as it is the first to use image-extracted textural characteristics of glioblastoma scans, in a classification model whose accuracy can be reliably validated by cross validation. We show that our approach is a promising new direction for prognosis in brain tumor patients

  17. Computational Trials: Unraveling Motility Phenotypes, Progression Patterns, and Treatment Options for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Fabio; Scribner, Elizabeth; Saut, Olivier; Wenger, Cornelia; Colin, Thierry; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis and high morbidity due to its invasiveness. Hypoxia-driven motility and concentration-driven motility are two mechanisms of glioblastoma multiforme invasion in the brain. The use of anti-angiogenic drugs has uncovered new progression patterns of glioblastoma multiforme associated with significant differences in overall survival. Here, we apply a mathematical model of glioblastoma multiforme growth and invasion in humans and design computational trials using agents that target angiogenesis, tumor replication rates, or motility. The findings link highly-dispersive, moderately-dispersive, and hypoxia-driven tumors to the patterns observed in glioblastoma multiforme treated by anti-angiogenesis, consisting of progression by Expanding FLAIR, Expanding FLAIR + Necrosis, and Expanding Necrosis, respectively. Furthermore, replication rate-reducing strategies (e.g. Tumor Treating Fields) appear to be effective in highly-dispersive and moderately-dispersive tumors but not in hypoxia-driven tumors. The latter may respond to motility-reducing agents. In a population computational trial, with all three phenotypes, a correlation was observed between the efficacy of the rate-reducing agent and the prolongation of overall survival times. This research highlights the potential applications of computational trials and supports new hypotheses on glioblastoma multiforme phenotypes and treatment options. PMID:26756205

  18. Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Brain: a Comprehensive Approach to the Signaling Network.

    PubMed

    Tayyeb, Bahrami; Parvin, Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    There is a general consensus that breast cancer is a rising trend disease in the world. It is one of the most common cancer types and is the leading cause of death among women's cancers. There are several reasons for this high rate of mortality including metastasis which is responsible for about 90 % of cancer-related mortality. Therefore, recognition and understanding of metastatic process is important, and by considering the key role of pathophysiological route in metastasis as a multistep cascade of "invasion-metastasis," it might modify and improve our insight toward this complex phenomenon. Moreover, it can provide novel approaches for designing advanced targeted therapies. The present work aimed to review the published papers regarding molecular basis of metastatic process of breast cancer to brain metastasis, especially related genes and signaling network. Furthermore, the use of molecular aspects of metastatic breast cancer to brain was discussed in horizon of future treatment of breast cancer.

  19. [Epidermic growth factor receptor (EGFR) in glioblastomas: the mechanism of tumorigenesis and its role as a therapeutic target].

    PubMed

    Zahonero, Cristina; Sepúlveda, Juan M; Sánchez-Gómez, Pilar

    2015-07-16

    A glioblastoma is a primary brain tumour that is very aggressive and resistant to conventional treatment with chemo- or radiotherapy. Given that epidermic growth factor receptor (EGFR) is altered in 50% of glioblastomas, it is currently one of the most promising therapeutic targets in this kind of tumour. Yet, inhibitors of the kinase activity of EGFR have yielded poor results in clinical trials with patients with glioblastomas. In this review we analyse the function of EGFR in glioblastomas and outline the therapeutic approaches aimed against this receptor in this kind of tumour. This sort of analysis could be a starting point for improving the design of future therapies for glioblastomas, based on inhibiting the EGFR function.

  20. Oncogenic role of Merlin/NF2 in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, P A; Yin, W; Camacho, L; Marchetti, D

    2015-05-14

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a poor prognosis because of its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Merlin/NF2 (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein/neurofibromatosis type 2) is a tumor suppressor found to be mutated in most nervous system tumors; however, it is not mutated in glioblastomas. Merlin associates with several transmembrane receptors and intracellular proteins serving as an anchoring molecule. Additionally, it acts as a key component of cell motility. By selecting sub-populations of U251 glioblastoma cells, we observed that high expression of phosphorylated Merlin at serine 518 (S518-Merlin), NOTCH1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlated with increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These cells were defective in cell-contact inhibition with changes in Merlin phosphorylation directly affecting NOTCH1 and EGFR expression, as well as downstream targets HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1) and CCND1 (cyclin D1). Of note, we identified a function for S518-Merlin, which is distinct from what has been reported when the expression of Merlin is diminished in relation to EGFR and NOTCH1 expression, providing first-time evidence that demonstrates that the phosphorylation of S518-Merlin in glioblastoma promotes oncogenic properties that are not only the result of inactivation of the tumor suppressor role of Merlin but also an independent process implicating a Merlin-driven regulation of NOTCH1 and EGFR.

  1. Glioblastoma multiforme: relationship to subventricular zone and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Margareth; Lee, Yeuh; Miller, Ryan; Castillo, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is active in two areas: the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. Cancer stem cells have been isolated from malignant brain tumors and it is widely believed they arise from transformed endogenous stem cells. We sought to determine if the initial location of glioblastoma (GB) as seen on conventional MRI and its relationship to the subventricular zone (SVZ) predicts the pattern of recurrence. We analyzed the initial (prior to any treatment) and last follow-up MR studies in 49 patients with GB. On post contrast images all non-treated GB were divided into three groups according to the relationship of their enhancing margins to the SVZ: Group I (directly in contact with the SVZ), Group II (in the subcortical [SC] region) and Group III (in both the SVZ and SC regions). Recurrences or continuous growth seen as enhancing areas on follow-up studies were characterized as local, spread, or distant according to their contact with the surgical bed and correlated with the locations of the initial tumors. Local and spread patterns of recurrence occurred with nearly equal frequency (45 and 43% each, respectively) and distant in 12%. In Group I, 80% showed a spread pattern, 20% a local pattern, and none a distant pattern. In Group II, 45% showed a spread pattern, 35% a local pattern, and a 20% distant one. In Group III, 58% showed a local pattern, 33% a spread pattern, and 8% distant one. Unlike other reports, the location of GB in relation to the SVZ in our patients did not predict the pattern of tumor recurrence and/or extension in our patients.

  2. Androgen receptor signaling regulates growth of glioblastoma multiforme in men.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Yuhua; Wei, Wei; Cong, Ping; Ding, Yinlu; Xiang, Lei; Wu, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Although glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary human brain cancer with surprisingly high incidence rate in adult men than in women, the exact mechanism underlying this pronounced epidemiology is unclear. Here, we showed significant upregulated androgen receptor (AR) expression in the GBM tissue compared to the periphery normal brain tissue in patients. An expression of AR was further detected in all eight examined human GBM cell lines. To figure out whether AR signaling may play a role in GBM, we used high AR-expressing U87-MG GBM line for further study. We found that activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling by TGFβ1 in GBM significantly inhibited cell growth and increased apoptosis. Moreover, application of active AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) significantly decreased the effect of TGFβ1 on GBM growth and apoptosis, suggesting that AR signaling pathway may contradict the effect of TGFβ receptor signaling in GBM. However, neither total protein nor the phosphorylated protein of SMAD3, a major TGFβ receptor signaling downstream effector in GBM, was affected by DHT, suggesting that AR activation may not affect the SMAD3 protein production or phosphorylation of TGFβ receptor and SMAD3. Finally, immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot confirmed binding of pAR to pSMAD3, which may prevent the DNA binding of pSMAD3 and subsequently prevent its effect on cell growth in GBM. Taken together, our study suggests that AR signaling may promote tumorigenesis of GBM in adult men by inhibiting TGFβ receptor signaling.

  3. Promising approaches to circumvent the blood-brain barrier: progress, pitfalls and clinical prospects in brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Papademetriou, Iason T; Porter, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    Brain drug delivery is a major challenge for therapy of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Biochemical modifications of drugs or drug nanocarriers, methods of local delivery, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption with focused ultrasound and microbubbles are promising approaches which enhance transport or bypass the BBB. These approaches are discussed in the context of brain cancer as an example in CNS drug development. Targeting to receptors enabling transport across the BBB offers noninvasive delivery of small molecule and biological cancer therapeutics. Local delivery methods enable high dose delivery while avoiding systemic exposure. BBB disruption with focused ultrasound and microbubbles offers local and noninvasive treatment. Clinical trials show the prospects of these technologies and point to challenges for the future. PMID:26488496

  4. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Locasale, Jason W.; Weihua, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain-metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the non-oxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPs) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis, and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients. PMID:25511375

  5. Transferrin receptor-targeted vitamin E TPGS micelles for brain cancer therapy: preparation, characterization and brain distribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Sonali; Agrawal, Poornima; Singh, Rahul Pratap; Rajesh, Chellappa V; Singh, Sanjay; Vijayakumar, Mahalingam R; Pandey, Bajrangprasad L; Muthu, Madaswamy Sona

    2016-06-01

    The effective treatment of brain cancer is hindered by the poor transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the low penetration across the blood-tumor barrier (BTB). The objective of this work was to formulate transferrin-conjugated docetaxel (DTX)-loaded d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) micelles for targeted brain cancer therapy. The micelles with and without transferrin conjugation were prepared by the solvent casting method and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, in vitro release study and brain distribution study. Particle sizes of prepared micelles were determined at 25 °C by dynamic light scattering technique. The external surface morphology was determined by transmission electron microscopy analysis and atomic force microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by spectrophotometery. In vitro release studies of micelles and control formulations were carried out by dialysis bag diffusion method. The particle sizes of the non-targeted and targeted micelles were <20 nm. About 85% of drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved with micelles. The drug release from transferrin-conjugated micelles was sustained for >24 h with 50% of drug release. The in vivo results indicated that transferrin-targeted TPGS micelles could be a promising carrier for brain targeting due to nano-sized drug delivery, solubility enhancement and permeability which provided an improved and prolonged brain targeting of DTX in comparison to the non-targeted micelles and marketed formulation.

  6. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lilie Lin, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pennsylvania...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 to 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to estimate the degree of residual hypoxia after whole brain radiation therapy in patients

  7. Multimodal Imaging of Pathophysiological Changes and Their Role in Development of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    time when systemic disease is under good control. In part, this may be du e to the fact that chemotherapeutic agents that show efficacy against...systemic disease , may have p oor penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which means that breast cancer metastasis in the brain may remain untreated...located betw een parenchyma and leptomeninges Metastatic lesions at brain parenchyma sho wed significan tly more perfusion, as compared to those l

  8. [Results of postoperative radiochemotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme].

    PubMed

    Lövey, József; Fedorcsák, Imre; Bajcsay, András; Sipos, László; Mangel, László; Kásler, Miklós; Bagó, Attila

    2013-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme has one of the worst prognoses of all cancers. A substantial progression in its treatment has been achieved only eight years ago when a new adjuvant radiochemotherapy regimen containing temozolomid has been introduced to the clinical practice. In this paper we evaluate the treatment results in adjuvant radiochemotherapy of glioblastoma carried out by two neurosurgery and oncology centers in Budapest, Hungary and we compared our results to the data of the reference phase III registration trial of the EORTC/NCIC. We analyzed the data of 210 patients treated for glioblastoma between 2005 and 2013. The primary endpoints of our study were overall survival and side effects. We studied and statistically analyzed the influence of multiple factors on survival. We compared our results with the data of the reference study and other results published in the literature. The median follow-up for the surviving patients in our study was 52 months. The median age of our patients was 58 (18-79) years. Seventy-two women and 138 men have been treated. The median overall survival was 17 (3-96) months, the progression-free survival 11 (3-96) months. The radiochemotherapy phase was completed in 95.2% and the monotherapy phase in 68% of all cases.Univariate analysis showed that age, ECOG status and RPA class had significant influence on survival. In multivariate analysis only RPA class remained statistically significant (RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.14-3.05). The proportion of grade III and worse side effects during the chemoradiation phase was 3.8% and in the monotherapy phase 1.9%. These were hematological side effects only. Serious hematological sequelae occurred nearly exclusively in women. Comparing to the reference study the demographic distribution of the patients was similar in our study but among our patients there were less patients with unfavorable prognosis (ECOG 2 or RPA V), and it resulted in a longer median survival than in the original trial (17 vs. 14

  9. Reciprocal regulation of the cholinic phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Katharina; Hartmann, Rudolf; Schröter, Friederike; Suwala, Abigail Kora; Maciaczyk, Donata; Krüger, Andrea Caroline; Willbold, Dieter; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor with very limited therapeutic options. Standard multimodal treatments, including surgical resection and combined radio-chemotherapy do not target the most aggressive subtype of glioma cells, brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). BTSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and relapse. Furthermore, they have been associated with the expression of mesenchymal features as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) thereby inducing tumor dissemination and chemo resistance. Using high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) on GBM cell cultures we provide evidence that the expression of well-known EMT activators of the ZEB, TWIST and SNAI families and EMT target genes N-cadherin and VIMENTIN is associated with aberrant choline metabolism. The cholinic phenotype is characterized by high intracellular levels of phosphocholine and total choline derivatives and was associated with malignancy in various cancers. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the cardinal choline metabolism regulator choline kinase alpha (CHKα) significantly reduces the cell viability, invasiveness, clonogenicity, and expression of EMT associated genes in GBM cells. Moreover, in some cell lines synergetic cytotoxic effects were observed when combining the standard of care chemotherapeutic temozolomide with the CHKα inhibitor V-11-0711. Taken together, specific inhibition of the enzymatic activity of CHKα is a powerful strategy to suppress EMT which opens the possibility to target chemo-resistant BTSCs through impairing their mesenchymal transdifferentiation. Moreover, the newly identified EMT-oncometabolic network may be helpful to monitor the invasive properties of glioblastomas and the success of anti-EMT therapy. PMID:27705917

  10. Detection of MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hao; Tubbs, Raymond; Yang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials on patients with glioblastoma revealed that O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status significantly predicts patient's response to alkylating agents. In this study, we sought to develop and validate a quantitative MGMT methylation assay using pyrosequencing on glioblastoma. We quantified promoter methylation of MGMT using pyrosequencing on paraffin-embedded fine needle aspiration biopsy tissues from 43 glioblastoma. Using a 10% cutoff, MGMT methylation was identified in 37% cases of glioblastoma and 0% of the non-neoplastic epileptic tissue. Methylation of any individual CpG island in MGMT promoter ranged between 33% and 95%, with a mean of 65%. By a serial dilution of genomic DNA of a homogenously methylated cancer cell line with an unmethylated cell line, the analytical sensitivity is at 5% for pyrosequencing to detect MGMT methylation. The minimal amount of genomic DNA required is 100 ng (approximately 3,000 cells) in small fine needle biopsy specimens. Compared with methylation-specific PCR, pyrosequencing is comparably sensitive, relatively specific, and also provides quantitative information for each CpG methylation.

  11. Detection of MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hao; Tubbs, Raymond; Yang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials on patients with glioblastoma revealed that O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status significantly predicts patient's response to alkylating agents. In this study, we sought to develop and validate a quantitative MGMT methylation assay using pyrosequencing on glioblastoma. We quantified promoter methylation of MGMT using pyrosequencing on paraffin-embedded fine needle aspiration biopsy tissues from 43 glioblastoma. Using a 10% cutoff, MGMT methylation was identified in 37% cases of glioblastoma and 0% of the non-neoplastic epileptic tissue. Methylation of any individual CpG island in MGMT promoter ranged between 33% and 95%, with a mean of 65%. By a serial dilution of genomic DNA of a homogenously methylated cancer cell line with an unmethylated cell line, the analytical sensitivity is at 5% for pyrosequencing to detect MGMT methylation. The minimal amount of genomic DNA required is 100 ng (approximately 3,000 cells) in small fine needle biopsy specimens. Compared with methylation-specific PCR, pyrosequencing is comparably sensitive, relatively specific, and also provides quantitative information for each CpG methylation.

  12. The Dynamics of Interactions Among Immune and Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Eder, Katalin; Kalman, Bernadette

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common intracranial malignancy that constitutes about 50 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive, multimodal therapy consisting of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the outcome of patients with glioblastoma remains poor with 5-year survival rates of <10 %. Resistance to conventional therapies is most likely caused by several factors. Alterations in the functions of local immune mediators may represent a critical contributor to this resistance. The tumor microenvironment contains innate and adaptive immune cells in addition to the cancer cells and their surrounding stroma. These various cells communicate with each other by means of direct cell-cell contact or by soluble factors including cytokines and chemokines, and act in autocrine and paracrine manners to modulate tumor growth. There are dynamic interactions among the local immune elements and the tumor cells, where primarily the protective immune cells attempt to overcome the malignant cells. However, by developing somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications, the glioblastoma tumor cells acquire the capability of counteracting the local immune responses, and even exploit the immune cells and products for their own growth benefits. In this review, we survey those immune mechanisms that likely contribute to glioblastoma pathogenesis and may serve as a basis for novel treatment strategies.

  13. Salinomycin encapsulated nanoparticles as a targeting vehicle for glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tığlı Aydın, R Seda; Kaynak, Gökçe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2016-02-01

    Salinomycin has been introduced as a novel alternative to traditional anti-cancer drugs. The aim of this study was to test a strategy designed to deliver salinomycin to glioblastoma cells in vitro. Salinomycin-encapsulated polysorbate 80-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (P80-SAL-PLGA) were prepared and characterized with respect to particle size, morphology, thermal properties, drug encapsulation efficiency and controlled salinomycin-release behaviour. The in vitro cellular uptake of P80-SAL-PLGA (5 and 10 µM) or uncoated nanoparticles was assessed in T98G human glioblastoma cells, and the cell viability was investigated with respect to anti-growth activities. SAL, which was successfully transported to T98G glioblastoma cells via P80 coated nanoparticles (∼14% within 60 min), greatly decreased (p < 0.01) the cellular viability of T98G cells. Substantial morphological changes were observed in the T98G cells with damaged actin cytoskeleton. Thus, P80-SAL-PLGA nanoparticles induced cell death, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for this salinomycin delivery system in the treatment of human glioblastoma.

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin β induces cell motility via ERK1/2 and MMP-2 activation in human glioblastoma U87MG cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongwen; Du, Lianlian; Li, Chunliu; Wu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin β (hCGβ) promotes tumorigenesis in a variety of tumors including glioblastoma, breast and prostate cancer cells, etc. However, the involved mechanisms remain elusive. Distinct from the other tumors, glioblastoma is a highly invasive brain tumor; invasion causes high recurrence and mortality. Characterization of hCGβ signaling is to determine therapeutic targets to inhibit invasion and lower recurrence. Through both a stable cell line over-expressing hCGβ and hCGβ standards, we tested hCGβ signaling, migration and invasion in human glioblastoma U87MG cells. ELISA showed that hCGβ secreted into culture medium at an amount of 237.8 ± 7.8 ng/10(7) cells in hCGβ transfected stable cells after the cells were grown for 24 h. Through Western blot and Gelatin zymography, we found that hCGβ standards phosphorylated ERK1/2 and upregulated MMP-2 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, overexpressed hCGβ phosphorylated ERK1/2, and upregulated MMP-2 expression and activity, whereas ERK1/2 blocker PD98059 (25 μM) significantly decreased both ERK1/2 and MMP-2 expression and activity. In addition, in the same conditions as the signaling test, hCGβ promoted cell migration and invasion, whereas the PD98059 diminished these effects. These findings demonstrated that hCGβ phosphorylated ERK1/2 upregulating MMP-2 expression and activity leading to cell migration and invasion, suggesting that hCGβ, ERK1/2 and MMP-2 are the potential targets to inhibit glioblastoma invasion.

  15. Towards image-guided photodynamic therapy of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Liu, Joyce; Mai, Zhiming; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer with dismal survival rates and few new treatment options. Fluorescence guided resection of GBM followed by photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown promise in several chemo- or radiotherapy non-responsive GBM treatments clinically. PDT is an emerging light and photosensitizer (PS) mediated cytotoxic method. However, as with other therapeutic modalities, the outcomes are variable largely due to the nonpersonalization of dose parameters. The variability can be attributed to the differences in heterogeneous photosensitizer accumulation in tumors. Building upon our previous findings on utilizing PS fluorescence for designing tumor-specific PDT dose, we explore the use of photoacoustic imaging, a technique that provides contrast based on the tissue optical absorption properties, to obtain 3D information on the tumoral photosensitizer accumulation. The findings of this study will form the basis for customized photodynamic therapy for glioblastoma and have the potential to serve as a platform for treatment of other cancers.

  16. Where are we now? And where are we going? A report from the Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure (ABC2) low-grade glioma research workshop.

    PubMed

    Huse, Jason T; Wallace, Max; Aldape, Kenneth D; Berger, Mitchel S; Bettegowda, Chetan; Brat, Daniel J; Cahill, Daniel P; Cloughesy, Timothy; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Marra, Marco; Miller, C Ryan; Nelson, Sarah J; Salama, Sofie R; Soffietti, Riccardo; Wen, Patrick Y; Yip, Stephen; Yen, Katharine; Costello, Joseph F; Chang, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse gliomas consist of both low- and high-grade varieties, each with distinct morphological and biological features. The often extended periods of relative indolence exhibited by low-grade gliomas (LGG; WHO grade II) differ sharply from the aggressive, rapidly fatal clinical course of primary glioblastoma (GBM; WHO grade IV). Nevertheless, until recently, the molecular foundations underlying this stark biological contrast between glioma variants remained largely unknown. The discoveries of distinctive and highly recurrent genomic and epigenomic abnormalities in LGG have both informed a more accurate classification scheme and pointed to viable avenues for therapeutic development. As such, the field of neuro-oncology now seems poised to capitalize on these gains to achieve significant benefit for LGG patients. This report will briefly recount the proceedings of a workshop held in January 2013 and hosted by Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure (ABC(2)) on the subject of LGG. While much of the meeting covered recent insights into LGG biology, its focus remained on how best to advance the clinical management, whether by improved preclinical modeling, more effective targeted therapeutics and clinical trial design, or innovative imaging technology.

  17. Gene expressions of TRP channels in glioblastoma multiforme and relation with survival.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, M; Eroglu, S; Tutar, E; Sencan, S; Geyik, M A; Ulasli, M; Demiryurek, A T; Camci, C

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer in humans, with a median survival of 10 to 12 months. Glioblastoma is highly malignant since the cells are supported by a great number of blood vessels. Although new treatments have been developed by increasing knowledge of molecular nature of the disease, surgical operation remains the standard of care. The TRP (transient receptor potential) superfamily consists of cation-selective channels that have roles in sensory physiology such as thermo- and osmosensation and in several complex diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neuronal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of TRP channel genes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme and to evaluate the relationship between TRP gene expressions and survival of the patients. Thirty-three patients diagnosed with glioblastoma were enrolled to the study. The expression levels of 21 TRP genes were quantified by using qRT-PCR with dynamic array 48 × 48 chip (BioMark HD System, Fluidigm, South San Francisco, CA, USA). TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, and TRPV2 were found significantly higher in glioblastoma patients. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the overexpression of TRP genes and the survival of the patients. These results demonstrate for the first time that TRP channels contribute to the progression and survival of the glioblastoma patients.

  18. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes V, Aurelio A.; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating ‘invisible’ migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  19. A novel brain tumour model in zebrafish reveals the role of YAP activation in MAPK- and PI3K-induced malignant growth

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Marie; Gourain, Victor; Reischl, Markus; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Benelli, Matteo; Demichelis, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Sieger, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Somatic mutations activating MAPK and PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumours based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK and PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells and found that HRASV12 was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho (p)-ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component. Application of an eight-gene signature to human brain tumours establishes that YAP activation distinguishes between mesenchymal glioblastoma and low grade glioma in a wide The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sample set including gliomas and glioblastomas (GBMs). This suggests that the activation of YAP might be an important event in brain tumour development, promoting malignant versus benign brain lesions. Indeed, co-expression of dominant-active YAP (YAPS5A) and HRASV12 abolishes the development of heterotopias and leads to the sole development of aggressive tumours. Thus, we have developed a model proving that neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumours might originate from the same activation of oncogenes through somatic mutations, and established that YAP activation is a hallmark of malignant brain tumours. PMID:27935819

  20. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 18F-EF5 in cancer patients with preliminary comparison of 18F-EF5 uptake versus EF5 binding in human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Cameron J.; Scheuermann, Joshua S.; Divgi, Chaitanya; Judy, Kevin D.; Kachur, Alexander V.; Freifelder, Richard; Reddin, Janet S.; Karp, Joel; Stubbs, James B.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Driesbaugh, Jason; Smith, Deborah; Prendergast, Susan; Evans, Sydney M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to assess the biodistribution and radiation dose resulting from administration of 18F-EF5, a lipophilic 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker in ten cancer patients. For three of these patients (with glioblastoma) unlabeled EF5 was additionally administered to allow the comparative assessment of 18F-EF5 tumor uptake with EF5 binding, the latter measured in tumor biopsies by fluorescent anti-EF5 monoclonal antibodies. Methods 18F-EF5 was synthesized by electrophilic addition of 18F2 gas, made by deuteron bombardment of a neon/fluorine mixture in a high-pressure gas target, to an allyl precursor in trifluoroacetic acid at 0° then purified and administered by intravenous bolus. Three whole-body images were collected for each of ten patients using an Allegro (Philips) scanner. Gamma counts were determined in blood, drawn during each image, and urine, pooled as a single sample. PET images were analyzed to determine radiotracer uptake in several tissues and the resulting radiation dose calculated using OLINDA software and standard phantom. For three patients, 21 mg/kg unlabeled EF5 was administered after the PET scans, and tissue samples obtained the next day at surgery to determine EF5 binding using immunohistochemistry techniques (IHC). Results EF5 distributes evenly throughout soft tissue within minutes of injection. Its concentration in blood over the typical time frame of the study (~3.5 h) was nearly constant, consistent with a previously determined EF5 plasma half-life of ~13 h. Elimination was primarily via urine and bile. Radiation exposure from labeled EF5 is similar to other 18F-labeled imaging agents (e.g., FDG and FMISO). In a de novo glioblastoma multiforme patient, focal uptake of 18F-EF5 was confirmed by IHC. Conclusion These results confirm predictions of biodistribution and safety based on EF5's characteristics (high biological stability, high lipophilicity). EF5 is a novel hypoxia marker with unique

  1. Glioblastoma: Overview of Disease and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. Current treatment options at diagnosis are multimodal and include surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy. Significant advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology of GBM and associated cell signaling pathways have opened opportunities for new therapies for recurrent and newly diagnosed disease. Innovative treatments, such as tumor-treating fields (TTFields) and immunotherapy, give hope for enhanced survival. Objectives This article reviews the background, risks, common complications, and treatment options for GBM. Methods A brief review of GBM, treatment options, and a look at new therapies that have been approved for new and recurrent disease are included in this article. Findings Despite aggressive resection and combined modality adjuvant treatment, most GBMs recur. Treatments, such as TTFields, drugs to target molecular receptors, and immunotherapy, are promising new options. PMID:27668386

  2. Radiosensitisation by pharmacological ascorbate in glioblastoma multiforme cells, human glial cells, and HUVECs depends on their antioxidant and DNA repair capabilities and is not cancer specific.

    PubMed

    Castro, M Leticia; McConnell, Melanie J; Herst, Patries M

    2014-09-01

    We previously showed that 5 mM ascorbate radiosensitized early passage radioresistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells derived from one patient tumor. Here we investigate the sensitivity of a panel of cell lines to 5 mM ascorbate and 6 Gy ionizing radiation, made up of three primary human GBM cells, three GBM cell lines, a human glial cell line, and primary human vascular endothelial cells. The response of different cells lines to ascorbate and/or radiation was determined by measuring viability, colony-forming ability, generation and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs), cell cycle progression, antioxidant capacity and generation of reactive oxygen species. Individually, radiation and ascorbate both decreased viability and clonogenicity by inducing DNA damage, but had differential effects on cell cycle progression. Radiation led to G2/M arrest in most cells whereas ascorbate caused accumulation in S phase, which was moderately associated with poor DSB repair. While high dose ascorbate radiosensitized all cell lines in clonogenic assays, the sensitivity to radiation, high dose ascorbate, and combined treatment varied between cell lines. Normal glial cells were similar to GBM cells with respect to free radical scavenging potential and effect of treatment on DNA damage and repair, viability, and clonogenicity. Both GBM cells and normal cells coped equally poorly with oxidative stress caused by radiation and/or high dose ascorbate, dependent primarily on their antioxidant and DSB repair capacity.

  3. Combined inhibition of AKT/mTOR and MDM2 enhances Glioblastoma Multiforme cell apoptosis and differentiation of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Simona; Costa, Barbara; Zappelli, Elisa; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Sestito, Simona; Nesi, Giulia; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Rapposelli, Simona; Martini, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The poor prognosis of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is due to a high resistance to conventional treatments and to the presence of a subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Combination therapies targeting survival/self-renewal signals of GBM and GSCs are emerging as useful tools to improve GBM treatment. In this context, the hyperactivated AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) and the inhibited wild-type p53 appear to be good candidates. Herein, the interaction between these pathways was investigated, using the novel AKT/mTOR inhibitor FC85 and ISA27, which re-activates p53 functionality by blocking its endogenous inhibitor murine double minute 2 homologue (MDM2). In GBM cells, FC85 efficiently inhibited AKT/mTOR signalling and reactivated p53 functionality, triggering cellular apoptosis. The combined therapy with ISA27 produced a synergic effect on the inhibition of cell viability and on the reactivation of p53 pathway. Most importantly, FC85 and ISA27 blocked proliferation and promoted the differentiation of GSCs. The simultaneous use of these compounds significantly enhanced GSC differentiation/apoptosis. These findings suggest that FC85 actively enhances the downstream p53 signalling and that a combination strategy aimed at inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and re-activating p53 signalling is potentially effective in GBM and in GSCs. PMID:25898313

  4. Differentiation of cancerous and normal brain tissue using label free fluorescence and Stokes shift spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Leana; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Yu, Xinguang; Cheng, Gangge; Wang, Peng; Shu, Cheng; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    In this report, optical biopsy was applied to diagnose human brain cancer in vitro for the identification of brain cancer from normal tissues by native fluorescence and Stokes shift spectra (SSS). 77 brain specimens including three types of human brain tissues (normal, glioma and brain metastasis of lung cancers) were studied. In order to observe spectral changes of fluorophores via fluorescence, the selected excitation wavelength of UV at 300 and 340 nm for emission spectra and a different Stokes Shift spectra with intervals Δλ = 40 nm were measured. The fluorescence spectra and SSS from multiple key native molecular markers, such as tryptophan, collagen, NADH, alanine, ceroid and lipofuscin were observed in normal and diseased brain tissues. Two diagnostic criteria were established based on the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both fluorescence and SSS spectra. It was observed that the ratio of the spectral peak intensity of tryptophan (340 nm) to NADH (440 nm) increased in glioma, meningioma (benign), malignant meninges tumor, and brain metastasis of lung cancer tissues in comparison with normal tissues. The ratio of the SS spectral peak (Δλ = 40 nm) intensities from 292 nm to 366 nm had risen similarly in all grades of tumors.

  5. Immunotherapy of brain cancers: the past, the present, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Bota, Daniela A; Natividad, Josephine; Howat, Andrew; Jadus, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of brain cancers, especially high grade gliomas (WHO stage III and IV) is slowly making progress, but not as fast as medical researchers and the patients would like. Immunotherapy offers the opportunity to allow the patient's own immune system a chance to help eliminate the cancer. Immunotherapy's strength is that it efficiently treats relatively small tumors in experimental animal models. For some patients, immunotherapy has worked for them while not showing long-term toxicity. In this paper, we will trace the history of immunotherapy for brain cancers. We will also highlight some of the possible directions that this field may be taking in the immediate future for improving this therapeutic option.

  6. [Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
with Brain Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi; Jiao, Shunchang; Li, Fang

    2016-08-20

    Brain metastasis, a common complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an incidence rate of 30%-50%, significantly affects the patients' quality of life. The prognosis of patients of NSCLC with brain metastasis is extremely poor, the average median survival is only 1 m-2 m without treatment. The targeted therapy based on lung cancer driven gene is a new treatment. Besides, the immunotherapy which can enhance the effect of anti-cancer by simulating the immune system is a new approach. The combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy can greatly benefit patients in clinical work.

  7. An integrative characterization of recurrent molecular aberrations in glioblastoma genomes.

    PubMed

    Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between 'effector' molecular aberrations and 'target' gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior studies attempted to combine copy number variation (CNV) and mRNA expression data. However, systematic methods to integrate multiple types of cancer genomic data-gene mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, CNVs, DNA methylations, mRNA and microRNA expressions and clinical information-are relatively scarce. We proposed an algorithm to build 'association modules' linking effector molecular aberrations and target gene expressions and applied the module-finding algorithm to the integrated TCGA GBM data sets. The inferred association modules were validated by six tests using external information and datasets of central nervous system tumors: (i) indication of prognostic effects among patients; (ii) coherence of target gene expressions; (iii) retention of effector-target associations in external data sets; (iv) recurrence of effector molecular aberrations in GBM; (v) functional enrichment of target genes; and (vi) co-citations between effectors and targets. Modules associated with well-known molecular aberrations of GBM-such as chromosome 7 amplifications, chromosome 10 deletions, EGFR and NF1 mutations-passed the majority of the validation tests. Furthermore, several modules associated with less well-reported molecular aberrations-such as chromosome 11 CNVs, CD40, PLXNB1 and GSTM1 methylations, and mir-21 expressions-were also validated by external information. In particular, modules constituting trans-acting effects with chromosome 11 CNVs and cis-acting effects with chromosome

  8. MSX1 inhibits cell migration and invasion through regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Haiquan; Guo, Li; Chen, Lifeng; Qiao, Guangyu; Meng, Xianghui; Xu, Bainan; Ye, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a type of primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. The hallmark phenotype of glioblastoma is its aggressive invasion. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the invasion behavior of glioblastoma is essential for the development of effective treatment of the disease. In our present study, we found that the expression levels of a homeobox transcription factor, MSX1, were significantly reduced in glioblastoma compared to normal brain tissues. The levels of MSX1 in glioblastoma tissues were also correlated with the survival of the patients. In cultured glioblastoma cells, MSX1 was a negative regulator of cell migration and invasion. Loss of MSX1 enhanced cell migration and induced mesenchymal transition as characterized by the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of N-cadherin. Overexpression of MSX1 on the other hand led to the inhibition of both cell migration and mesenchymal transition. We also found that MSX1 was able to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and that the ability to regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is critical for MSX1 to suppress glioblastoma cell migration and invasion.

  9. A clinical analysis of brain metastasis in gynecologic cancer: a retrospective multi-institute analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Zoon; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lim, Soyi

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the clinical characteristics of the brain metastasis (BM) of gynecologic cancer based on the type of cancer. In addition, the study examines the factors influencing the survival. Total 61 BM patients of gynecologic cancer were analyzed retrospectively from January 2000 to December 2012 in terms of clinical and radiological characteristics by using medical and radiological records from three university hospitals. There were 19 (31.1%) uterine cancers, 32 (52.5%) ovarian cancers, and 10 (16.4%) cervical cancers. The mean interval to BM was 25.4 months (21.6 months in ovarian cancer, 27.8 months in uterine cancer, and 33.1 months in cervical cancer). The mean survival from BM was 16.7 months (14.1 months in ovarian cancer, 23.3 months in uterine cancer, and 8.8 months in cervical cancer). According to a multivariate analysis of factors influencing survival, type of primary cancer, Karnofsky performance score, status of primary cancer, recursive partitioning analysis class, and treatment modality, particularly combined therapies, were significantly related to the overall survival. These results suggest that, in addition to traditional prognostic factors in BM, multiple treatment methods such as neurosurgery and combined chemoradiotherapy may play an important role in prolonging the survival for BM patients of gynecologic cancer.

  10. Identification of ATP Citrate Lyase as a Positive Regulator of Glycolytic Function in Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Beckner, Marie E.; Fellows-Mayle, Wendy; Zhang, Zhe; Agostino, Naomi R.; Kant, Jeffrey A.; Day, Billy W.; Pollack, Ian F.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastomas, the most malignant type of glioma, are more glycolytic than normal brain tissue. Robust migration of glioblastoma cells has been previously demonstrated under glycolytic conditions and their pseudopodia contain increased glycolytic and decreased mitochondrial enzymes. Glycolysis is suppressed by metabolic acids, including citric acid which is excluded from mitochondria during hypoxia. We postulated that glioma cells maintain glycolysis by regulating metabolic acids, especially in their pseudopodia. The enzyme that breaks down cytosolic citric acid is ATP citrate lyase (ACLY). Our identification of increased ACLY in pseudopodia of U87 glioblastoma cells on 1D gels and immunoblots prompted investigation of ACLY gene expression in gliomas for survival data and correlation with expression of ENO1, that encodes enolase 1. Queries of the NIH’s REMBRANDT brain tumor database based on Affymetrix data indicated that decreased survival correlated with increased gene expression of ACLY in gliomas. Queries of gliomas and glioblastomas found an association of upregulated ACLY and ENO1 expression by chi square for all probe sets (reporters) combined and correlation for numbers of probe sets indicating shared upregulation of these genes. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed correlation between ACLY and ENO1 in 21 glioblastomas (p < 0.001). Inhibition of ACLY with hydroxycitrate suppressed (p < 0.05) in vitro glioblastoma cell migration, clonogenicity and brain invasion under glycolytic conditions and enhanced the suppressive effects of a Met inhibitor on cell migration. In summary, gene expression data, proteomics and functional assays support ACLY as a positive regulator of glycolysis in glioblastomas. PMID:19795461

  11. Preliminary Results of Whole Brain Radiotherapy With Concurrent Trastuzumab for Treatment of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chargari, Cyrus; Idrissi, Hind Riahi; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Bollet, Marc A.; Dieras, Veronique; Campana, Francois; Cottu, Paul; Fourquet, Alain; Kirova, Youlia M.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the use of trastuzumab concurrently with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for patients with brain metastases from human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2001 and April 2007, 31 patients with brain metastases from human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive breast cancer were referred for WBRT with concurrent trastuzumab. At brain progression, the median age was 55 years (range, 38-73), and all patients had a performance status of 0-2. The patients received trastuzumab 2 mg/kg weekly (n = 17) or 6 mg/kg repeated every 21 days (n = 14). In 26 patients, concurrent WBRT delivered 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions. In 6 patients, other fractionations were chosen because of either poor performance status or patient convenience. Results: After WBRT, radiologic responses were observed in 23 patients (74.2%), including 6 (19.4%) with a complete radiologic response and 17 (54.8%) with a partial radiologic response. Clinical responses were observed in 27 patients (87.1%). The median survival time from the start of WBRT was 18 months (range, 2-65). The median interval to brain progression was 10.5 months (range, 2-27). No Grade 2 or greater acute toxicity was observed. Conclusion: The low toxicity of trastuzumab concurrently with WBRT should probably not justify delays. Although promising, these preliminary data warrant additional validation of trastuzumab as a potential radiosensitizer for WBRT in brain metastases from breast cancer in the setting of a clinical trial.

  12. Dramatic regression of multiple brain metastases from breast cancer with Capecitabine: another arrow at the bow?

    PubMed

    Fabi, A; Vidiri, A; Ferretti, G; Felici, A; Papaldo, P; Carlini, P; Mirri, A; Nuzzo, C; Cognetti, F

    2006-01-01

    Several chemotherapic agents, which are active against breast cancer, penetrate poorly into the central nervous system. Despite its limited brain penetration, 5-fluorouracil has been a component of effective regimens for brain metastases. Capecitabine is a recently developed oral prodrug that is converted into 5-fluorouracil by sequential enzymatic steps. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is the final enzyme responsible for Capecitabine activation. Studies have demonstrated that high intratumoral levels of TP and low levels of its catabolite dihydropyrimidine-dehydrogenase are correlated with the capecitabine response. The penetration of Capecitabine across the brain-blood barrier remains unknown; we report the case of and discuss a breast cancer patient who had an interesting response of brain metastases with Capecitabine in monochemotherapy before brain irradiation.

  13. Photo-activated Cancer Therapy: Potential for Treatment of Brain Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry

    The diffuse and infiltrative nature of high grade gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), makes complete surgical resection virtually impossible. The propensity of glioma cells to migrate along white matter tracts suggests that a cure is possible only if these migratory cells can be eradicated. Approximately 80% of GBMs recur within 2 cm of the resection margin, suggesting that a reasonable approach for improving the prognosis of GBM patients would be the development of improved local therapies capable of eradicating glioma cells in the brain-adjacent-to-tumor (BAT). An additional complicating factor for the development of successful therapies is the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is highly variable throughout the BAT—it is intact in some regions, while leaky in others. This variance in BBB patency has significant implications for the delivery of therapeutic agents. The results of a number of studies have shown that experimental light-based therapeutic modalities such as photochemical internalization (PCI) and photothermal therapy (PTT) may be useful in the treatment of gliomas. This chapter summarizes recent findings illustrating the potential of: (1) PCI for the delivery of therapeutic macromolecules such as chemotherapeutic agents and tumor suppressor genes, and (2) nanoshell-mediated PTT, including nanoparticle delivery approaches via macrophages.

  14. Brain metastasis from pancreatic cancer: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of slowly progressing altered mental status and gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal computed tomography revealed advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) with brain and para-aortic lymph node metastases. Gross total resection of the brain metastatic tumor was performed. Although symptoms improved, the patient died 3 months postoperatively. In general, the prognosis for PC patients with brain metastasis is very poor. Surgical resection of brain metastasis may play a very limited role in allowing long-term survival of patients for whom the primary PC is controlled or with particular oncocytic-type tumors.

  15. Opposing roles of glutaminase isoforms in determining glioblastoma cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) play pivotal roles in the malignant phenotype of brain tumors via multiple mechanisms. Glutaminase (GA, EC 3.5.1.2) metabolizes Gln to Glu and ammonia. Human GA isoforms are encoded by two genes: GLS gene codes for kidney-type isoforms, KGA and GAC, whereas GLS2 codes for liver-type isoforms, GAB and LGA. The expression pattern of both genes in different neoplastic cell lines and tissues implicated that the kidney-type isoforms are associated with cell proliferation, while the liver-type isoforms dominate in, and contribute to the phenotype of quiescent cells. GLS gene has been demonstrated to be regulated by oncogene c-Myc, whereas GLS2 gene was identified as a target gene of p53 tumor suppressor. In glioblastomas (GBM, WHO grade IV), the most aggressive brain tumors, high levels of GLS and only traces or lack of GLS2 transcripts were found. Ectopic overexpression of GLS2 in human glioblastoma T98G cells decreased their proliferation and migration and sensitized them to the alkylating agents often used in the chemotherapy of gliomas. GLS silencing reduced proliferation of glioblastoma T98G cells and strengthen the antiproliferative effect evoked by previous GLS2 overexpression.

  16. Effect of Concomitant Radiochemotherapy on Invasion Potential of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hutóczki, Gábor; Bognár, László; Tóth, Judit; Scholtz, Beáta; Zahuczky, Gábor; Hanzély, Zoltán; Csősz, Éva; Reményi-Puskár, Judit; Kalló, Gergő; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Klekner, Almos

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults with inevitable recurrence after oncotherapy. The insufficient effect of "gold standard" temozolomide-based concomitant radiochemotherapy may be due to the inability to prevent tumor cell invasion. Peritumoral infiltration depends mainly on the interaction between extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell membrane receptors. Changes in invasive behaviour after oncotherapy can be evaluated at the molecular level by determining the RNA expression and protein levels of the invasion-related ECM components. The expression of nineteen ECM molecules was determined at both RNA and protein levels in thirty-one GBM samples. Fifteen GBM samples originated from the first surgical procedure on patients before oncotherapy, and sixteen GBM samples were collected at the second surgery due to local recurrence after concomitant chemoirradiation. RNA expressions were measured with qRT-PCR, and protein levels were determined by quantitative analysis of Western blots. Only MMP-9 RNA transcript level was reduced (p < 0.05) whereas at protein level, eight molecules showed changes concordant with RNA expression with significant decrease in brevican only. The results suggest that concomitant radiochemotherapy does not have sufficient impact on the expression of invasion-related ECM components of glioblastoma, oncotherapy does not significantly affect its invasive behavior. To avoid the spread of tumors into the brain parenchyma, supplementation of antiproliferative treatment with anti-invasive agents may be worth consideration in oncotherapy for glioblastoma.

  17. Mutational profiling of brain metastasis from breast cancer: matched pair analysis of targeted sequencing between brain metastasis and primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yun; Park, Kyunghee; Lim, Sung Hee; Kim, Hae Su; Yoo, Kwai Han; Jung, Ki Sun; Song, Haa-Na; Hong, Mineui; Do, In-Gu; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2015-12-22

    Although breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastasis with a notable increase of incidence, genes that mediate breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) are not fully understood. To study the molecular nature of brain metastasis, we performed gene expression profiling of brain metastasis and matched primary breast cancer (BC). We used the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel v2 covering 2,855 mutations from 50 cancer genes to analyze 18 primary BC and 42 BCBM including 15 matched pairs. The most common BCBM subtypes were triple-negative (42.9%) and basal-like (36.6%). In a total of 42 BCBM samples, 32 (76.2%) harbored at least one mutation (median 1, range 0-7 mutations). Frequently detected somatic mutations included TP53 (59.5%), MLH1 (14.3%), PIK3CA (14.3%), and KIT (7.1%). We compared BCBM with patient-matched primary BC specimens. There were no significant differences in mutation profiles between the two groups. Notably, gene expression in BCBM such as TP53, PIK3CA, KIT, MLH1, and RB1 also seemed to be present in primary breast cancers. The TP53 mutation frequency was higher in BCBM than in primary BC (59.5% vs 38.9%, respectively). In conclusion, we found actionable gene alterations in BCBM that were maintained in primary BC. Further studies with functional testing and a delineation of the role of these genes in specific steps of the metastatic process should lead to a better understanding of the biology of metastasis and its susceptibility to treatment.

  18. The somatic genomic landscape of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Cameron W; Verhaak, Roel G W; McKenna, Aaron; Campos, Benito; Noushmehr, Houtan; Salama, Sofie R; Zheng, Siyuan; Chakravarty, Debyani; Sanborn, J Zachary; Berman, Samuel H; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bernard, Brady; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Genovese, Giannicola; Shmulevich, Ilya; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Zou, Lihua; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Shukla, Sachet A; Ciriello, Giovanni; Yung, W K; Zhang, Wei; Sougnez, Carrie; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Bigner, Darell D; Van Meir, Erwin G; Prados, Michael; Sloan, Andrew; Black, Keith L; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Andrews, David W; Guha, Abhijit; Iacocca, Mary; O'Neill, Brian P; Foltz, Greg; Myers, Jerome; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Penny, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju; Perou, Charles M; Hayes, D Neil; Gibbs, Richard; Marra, Marco; Mills, Gordon B; Lander, Eric; Spellman, Paul; Wilson, Richard; Sander, Chris; Weinstein, John; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey; Laird, Peter W; Haussler, David; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda

    2013-10-10

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer.

  19. TSPO as a target for glioblastoma therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Werry, Eryn L; Barron, Melissa L; Kassiou, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18-kDa five-transmembrane protein, which is primarily found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Levels of this protein are up-regulated in the most aggressive and common glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GM). Levels of TSPO also correlate with GM clinical outcome, suggesting that TSPO may be a novel GM diagnostic imaging agent. Therapeutically, targeting the TSPO may provide a mechanism to abrogate the apoptotic-resistant, invasive and aggressive nature of GM and may also provide a way of targeting other anti-cancer treatments to GM sites. This review highlights recent progress in research on TSPO-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics for GM.

  20. EFEMP1 induces γ-secretase/Notch-mediated temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hiddingh, Lotte; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Teng, Jian; Tops, Bas; Jeuken, Judith; Hulleman, Esther; Boots-Sprenger, Sandra H.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.; Wesseling, Pieter; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic agent for this disease. However, intrinsic and acquired TMZ-resistance represents a major obstacle for this therapy. In order to identify factors involved in TMZ-resistance, we engineered different TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cell lines. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that EFEMP1, an extracellular matrix protein, is associated with TMZ-resistant phenotype. Silencing of EFEMP1 in glioblastoma cells resulted in decreased cell survival following TMZ treatment, whereas overexpression caused TMZ-resistance. EFEMP1 acts via multiple signaling pathways, including γ-secretase-mediated activation of the Notch pathway. We show that inhibition of γ-secretase by RO4929097 causes at least partial sensitization of glioblastoma cells to temozolomide in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we show that EFEMP1 expression levels correlate with survival in TMZ-treated glioblastoma patients. Altogether our results suggest EFEMP1 as a potential therapeutic target to overcome TMZ-resistance in glioblastoma. PMID:24495907

  1. TGFβ Treatment Enhances Glioblastoma Virotherapy by Inhibiting the Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianfeng; Chen, Xilin; Chu, Jianhong; Xu, Bo; Meisen, Walter H; Chen, Lichao; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianying; He, Xiaoming; Wang, Qi-En; Chiocca, E Antonio; Kaur, Balveen; Caligiuri, Michael A; Yu, Jianhua

    2015-12-15

    Oncolytic viruses, including oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), have produced provocative therapeutic responses in patients with glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumor. Paradoxically, innate immune responses mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages/microglia appear to limit oHSV efficacy. Therefore, we investigated whether pretreatment with an immunosuppressive cytokine, TGFβ, might reverse these effects and thereby potentiate oHSV efficacy. TGFβ treatment of NK cells rendered them less cytolytic against oHSV-infected glioblastoma cells and stem-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, TGFβ treatment of NK cells, macrophages, or microglia increased viral titers of oHSV in cocultures with glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic mouse model of glioblastoma, administering TGFβ prior to oHSV injection inhibited intracranial infiltration and activation of NK cells and macrophages. Notably, a single administration of TGFβ prior to oHSV therapy was sufficient to phenocopy NK-cell depletion and suppress tumor growth and prolong survival in both xenograft and syngeneic models of glioblastoma. Collectively, our findings show how administering a single dose of TGFβ prior to oncolytic virus treatment of glioblastoma can transiently inhibit innate immune cells that limit efficacy, thereby improving therapeutic responses and survival outcomes.

  2. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  3. Whole genome sequence analysis links chromothripsis to EGFR, MDM2, MDM4, and CDK4 amplification in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Furgason, John M.; Koncar, Robert F.; Michelhaugh, Sharon K.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Mittal, Sandeep; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Bahassi, El Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Background Findings based on recent advances in next-generation sequence analysis suggest that, in some tumors, a single catastrophic event, termed chromothripsis, results in several simultaneous tumorigenic alterations. Previous studies have suggested that glioblastoma (GBM) may exhibit chromothripsis at a higher rate (39%) than other tumors (9%). Primary glioblastoma is an aggressive form of brain cancer that typically appears suddenly in older adults. With aggressive treatment, the median survival time is only 15 months. Their acute onset and widespread genomic instability indicates that chromothripsis may play a key role in their initiation and progression. GBMs are often characterized by EGFR amplification, CDKN2A and PTEN deletion, although approximately 20% of GBMs harbor additional amplifications in MDM2 or MDM4 with CDK4. Methods We used the chromothripsis prediction tool, Shatterproof, in conjunction with a custom whole genome sequence analysis pipeline in order to generate putative regions of chromothripsis. The data derived from this study was further expanded on using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and susceptibility studies with colony formation assays. Results We show that primary GBMs are associated with higher chromothripsis scores and establish a link between chromothripsis and gene amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), as well as modulators of the TP53 and RB1 pathways. Conclusions Utilizing a newly introduced bioinformatic tool, we provide evidence that chromothripsis is associated with the formation of amplicons containing several oncogenes involved in key pathways that are likely essential for post-chromothriptic cell survival. PMID:26328271

  4. Integrated Genomic Analysis Identifies Clinically Relevant Subtypes of Glioblastoma Characterized by Abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaak, Roel GW; Hoadley, Katherine A; Purdom, Elizabeth; Wang, Victoria; Qi, Yuan; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Miller, C Ryan; Ding, Li; Golub, Todd; Mesirov, Jill P; Alexe, Gabriele; Lawrence, Michael; O'Kelly, Michael; Tamayo, Pablo; Weir, Barbara A; Gabriel, Stacey; Winckler, Wendy; Gupta, Supriya; Jakkula, Lakshmi; Feiler, Heidi S; Hodgson, J Graeme; James, C David; Sarkaria, Jann N; Brennan, Cameron; Kahn, Ari; Spellman, Paul T; Wilson, Richard K; Speed, Terence P; Gray, Joe W; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad; Perou, Charles M; Hayes, D Neil; Network, The Cancer Genome Atlas Research

    2009-09-03

    The Cancer Genome Atlas Network recently cataloged recurrent genomic abnormalities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We describe a robust gene expression-based molecular classification of GBM into Proneural, Neural, Classical, and Mesenchymal subtypes and integrate multidimensional genomic data to establish patterns of somatic mutations and DNA copy number. Aberrations and gene expression of EGFR, NF1, and PDGFRA/IDH1 each define the Classical, Mesenchymal, and Proneural subtypes, respectively. Gene signatures of normal brain cell types show a strong relationship between subtypes and different neural lineages. Additionally, response to aggressive therapy differs by subtype, with the greatest benefit in the Classical subtype and no benefit in the Proneural subtype. We provide a framework that unifies transcriptomic and genomic dimensions for GBM molecular stratification with important implications for future studies.

  5. The microarray gene profiling analysis of glioblastoma cancer cells reveals genes affected by FAK inhibitor Y15 and combination of Y15 and temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Qiang, Hu; Golubovskaya, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma cells. Recently, we demonstrated that FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15 significantly decreased tumor growth of DBTRG and U87 cells, especially in combination with temozolomide. In the present report, we performed gene expression analysis in these cells to reveal genes affected by Y15, temozolomide and combination of Y15 and temozolomide. We tested the effect of Y15 on gene expression by Illumina Human HT12v4 microarray assay and detected 8087 and 6555 genes, which were significantly either up- or down-regulated by Y15-treatment in DBTRG and U87 cells, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, DBTRG and U87 cells treated with Y15 changed expression of 1332 and 462 genes more than 1.5 fold, p<0.05, respectively and had 237 common genes affected by Y15. The common genes up-regulated by Y15 included GADD45A, HSPA6 (heat-shock 70); DUSP1, DUSP 5 (dual-phosphatase 5); CDKN1A (p21) and common down-regulated genes included kinesins, such as KIF11, 14, 20A, 20B; topoisomerase II, TOP2A; cyclin F; cell cycle protein: BUB1; PARP1, POLA1. In addition, we detected genes affected by temozolomide and by combination of Y15 and temozolomide treatment in U87 cells. Among genes up-regulated by Y15 and temozolomide more significantly than by each agent alone were: COX7B; interferon, gamma-inducible transcript: IFI16; DDIT4; GADD45G and down-regulated: KIF3A, AKT1; ABL; JAK1, GLI3 and ALDH1A3. Thus, microarray gene expression analysis can be effective in establishing genes affected in response to FAK inhibitor alone and in response to combination of Y15 with temozolomide that is important for glioblastoma therapy.

  6. Phase II Study of Bevacizumab in Combination with Sorafenib in Recurrent Glioblastoma (N0776): A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial1

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Evanthia; Anderson, S. Keith; Lafky, Jackie M.; Uhm, Joon H.; Giannini, Caterina; Kumar, Shaji K.; Kimlinger, Teresa K.; Northfelt, Donald W.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Kaufmann, Timothy J.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesize