Science.gov

Sample records for global conformance quality

  1. A global conformance quality model. A new strategic tool for minimizing defects caused by variation, error, and complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C. Martin

    1994-01-01

    The performance of Japanese products in the marketplace points to the dominant role of quality in product competition. Our focus is motivated by the tremendous pressure to improve conformance quality by reducing defects to previously unimaginable limits in the range of 1 to 10 parts per million. Toward this end, we have developed a new model of conformance quality that addresses each of the three principle defect sources: (1) Variation, (2) Human Error, and (3) Complexity. Although the role of variation in conformance quality is well documented, errors occur so infrequently that their significance is not well known. We have shown that statistical methods are not useful in characterizing and controlling errors, the most common source of defects. Excessive complexity is also a root source of defects, since it increases errors and variation defects. A missing link in the defining a global model has been the lack of a sound correlation between complexity and defects. We have used Design for Assembly (DFA) methods to quantify assembly complexity and have shown that assembly times can be described in terms of the Pareto distribution in a clear exception to the Central Limit Theorem. Within individual companies we have found defects to be highly correlated with DFA measures of complexity in broad studies covering tens of millions of assembly operations. Applying the global concepts, we predicted that Motorola`s Six Sigma method would only reduce defects by roughly a factor of two rather than orders of magnitude, a prediction confirmed by Motorola`s data. We have also shown that the potential defects rates of product concepts can be compared in the earliest stages of development. The global Conformance Quality Model has demonstrated that the best strategy for improvement depends upon the quality control strengths and weaknesses.

  2. Global Learning Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning, education, and training becomes more and more internationalized. As examples, study programs are exported across borders, curricula are harmonized across Europe, learners work in globally distributed groups. However, the quality of educational offers differs dramatically. In this paper, an approach to manage quality for globally…

  3. From global to heavy-light: 5-point conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin; Belavin, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    We consider Virasoro conformal blocks in the large central charge limit. There are different regimes depending on the behavior of the conformal dimensions. The most simple regime is reduced to the global sl(2,C) conformal blocks while the most complicated one is known as the classical conformal blocks. Recently, Fitzpatrick, Kaplan, and Walters showed that the two regimes are related through the intermediate stage of the so-called heavy-light semiclassical limit. We study this idea in the particular case of the 5-point conformal block. To find the 5-point global block we use the projector technique and the Casimir operator approach. Furthermore, we discuss the relation between the global and the heavy-light limits and construct the heavy-light block from the global block. In this way we reproduce our previous results for the 5-point perturbative classical block obtained by means of the monodromy method.

  4. Meshless thin-shell simulation based on global conformal parameterization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaohu; Li, Xin; Bao, Yunfan; Gu, Xianfeng; Qin, Hong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the physically-based thin-shell simulation of point-sampled geometry via explicit, global conformal point-surface parameterization and meshless dynamics. The point-based global parameterization is founded upon the rigorous mathematics of Riemann surface theory and Hodge theory. The parameterization is globally conformal everywhere except for a minimum number of zero points. Within our parameterization framework, any well-sampled point surface is functionally equivalent to a manifold, enabling popular and powerful surface-based modeling and physically-based simulation tools to be readily adapted for point geometry processing and animation. In addition, we propose a meshless surface computational paradigm in which the partial differential equations (for dynamic physical simulation) can be applied and solved directly over point samples via Moving Least Squares (MLS) shape functions defined on the global parametric domain without explicit connectivity information. The global conformal parameterization provides a common domain to facilitate accurate meshless simulation and efficient discontinuity modeling for complex branching cracks. Through our experiments on thin-shell elastic deformation and fracture simulation, we demonstrate that our integrative method is very natural, and that it has great potential to further broaden the application scope of point-sampled geometry in graphics and relevant fields.

  5. Quality of coverage: conformity measures for stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q-R Jackie; Wessels, B W; Einstein, D B; Maciunas, R J; Kim, E Y; Kinsella, T J

    2003-01-01

    In radiosurgery, conformity indices are often used to compare competing plans, evaluate treatment techniques, and assess clinical complications. Several different indices have been reported to measure the conformity of the prescription isodose to the target volume. The PITV recommended in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiosurgery guidelines, defined as the ratio of the prescription isodose volume (PI) over the target volume (TV), is probably the most frequently quoted. However, these currently used conformity indices depend on target size and shape complexity. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the influence of target size and shape complexity on existing conformity indices, and to propose a different conformity index-the conformity distance index (CDI). The CDI is defined as the average distance between the target and the prescription isodose line. This study examines five case groups with volumes of 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, and 30.0 cm(3). Each case group includes four simulated shapes: a sphere, a moderate ellipsoid, an extreme ellipsoid, and a concave "C" shape. Prescription dose coverages are generated for three simplified clinical scenarios, i.e., the PI completely covers the TV with 1 and 2 mm margins, and the PI over-covers one half of the TV with a 1 mm margin and under-covers the other half with a 1 mm margin. Existing conformity indices and the CDI are calculated for these five case groups as well as seven clinical cases. When these values are compared, the RTOG PITV conformity index and other similar conformity measures have much higher values than the CDI for smaller and more complex shapes. With the same quality of prescription dose coverage, the CDI yields a consistent conformity measure. For the seven clinical cases, we also find that the same PITV values can be associated with very different conformity qualities while the CDI predicts the conformity quality accurately. In summary, the proposed CDI provides

  6. Quality management systems: a reliable proof of conformity.

    PubMed

    Suppo, M

    1997-01-01

    Doubts have been raised about whether proof of conformity via a certified full quality management system is appropriate for in vitro diagnostic products used for screening blood donations, for example, tests for HIV and hepatitis B and C. This article reviews all the arguments and finds in favour of the proposed system because it involves requirements that extend beyond the normal quality system standard.

  7. Global Conformation of Tau Protein Mapped by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gorantla, Nalini Vijay; Khandelwal, Puneet; Poddar, Pankaj; Chinnathambi, Subashchandrabose

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuronal loss in the brain. Its two major hallmarks are extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by aggregation of amyloid β-42 (Aβ-42) and Tau protein respectively. Aβ-42 is a transmembrane protein, which is produced after the sequential action of β- and γ-secretases, thus obtained peptide is released extracellularly and gets deposited on the neuron forming senile plaques. NFTs are composed of microtubule-associated protein-Tau (MAPT). Tau protein's major function is to stabilize the microtubule that provides a track on which the cargo proteins are shuttled and the stabilized microtubule also maintains shape and integrity of the neuronal cell. Tau protein is subjected to various modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, glycation, acetylation, truncation, glycosylation, deamination, and oxidation; these modifications ultimately lead to its aggregation. Phosphorylation is the major modification and is extensively studied with respect to Tau protein. Tau protein, however, undergoes certain level of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which regulates its affinity for microtubule and ultimately leading to microtubule assembly and disassembly. Our main aim was to study the native state of longest isoform of Tau (hTau40WT-4R2N) and its shortest isoform, (hTau23WT-3R0N), at various temperatures such as 10, 25, and 37 °C. Raman spectroscopic results suggested that the proportion of random coils or unordered structure depends on the temperature of the protein environment. Upon increase in the temperature from 10 to 37 °C, the proportion of random coils or unordered structures increased in the case of hTau40WT. However, we did not find a significant effect of temperature on the structure of hTau23WT. This current approach enables one to analyze the global conformation of soluble Tau in solution.

  8. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  9. Global air quality and climate.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  10. Global mapping of DNA conformational flexibility on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Giulia; Bedini, Andrea; Barale, Roberto; Sbrana, Isabella

    2015-04-01

    In this study we provide the first comprehensive map of DNA conformational flexibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complete genome. Flexibility plays a key role in DNA supercoiling and DNA/protein binding, regulating DNA transcription, replication or repair. Specific interest in flexibility analysis concerns its relationship with human genome instability. Enrichment in flexible sequences has been detected in unstable regions of human genome defined fragile sites, where genes map and carry frequent deletions and rearrangements in cancer. Flexible sequences have been suggested to be the determinants of fragile gene proneness to breakage; however, their actual role and properties remain elusive. Our in silico analysis carried out genome-wide via the StabFlex algorithm, shows the conserved presence of highly flexible regions in budding yeast genome as well as in genomes of other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Flexibile peaks in S. cerevisiae identify 175 ORFs mapping on their 3'UTR, a region affecting mRNA translation, localization and stability. (TA)n repeats of different extension shape the central structure of peaks and co-localize with polyadenylation efficiency element (EE) signals. ORFs with flexible peaks share common features. Transcripts are characterized by decreased half-life: this is considered peculiar of genes involved in regulatory systems with high turnover; consistently, their function affects biological processes such as cell cycle regulation or stress response. Our findings support the functional importance of flexibility peaks, suggesting that the flexible sequence may be derived by an expansion of canonical TAYRTA polyadenylation efficiency element. The flexible (TA)n repeat amplification could be the outcome of an evolutionary neofunctionalization leading to a differential 3'-end processing and expression regulation in genes with peculiar function. Our study provides a new support to the functional role of flexibility in genomes and a

  11. Quality Improvements in Curricula for Global Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Lena; Bereuther, Tabea; Deutsch, Elisabeth; Edlinger, Julia; Fureder, Silvia; Kaspar, Emanuel; Kottstorfer, Marlene; Mautner, Claudia; Rossegger, Christine; Samonig, Alina; Samonig, Stefan; Schuster, Christoph; Witz, Gerhard; Zotter, Victoria; Ahamer, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on an in-depth comparison of 20 multicultural university curricula, this article aims to provide practical and implementable suggestions about how to improve such curricula in order to ensure highest and globally compatible academic quality. The recently founded developmental Master's curriculum "Global Studies" (GS) at…

  12. Quality Improvements in Curricula for Global Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Lena; Bereuther, Tabea; Deutsch, Elisabeth; Edlinger, Julia; Fureder, Silvia; Kaspar, Emanuel; Kottstorfer, Marlene; Mautner, Claudia; Rossegger, Christine; Samonig, Alina; Samonig, Stefan; Schuster, Christoph; Witz, Gerhard; Zotter, Victoria; Ahamer, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on an in-depth comparison of 20 multicultural university curricula, this article aims to provide practical and implementable suggestions about how to improve such curricula in order to ensure highest and globally compatible academic quality. The recently founded developmental Master's curriculum "Global Studies" (GS) at…

  13. Global conformations of proteins as predicted from the modeling of their CZE mobility data.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Julio A; Piaggio, María V; Peirotti, Marta B

    2011-10-01

    Estimations of protein global conformations in well-specified physicochemical microenvironments are obtained through global structural parameters defined from polypeptide-scale analyses. For this purpose protein electrophoretic mobility data must be interpreted through a physicochemical CZE model to obtain estimates of protein equivalent hydrodynamic radius, effective and total charge numbers, hydration, actual ionizing pK and pH-near molecule. The electrical permittivity of protein domain is also required. In this framework, the solvent drag on proteins is obtained via the characteristic friction power coefficient associated with the number of amino acid residues defining the global chain conformation in solution. Also, the packing dimension related to the spatial distribution of amino acid residues within the protein domain is evaluated and discussed. These scaling coefficients together with the effective and total charge number fractions of proteins provide relevant interpretations of protein global conformations mainly from collapsed globule to hybrid chain regimes. Also, protein transport properties may be estimated within this framework. In this regard, the central role played by the friction power coefficient in the evaluation of these properties is highlighted.

  14. A global study of the conformers of 1,2-propanediol and new vibrationally excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Benjamin E.; Gruet, Sébastien; Steber, Amanda L.; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-07-01

    The astrochemically relevant molecule 1,2-propanediol was investigated at room temperature between 75 and 110 GHz with the aims of providing accurate global rotational constants for its numerous conformers and vibrationally excited states. This was performed with our segmented chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer. In the spectrum, six previously observed conformers were assigned and treated in global fits, and three vibrationally excited states of the molecule were identified and assigned. The provided transition frequencies of the ground states and vibrationally excited states will aid in the astronomical detection of 1,2-propanediol, specifically in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 3 regime as it overlaps with the frequency range of our spectrometer.

  15. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  16. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  17. 46 CFR 160.132-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of davits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control, and... Launching Appliances-Davits § 160.132-15 Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of... necessary to maintain quality control and to monitor compliance with the requirements of this subpart....

  18. 46 CFR 160.170-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of release mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., quality control, and conformance of release mechanisms. (a) Unless the Commandant directs otherwise, an...— (1) Institute a quality control procedure to ensure that all production release mechanisms are... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control,...

  19. 46 CFR 160.133-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of release mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., tests, quality control, and conformance of release mechanisms. (a) Unless the Commandant directs.... The manufacturer must— (1) Institute a quality control procedure to ensure that all production release... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control,...

  20. 46 CFR 160.115-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of winches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control, and... Launching Appliances-Winches § 160.115-15 Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of... necessary to maintain quality control and to monitor compliance with the requirements of this subpart....

  1. High-Quality Dataset of Protein-Bound Ligand Conformations and Its Application to Benchmarking Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; Meyder, Agnes; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Sommer, Kai; Flachsenberg, Florian; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-03-27

    We developed a cheminformatics pipeline for the fully automated selection and extraction of high-quality protein-bound ligand conformations from X-ray structural data. The pipeline evaluates the validity and accuracy of the 3D structures of small molecules according to multiple criteria, including their fit to the electron density and their physicochemical and structural properties. Using this approach, we compiled two high-quality datasets from the Protein Data Bank (PDB): a comprehensive dataset and a diversified subset of 4626 and 2912 structures, respectively. The datasets were applied to benchmarking seven freely available conformer ensemble generators: Balloon (two different algorithms), the RDKit standard conformer ensemble generator, the Experimental-Torsion basic Knowledge Distance Geometry (ETKDG) algorithm, Confab, Frog2 and Multiconf-DOCK. Substantial differences in the performance of the individual algorithms were observed, with RDKit and ETKDG generally achieving a favorable balance of accuracy, ensemble size and runtime. The Platinum datasets are available for download from http://www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/platinum_dataset .

  2. Using Local States To Drive the Sampling of Global Conformations in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conformational changes associated with protein function often occur beyond the time scale currently accessible to unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, so that different approaches have been developed to accelerate their sampling. Here we investigate how the knowledge of backbone conformations preferentially adopted by protein fragments, as contained in precalculated libraries known as structural alphabets (SA), can be used to explore the landscape of protein conformations in MD simulations. We find that (a) enhancing the sampling of native local states in both metadynamics and steered MD simulations allows the recovery of global folded states in small proteins; (b) folded states can still be recovered when the amount of information on the native local states is reduced by using a low-resolution version of the SA, where states are clustered into macrostates; and (c) sequences of SA states derived from collections of structural motifs can be used to sample alternative conformations of preselected protein regions. The present findings have potential impact on several applications, ranging from protein model refinement to protein folding and design. PMID:26808351

  3. Global and Local Conformation of Human IgG Antibody Variants Rationalizes Loss of Thermodynamic Stability.

    PubMed

    Edgeworth, Matthew J; Phillips, Jonathan J; Lowe, David C; Kippen, Alistair D; Higazi, Daniel R; Scrivens, James H

    2015-12-07

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a major class of medicines, with high specificity and affinity towards targets spanning many disease areas. The antibody Fc (fragment crystallizable) region is a vital component of existing antibody therapeutics, as well as many next generation biologic medicines. Thermodynamic stability is a critical property for the development of stable and effective therapeutic proteins. Herein, a combination of ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) approaches have been used to inform on the global and local conformation and dynamics of engineered IgG Fc variants with reduced thermodynamic stability. The changes in conformation and dynamics have been correlated with their thermodynamic stability to better understand the destabilising effect of functional IgG Fc mutations and to inform engineering of future therapeutic proteins.

  4. [Endorsement of risk management and patient safety by certification of conformity in health care quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Waßmuth, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Certification of conformity in health care should provide assurance of compliance with quality standards. This also includes risk management and patient safety. Based on a comprehensive definition of quality, beneficial effects on the management of risks and the enhancement of patient safety can be expected from certification of conformity. While these effects have strong face validity, they are currently not sufficiently supported by evidence from health care research. Whether this relates to a lack of evidence or a lack of investigation remains open. Advancing safety culture and "climate", as well as learning from adverse events rely in part on quality management and are at least in part reflected in the certification of healthcare quality. However, again, evidence of the effectiveness of such measures is limited. Moreover, additional factors related to personality, attitude and proactive action of healthcare professionals are crucial factors in advancing risk management and patient safety which are currently not adequately reflected in certification of conformity programs.

  5. 46 CFR 160.135-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control, and... (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lifeboats (SOLAS) § 160.135-15 Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of...

  6. 46 CFR 160.135-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control, and... (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Lifeboats § 160.135-15 Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of lifeboats....

  7. Unable to Conform, Unwilling to Rebel? Youth, Culture, and Motivation in Globalizing Japan

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Tuukka; Norasakkunkit, Vinai; Uchida, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of globalization on Japanese young adults from sociological and psychological perspectives. While Japan’s socio-economic institutions have shown mainly resistant (or “hot”) reactions to globalization, individual-level adaptations remain oriented toward conformity to dominant life expectations, which remain largely unchanged, despite decreasing rewards. However, a socially withdrawn sub-group (the so-called hikikomori) appears to be unable to conform yet is also unwilling to rebel. The experimental evidence we review suggests such youth deviate from typical Japanese motivational patterns but have not necessarily become more Western. This poses serious problems in an interdependence-oriented culture, but the paralysis of this group seems to be an outcome of labor market change rather than a psychopathology. Finally, we also identify a contrasting group – whom we call the quiet mavericks – that adapts in creative and integrative (or “cool”) ways by negotiating conformist pressures tactfully. Our account sheds light on just how complex and painful the psychological and sociological effects of globalization can be for young people in conformist societies, with implications to policy and social sustainability. PMID:21949510

  8. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  9. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  10. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian

    2017-04-01

    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  11. Decreasing sperm quality: a global problem?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carlsen and coworkers (1992) reviewed 61 heterogeneous observational studies on semen quality published between 1938 and 1990. This review indicates that mean sperm density decreased significantly between 1940 and 1990. An extended meta-analysis with 101 studies confirmed a decline in sperm density for the period from 1934 to 1996 (2000). The key message of the meta-analyses is that sperm counts have decreased globally by about 50% over the past decades. This assessment has been questioned. Discussion A major methodological problem of the meta-analysis is the use of data collected in different countries, at different times, on different populations and with different methods of semen analysis. Furthermore, the results of studies concerning semen analysis are frequently biased e.g. by selection criteria of volunteers. In most studies on human semen characteristics the populations under study are insufficiently defined and the study participants are not a representative population sample. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased in Caucasian men worldwide. The investigation of common risk factors for male reproductive disorders requires well designed epidemiological studies and the collection of individual data. Summary Former meta-analyses of sperm count data show a global downward trend. This conclusion should be interpreted with caution. The included studies are of great heterogeneity due to geographical and/or ethnical variation, different study designs and different methodological standards. Population-based prospective studies are needed to investigate secular trends in male reproductive disorders. PMID:20085639

  12. Metal ion-directed dynamic splicing of DNA through global conformational change by intramolecular complexation.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Toshihiro; Ohura, Hiroyuki; Shirahama, Chisato; Furuzono, Tomohiro; Shimada, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Kitamura, Yusuke

    2015-04-07

    Chemically engineered DNAs—in which global conformation can be modulated in response to specific stimuli—could be allosteric functional DNAs themselves or work as a modulator of the functional nucleic acids such as DNAzymes and aptamers. Here, we show that two terpyridines built in the DNA backbone form a stable intramolecular 1:2 complex, [M(terpy)2](2+), with divalent transition metal ions. Upon complexation, the DNA conjugates adopt a Ω-shape structure, in which two distal sequences located outside the terpyridines connect with each other to form a continuous segment with a specific structure or sequence. Such a DNA structure is globally controlled by local metal complexation events that can be rationally designed based on general coordination chemistry. This method is regarded as metal ion-directed dynamic sequence edition or DNA splicing. DNAzymes with peroxidase-like activity can thus be regulated by several transition metal ions through sequence edition techniques based on the Ω-motif.

  13. Analysis of non-conformity in continuous quality improvement in a Hospital Radiopharmacy Unit.

    PubMed

    Martinez, T; Contreras, J F

    To perform an analysis of non-conformities (NC) registered between 2012 and 2015, as a part of the review process of the Quality Management System of our Radiopharmacy Unit. Non-conformities registered in the Radiopharmacy Unit in the period 2012-2015 are analyzed and sorted by their impact on the process (critical, major, and minor), cause/origin of the non-conformity, and nature of radiopharmaceutical (PET vs. SPECT). A decrease in the NC of 20% per year is observed, especially in PET radiopharmaceuticals. Non-conformities in SPECT make up about 62-84% of the total of the NC, mainly related to the high number of doses prepared and not administered, which is about 1.5-3% in the ratio of non-administered/administered per year. Analysis of the NC can be considered as a useful indicator in assessment of quality assurance, and in our particular case, the decrease in the registration of NC indicates effectiveness in the corrective and preventive actions implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. European conformation and fat scores have no relationship with eating quality.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    European conformation and fat grades are a major factor determining carcass value throughout Europe. The relationships between these scores and sensory scores were investigated. A total of 3786 French, Polish and Irish consumers evaluated steaks, grilled to a medium doneness, according to protocols of the ���Meat Standards Australia��� system, from 18 muscles representing 455 local, commercial cattle from commercial abattoirs. A mixed linear effects model was used for the analysis. There was a negative relationship between juiciness and European conformation score. For the other sensory scores, a maximum of three muscles out of a possible 18 demonstrated negative effects of conformation score on sensory scores. There was a positive effect of European fat score on three individual muscles. However, this was accounted for by marbling score. Thus, while the European carcass classification system may indicate yield, it has no consistent relationship with sensory scores at a carcass level that is suitable for use in a commercial system. The industry should consider using an additional system related to eating quality to aid in the determination of the monetary value of carcasses, rewarding eating quality in addition to yield.

  15. The European Conformity Assessment Procedures and the Quality Assurance Instruments for Personal Protective Equipment in the Internal Market.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Conformity assessment procedures prescribed by European legislation are presented and their concrete implementation is illustrated by the example of personal protective equipment (PPE). The different categories of PPE defined by Council Directive 89/686/EEC are explained with reference to the applicable conformity assessment elements. Quality assurance of production is presented as the central element of the conformity assessment procedure for complex PPE. Special emphasis is put on the necessity of having a regular exchange of views and information among notified bodies in Europe. Ways in which third countries can eventually carry out conformity assessment on the basis of a contract with the European Community Commission are explained.

  16. Exploring global recognition of quality midwifery education: Vision or fiction?

    PubMed

    Luyben, Ans; Barger, Mary; Avery, Melissa; Bharj, Kuldip Kaur; O'Connell, Rhona; Fleming, Valerie; Thompson, Joyce; Sherratt, Della

    2017-06-01

    Midwifery education is the foundation for preparing competent midwives to provide a high standard of safe, evidence-based care for women and their newborns. Global competencies and standards for midwifery education have been defined as benchmarks for establishing quality midwifery education and practice worldwide. However, wide variations in type and nature of midwifery education programs exist. To explore and discuss the opportunities and challenges of a global quality assurance process as a strategy to promote quality midwifery education. Accreditation and recognition as two examples of quality assurance processes in education are discussed. A global recognition process, with its opportunities and challenges, is explored from the perspective of four illustrative case studies from Ireland, Kosovo, Latin America and Bangladesh. The discussion highlights that the establishment of a global recognition process may assist in promoting quality of midwifery education programs world-wide, but cannot take the place of formal national accreditation. In addition, a recognition process will not be feasible for many institutions without additional resources, such as financial support or competent evaluators. In order to achieve quality midwifery education through a global recognition process the authors present 5 Essential Challenges for Quality Midwifery Education. Quality midwifery education is vital for establishing a competent workforce, and improving maternal and newborn health. Defining a global recognition process could be instrumental in moving toward this goal, but dealing with the identified challenges will be essential. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effective energy transformation scheme as a special continuation approach to global optimization with application to molecular conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhijun

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses a generalization of the function transformation scheme for global energy minimization applied to the molecular conformation problem. A mathematical theory for the method as a special continuation approach to global optimization is established. We show that the method can transform a nonlinear objective function into a class of gradually deformed, but {open_quote}smoother{close_quote} or {open_quotes}easier{close_quote} functions. An optimization procedure can then be applied to the new functions successively, to trace their solutions back to the original function. Two types of transformation are defined: isotropic and anisotropic. We show that both transformations can be applied to a large class of nonlinear partially separable functions including energy functions for molecular conformation. Methods to compute the transformation for these functions are given.

  18. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... (SIP) submitted on June 4, 2010. This revision consists of transportation conformity criteria and... Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 16,...

  19. [THE USE OF RISK INDICES IN PROCEDURES OF VERIFICATION OF BABY FOOD QUALITY CONFORMANCE].

    PubMed

    Buymova, S A; Bubnov, A G

    2016-01-01

    There is considered the possibility of the use of risk indices with regard to their use in certification and validation of conformity assessment and food conformance, including those recommended for children. There were investigated samples of oatmeals, potted meats, liver pate, fruit-vegetable puree. The calculation of risk values was based on original data of quantitative analysis that was performed with the use of thermogravimetric, photometric, titrimetric, and potentiometric methods, as well as methods of gas-liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the base of data of the chemical analysis of the ingredients of a set of food products, including assigned for baby nutrition, all the tested samples were shown to meet the requirements for the controlled regulatory standards on control indices of quality. The calculation of average daily doses of the intake of metal compounds (Cu, Zn, Fe, Na, Ca, Mg) consumed by adult and child's organisms through tested food showed that such doses are allowable since they do not exceed maximum daily dose and average daily requirements. However, some samples were referred to the category of high risk food, because the used method of individual's lifetime risk calculation takes into consideration all possible negative effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, embryogenic, etc) of the impact of pollutants on the human body. It is shown that in addition to the sanitary and hygienic criteria of food quality, the risks of such food consumption should be taken into consideration by the Technical Regulations and other normative documentations.

  20. 46 CFR 160.156-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of rescue boats and fast rescue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control, and..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND... inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats. (a) Unless...

  1. 46 CFR 160.156-15 - Production inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of rescue boats and fast rescue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production inspections, tests, quality control, and..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND... inspections, tests, quality control, and conformance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats. (a) Unless...

  2. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  3. Global conformational rearrangements in integrin extracellular domains in outside-in and inside-out signaling.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Junichi; Petre, Benjamin M; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A

    2002-09-06

    How ligand binding alters integrin conformation in outside-in signaling, and how inside-out signals alter integrin affinity for ligand, have been mysterious. We address this with electron microscopy, physicochemical measurements, mutational introduction of disulfides, and ligand binding to alphaVbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3 integrins. We show that a highly bent integrin conformation is physiological and has low affinity for biological ligands. Addition of a high affinity ligand mimetic peptide or Mn(2+) results in a switchblade-like opening to an extended structure. An outward swing of the hybrid domain at its junction with the I-like domain shows conformational change within the headpiece that is linked to ligand binding. Breakage of a C-terminal clasp between the alpha and beta subunits enhances Mn(2+)-induced unbending and ligand binding.

  4. Population and climate pressures on global river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    We present a global analysis of the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. In-stream Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) concentration is calculated along global river networks using past, current and future information on gridded population and river discharge. Our model accounts for the accumulation (from populated areas), transport, dilution, and degradation of BOD to reveal the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. From 1950 to 2000, our analysis indicates that rivers that flow through regions with increasing population undergo a prominent deterioration of water quality, especially in developing countries with a lack of treatment plants. By 2050, population growth and climate change have varying effects on degradation of river water quality, with their combined effect amplified in region undergoing both population growth (more pollutant loading) and decrease in discharge (less dilution capacity). Keywords: Population growth, Climate change, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Water management

  5. General Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  6. Conformer generation with OMEGA: algorithm and validation using high quality structures from the Protein Databank and Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Warren, Gregory L; Ellingson, Benjamin A; Stahl, Matthew T

    2010-04-26

    Here, we present the algorithm and validation for OMEGA, a systematic, knowledge-based conformer generator. The algorithm consists of three phases: assembly of an initial 3D structure from a library of fragments; exhaustive enumeration of all rotatable torsions using values drawn from a knowledge-based list of angles, thereby generating a large set of conformations; and sampling of this set by geometric and energy criteria. Validation of conformer generators like OMEGA has often been undertaken by comparing computed conformer sets to experimental molecular conformations from crystallography, usually from the Protein Databank (PDB). Such an approach is fraught with difficulty due to the systematic problems with small molecule structures in the PDB. Methods are presented to identify a diverse set of small molecule structures from cocomplexes in the PDB that has maximal reliability. A challenging set of 197 high quality, carefully selected ligand structures from well-solved models was obtained using these methods. This set will provide a sound basis for comparison and validation of conformer generators in the future. Validation results from this set are compared to the results using structures of a set of druglike molecules extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). OMEGA is found to perform very well in reproducing the crystallographic conformations from both these data sets using two complementary metrics of success.

  7. Quality end-of-life care: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter A; Bowman, Kerry W

    2002-07-25

    BACKGROUND: Quality end-of-life care has emerged as an important concept in industrialized countries. DISCUSSION: We argue quality end-of-life care should be seen as a global public health and health systems problem. It is a global problem because 85 % of the 56 million deaths worldwide that occur annually are in developing countries. It is a public health problem because of the number of people it affects, directly and indirectly, in terms of the well being of loved ones, and the large-scale, population based nature of some possible interventions. It is a health systems problem because one of its main features is the need for better information on quality end-of-life care. We examine the context of end-of-life care, including the epidemiology of death and cross-cultural considerations. Although there are examples of success, we could not identify systematic data on capacity for delivering quality end-of-life care in developing countries. We also address a possible objection to improving end-of-life care in developing countries; many deaths are preventable and reduction of avoidable deaths should be the focus of attention. CONCLUSIONS: We make three recommendations: (1) reinforce the recasting of quality end-of-life care as a global public health and health systems problem; (2) strengthen capacity to deliver quality end-of-life care; and (3) develop improved strategies to acquire information about the quality of end-of-life care.

  8. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ``Transportation Conformity.'' This approval will meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act (Act) and EPA's Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: This direct final rule will be effective October 18, 2010,...

  9. Overview of NASA's Observations for Global Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of pollutants are central to the study of air quality. Much focus has been placed on local-scale observations that can help specific geographic areas document their air quality issues, plan abatement strategies, and understand potential impacts. In addition, long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants can cause downwind regions to not meet attainment standards. Satellite observations have shed significant light on air quality from local to regional to global scales, especially for pollutants such as ozone, aerosols, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. These observations have made use of multiple techniques and in some cases multiple satellite sensors. The satellite observations are complemented by surface observations, as well as atmospheric (in situ) observations typically made as part of focused airborne field campaigns. The synergy between satellite observations and field campaigns has been an important theme for recent and upcoming activities and plans. In this talk, a review of NASA's investments in observations relevant to global air quality will be presented, with examples given for a range of pollutants and measurement approaches covering the last twenty-five years. These investments have helped build national and international collaborations such that the global satellite community is now preparing to deploy a constellation of satellites that together will provide fundamental advances in global observations for air quality.

  10. Towards Globally Optimal Crowdsourcing Quality Management: The Uniform Worker Setting

    PubMed Central

    Das Sarma, Akash; Parameswaran, Aditya; Widom, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We study crowdsourcing quality management, that is, given worker responses to a set of tasks, our goal is to jointly estimate the true answers for the tasks, as well as the quality of the workers. Prior work on this problem relies primarily on applying Expectation-Maximization (EM) on the underlying maximum likelihood problem to estimate true answers as well as worker quality. Unfortunately, EM only provides a locally optimal solution rather than a globally optimal one. Other solutions to the problem (that do not leverage EM) fail to provide global optimality guarantees as well. In this paper, we focus on filtering, where tasks require the evaluation of a yes/no predicate, and rating, where tasks elicit integer scores from a finite domain. We design algorithms for finding the global optimal estimates of correct task answers and worker quality for the underlying maximum likelihood problem, and characterize the complexity of these algorithms. Our algorithms conceptually consider all mappings from tasks to true answers (typically a very large number), leveraging two key ideas to reduce, by several orders of magnitude, the number of mappings under consideration, while preserving optimality. We also demonstrate that these algorithms often find more accurate estimates than EM-based algorithms. This paper makes an important contribution towards understanding the inherent complexity of globally optimal crowdsourcing quality management. PMID:28149000

  11. Towards Globally Optimal Crowdsourcing Quality Management: The Uniform Worker Setting.

    PubMed

    Das Sarma, Akash; Parameswaran, Aditya; Widom, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We study crowdsourcing quality management, that is, given worker responses to a set of tasks, our goal is to jointly estimate the true answers for the tasks, as well as the quality of the workers. Prior work on this problem relies primarily on applying Expectation-Maximization (EM) on the underlying maximum likelihood problem to estimate true answers as well as worker quality. Unfortunately, EM only provides a locally optimal solution rather than a globally optimal one. Other solutions to the problem (that do not leverage EM) fail to provide global optimality guarantees as well. In this paper, we focus on filtering, where tasks require the evaluation of a yes/no predicate, and rating, where tasks elicit integer scores from a finite domain. We design algorithms for finding the global optimal estimates of correct task answers and worker quality for the underlying maximum likelihood problem, and characterize the complexity of these algorithms. Our algorithms conceptually consider all mappings from tasks to true answers (typically a very large number), leveraging two key ideas to reduce, by several orders of magnitude, the number of mappings under consideration, while preserving optimality. We also demonstrate that these algorithms often find more accurate estimates than EM-based algorithms. This paper makes an important contribution towards understanding the inherent complexity of globally optimal crowdsourcing quality management.

  12. Mismatched DNTP Incorporation By DNA Polymerase Beta Does Not Proceed Via Globally Different Conformational Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, K.-H.; Niebuhr, M.; Tung, C.-S.; Chan, H.-c.; Chou, C.-C.; Tsai, M.-D.

    2009-05-26

    Understanding how DNA polymerases control fidelity requires elucidation of the mechanisms of matched and mismatched dNTP incorporations. Little is known about the latter because mismatched complexes do not crystallize readily. In this report, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and structural modeling to probe the conformations of different intermediate states of mammalian DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta}) in its wild-type and an error-prone variant, I260Q. Our structural results indicate that the mismatched ternary complex lies in-between the open and the closed forms, but more closely resembles the open form for WT and the closed form for I260Q. On the basis of molecular modeling, this over-stabilization of mismatched ternary complex of I260Q is likely caused by formation of a hydrogen bonding network between the side chains of Gln{sup 260}, Tyr{sup 296}, Glu{sup 295} and Arg{sup 258}, freeing up Asp{sup 192} to coordinate MgdNTP. These results argue against recent reports suggesting that mismatched dNTP incorporations follow a conformational path distinctly different from that of matched dNTP incorporation, or that its conformational closing is a major contributor to fidelity.

  13. Sugar binding induces the same global conformational change in purified LacY as in the native bacterial membrane.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yiling; Kaback, H Ronald

    2010-05-25

    Many independent lines of evidence indicate that the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) is highly dynamic and that sugar binding causes closing of a large inward-facing cavity with opening of a wide outward-facing hydrophilic cavity. Therefore, lactose/H(+) symport catalyzed by LacY very likely involves a global conformational change that allows alternating access of single sugar- and H(+)-binding sites to either side of the membrane (the alternating access model). The x-ray crystal structures of LacY, as well as the majority of spectroscopic studies, use purified protein in detergent micelles. By using site-directed alkylation, we now demonstrate that sugar binding induces virtually the same global conformational change in LacY whether the protein is in the native bacterial membrane or is solubilized and purified in detergent. The results also indicate that the x-ray crystal structure reflects the structure of wild-type LacY in the native membrane in the absence of sugar.

  14. Are Educational Governance Reforms in a Post-Conflict Society Conforming to Global Standards? Examining the Application of Education Convergence Theory in an Internationally Supervised and Politicized Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether and to what extent educational reforms in a post-conflict society conform to "global (regional) standards," and explores the meaning of inconsistencies observed in the process of global reform transfer. Among the nations of the world, nowhere is the influence of external forces on educational reforms more…

  15. Are Educational Governance Reforms in a Post-Conflict Society Conforming to Global Standards? Examining the Application of Education Convergence Theory in an Internationally Supervised and Politicized Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether and to what extent educational reforms in a post-conflict society conform to "global (regional) standards," and explores the meaning of inconsistencies observed in the process of global reform transfer. Among the nations of the world, nowhere is the influence of external forces on educational reforms more…

  16. Global Pressures on Education Research: Quality, Utility, and Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.; Summers, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of issues likely to drive educational research globally over the next decade, and it examines the "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER")'s role in responding to these issues, shaping research agendas, and delivering high-quality research. We also look at the implications of these…

  17. Global Pressures on Education Research: Quality, Utility, and Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.; Summers, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of issues likely to drive educational research globally over the next decade, and it examines the "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER")'s role in responding to these issues, shaping research agendas, and delivering high-quality research. We also look at the implications of these…

  18. Refoldable Foldamers: Global Conformational Switching by Deletion or Insertion of a Single Hydrogen Bond

    PubMed Central

    Le Bailly, Bryden A. F.; Byrne, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Small changes in the structure of a foldamer may lead to gross changes in conformational preference. We show that the simple insertion or deletion of a single hydrogen bond by changes in pH or by photochemical deprotection is sufficient to refold a helical oligomer, interconverting M and P screw‐sense preference. As a consequence of the switch, information may be transmitted to a remote catalytic site, selectively directing the formation of either of two enantiomeric products by a reaction involving 1,22‐remote intermolecular asymmetric induction. PMID:26762559

  19. The Functional Quality of Soluble Recombinant Polypeptides Produced in Escherichia coli Is Defined by a Wide Conformational Spectrum▿

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; González-Montalbán, Nuria; García-Fruitós, Elena; Villaverde, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We have observed that a soluble recombinant green fluorescent protein produced in Escherichia coli occurs in a wide conformational spectrum. This results in differently fluorescent protein fractions in which morphologically diverse soluble aggregates abound. Therefore, the functional quality of soluble versions of aggregation-prone recombinant proteins is defined statistically rather than by the prevalence of a canonical native structure. PMID:18836021

  20. A global conformal extension theorem for perfect fluid Bianchi space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbe, Christian Tod, Paul

    2008-12-15

    A global extension theorem is established for isotropic singularities in polytropic perfect fluid Bianchi space-times. When an extension is possible, the limiting behaviour of the physical space-time near the singularity is analysed.

  1. Global and regional air quality responses to regional CO reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Adelman, Z.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence global and regional air quality and climate through changes in the tropospheric concentrations of O3, methane (CH4), and aerosols. Here we examine the influence of regional carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on air quality by simulating 50% reductions in anthropogenic CO emissions from 10 world regions (Australia/New Zealand, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Southern Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Former Soviet Union, Europe, South America, and North America), using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. The IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emissions inventory for 2005 and global meteorology from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) for 2004-2005 are used as inputs to MOZART-4, run at 1.9 x 2.5 degree horizontal resolution. Base case global air quality is first simulated for the year 2005, and the resulting distributions of tropospheric O3 and related species are compared with observations. Then CO emission reductions from each of the 10 regions are simulated individually. We quantify global and regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 at the surface and within the troposphere, including the influence of each regional reduction on long-term O3 concentrations via CH4 and the long-range transport of O3 and CO. This analysis shows the sensitivity of global and regional air quality to anthropogenic CO emissions from many world regions, in contrast to previous studies of only a few regions. Beyond this study, these simulations will be used to estimate the net radiative forcing due to CO emission reductions from these world regions.

  2. Global analysis of population growth and river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Human-related pressures on river water quality are a concern of global proportions.. However, little is known about the more specific impact of increasing population on river water quality and how it provides a vital environmental reference for water management. Combining global gridded data on population and river discharge with digitized river networks, we conduct numerical simulations to demonstrate the direct impact of population growth on river water quality. Our model traces the transport, dilution, and degradation of anthropogenic organic matter (BOD) emissions into rivers. Spanning the period from the early 20th century to the present, our analysis indicates that the pressure on downstream river networks markedly increased since the population explosion starting in 1950, especially in developing countries. The ratio of population to river discharge reveals the link between impact severity and dilution capacity. In addition, a denser population is found to be correlated with higher impact severity. Consideration of direct population influences on global river water quality becomes limited as society develops and should be studied as a fundamental reference for human-related river water management. Keywords: Population growth, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Human activities, Water Management

  3. ATP-dependent interplay between local and global conformational changes in the myosin motor.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    The ATPase active site of myosin is located at the core of the motor head. During the Lymn-Taylor actomyosin contractile cycle, small conformational changes in the active site upon ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis and ADP/Pi release are accompanied by large conformational transitions of the motor domains, such as opening and closing of the actin binding cleft and the movement of lever arm. Here, our previous computational studies of myosin are summarized in a comprehensive model at the level of atomic detail. Molecular movies show how the successive domain motions during the ATP induced actin dissociation and the recovery stroke are coupled with the precise positioning of the key catalytic groups in the active site. This leads to a precise timing of the activation of the ATPase function: it allows ATP hydrolysis only after unbinding from actin and the priming of the lever arm, both pre-requisites for an efficient functioning of the motor during the subsequent power stroke. These coupling mechanisms constitute essential principles of every myosin motor, of which the ATP-site can be seen as the central allosteric control unit. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Solution Structure of Clostridial Collagenase H and Its Calcium-Dependent Global Conformation Change

    PubMed Central

    Ohbayashi, Naomi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shima, Hiroki; Goto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kimiko; Yamano, Akihito; Katoh, Yasutake; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yamagata, Youhei; Murayama, Kazutaka

    2013-01-01

    Collagenase H (ColH) from Clostridium histolyticum is a multimodular protein composed of a collagenase module (activator and peptidase domains), two polycystic kidney disease-like domains, and a collagen-binding domain. The interdomain conformation and its changes are very important for understanding the functions of ColH. In this study, small angle x-ray scattering and limited proteolysis were employed to reveal the interdomain arrangement of ColH in solution. The ab initio beads model indicated that ColH adopted a tapered shape with a swollen head. Under calcium-chelated conditions (with EGTA), the overall structure was further elongated. The rigid body model indicated that the closed form of the collagenase module was preferred in solution. The limited proteolysis demonstrated that the protease sensitivity of ColH was significantly increased under the calcium-chelated conditions, and that the digestion mainly occurred in the domain linker regions. Fluorescence measurements with a fluorescent dye were performed with the limited proteolysis products after separation. The results indicated that the limited proteolysis products exhibited fluorescence similar to that of the full-length ColH. These findings suggested that the conformation of full-length ColH in solution is the elongated form, and this form is calcium-dependently maintained at the domain linker regions. PMID:23561530

  5. Multimodality image registration quality assurance for conformal three-dimensional treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Mutic, S; Dempsey, J F; Bosch, W R; Low, D A; Drzymala, R E; Chao, K S; Goddu, S M; Cutler, P D; Purdy, J A

    2001-09-01

    We present a quality assurance methodology to determine the accuracy of multimodality image registration and fusion for the purpose of conformal three-dimensional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning. Registration and fusion accuracy between any combination of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission computed tomography (PET) imaging studies can be evaluated. A commercial anthropomorphic head phantom filled with water and containing CT, MR, and PET visible targets was modified to evaluate the accuracy of multimodality image registration and fusion software. For MR and PET imaging, the water inside the phantom was doped with CuNO(3) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), respectively. Targets consisting of plastic spheres and pins were distributed throughout the cranium section of the phantom. Each target sphere had a conical-shaped bore with its apex at the center of the sphere. The pins had a conical extension or indentation at the free end. The contours of the spheres, sphere centers, and pin tips were used as anatomic landmark models for image registration, which was performed using affine coordinate-transformation tools provided in a commercial multimodality image registration/fusion software package. Four sets of phantom image studies were obtained: primary CT, secondary CT with different phantom immobilization, MR, and PET study. A novel CT, MR, and PET external fiducial marking system was also tested. The registration of CT/CT, CT/MR, and CT/PET images allowed correlation of anatomic landmarks to within 2 mm, verifying the accuracy of the registration software and spatial fidelity of the four multimodality image sets. This straightforward phantom-based quality assurance of the image registration and fusion process can be used in a routine clinical setting or for providing a working image set for development of the image registration and fusion process and new software.

  6. Conformational flexibility of loops of myosin enhances the global bias in the actin-myosin interaction landscape.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Sasai, Masaki; Terada, Tomoki P

    2014-04-14

    A long-standing controversy on the mechanism of an actomyosin motor is the role of the Brownian motion of the myosin head in force generation. In order to shed light on this problem, we calculate free-energy landscapes of interaction between an actin filament and the head (S1) of myosin II by using a coarse-grained model of actomyosin. The results show that the free-energy landscape has a global gradient toward the strong-binding site on actin filament, which explains the biased Brownian motion of myosin S1 observed in a single-molecule experiment [Kitamura et al., Nature, 1999, 397, 129 and Biophysics, 2005, 1, 1]. The distinct global gradient in the landscape is brought about only when the conformation of loop 2 at the actin interface of myosin S1 is flexible. The conformational flexibility of loop 3 also contributes to the gradient in the landscape by compensating the role of loop 2. Though the structure of loop 2 is expanded in the weak-binding state, loop 2 shows the larger fluctuation of compaction and expansion due to the actin-myosin interactions as myosin S1 moves toward the strong-binding site on actin filament. Hence, the increase in the compaction-expansion fluctuation of loop 2, the stronger binding of myosin to actin, and the biased Brownian motion of myosin S1 are coupled with each other and should take place in a concurrent way. This predicted coupling should provide opportunities to further test the hypothesis of the biased Brownian motion in actomyosin.

  7. Conformal Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauendiener, Jörg

    2004-12-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  8. Impact of Gemcitabine Chemotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy/5-Fluorouracil on Quality of Life of Patients Managed for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Michala; Halkett, Georgia; Borg, Martin; Zissiadis, Yvonne; Kneebone, Andrew; Spry, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL) results for patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n=41 locally advanced, n=22 postsurgery) entered the B9E-AY-S168 study and received 1 cycle of induction gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} weekly Multiplication-Sign 3 with 1-week break) followed by 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) (54 Gy locally advanced and 45 Gy postsurgery) and concomitant continuous-infusion 5-fluorouracil (5FU) (200 mg/m{sup 2}/d throughout RT). After 4 weeks, patients received an additional 3 cycles of consolidation gemcitabine chemotherapy. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 questionnaires at baseline, before RT/5FU, at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion. Results: The patterns of change in global QOL scores differed between groups. In the locally advanced group global QOL scores were +13, +8, +3, and +1 compared with baseline before RT/5FU (P=.008), at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion, respectively. In the postsurgery group, global QOL scores were -3, +4, +15, and +17 compared with baseline at the same time points, with a significant improvement in global QOL before consolidation gemcitabine (P=.03). No significant declines in global QOL were reported by either cohort. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that global QOL and associated function and symptom profiles for pancreatic chemoradiation therapy differ between locally advanced and postsurgery patients, likely owing to differences in underlying disease status. For both groups, the treatment protocol was well tolerated and did not have a negative impact on patients' global QOL.

  9. Solution NMR conformation of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been giving a pivotal contribution to the progress of glycomics, mostly by elucidating the structural, dynamical, conformational and intermolecular binding aspects of carbohydrates. Particularly in the field of conformation, NOE resonances, scalar couplings, residual dipolar couplings, and chemical shift anisotropy offsets have been the principal NMR parameters utilized. Molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-data input are usually employed in conjunction to generate glycosidic bond dihedral angles. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a special class of sulfated polysaccharides extensively studied worldwide. Besides regulating innumerous physiological processes, these glycans are also widely explored in the global market as either clinical or nutraceutical agents. The conformational aspects of GAGs are key regulators to the quality of interactions with the functional proteins involved in biological events. This report discusses the solution conformation of each GAG type analyzed by one or more of the above-mentioned methods.

  10. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Chung, S. H.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E. P., Jr.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the United States (US), we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US) domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected global emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s) and future (2050s) biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002) and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O) concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 parts per billion (ppb) across most of the continental US. The highest increase occurs in the South, Central and Midwest regions of the US due to

  11. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  12. Dispositional optimism and terminal decline in global quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Palgi, Yuval; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Schnall, Eliezer; Woods, Nancy F; Cochrane, Barbara B; Garcia, Lorena; Hingle, Melanie; Post, Stephen; Seguin, Rebecca; Tindle, Hilary; Shrira, Amit

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether dispositional optimism relates to change in global quality of life (QOL) as a function of either chronological age or years to impending death. We used a sample of 2,096 deceased postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials who were enrolled in the 2005-2010 Extension Study and for whom at least 1 global QOL and optimism measure were analyzed. Growth curve models were examined. Competing models were contrasted using model fit criteria. On average, levels of global QOL decreased with both higher age and closer proximity to death (e.g., M(score) = 7.7 eight years prior to death vs. M(score) = 6.1 one year prior to death). A decline in global QOL was better modeled as a function of distance to death (DtD) than as a function of chronological age (Bayesian information criterion [BIC](DtD) = 22,964.8 vs. BIC(age) = 23,322.6). Optimism was a significant correlate of both linear (estimate(DtD) = -0.01, SE(DtD) = 0.005; ρ = 0.004) and quadratic (estimate(DtD) = -0.006, SE(DtD) = 0.002; ρ = 0.004) terminal decline in global QOL so that death-related decline in global QOL was steeper among those with a high level of optimism than those with a low level of optimism. We found that dispositional optimism helps to maintain positive psychological perspective in the face of age-related decline. Optimists maintain higher QOL compared with pessimists when death-related trajectories were considered; however, the gap between those with high optimism and those with low optimism progressively attenuated with closer proximity to death, to the point that is became nonsignificant at the time of death.

  13. Use of MALDI-MS Combined with Differential Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange for Semiautomated Protein Global Conformational Screening.

    PubMed

    Pirrone, Gregory F; Wang, Heather; Canfield, Nicole; Chin, Alexander S; Rhodes, Timothy A; Makarov, Alexey A

    2017-08-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass-spectrometry (MS) detector is acknowledged to be very useful for analysis of biological molecules. At the same time, hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) is a well-known technique for studying protein higher-order structure. However, coupling MALDI with HDX has been challenging because of undesired back-exchange reactions during analysis. In this report, we survey an approach that utilizes MALDI coupled with an automated sample preparation to compare global conformational changes of proteins under different solution conditions using differential HDX. A nonaqueous matrix was proposed for MALDI sample preparation to minimize undesirable back-exchange. An automated experimental setup based on the use of a liquid-handling robot and automated data acquisition allowed for tracking protein conformational changes as a difference in the number of protons exchanged to deuterons at specified solution conditions. Experimental time points to study the deuteration-labeling kinetics were obtained in a fully automated manner. The use of a nonaqueous matrix solution allowed experimental error to be minimized to within 1% RSD. We applied this newly developed MALDI-HDX workflow to study the effect of several common excipients on insulin folding stability. The observed results were corroborated by literature data and were obtained in a high-throughput and automated manner. The proposed MALDI-HDX approach can also be applied in a high-throughput manner for batch-to-batch higher-order structure comparison, as well as for the optimization of protein chemical modification reactions.

  14. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products.

  15. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. Conclusions This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT. PMID:26229621

  17. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-12-15

    This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT.

  18. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-12-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good

  19. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  20. Quality control and estimation of global solar radiation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenjun; He, Jie; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun

    2010-03-15

    Measurements of surface radiation in China are too sparse to meet demand for scientific research and engineering applications. Moreover, the radiation data often include erroneous and questionable values though preliminary quality-check has been done before the data release. Therefore, quality control of radiation data is often a prerequisite for using these data. In this study, a set of quality-check procedures were implemented to control the quality of the solar radiation measurements at 97 stations in China. A hybrid model for estimating global solar radiation was then evaluated against the controlled data. The results show that the model can estimate the global radiation with accuracy of MBE less than 1.5 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE less than 2.8 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE less than 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation at individual stations over most of China except at a few stations where unsatisfactory estimates were possibly caused by severe air pollution or too dense clouds. The MBE averaged over all stations are about 0.7 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE about 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE about 1.3 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation. Finally, this model was used to fill data gaps and to expand solar radiation data set using routine meteorological station data in China. This data set would substantially contribute to some radiation-related scientific studies and engineering applications in China. (author)

  1. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  2. The 'Alternative Quality Contract,' based on a global budget, lowered medical spending and improved quality.

    PubMed

    Song, Zirui; Safran, Dana Gelb; Landon, Bruce E; Landrum, Mary Beth; He, Yulei; Mechanic, Robert E; Day, Matthew P; Chernew, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Seven provider organizations in Massachusetts entered the Blue Cross Blue Shield Alternative Quality Contract in 2009, followed by four more organizations in 2010. This contract, based on a global budget and pay-for-performance for achieving certain quality benchmarks, places providers at risk for excessive spending and rewards them for quality, similar to the new Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations in Medicare. We analyzed changes in spending and quality associated with the Alternative Quality Contract and found that the rate of increase in spending slowed compared to control groups, more so in the second year than in the first. Overall, participation in the contract over two years led to savings of 2.8 percent (1.9 percent in year 1 and 3.3 percent in year 2) compared to spending in nonparticipating groups. Savings were accounted for by lower prices achieved through shifting procedures, imaging, and tests to facilities with lower fees, as well as reduced utilization among some groups. Quality of care also improved compared to control organizations, with chronic care management, adult preventive care, and pediatric care within the contracting groups improving more in year 2 than in year 1. These results suggest that global budgets with pay-for-performance can begin to slow underlying growth in medical spending while improving quality of care.

  3. Connecting global change science with communities: About the conformation of a social network for early warnings in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, P. A.; Vidal, L. M.; Serna, A. M.; Vieira, C.; Machado, J.; Cadavid, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The risk associated with natural and social phenomena has notably increased in modern societies. On the other hand, socio-natural hazards have increased and diversified, in association with economic development. During 2010 and 2011, Colombia faced one of the most severe wet seasons in decades. One of the most significant impacts of this flood emergency was the demonstration of poor preparedness of communities, local authorities, and regional and national authorities to confront situations of large coverage. The emergencies occurred during 2010 and 2011, induced in association with a strong La Niña event, immediately demanded environmental and risk management authorities to provide communities with basic tools to understand the dynamics associated with excesses of rainfall and mitigate the possible impacts in their populations. For this reason, the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Central Antioquia, Colombia (CORANTIOQUIA) funded a project aimed to the design and conformation of a social network for early warnings of events associated to floods, torrential floods, and mass movements in 80 municipalities of the department of Antioquia, Colombia. For the execution of this project, the Corporation invited the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Antioquia. This talk aims to socialize this inititative that looked for integrating scientific and technical knowledge with popular knowledge in order to provide Latin American communities with tools to mitigate the possible impacts of global change.

  4. On the use of Schwarz-Christoffel conformal mappings to the grid generation for global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Wang, B.; Liu, J.

    2015-10-01

    In this article we propose two grid generation methods for global ocean general circulation models. Contrary to conventional dipolar or tripolar grids, the proposed methods are based on Schwarz-Christoffel conformal mappings that map areas with user-prescribed, irregular boundaries to those with regular boundaries (i.e., disks, slits, etc.). The first method aims at improving existing dipolar grids. Compared with existing grids, the sample grid achieves a better trade-off between the enlargement of the latitudinal-longitudinal portion and the overall smooth grid cell size transition. The second method addresses more modern and advanced grid design requirements arising from high-resolution and multi-scale ocean modeling. The generated grids could potentially achieve the alignment of grid lines to the large-scale coastlines, enhanced spatial resolution in coastal regions, and easier computational load balance. Since the grids are orthogonal curvilinear, they can be easily utilized by the majority of ocean general circulation models that are based on finite difference and require grid orthogonality. The proposed grid generation algorithms can also be applied to the grid generation for regional ocean modeling where complex land-sea distribution is present.

  5. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Avise, J.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E. P., Jr.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the US, we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use, and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US) domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected Asian emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s) and future (2050s) biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002) and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O) concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 ppb across most of the continental US, with the highest increase in the South, Central, and Midwest regions of the US, due to increases in temperature, enhanced

  6. Review: Automation and meat quality-global challenges.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Shai

    2014-01-01

    The global meat industry has seen significant changes in the methods used to harvest and process fresh meat over the past century. Increased use of automation has led to significant increases in line speed for beef, pork, sheep, poultry and fish operations. For example, currently the fastest line observed has been broilers at 13,500/h. Such developments have required in-depth understanding of the pre and post rigor processes to prevent defects. Procedures such as maturation chilling and electrical stimulation are now common in red meat and poultry processing; allowing shorter time to deboning, while harvesting high quality meat. Robots designed to cut meat are also appearing on the market, and replacing traditional manual operations. This is a challenge, because high speed equipment is not necessarily sensitive to variations in size/quality issues, and requires development of unique sensors and control systems. Also, progress in breeding and genetics is contributing to greater product uniformity and quality; helping in operating automated equipment.

  7. A Novel Image Quality Assessment with Globally and Locally Consilient Visual Quality Perception.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Ho; Kim, Munchurl

    2016-03-25

    Computational models for image quality assessment (IQA) have been developed by exploring effective features that are consistent with the characteristics of human visual system (HVS) for visual quality perception. In this paper, we firstly reveal that many existing features used in computational IQA methods can hardly characterize visual quality perception for local image characteristics and various distortion types. To solve this problem, we propose a new IQA method, called Structural Contrast-Quality Index (SC-QI) by adopting a structural contrast index (SCI) which can well characterize local and global visual quality perceptions for various image characteristics with structural-distortion types. In addition to SCI, we devise some other perceptually important features for our SC-QI that can effectively reflect the characteristics of HVS for contrast sensitivity and chrominance component variation. Furthermore, we develop a modified SC-QI, called structural contrast distortion metric (SC-DM) which inherits desirable mathematical properties of valid distance metricability and quasi-convexity. So, it can effectively be used as a distance metric for image quality optimization problems. Extensive experimental results show that both SC-QI and SC-DM can very well characterize the HVS's properties of visual quality perception for local image characteristics and various distortion types, which is a distinctive merit of our methods compared to other IQA methods. As a result, both SC-QI and SC-DM have better performances with a strong consilience of global and local visual quality perception as well as with much lower computation complexity, compared to state-of-the-art IQA methods. The MATLAB source codes of the proposed SC-QI and SC-DM are publicly available online at https://sites.google.com/site/sunghobaecv/iqa.

  8. A Novel Image Quality Assessment With Globally and Locally Consilient Visual Quality Perception.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Ho; Kim, Munchurl

    2016-05-01

    Computational models for image quality assessment (IQA) have been developed by exploring effective features that are consistent with the characteristics of a human visual system (HVS) for visual quality perception. In this paper, we first reveal that many existing features used in computational IQA methods can hardly characterize visual quality perception for local image characteristics and various distortion types. To solve this problem, we propose a new IQA method, called the structural contrast-quality index (SC-QI), by adopting a structural contrast index (SCI), which can well characterize local and global visual quality perceptions for various image characteristics with structural-distortion types. In addition to SCI, we devise some other perceptually important features for our SC-QI that can effectively reflect the characteristics of HVS for contrast sensitivity and chrominance component variation. Furthermore, we develop a modified SC-QI, called structural contrast distortion metric (SC-DM), which inherits desirable mathematical properties of valid distance metricability and quasi-convexity. So, it can effectively be used as a distance metric for image quality optimization problems. Extensive experimental results show that both SC-QI and SC-DM can very well characterize the HVS's properties of visual quality perception for local image characteristics and various distortion types, which is a distinctive merit of our methods compared with other IQA methods. As a result, both SC-QI and SC-DM have better performances with a strong consilience of global and local visual quality perception as well as with much lower computation complexity, compared with the state-of-the-art IQA methods. The MATLAB source codes of the proposed SC-QI and SC-DM are publicly available online at https://sites.google.com/site/sunghobaecv/iqa.

  9. Combined probes of X-ray scattering and optical spectroscopy reveal how global conformational change is temporally and spatially linked to local structural perturbation in photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wu; Yang, Cheolhee; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong Goo; Kim, Jeongho; Jung, Yang Ouk; Jun, Sunhong; Lee, Sang Jin; Park, Sungjun; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert; van Thor, Jasper J; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2016-04-07

    Real-time probing of structural transitions of a photoactive protein is challenging owing to the lack of a universal time-resolved technique that can probe the changes in both global conformation and light-absorbing chromophores of the protein. In this work, we combine time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to investigate how the global conformational changes involved in the photoinduced signal transduction of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is temporally and spatially related to the local structural change around the light-absorbing chromophore. In particular, we examine the role of internal proton transfer in developing a signaling state of PYP by employing its E46Q mutant (E46Q-PYP), where the internal proton transfer is inhibited by the replacement of a proton donor. The comparison of TRXSS and TA spectroscopy data directly reveals that the global conformational change of the protein, which is probed by TRXSS, is temporally delayed by tens of microseconds from the local structural change of the chromophore, which is probed by TA spectroscopy. The molecular shape of the signaling state reconstructed from the TRXSS curves directly visualizes the three-dimensional conformations of protein intermediates and reveals that the smaller structural change in E46Q-PYP than in wild-type PYP suggested by previous studies is manifested in terms of much smaller protrusion, confirming that the signaling state of E46Q-PYP is only partially developed compared with that of wild-type PYP. This finding provides direct evidence of how the environmental change in the vicinity of the chromophore alters the conformational change of the entire protein matrix.

  10. Combined probes of X-ray scattering and optical spectroscopy reveal how global conformational change is temporally and spatially linked to local structural perturbation in photoactive yellow protein†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong Goo; Kim, Jeongho; Jung, Yang Ouk; Jun, Sunhong; Lee, Sang Jin; Park, Sungjun; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert; van Thor, Jasper J.; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2016-01-01

    Real-time probing of structural transitions of a photoactive protein is challenging owing to the lack of a universal time-resolved technique that can probe the changes in both global conformation and light-absorbing chromophore of the protein. In this work, we combine time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to investigate how the global conformational changes involved in the photoinduced signal transduction of photoactive yellow protein is temporally and spatially related with the local structural change around the light-absorbing chromophore. In particular, we examine the role of internal proton transfer in developing a signaling state of photoactive yellow protein by employing its E46Q mutant, where the internal proton transfer is inhibited by the replacement of a proton donor. The comparison of TRXSS and TA spectroscopy data directly reveals that the global conformational change of the protein, which is probed by TRXSS, is temporally delayed by tens of microseconds from the local structural change of the chromophore, which is probed by TA spectroscopy. The molecular shape of the signaling state reconstructed from the TRXSS curves directly visualizes the three-dimensional conformations of protein intermeidates and reveals that the smaller structural change in E46Q-PYP than in wt-PYP suggested by previous studies is manifested in terms of much smaller protrusion, confirming that the signaling state of E46Q-PYP is only partially developed compared with that of wt-PYP. This finding provides a direct evidence of how the environmental change in the vicinity of the chromophore alters the conformational change of the entire protein matrix. PMID:26960811

  11. The Impact of Globalization on a Country's Quality of Life: Toward an Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Lee, Dong-Jin; Miller, Chad; Littlefield, James E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a set of theoretical propositions to explain the impact of globalization on a country's quality of life (QOL). In this paper, we describe how globalization impacts the quality of life of residents of a country by first articulating the globalization construct (in terms of inflows and outflows of goods,…

  12. The Impact of Globalization on a Country's Quality of Life: Toward an Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Lee, Dong-Jin; Miller, Chad; Littlefield, James E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a set of theoretical propositions to explain the impact of globalization on a country's quality of life (QOL). In this paper, we describe how globalization impacts the quality of life of residents of a country by first articulating the globalization construct (in terms of inflows and outflows of goods,…

  13. Challenges and Approaches for Data Quality in Global Precipitation Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    It is a substantial challenge to estimate the global distribution of precipitation at the finest scales because the retrieval problem is highly underdetermined, given the available satellite and surface data and the approximations that are needed to compute solutions. Sampling is improved by combining precipitation estimates from as many precipitation-relevant satellites as possible, but this step introduces the necessity of coping with differing retrieval capabilities from the various satellites. The usual response is to inter-calibrate the satellite estimates, usually choosing one satellite as a standard and performing histogram matching with coincident data for all the other satellites. Such matching requires numerous design decisions for practical use. As well, it has been shown that monthly accumulations of surface precipitation gauge data can be used to reduce bias and improve patterns of occurrence for monthly accumulations of satellite data, and short-interval satellite estimates can be improved with a simple scaling such that they sum to the monthly satellite-gauge combination. However, the quality of the short-interval estimates is still dominated by the random errors. Spatial and/or temporal averaging improve the random-error content of the estimates, although not the bias. This observation has a profound implication for the perceived utility of the precipitation data: applications that entail explicit or implicit averaging usually tolerate higher levels of random error than applications requiring skill in the full-resolution estimates. The presentation will consider some of the current issues confronting the analysis of error and quality for global precipitation. These include consideration of: how best to estimate the error for fine-scale precipitation estimates, particularly in areas where the precipitation estimate is zero; the impact of high- and low-end thresholds in estimators; and metrics that are appropriate to the fine-scale, discontinuous

  14. The quality of rivers: From pristine stage to global pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybeck, Michel; Helmer, Richard

    1989-12-01

    River water quality is highly variable by nature due to environmental conditions such as basin lithology, vegetation and climate. In small watersheds spatial variations extend over orders of magnitude for most major elements and nutrients, while this variability is an order of magnitude lower for major basins. A standard river water for use as reference is therefore not applicable. As a consequence natural waters can possibly be unfit for various human uses, even including drinking. The Water Quality (WQ) concept has greatly evolved since the beginning of the century in accordance with expanding water uses and analytical developments. Even in well developed countries the dissolved heavy metal measurements in rivers are not very reliable while dissolved organic micro-pollutants are even rarely analysed routinely. Major WQ problems have been identified according to river basin size, including organic pollution, salinity, total suspended solids, heavy metals, eutrophication, nitrate, organic micro-pollutants, acidification. They generally occurred in this order over a period of about 100 years in the industrialized countries. Historical records of WQ are rare but can be established indirectly through studies of lake sediments. When proper control action is taken at an early stage, numerous examples of WQ recovery have been found in rivers for most of the common pollution problems. Future WQ problems will mostly derive from mine tailings and toxic waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, industrial accidents and organic micropollutants which emerge faster than our analytical capacities. The newly industrializing countries will face all the above-mentioned problems within a very short time period without having the means to cope with them one at a time. River studies point out the global alteration of the biogeochemical cycles of many major elements and nutrients (S, Na, K, N, P). For heavy metals such as lead, present estimates of global river loads

  15. Assessing the quality of conformal treatment planning: a new tool for quantitative comparison.

    PubMed

    Menhel, J; Levin, D; Alezra, D; Symon, Z; Pfeffer, R

    2006-10-21

    We develop a novel radiotherapy plan comparison index, critical organ scoring index (COSI), which is a measure of both target coverage and critical organ overdose. COSI is defined as COSI=1-(V(OAR)>tol/TC), where V(OAR)>tol is the fraction of volume of organ at risk receiving more than tolerance dose, and TC is the target coverage, VT,PI/VT, where VT,PI is the target volume receiving at a least prescription dose and VT is the total target volume. COSI approaches unity when the critical structure is completely spared and the target coverage is unity. We propose a two-dimensional, graphical representation of COSI versus conformity index (CI), where CI is a measure of a normal tissue overdose. We show that this 2D representation is a reliable, visual quantitative tool for evaluating competing plans. We generate COSI-CI plots for three sites: head and neck, cavernous sinus, and pancreas, and evaluate competing non-coplanar 3D and IMRT treatment plans. For all three sites this novel 2D representation assisted the physician in choosing the optimal plan, both in terms of target coverage and in terms of critical organ sparing. We verified each choice by analysing individual DVHs and isodose lines. Comparing our results to the widely used conformation number, we found that in all cases where there were discrepancies in the choice of the best treatment plan, the COSI-CI choice was considered the correct one, in several cases indicating that a non-coplanar 3D plan was superior to the IMRT plans. The choice of plan was quick, simple and accurate using the new graphical representation.

  16. Co-expression of a heat shock transcription factor to improve conformational quality of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Yen; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shu-Jyuan; Lee, Wen-Chien

    2014-09-01

    A co-expression system was established in Escherichia coli for enhancing the cellular expression of heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32 (σ(32)). A Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the rpoH gene of E. coli, which encodes σ(32), were cloned into a bacterial plasmid containing a gene fusion encoding a doubly tagged N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid aldolase (GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R). After the IPTG induction, a substantially higher level of sigma 32 was observed up to 3 h in the co-expression cells, but an enhancement in the solubility of target protein was manifest only in the first hour. Nevertheless, the co-expression of sigma 32 led to higher level of Neu5Ac aldolase enzymatic activity in both the soluble and insoluble (inclusion body) fractions. The Neu5Ac aldolase activity of the supernatant from the lysate of cells co-expressing GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R and recombinant σ(32) was 3.4-fold higher at 3 h postinduction than that in cells overexpressing GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R in the absence of recombinantly expressed σ(32). The results of acrylamide quenching indicated that the conformational quality of the fusion protein was improved by the co-expression of recombinant σ(32). Thus, the increased level of intracellular σ(32) might have created favorable conditions for the proper folding of recombinant proteins through the cooperative effects of chaperones/heat shock proteins expressed by the E. coli host, which resulted in smaller inclusion bodies, improved conformational quality and a higher specific activity of the overexpressed GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R protein. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 77150 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., ] including NAAQS for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur... provisions; and to modify the cases for which air quality modeling analysis apply; l. Modification of section... relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements,...

  18. An Introduction to School Leadership for Quality Global Learning in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serf, Jeff; Sinclair, Scott; Wooldridge, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a project, School Leadership for Quality Global Learning, which focuses on the relationship between leadership at different levels within educational institutions and quality global learning. The article outlines briefly the changing societal context within which education is operating currently before exploring key ideas,…

  19. An Introduction to School Leadership for Quality Global Learning in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serf, Jeff; Sinclair, Scott; Wooldridge, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a project, School Leadership for Quality Global Learning, which focuses on the relationship between leadership at different levels within educational institutions and quality global learning. The article outlines briefly the changing societal context within which education is operating currently before exploring key ideas,…

  20. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor... of Availability. SUMMARY: EPA is releasing a final report entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of global change. Using a...

  1. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor..., and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-stressor Vulnerability Assessments'' (EPA/600/R-11... impacts of global change. Using a large set of environmental indicators drawn from the scientific...

  2. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  3. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  4. Quality assessment and forecast sensitivity of global remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Swapan; Dutta, Devajyoti; Min, Ki-Hong

    2017-03-01

    The satellite-derived wind from cloud and moisture features of geostationary satellites is an important data source for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. These datasets and global positioning system radio occultation (GPSRO) satellite radiances are assimilated in the four-dimensional variational atmospheric data assimilation system of the UKMO Unified Model in India. This study focuses on the importance of these data in the NWP system and their impact on short-term 24-h forecasts. The quality of the wind observations is compared to the short-range forecast from the model background. The observation increments (observation minus background) are computed as the satellite-derived wind minus the model forecast with a 6-h lead time. The results show the model background has a large easterly wind component compared to satellite observations. The importance of each observation in the analysis is studied using an adjoint-based forecast sensitivity to observation method. The results show that at least around 50% of all types of satellite observations are beneficial. In terms of individual contribution, METEOSAT-7 shows a higher percentage of impact (nearly 50%), as compared to GEOS, MTSAT-2 and METEOSAT-10, all of which have a less than 25% impact. In addition, the impact of GPSRO, infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer (IASI) and atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) data is calculated. The GPSRO observations have beneficial impacts up to 50 km. Over the Southern Hemisphere, the high spectral radiances from IASI and AIRS show a greater impact than over the Northern Hemisphere. The results in this study can be used for further improvements in the use of new and existing satellite observations.

  5. Approaches and Data Quality for Global Precipitation Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, G. J.; Bolvin, D. T.; Nelkin, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The space and time scales on which precipitation varies are small compared to the satellite coverage that we have, so it is necessary to merge "all" of the available satellite estimates. Differing retrieval capabilities from the various satellites require inter-calibration for the satellite estimates, while "morphing", i.e., Lagrangian time interpolation, is used to lengthen the period over which time interpolation is valid. Additionally, estimates from geostationary-Earth-orbit infrared data are plentiful, but of sufficiently lower quality compared to low-Earth-orbit passive microwave estimates that they are only used when needed. Finally, monthly surface precipitation gauge data can be used to reduce bias and improve patterns of occurrence for monthly satellite data, and short-interval satellite estimates can be improved with a simple scaling such that they sum to the monthly satellite-gauge combination. The presentation will briefly consider some of the design decisions for practical computation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission product Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), then examine design choices that maximize value for end users. For example, data fields are provided in the output file that provide insight into the basis for the estimated precipitation, including error, sensor providing the estimate, precipitation phase (solid/liquid), and intermediate precipitation estimates. Another important initiative is successive computations for the same data date/time at longer latencies as additional data are received, which for IMERG is currently done at 6 hours, 16 hours, and 3 months after observation time. Importantly, users require long records for each latency, which runs counter to the data archiving practices at most archive sites. As well, the assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI's) for near-real-time data sets (at 6 and 16 hours for IMERG) is not a settled issue.

  6. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  7. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  8. Relations between local and global perceptual image quality and visual masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Mushfiqul; Patil, Pranita; Hagan, Martin T.; Chandler, Damon M.

    2015-03-01

    Perceptual quality assessment of digital images and videos are important for various image-processing applications. For assessing the image quality, researchers have often used the idea of visual masking (or distortion visibility) to design image-quality predictors specifically for the near-threshold distortions. However, it is still unknown that while assessing the quality of natural images, how the local distortion visibilities relate with the local quality scores. Furthermore, the summing mechanism of the local quality scores to predict the global quality scores is also crucial for better prediction of the perceptual image quality. In this paper, the local and global qualities of six images and six distortion levels were measured using subjective experiments. Gabor-noise target was used as distortion in the quality-assessment experiments to be consistent with our previous study [Alam, Vilankar, Field, and Chandler, Journal of Vision, 2014], in which the local root-mean-square contrast detection thresholds of detecting the Gabor-noise target were measured at each spatial location of the undistorted images. Comparison of the results of this quality-assessment experiment and the previous detection experiment shows that masking predicted the local quality scores more than 95% correctly above 15 dB threshold within 5% subject scores. Furthermore, it was found that an approximate squared summation of local-quality scores predicted the global quality scores suitably (Spearman rank-order correlation 0:97).

  9. Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkang, Iniobong Ekong

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified…

  10. Quality's Higher Education Dividends: Broadened Custodianship and Global Public Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gerrie J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper speculates on the possible contribution of the quality movement to higher education and the perceived dividends received from this, in general, over the past two decades but also, more specifically, with reference to the author's institution in South Africa. The first major quality contribution is a gradual broadening of higher…

  11. Conformal Vortex Crystals.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Raí M; Silva, Clécio C de Souza

    2017-10-06

    We investigate theoretically globally nonuniform configurations of quantized-flux vortices in clean superconductors trapped by an external force field that induces a nonuniform vortex density profile. Using an extensive series of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that, for suitable choices of the force field, and bellow a certain transition temperature, the vortex system self-organizes into highly inhomogeneous conformal crystals in a way as to minimize the total energy. These nonuniform structures are topologically ordered and can be mathematically mapped into a triangular Abrikosov lattice via a conformal transformation. Above the crystallization temperature, the conformal vortex crystal becomes unstable and gives place to a nonuniform polycrystalline structure. We propose a simple method to engineer the potential energy profile necessary for the observation of conformal crystals of vortices, which can also be applied to other 2D particle systems, and suggest possible experiments in which conformal or quasi-conformal vortex crystals could be observed in bulk superconductors and in thin films.

  12. Global sleep quality as a moderator of alcohol consumption and consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Pham, Andy T

    2012-04-01

    The authors examined the relationship between global sleep quality and alcohol risk, including the extent to which global sleep quality moderated the relationship between alcohol use and drinking-related consequences. Global sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and alcohol-related consequences were assessed using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI). The sample consisted of 261 college students (61.3% female, 58.2% Caucasian) who completed online surveys. Using a four-step hierarchical multiple regression model, global sleep quality was found to predict alcohol consequences, over and above assessed covariates (demographics and weekly drinking). Further, global sleep quality emerged as a strong moderator in the drinking-consequences relationship such that among heavier drinkers, those with poorer global sleep quality experienced significantly greater alcohol-related harm. Campus health education and alcohol interventions may be adapted to address the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, both in terms of healthful sleeping and drinking behaviors, which appear to play a strong synergistic role in alcohol-related risk.

  13. Global sleep quality as a moderator of alcohol consumption and consequences in college students

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.; Pham, Andy T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between global sleep quality and alcohol risk, including the extent to which global sleep quality moderated the relationship between alcohol use and drinking-related consequences. Global sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and alcohol-related consequences were assessed using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI). The sample consisted of 261 college students (61.3% female, 58.2% Caucasian) who completed online surveys. Using a four-step hierarchical multiple regression model, global sleep quality was found to predict alcohol consequences, over and above assessed covariates (demographics and weekly drinking). Further, global sleep quality emerged as a strong moderator in the drinking-consequences relationship such that among heavier drinkers, those with poorer global sleep quality experienced significantly greater alcohol-related harm. Campus health education and alcohol interventions may be adapted to address the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, both in terms of healthful sleeping and drinking behaviors, which appear to play a strong synergistic role in alcohol-related risk. PMID:22285119

  14. Global conformational change associated with the two-step reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli lipoate-protein ligase A.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazuko; Maita, Nobuo; Hosaka, Harumi; Okamura-Ikeda, Kazuko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2010-03-26

    Lipoate-protein ligase A (LplA) catalyzes the attachment of lipoic acid to lipoate-dependent enzymes by a two-step reaction: first the lipoate adenylation reaction and, second, the lipoate transfer reaction. We previously determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli LplA in its unliganded form and a binary complex with lipoic acid (Fujiwara, K., Toma, S., Okamura-Ikeda, K., Motokawa, Y., Nakagawa, A., and Taniguchi, H. (2005) J Biol. Chem. 280, 33645-33651). Here, we report two new LplA structures, LplA.lipoyl-5'-AMP and LplA.octyl-5'-AMP.apoH-protein complexes, which represent the post-lipoate adenylation intermediate state and the pre-lipoate transfer intermediate state, respectively. These structures demonstrate three large scale conformational changes upon completion of the lipoate adenylation reaction: movements of the adenylate-binding and lipoate-binding loops to maintain the lipoyl-5'-AMP reaction intermediate and rotation of the C-terminal domain by about 180 degrees . These changes are prerequisites for LplA to accommodate apoprotein for the second reaction. The Lys(133) residue plays essential roles in both lipoate adenylation and lipoate transfer reactions. Based on structural and kinetic data, we propose a reaction mechanism driven by conformational changes.

  15. Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index.

    PubMed

    Rickwood, C J; Carr, G M

    2009-09-01

    The UNEP GEMS/Water Programme is the leading international agency responsible for the development of water quality indicators and maintains the only global database of water quality for inland waters (GEMStat). The protection of source water quality for domestic use (drinking water, abstraction etc) was identified by GEMS/Water as a priority for assessment. A composite index was developed to assess source water quality across a range of inland water types, globally, and over time. The approach for development was three-fold: (1) Select guidelines from the World Health Organisation that are appropriate in assessing global water quality for human health, (2) Select variables from GEMStat that have an appropriate guideline and reasonable global coverage, and (3) determine, on an annual basis, an overall index rating for each station using the water quality index equation endorsed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The index allowed measurements of the frequency and extent to which variables exceeded their respective WHO guidelines, at each individual monitoring station included within GEMStat, allowing both spatial and temporal assessment of global water quality. Development of the index was followed by preliminary sensitivity analysis and verification of the index against real water quality data.

  16. The Effects of Global Change upon United States Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the US, we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of change...

  17. The Effects of Global Change upon United States Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the US, we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of change...

  18. Quality of Life and Survival Outcome for Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy vs. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-A Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, F.-M. Chien, C.-Y.; Tsai, W.-L.; Chen, H.-C.; Hsu, H.-C.; Lui, C.-C.; Huang, T.-L.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes of quality of life (QoL) and survival outcomes for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Two hundred and three newly diagnosed NPC patients, who were curatively treated by 3D-CRT (n = 93) or IMRT (n = 110) between March 2002 and July 2004, were analyzed. The distributions of clinical stage according to American Joint Committee on Cancer 1997 were I: 15 (7.4%), II: 78 (38.4%), III: 74 (36.5%), and IV: 36 (17.7%). QoL was longitudinally assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-H and N35 questionnaires at the five time points: before RT, during RT (36 Gy), and 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after RT. Results: The 3-year locoregional control, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rates were 84.8%, 76.7%, and 81.7% for the 3D-CRT group, respectively, compared with 84.2%, 82.6%, and 85.4% for the IMRT group (p value > 0.05). A general trend of maximal deterioration in most QoL scales was observed during RT, followed by a gradual recovery thereafter. There was no significant difference in most scales between the two groups at each time point. The exception was that patients treated by IMRT had a both statistically and clinically significant improvement in global QoL, fatigue, taste/smell, dry mouth, and feeling ill at the time point of 3 months after RT. Conclusions: The potential advantage of IMRT over 3D-CRT in treating NPC patients might occur in QoL outcome during the recovery phase of acute toxicity.

  19. Global Sensory Qualities and Aesthetic Experience in Music

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Pauli; Brattico, Elvira; Vuust, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A well-known tradition in the study of visual aesthetics holds that the experience of visual beauty is grounded in global computational or statistical properties of the stimulus, for example, scale-invariant Fourier spectrum or self-similarity. Some approaches rely on neural mechanisms, such as efficient computation, processing fluency, or the responsiveness of the cells in the primary visual cortex. These proposals are united by the fact that the contributing factors are hypothesized to be global (i.e., they concern the percept as a whole), formal or non-conceptual (i.e., they concern form instead of content), computational and/or statistical, and based on relatively low-level sensory properties. Here we consider that the study of aesthetic responses to music could benefit from the same approach. Thus, along with local features such as pitch, tuning, consonance/dissonance, harmony, timbre, or beat, also global sonic properties could be viewed as contributing toward creating an aesthetic musical experience. Several such properties are discussed and their neural implementation is reviewed in the light of recent advances in neuroaesthetics. PMID:28424573

  20. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  1. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  2. Three-dimensional conformal versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy dose planning in stereotactic radiotherapy: Application of standard quality parameters for plan evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grzadziel, Aleksandra; Grosu, Anca-Ligia . E-mail: anca-ligia.grosu@lrz.tum.de; Kneschaurek, Peter

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: The implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique into clinical practice is becoming routine, but still lacks a generally accepted method for plan evaluation. We present a comparison of the dose distribution of conformal three-dimensional radiotherapy plans with IMRT plans for cranial lesions in stereotactic radiotherapy. The primary aim of this study was to judge the quality of the treatment plans. The next purpose was to assess the usefulness of several quality factors for plan evaluation. Methods and Materials: Five patients, who were treated in our department, were analyzed. Four had meningioma and one had pituitary adenoma. For each case, 10 different plans were created and analyzed: 2 conventional conformal three-dimensional plans and 8 IMRT plans, using the 'step and shoot' delivery method. The first conventional plan was an individually designed beam arrangement and was used for patient treatment. The second plan was a standard plan with the same beam arrangement for all patients. Beam arrangements from the conformal plans were the base for the inversely planned IMRT. To evaluate the plans, the following factors were investigated: minimal and maximal dose to the planning target volume, homogeneity index, coverage index, conformity index, and tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities. These quantities were incorporated into scoring factors and assigned to each plan. Results: The greatest homogeneity was reached in the conformal plans and IMRT plans with high planning target volume priority in the optimization process. This consequently led to a better probability of tumor control. Better protection of organs at risk and thereby lower normal tissue complication probabilities were achieved in the IMRT plans with increased weighting of the organs at risk. Conclusion: These results show the efficiency, as well as some limitations, of the IMRT techniques. The use of different quality factors allowed us

  3. Global Influences on National Definitions of Quality Education: Examples from Spain and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing attention worldwide to advancing quality education. Beyond a rhetorical aim, many international organizations and national education systems have articulated a commitment to promoting measures of quality education through the development of educational indicators. This article broadly explores the global influences on national…

  4. 2D EPID dose calibration for pretreatment quality control of conformal and IMRT fields: A simple and fast convolution approach.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Jérémy; Mazurier, Jocelyne; Franck, Denis; Dudouet, Philippe; Latorzeff, Igor; Franceries, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an original algorithm that converts the signal of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) into absorbed dose in water at the depth of maximum. The model includes a first image pre-processing step that accounts for the non-uniformity of the detector response but also for the perturbation of the signal due to backscatter radiation. Secondly, the image is converted into absorbed dose to water through a linear conversion function associated with a dose redistribution kernel. These two computation parameters were modelled by correlating the on-axis EPID signal with absorbed dose measurements obtained on square fields by using an ionization chamber placed in water at the depth of maximum dose. The accuracy of the algorithm was assessed by comparing the dose determined from the EPID signal with the dose derived by the treatment planning system (TPS) using the ϒ-index. These comparisons were performed on 8 conformal radiotherapy treatment fields (3DCRT) and 18 modulated fields (IMRT). For a dose difference and a distance-to-agreement set to 3% of the maximum dose and 2 mm respectively, the mean percentage of points with a ϒ-value less than or equal to 1 was 99.8% ± 0.1% for 3DCRT fields and 96.8% ± 2.7% for IMRT fields. Moreover, the mean gamma values were always less than 0.5 whatever the treatment technique. These results confirm that our algorithm is an accurate and suitable tool for clinical use in a context of IMRT quality assurance programmes. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality in Family Child Care Settings: The Relationship between Provider Educational Experiences and Global Quality Scores in a Statewide Quality Rating and Improvement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Rena A.; Bargreen, Kaitlin N.; Ridgley, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of a statewide sample of licensed family child care providers in the Tennessee Child Care Evaluation and Report Card Program ("N"?=?1,145) that describes the general quality of family child care programs in the state and examines the relationships between provider education and global quality. Study…

  6. Quality in Family Child Care Settings: The Relationship between Provider Educational Experiences and Global Quality Scores in a Statewide Quality Rating and Improvement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Rena A.; Bargreen, Kaitlin N.; Ridgley, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of a statewide sample of licensed family child care providers in the Tennessee Child Care Evaluation and Report Card Program ("N"?=?1,145) that describes the general quality of family child care programs in the state and examines the relationships between provider education and global quality. Study…

  7. Smooth statistical torsion angle potential derived from a large conformational database via adaptive kernel density estimation improves the quality of NMR protein structures.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Guillermo A; Clore, G Marius; Schwieters, Charles D

    2012-12-01

    Statistical potentials that embody torsion angle probability densities in databases of high-quality X-ray protein structures supplement the incomplete structural information of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) datasets. By biasing the conformational search during the course of structure calculation toward highly populated regions in the database, the resulting protein structures display better validation criteria and accuracy. Here, a new statistical torsion angle potential is developed using adaptive kernel density estimation to extract probability densities from a large database of more than 10⁶ quality-filtered amino acid residues. Incorporated into the Xplor-NIH software package, the new implementation clearly outperforms an older potential, widely used in NMR structure elucidation, in that it exhibits simultaneously smoother and sharper energy surfaces, and results in protein structures with improved conformation, nonbonded atomic interactions, and accuracy. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  8. The ‘Alternative Quality Contract’ in Massachusetts, Based on Global Budgets, Lowered Medical Spending and Improved Quality

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zirui; Safran, Dana Gelb; Landon, Bruce E.; Landrum, Mary Beth; He, Yulei; Mechanic, Robert E.; Day, Matthew P.; Chernew, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Seven provider organizations in Massachusetts entered the Blue Cross Blue Shield Alternative Quality Contract in 2009, followed by four more organizations in 2010. This contract, based on a global budget and pay-for-performance for achieving certain quality benchmarks, places providers at risk for excessive spending and rewards them for quality, similar to the new Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations in Medicare. We analyzed changes in spending and quality associated with the Alternative Quality Contract and found that the rate of increase in spending slowed compared to control groups. Overall, participation in the contract over two years led to a savings of 3.3% (1.9% in year-1, 3.3% in year-2) compared to spending in groups not participating in the contract. The savings were even higher for groups whose previous experience had been only in fee-for-service contracting. Such groups’ quarterly savings over two years averaged 8.2% (6.3% in year-1, 9.9% in year-2). Quality of care also improved within organizations participating in the Alternative Quality Contract compared to control organizations in both years. Chronic care management, adult preventive care, and pediatric care improved from year 1 to year 2 within the contracting groups. These results suggest that global budgets coupled with pay-for-performance can begin to slow the underlying growth in medical spending while improving quality. PMID:22786651

  9. Regional and global concerns over wetlands and water quality.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Jos T A; Arheimer, Berit; Yin, Chengqing; Hefting, Mariet M

    2006-02-01

    Water quality in many stream catchments and river basins is severely impacted by nutrient enrichment as a result of agriculture. Water-resource managers worldwide are considering the potential role of riparian zones and floodplain wetlands in improving stream-water quality, as there is evidence at the site scale that such wetlands are efficient at removing nutrients from through-flowing water. However, recent studies have highlighted disadvantages of such use of wetlands, including emissions of greenhouse gases and losses of biodiversity that result from prolonged nutrient loading. Here, we discuss the water purification function of wetlands at the site and catchment scale and suggest ways in which these disadvantages could be overcome.

  10. The Global Rating Scale in clinical practice: a comprehensive quality assurance programme for endoscopy departments.

    PubMed

    Sint Nicolaas, Jerome; de Jonge, Vincent; de Man, Robert A; ter Borg, Frank; Cahen, Djuna L; Moolenaar, Willem; Stolk, Mark F J; van Tilburg, Antonie J P; Valori, Roland M; van Leerdam, Monique E; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2012-11-01

    The Global Rating Scale is an endoscopy quality assurance programme, successfully implemented in England. It remains uncertain whether it is applicable in another health care setting. To assess the applicability of the Global Rating Scale as benchmark tool in an international context. Eleven Dutch endoscopy departments were included for a Global Rating Scale-census, performed as a cross-sectional evaluation, July 2010. Two Global Rating Scale-dimensions - 'clinical quality' and 'patient experience' - were assessed across six items using a range of levels: from level-D (basic) to level-A (excellent). Construct validity was assessed by comparing department-specific colonoscopy audit data to GRS-levels. For 'clinical quality', variable scores were achieved in items 'safety' (9%=B, 27%=C, 64%=D) and 'communication' (46%=A, 18%=C, 36%=D). All departments achieved a basic score in 'quality' (100%=D). For 'patient experience', variable scores were achieved in 'timeliness' (18%=A, 9%=B, 73%=D) and 'booking-choice' (36%=B, 46%=C, 18%=D). All departments achieved basic scores in 'equality' (100%=D). Departments obtaining level-C or above in 'information', 'comfort', 'communication', 'timeliness' and 'aftercare', achieved significantly better audit outcomes compared to those obtaining level-D (p<0.05). The Global Rating Scale is appropriate to use outside England. There was significant variance across departments in dimensions. Most Global Rating Scale-levels were in line with departments' audit outcomes, indicating construct validity. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone, global modelling methods and new future scenarios. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5+/-0.2, 1.3+/-0.5 and 2.2+/-0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050 and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are US$50-380 per tonne of CO2, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  12. Global surface water quality hotspots under climate change and anthropogenic developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Yearsley, John R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, freshwater usage for various sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, energy and domestic) has more than doubled. A growing global population will place further demands on water supplies, whereas the availability and quality of water resources will be affected by climate change and human impacts. These developments will increase imbalances between fresh water demand and supply in terms of both water quantity and water quality. Here we discuss a methodology to identify regions of the world where surface water quality is expected to deteriorate under climate change and anthropogenic developments. Our approach integrates global hydrological-water quality modelling, climate and socio-economic scenarios and relations of water quality with physical and socio-economic drivers.

  13. Sea level ECV quality assessment via global ocean model assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharffenberg, Martin; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    In the ocean modeling community satellite data, especially SSH fields, are assimilated on a regular basis. SSH fields are very important in this context because of their dynamical relevance for constraining the ocean's flow field. However, assimilating SSH data into an ocean model does not only improve the quality of model but in addition, can also help testing the quality and the consistency of the input data as well. In our work we aim to quantify improvements in Sea Level (SL) data through the ESA - Climate Change Initiative (cci) effort and we aim to test the consistency of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) of Sea Level (SL_ECV) with other ECVs through the assimilation process and to investigate where remaining inconsistencies exist and why. For this purpose the GECCO2 assimilation approach assimilates SSH jointly with in situ data over the ocean. The dynamically consistent ocean state estimation adjusts only uncertain model parameters to bring the model into consistency with ocean observations. Improvements in data products can be investigated by studying the residuals between the different data products and the constrained model. PHASE 1: With this approach we could demonstrate, that in many regions the SL_ECV has been improved from version V0 (AVISO product) to version V1 (SL_cci product). However, there are regions where SL_ECV_V1 is further away from the model "truth". In that sense it is important to understand that the model assimilated SL_ECV_V0 (origianl AVISO product) and therefore has tried to adapt to the SL_ECV_V0. Therefore, inconsistencies existed when comparing the synthesis results to the updated version SL_ECV_V1! These deviations between the model "truth" and the improved data product (SL_ECV_V1) increased mostly in low energetic areas. PHASE 2: Two GECCO2-assimilation-runs (5 additional iterations) have been performed to date: 1) assimilating the original AVISO SL-product (V0) and 2) assimilating the updated-improved sea level estimate

  14. Conformity index: a review.

    PubMed

    Feuvret, Loïc; Noël, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear.

  15. Conformity index: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Feuvret, Loic . E-mail: loic.feuvret@cpo.curie.net; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear.

  16. Dummy run and conformity indices in the ongoing EORTC low-grade glioma trial 22033-26033: First evaluation of quality of radiotherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Musat, Elena; Roelofs, Erik; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Fenton, Paul; Gulyban, Akos; Collette, Laurence; Stupp, Roger; Weber, Damien C; Bernard Davis, J; Aird, Edwin; Baumert, Brigitta G

    2010-05-01

    Early assessment of radiotherapy (RT) quality in the ongoing EORTC trial comparing primary temozolomide versus RT in low-grade gliomas. RT plans provided for dummy cases were evaluated and compared against expert plans. We analysed: (1) tumour and organs-at-risk delineation, (2) geometric and dosimetric characteristics, (3) planning parameters, compliance with dose prescription and Dmax for OAR (4) indices: RTOG conformity index (CI), coverage factor (CF), tissue protection factor (PF); conformity number (CN = PF x CF); dose homogeneity in PTV (U). Forty-one RT plans were evaluated. Only two (5%) centres were requested to repeat CTV-PTV delineations. Three (7%) plans had a significant under-dosage and dose homogeneity in one deviated > 10%. Dose distribution was good with mean values of 1.5, 1, 0.68, and 0.68 (ideal values = 1) for CI, CF, PF, and CN, respectively. CI and CN strongly correlated with PF and they correlated with PTV. Planning with more beams seems to increase PTV(Dmin), improving CF. U correlated with PTV(Dmax). Preliminary results of the dummy run procedure indicate that most centres conformed to protocol requirements. To quantify plan quality we recommend systematic calculation of U and either CI or CN, both of which measure the amount of irradiated normal brain tissue. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  18. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  19. Megacity impacts on global air quality under present and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Stock, Z.; Russo, M.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Over half of the population of the world now lives in cities, with the global rate of urbanisation expected to continue well into the 21st century. A significant fraction of this urban population lives in so- called "Megacities", which are commonly defined as urban areas containing more than 10 million people, although there is no formally accepted definition. These shifts in the distribution of population and economic activity are expected to lead to changes in the emissions of atmospheric pollutants, which in turn could be expected to lead to changes in air quality within Megacities, in the regions surrounding Megacities, and perhaps also at the global scale. A global model of atmospheric chemistry and transport is an essential part of any integrated assessment of the effects of megacities at these scales. Global models require global emission inventories as input, along with appropriate emission scenarios. Unfortunately there are very few global emission scenarios available which are explicitly designed to explore differences in projected rates of urbanisation. In this work we examine the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emissions projections which are freely available as part of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project for the IPCC AR5 report). We compare the future projections of Megacity emissions from four different RCP datasets and describe strategies of adapting these RCP projections for the study of Megacity impacts on air quality. Results of global chemical transport model studies examining these projections will also be presented.

  20. Ubiquitination-dependent quality control of hERG K+ channel with acquired and inherited conformational defect at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Apaja, Pirjo M; Foo, Brian; Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Valinsky, William C; Barriere, Herve; Atanasiu, Roxana; Ficker, Eckhard; Lukacs, Gergely L; Shrier, Alvin

    2013-12-01

    Membrane trafficking in concert with the peripheral quality control machinery plays a critical role in preserving plasma membrane (PM) protein homeostasis. Unfortunately, the peripheral quality control may also dispose of partially or transiently unfolded polypeptides and thereby contribute to the loss-of-expression phenotype of conformational diseases. Defective functional PM expression of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channel leads to the prolongation of the ventricular action potential that causes long QT syndrome 2 (LQT2), with increased propensity for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac arrest. LQT2 syndrome is attributed to channel biosynthetic processing defects due to mutation, drug-induced misfolding, or direct channel blockade. Here we provide evidence that a peripheral quality control mechanism can contribute to development of the LQT2 syndrome. We show that PM hERG structural and metabolic stability is compromised by the reduction of extracellular or intracellular K(+) concentration. Cardiac glycoside-induced intracellular K(+) depletion conformationally impairs the complex-glycosylated channel, which provokes chaperone- and C-terminal Hsp70-interacting protein-dependent polyubiquitination, accelerated internalization, and endosomal sorting complex required for transport-dependent lysosomal degradation. A similar mechanism contributes to the down-regulation of PM hERG harboring LQT2 missense mutations, with incomplete secretion defect. These results suggest that PM quality control plays a determining role in the loss-of-expression phenotype of hERG in certain hereditary and acquired LTQ2 syndromes.

  1. A Satellite-Based Multi-Pollutant Index of Global Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Mathew J.; Martin, Randall V.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major health hazard that is responsible formillions of annual excess deaths worldwide. Simpleindicators are useful for comparative studies and to asses strends over time. The development of global indicators hasbeen impeded by the lack of ground-based observations in vast regions of the world. Recognition is growing of the need for amultipollutant approach to air quality to better represent human exposure. Here we introduce the prospect of amultipollutant air quality indicator based on observations from satellite remote sensing.

  2. Improving the Quality of Health Care Services for Adolescents, Globally: A Standards-Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Baltag, Valentina; Bose, Krishna; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lambrechts, Thierry; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The World Health Organization (WHO) undertook an extensive and elaborate process to develop eight Global Standards to improve quality of health care services for adolescents. The objectives of this article are to present the Global Standards and their method of development. Methods The Global Standards were developed through a four-stage process: (1) conducting needs assessment; (2) developing the Global Standards and their criteria; (3) expert consultations; and (4) assessing their usability. Needs assessment involved conducting a meta-review of systematic reviews and two online global surveys in 2013, one with primary health care providers and another with adolescents. The Global Standards were developed based on the needs assessment in conjunction with analysis of 26 national standards from 25 countries. The final document was reviewed by experts from the World Health Organization regional and country offices, governments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and development partners. The standards were subsequently tested in Benin and in a regional expert consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries for their usability. Results The process resulted in the development of eight Global Standards and 79 criteria for measuring them: (1) adolescents' health literacy; (2) community support; (3) appropriate package of services; (4) providers' competencies; (5) facility characteristics; (6) equity and nondiscrimination; (7) data and quality improvement; and (8) adolescents' participation. Conclusions The eight standards are intended to act as benchmarks against which quality of health care provided to adolescents could be compared. Health care services can use the standards as part of their internal quality assurance mechanisms or as part of an external accreditation process. PMID:26299556

  3. Improving the Quality of Health Care Services for Adolescents, Globally: A Standards-Driven Approach.

    PubMed

    Nair, Manisha; Baltag, Valentina; Bose, Krishna; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lambrechts, Thierry; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) undertook an extensive and elaborate process to develop eight Global Standards to improve quality of health care services for adolescents. The objectives of this article are to present the Global Standards and their method of development. The Global Standards were developed through a four-stage process: (1) conducting needs assessment; (2) developing the Global Standards and their criteria; (3) expert consultations; and (4) assessing their usability. Needs assessment involved conducting a meta-review of systematic reviews and two online global surveys in 2013, one with primary health care providers and another with adolescents. The Global Standards were developed based on the needs assessment in conjunction with analysis of 26 national standards from 25 countries. The final document was reviewed by experts from the World Health Organization regional and country offices, governments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and development partners. The standards were subsequently tested in Benin and in a regional expert consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries for their usability. The process resulted in the development of eight Global Standards and 79 criteria for measuring them: (1) adolescents' health literacy; (2) community support; (3) appropriate package of services; (4) providers' competencies; (5) facility characteristics; (6) equity and nondiscrimination; (7) data and quality improvement; and (8) adolescents' participation. The eight standards are intended to act as benchmarks against which quality of health care provided to adolescents could be compared. Health care services can use the standards as part of their internal quality assurance mechanisms or as part of an external accreditation process. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization; Licensee The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Creating Unidimensional Global Measures of Physician Practice Quality Based on Health Insurance Claims Data.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, Grant R; Carle, Adam C; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2017-06-01

    To explore the extent to which commonly used claims-based process quality indicators can be used to create an internally valid global composite measure of physician practice quality. Health insurance claims data (October 2007-May 2010) from 134 physician practices in Seattle, WA. We use confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis to develop theory- and empirically driven internally valid composite measures based on 19 quality indicators. Health insurance claims data from nine insurance companies and self-funded employers were collected and aggregated by third-party organization. Our results did not support a single global measure using the entire set of quality indicators. We did identify an acceptable multidimensional model (RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.934; TLI = 0.910). The four dimensions in our data were diabetes, depression, preventive care, and generic drug prescribing. Our study demonstrates that commonly used process indicators can be used to create a small set of useful composite measures. However, the lack of an internally valid single unidimensional global measure has important implications for policy approaches meant to improve quality by rewarding "high-quality physicians." © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. On the Quality of Global Emission Inventories : Approaches, Methodologies, Input Data and Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Johannes Gerardus Jozef

    2002-09-01

    This thesis deals with methodological and practical aspects of compiling global emission inventories in relation to their use. The first part of the thesis describes quality aspects from the perspective of the user: i.e. definition, determining factors, practical applications and quantitative uncertainty estimates. Quality aspects discussed are transparency, consistency, completeness, comparability and accuracy. The practical applications refer to (a) the development and improvement of bottom-up global emission inventories in the framework of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) that assist in policy and scientific applications and (b) with the development of methods and guidelines for compiling, reporting and reviewing national greenhouse gas emission inventories. In the second part, a description is given of methods and data sources used for compiling global emission inventories in practice, and reviewing the uncertainties and other quality elements to be considered. The role and importance of validation and verification of the emission inventory is also explained. Inventories of global emissions of pollutants are made for specific scientific and policy purposes. Various approaches and methods are available for inventory construction. Provision of a quality label - in terms of accuracy or uncertainty in a broad sense - to the data of such emission inventories is required to judge their applicability. Research questions were: (a) how does a user define the 'quality' of an inventory; (b) what determines the quality of a global emission inventory; (c) how can inventory quality be achieved in practice and expressed in quantitative terms ('uncertainty'); and (d) what is the preferred approach for compiling a global emission inventory, given the practical limitations and the desired inventory quality? These questions were explored by analysing recent insights gained from knowledge on sources of global emissions to air of greenhouse gases and of

  6. Transportation Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions

  7. Developing Global Standards Framework and Quality Integrated Models for Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khampirat, Buratin; McRae, Norah

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative and Work-integrated Education (CWIE) programs have been widely accepted as educational programs that can effectively connect what students are learning to the world of work through placements. Because a global quality standards framework could be a very valuable resource and guide to establishing, developing, and accrediting quality…

  8. Subtle Convergence? Locating Similarities between Chinese Educational Reforms and Global Quality Assurance and Evaluation Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suominen, Olli; Rinne, Risto; Kallo, Johanna; Fan, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Different aspects of the globalisation of Chinese basic education have been examined in recent studies. This paper aims to contribute to this research base by examining the relationship between global quality assurance and evaluation (QAEVAL) trends and reforms in the Chinese basic education system. Design/methodology/approach: Relevant…

  9. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  10. Data Quality of the JERS-1 SAR Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Alves, M.; Shimada, M.; Freeman, T.; Rosenqvist, A.; Siqueira, P.

    1998-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan's (NASDA) JERS-1 SAR began collecting data in 1995 for the Global Rain Forest Mapping Project (GRFM). The GRFM data quality has been examined for products resulting from both the NASDA and Alaska SAR facility's (ASF) processing facilities.

  11. Transforming University Education and Quality Assurance for Sustainable Development in Nigeria for a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamman, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Education has been recognized as an important tool for achieving a nation's goals, vision and objectives. The quality of Nigerian universities has been and still is an issue of concern among stakeholders due to the challenges posed by globalization and the need for continued scientific and technological advancement. Over the years, this concern…

  12. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  13. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  14. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Global Quality and Group Engagement in Toddler Child Care Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' engagement with their social and physical environment is an important aspect of their experience in early care and education programs. The purpose of this research study was to examine how global quality relates to children's engagement in toddler child care classrooms. Additionally, this study explored how toddlers' group engagement…

  16. Improving Teacher Quality, a Keyword for Improving Education Facing Global Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jusuf, Husain

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that teachers are the single most important factor in student learning in schools. Students who have access to highly qualified teachers achieve at a higher rate, regardless of other factors. Teachers to be highly qualified must be well prepared, especially in improving the quality of education facing global challenges. For this…

  17. Transforming University Education and Quality Assurance for Sustainable Development in Nigeria for a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamman, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Education has been recognized as an important tool for achieving a nation's goals, vision and objectives. The quality of Nigerian universities has been and still is an issue of concern among stakeholders due to the challenges posed by globalization and the need for continued scientific and technological advancement. Over the years, this concern…

  18. Preparing the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) for global retrospective air quality modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA has a plan to leverage recent advances in meteorological modeling to develop a "Next-Generation" air quality modeling system that will allow consistent modeling of problems from global to local scale. The meteorological model of choice is the Model for Predic...

  19. INTERIM GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM DATA COLLECTION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Geospatial Quality Council developed this document to harmonize the process of collecting, editing, and exporting spatial data of known quality using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Each organizational entity may adopt this d...

  20. INTERIM GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM DATA COLLECTION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Geospatial Quality Council developed this document to harmonize the process of collecting, editing, and exporting spatial data of known quality using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Each organizational entity may adopt this d...

  1. The human qualities needed to complete the global eradication of polio.

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot

    2013-04-01

    Although the 99% decrease seen in global polio incidence between 1988 and 2000 represented remarkable progress towards polio eradication, tackling the last 1% of polio has proved tantalizingly difficult. Pockets of endemic transmission currently persist both on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan and in northern Nigeria. These pockets have permitted the reinfection of countries that were previously polio-free. Global strategic plans for polio eradication set out the activities, resources and financing needed to overcome the managerial, technical and security challenges faced by those tasked with the interruption of poliovirus transmission. However, polio eradication also depends on the less tangible but equally important human qualities of energy, realism, articulacy, determination, imagination, collaboration, adaptability, tactical awareness, innovation, openness and nimbleness (the initial letters of which give the acronym "ERADICATION"). By paying attention to these human qualities, the stakeholders involved may be more likely to achieve global polio eradication.

  2. The human qualities needed to complete the global eradication of polio

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although the 99% decrease seen in global polio incidence between 1988 and 2000 represented remarkable progress towards polio eradication, tackling the last 1% of polio has proved tantalizingly difficult. Pockets of endemic transmission currently persist both on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan and in northern Nigeria. These pockets have permitted the reinfection of countries that were previously polio-free. Global strategic plans for polio eradication set out the activities, resources and financing needed to overcome the managerial, technical and security challenges faced by those tasked with the interruption of poliovirus transmission. However, polio eradication also depends on the less tangible but equally important human qualities of energy, realism, articulacy, determination, imagination, collaboration, adaptability, tactical awareness, innovation, openness and nimbleness (the initial letters of which give the acronym “ERADICATION”). By paying attention to these human qualities, the stakeholders involved may be more likely to achieve global polio eradication. PMID:23599552

  3. A proposal for guideline for prevention of allergic occupational asthma in conformity with the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS).

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Kusaka, Y

    2007-01-01

    The use of chemical products to enhance and improve life is a widespread worldwide practice. Alongside the benefits of these products, there is also the potential of chemicals for adverse effects to people or the environment. As a result, a number of countries or organizations have developed laws or regulations over the years that require information to be prepared and transmitted to those using chemicals, through labels or Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Their differences are significant enough to result in different labels or SDS for the same product in different countries. In July 2003, United Nations (UN) recommended the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS). We, special committee of Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy proposed a guideline for prevention of allergic occupational asthma and sensitizers (n=60) causing occupational asthma or contact dermatitis in conformity with respiratory and skin sensitization criteria of GHS. We should propose these 60 sensitizers to the chemical industry association and governments to control, regulate and label them in each country.

  4. Semi-automated screen for global protein conformational changes in solution by ion mobility spectrometry-massspectrometry combined with size-exclusion chromatography and differential hydrogen-deuterium exchange.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Nicholas A; Makarov, Alexey A; Strulson, Christopher A; Mao, Yun; Mao, Bing

    2017-05-05

    Development of methodologies for studying protein higher-order structure in solution helps to establish a better understanding of the intrinsic link between protein conformational structure and biological function and activity. The goal of this study was to demonstrate a simultaneous screening approach for global protein conformational changes in solution through the combination of ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) with differential hydrogen-deuterium exchange (ΔHDX) on the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) platform in a single on-line workflow. A semi-automated experimental setup based on the use of SEC on-column conditions allowed for tracking of protein conformational changes in solution as a function of acetonitrile concentration. In this setup, the SEC protein elution data was complemented by the ΔHDX profile which showed global protein conformational changes as a difference in the number of deuterons exchanged to protons. The ΔHDX data, in turn, was complemented by the changes in the drift time by IMS-MS. All three orthogonal techniques were applied for studying global higher-order structure of the proteins ubiquitin, cytochrome c and myoglobin, in solution simultaneously. The described approach allows for the use of a crude sample (or mixture of proteins) and could be suitable for rapid comparison of protein batch-to-batch higher-order structure or for optimizing conditions for enzymatic reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Smith, Steven J; Silva, Raquel A; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies(1-6) typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants(7-9), long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality(10-12). Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter(13) and ozone(14), global modeling methods(15), and new future scenarios(16). Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.5, and 2.2±0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $50-380 (ton CO2)(-1), which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  6. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies1–6 typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants7–9, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality10–12. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter13 and ozone14, global modeling methods15, and new future scenarios16. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.5, and 2.2±0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $50–380 (ton CO2)−1, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10–70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future. PMID:24926321

  7. Sensitivity of Surface Air Quality and Global Mortality to Global, Regional, and Sectoral Black Carbon Emission Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S.; Talgo, K.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; Arunachalam, S.; West, J.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) released during incomplete combustion, is associated with atmospheric warming and deleterious health impacts, including premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that controlling emissions may therefore have dual benefits for climate and health. Several studies have focused on quantifying the potential impacts of reducing BC emissions from various world regions and economic sectors on radiative forcing. However, the impacts of these reductions on human health have been less well studied. Here, we use a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4) and a health impact function to quantify the surface air quality and human health benefits of controlling BC emissions. We simulate a base case and several emission control scenarios, where anthropogenic BC emissions are reduced by half globally, individually in each of eight world regions, and individually from the residential, industrial, and transportation sectors. We also simulate a global 50% reduction of both BC and organic carbon (OC) together, since they are co-emitted and both are likely to be impacted by actual control measures. Meteorology and biomass burning emissions are for the year 2002 with anthropogenic BC and OC emissions for 2000 from the IPCC AR5 inventory. Model performance is evaluated by comparing to global surface measurements of PM2.5 components. Avoided premature mortalities are calculated using the change in PM2.5 concentration between the base case and emission control scenarios and a concentration-response factor for chronic mortality from the epidemiology literature.

  8. Global Diabetes Survey--an annual report on quality of diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter E H; Gallein, Gregor; Ebermann, Doreen; Müller, Andreas; Lindner, Antje; Rothe, Ulrike; Nebel, Istvan Tibor; Müller, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Adequate quality of diabetes care and the best concept for the implementation of national diabetes plans remain controversial. In September 2011 the United Nations High Level Meeting on Non Communicable Diseases agreed on a consensus that national plans for the prevention and control of diabetes should be developed, implemented and monitored. The Global Diabetes Survey (GDS) is a standardised, annual, global questionnaire that will be used to assess responses of representatives from 19 diabetes-related stakeholder groups. It was designed with the goal of generating an annual report on the quality of national diabetes care and to compare findings from different regions and countries. The findings will be freely available for everyone's use and will be used to inform politicians and stakeholders to encourage the improvement of the quality of diabetes care in its medical, economical, structural and political dimensions.

  9. Strategies for ensuring global consistency/comparability of water-quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 20 years the water quality of the United States has improved remarkably-the waters are safer for drinking, swimming, and fishing. However, despite many accomplishments, it is still difficult to answer such basic questions as: 'How clean is the water?' and 'How is it changing over time?' These same questions exist on a global scale as well. In order to focus water-data issues in the United States, a national Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) was initiated for public and private organizations, whereby key elements involved in data collection, analysis, storage, and management could be made consistent and comparable. The ITFM recommended and its members are implementing a nationwide strategy to improve water-quality monitoring, assessment, and reporting activities. The intent of this paper is to suggest that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. Consistent, long-term data sets that are comparable are necessary in order to formulate ideas regarding regional and global trends in water quantity and quality. The author recommends that a voluntary effort similar to the ITFM effort be utilized. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations (e.g. World Health Organization) involved in drinking-water assessments and/or ambient water-quality monitoring. Voluntary partnerships such as this will improve curability to reduce health risks and achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resource management, and result in a collaborative process that will save millions of dollars.In this work it is suggested that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations involved in

  10. 78 FR 10181 - Global Quality Systems-An Integrated Approach To Improving Medical Product Safety; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... ``Global Quality Systems--An Integrated Approach to Improving Medical Product Safety.'' This 2-day public... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Global Quality Systems--An Integrated Approach To Improving Medical Product Safety; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. Examining the Relationship between Global and Domain Measures of Quality of Life by Three Factor Structure Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Yao, Grace

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between global and domain measures of quality of life from a psychometric perspective by three different factor structure models. Three hundred and four students at National Taiwan University participated in this study. They completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, a global measurement for quality of…

  12. Evaluation of global water quality - the potential of a data- and model-driven analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bärlund, Ilona; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph; Völker, Jeanette; Malsy, Marcus; Kaus, Andrew; Reder, Klara; Büttner, Olaf; Katterfeld, Christiane; Dietrich, Désirée; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing socio-economic development presents a new challenge for water quality worldwide, especially in developing and emerging countries. It is estimated that due to population growth and the extension of water supply networks, the amount of waste water will rise sharply. This can lead to an increased risk of surface water quality degradation, if the wastewater is not sufficiently treated. This development has impacts on ecosystems and human health, as well as food security. The United Nations Member States have adopted targets for sustainable development. They include, inter alia, sustainable protection of water quality and sustainable use of water resources. To achieve these goals, appropriate monitoring strategies and the development of indicators for water quality are required. Within the pre-study for a 'World Water Quality Assessment' (WWQA) led by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a methodology for assessing water quality, taking into account the above-mentioned objectives has been developed. The novelty of this methodology is the linked model- and data-driven approach. The focus is on parameters reflecting the key water quality issues, such as increased waste water pollution, salinization or eutrophication. The results from the pre-study show, for example, that already about one seventh of all watercourses in Latin America, Africa and Asia show high organic pollution. This is of central importance for inland fisheries and associated food security. In addition, it could be demonstrated that global water quality databases have large gaps. These must be closed in the future in order to obtain an overall picture of global water quality and to target measures more efficiently. The aim of this presentation is to introduce the methodology developed within the WWQA pre-study and to show selected examples of application in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

  13. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.6, and 2.2±1.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  14. [Schools, office buildings, leisure settings: diversity of indoor air quality issues. Global review on indoor air quality in these settings].

    PubMed

    Mandin, C; Derbez, M; Kirchner, S

    2012-07-01

    This review provides a global overview of indoor air quality issues in schools, office buildings and recreational settings. It presents the most recent scientific publications and the on-going work conducted in France in the frame of the indoor air quality Observatory. Monitoring campaigns on indoor air quality in schools have been carried out in the recent years in Europe. However, few studies have specifically addressed the role of exposure in these buildings on children's health. Indoor air quality in office buildings has been little studied so far. However, some specificities, such as emissions from electronic devices, frequent cleaning, impossibility to open windows in high-rise buildings, for example, should be examined and their role on the health and comfort studied. Finally, even if the time spent in recreational settings is short, the quality of indoor air should also be considered because of specific pollution. This is the case of indoor swimming pools (exposure to chlorination byproducts) and ice-rinks (exposure to exhaust from machines used to smooth the ice). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. MQAPRank: improved global protein model quality assessment by learning-to-rank.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaoyang; Dong, Qiwen

    2017-05-25

    Protein structure prediction has achieved a lot of progress during the last few decades and a greater number of models for a certain sequence can be predicted. Consequently, assessing the qualities of predicted protein models in perspective is one of the key components of successful protein structure prediction. Over the past years, a number of methods have been developed to address this issue, which could be roughly divided into three categories: single methods, quasi-single methods and clustering (or consensus) methods. Although these methods achieve much success at different levels, accurate protein model quality assessment is still an open problem. Here, we present the MQAPRank, a global protein model quality assessment program based on learning-to-rank. The MQAPRank first sorts the decoy models by using single method based on learning-to-rank algorithm to indicate their relative qualities for the target protein. And then it takes the first five models as references to predict the qualities of other models by using average GDT_TS scores between reference models and other models. Benchmarked on CASP11 and 3DRobot datasets, the MQAPRank achieved better performances than other leading protein model quality assessment methods. Recently, the MQAPRank participated in the CASP12 under the group name FDUBio and achieved the state-of-the-art performances. The MQAPRank provides a convenient and powerful tool for protein model quality assessment with the state-of-the-art performances, it is useful for protein structure prediction and model quality assessment usages.

  16. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy is Associated With Improved Global Quality of Life Among Long-term Survivors of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Vazquez, Esther G.; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the long-term quality of life among patients treated with and without intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: University of Washington Quality of Life instrument scores were reviewed for 155 patients previously treated with radiation therapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. All patients were disease free and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Eighty-four patients (54%) were treated with IMRT. The remaining 71 patients (46%) were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) by use of initial opposed lateral fields matched to a low anterior neck field. Results: The mean global quality of life scores were 67.5 and 80.1 for the IMRT patients at 1 and 2 years, respectively, compared with 55.4 and 57.0 for the 3D CRT patients, respectively (p < 0.001). At 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy, the proportion of patients who rated their global quality of life as 'very good' or 'outstanding' was 51% and 41% among patients treated by IMRT and 3DCRT, respectively (p = 0.11). At 2 years, the corresponding percentages increased to 73% and 49%, respectively (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis accounting for sex, age, radiation intent (definitive vs. postoperative), radiation dose, T stage, primary site, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and neck dissection, the use of IMRT was the only variable independently associated with improved quality of life (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The early quality of life improvements associated with IMRT not only are maintained but apparently become more magnified over time. These data provide powerful evidence attesting to the long-term benefits of IMRT for head-and-neck cancer.

  17. Quality Assessment for the First Part of the Tandem-X Global Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brautigam, B.; Martone, M.; Rizzoli, P.; Gonzalez, C.; Wecklich, C.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bachmann, M.; Schulze, D.; Zink, M.

    2015-04-01

    TanDEM-X is an innovative synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission with the main goal to generate a global and homogeneous digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land masses. The final DEM product will reach a new dimension of detail with respect to resolution and quality. The absolute horizontal and vertical accuracy shall each be less than 10 m in a 90% confidence interval at a pixel spacing of 12 m. The relative vertical accuracy specification for the TanDEM-X mission foresees a 90% point-to-point error of 2 m (4 m) for areas with predominant terrain slopes smaller than 20% (greater than 20%) within a 1° longitude by 1° latitude cell. The global DEM is derived from interferometric SAR acquisitions performed by two radar satellites flying in close orbit formation. Interferometric performance parameters like the coherence between the two radar images have been monitored and evaluated throughout the mission. In a further step, over 500,000 single SAR scenes are interferometrically processed, calibrated, and mosaicked into a global DEM product which will be completely available in the second half of 2016. This paper presents an up-todate quality status of the single interferometric acquisitions as well as of 50% of the final DEM. The overall DEM quality of these first products promises accuracies well within the specification, especially in terms of absolute height accuracy.

  18. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships.

  19. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank J.; Raes, Frank; Krol, Maarten C.; Emberson, Lisa; Cofala, Janusz

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are based on the relatively optimistic "current legislation (CLE) scenario", i.e. assuming that currently approved air quality legislation will be fully implemented by the year 2030, without a further development of new abatement policies. For both runs, the relative yield loss due to ozone damage is evaluated based on two different indices (accumulated concentration above a 40 ppbV threshold and seasonal mean daytime ozone concentration respectively) on a global, regional and national scale. The cumulative metric appears to be far less robust than the seasonal mean, while the seasonal mean shows satisfactory agreement with measurements in Europe, the US, China and Southern India and South-East Asia. Present day global relative yield losses are estimated to range between 7% and 12% for wheat, between 6% and 16% for soybean, between 3% and 4% for rice, and between 3% and 5% for maize (range resulting from different metrics used). Taking into account possible biases in our assessment, introduced through the global application of "western" crop exposure-response functions, and through model performance in reproducing ozone-exposure metrics, our estimates may be considered as being conservative. Under the 2030 CLE scenario, the global situation is expected to deteriorate mainly for wheat (additional 2-6% loss globally) and rice (additional 1-2% loss globally). India, for which no mitigation measures have been assumed by 2030, accounts for 50% of these global increase in crop yield loss. On a regional-scale, significant reductions in crop losses by CLE-2030 are only predicted in Europe (soybean) and China (wheat). Translating these assumed yield losses into total global economic

  20. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Jolly, I.; Sophocleous, M.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ???90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (???1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Variation of Meat Quality Parameters Due to Conformation and Fat Class in Limousin Bulls Slaughtered at 25 to 27 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąska, Dominika; Pogorzelski, Grzegorz; Kozań, Karolina; Pietras, Jacek; Konarska, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Anna; Głąski, Krzysztof; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Barszczewski, Jerzy; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age of animal, hot carcass weight, pH, conformation and fat class on basic beef quality attributes (tenderness, sarcomere length, basic chemical composition, marbling and colour) in a group of purebred animals. The object of the study was beef of Limousin bulls (25 to 27 months, hot carcass weight - 432±31 kg, “U” conformation class, “2”–“3” fat class). Analysed cuts were Infraspinatus muscle from the blade and Longissimus dorsi muscle from the cube roll and the striploin. Tenderness was analysed with universal testing machine, colour - chromometer analysis, sarcomere length - microscopic method, basic chemical composition - near-infrared spectroscopy and marbling - computer image analysis. No differences in tenderness and sarcomere length were observed within the age groups of Limousin bulls (age of 25, 26, 27 months) (p>0.05). Moisture (p = 0.0123) and fat (p = 0.0250) content were significantly different for meat of animals slaughtered at the age of 25 and 27 months. No influence of pH value on tenderness was observed, but at the same time, influence on sarcomere length (p = 0.039) and b* component of colour (0.045) was found. For “U” conformation class, in subclasses, as well as for fat classes “2”–“3”, there were no differences in tenderness, sarcomere length and colour components. Higher fat content was observed in the higher fat class, rather than in lower, however this feature was not associated with marbling. PMID:25049844

  2. Using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment to Evaluate the Quality of Early Child Care in Greek Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth of interest in ensuring that child care provision for children is of a high quality. This interest has been stimulated by research evidence according to which good quality child care has a positive influence on children's overall development. The global quality in Greek preschool and…

  3. Using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment to Evaluate the Quality of Early Child Care in Greek Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth of interest in ensuring that child care provision for children is of a high quality. This interest has been stimulated by research evidence according to which good quality child care has a positive influence on children's overall development. The global quality in Greek preschool and…

  4. Reflecting on the EFA Global Monitoring Report's Framework for Understanding Quality Education: A Teacher's Perspective in Eritrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers issues concerning the quality of education in Eritrea using the Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report's (GMR) framework for quality education. Drawing on 2 years school-based professional experience in the country, the multiple factors affecting quality in schooling are discussed. The applicability of the GMR…

  5. Global Quality of Life Among WHI Women Aged 80 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Michelle J; Brunner, Robert L; Hogan, Patricia E; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Brenes, Gretchen A; Bowen, Deborah J; Snively, Beverly M; Goveas, Joseph S; Saquib, Nazmus; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    The number of older adults living to age 80 and older is increasing rapidly, particularly among women. Correlates of quality of life (QOL) in very advanced ages are not known. We examined the association of demographic, social-psychological, lifestyle, and physical health variables with global QOL in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort of women aged 80 and older. 26,299 WHI participants, who had completed a recent psychosocial and medical update, were included in these analyses. Global QOL was assessed by a single item, asking the women to rate their overall QOL on a scale from 0 to 10. Characteristics of the women were examined by the level of their transformed global QOL scores (≤50, 50-70, ≥70), and multiple regression was used to examine which demographic, social-psychological, lifestyle and health variables were independently associated with higher global QOL. Social-psychological and current health variables were more strongly associated with global QOL than a history of selected comorbid conditions. In particular, higher self-rated health and fewer depressive symptoms were the most strongly associated with better global QOL in WHI women ≥80 years. Interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and improve health may lead to better self-reported health and global QOL among older women. Physical and mental health screenings followed by evidence-based interventions are imperative in geriatric care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Using global aerosol models and satellite data for air quality studies: Challenges and data needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 pm) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 pm), are one of the key atmospheric components that determines air quality. Yet, air quality forecasts for PM are still in their infancy and remain a challenging task. It is difficult to simply relate PM levels to local meteorological conditions, and large uncertainties exist in regional air quality model emission inventories and initial and boundary conditions. Especially challenging are periods when a significant amount of aerosol comes from outside the regional modeling domain through long-range transport. In the past few years, NASA has launched several satellites with global aerosol measurement capabilities, providing large-scale chemical weather pictures. NASA has also supported development of global models which simulate atmospheric transport and transformation processes of important atmospheric gas and aerosol species. I will present the current modeling and satellite capabilities for PM2.5 studies, the possibilities and challenges in using satellite data for PM2.5 forecasts, and the needs of future remote sensing data for improving air quality monitoring and modeling.

  7. Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Bowden, Jared H.; Adelman, Zachariah; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Smith, Steven J.; West, J. Jason

    2016-08-01

    Policies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not only slow climate change but can also have ancillary benefits of improved air quality. Here we examine the co-benefits of both global and regional GHG mitigation for US air quality in 2050 at fine resolution, using dynamical downscaling methods, building on a previous global co-benefits study (West et al., 2013). The co-benefits for US air quality are quantified via two mechanisms: through reductions in co-emitted air pollutants from the same sources and by slowing climate change and its influence on air quality, following West et al. (2013). Additionally, we separate the total co-benefits into contributions from domestic GHG mitigation vs. mitigation in foreign countries. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to dynamically downscale future global climate to the regional scale and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) program to directly process global anthropogenic emissions to the regional domain, and we provide dynamical boundary conditions from global simulations to the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The total co-benefits of global GHG mitigation from the RCP4.5 scenario compared with its reference are estimated to be higher in the eastern US (ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 µg m-3) than the west (0–0.4 µg m-3) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with an average of 0.47 µg m-3 over the US; for O3, the total co-benefits are more uniform at 2–5 ppb, with a US average of 3.55 ppb. Comparing the two mechanisms of co-benefits, we find that reductions in co-emitted air pollutants have a much greater influence on both PM2.5 (96 % of the total co-benefits) and O3 (89 % of the total) than the second co-benefits mechanism via slowing climate change, consistent with West et al. (2013). GHG mitigation from foreign countries contributes more to the US O3 reduction

  8. Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Bowden, Jared H.; Adelman, Zachariah; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Smith, Steven J.; West, J. Jason

    2016-08-01

    Policies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not only slow climate change but can also have ancillary benefits of improved air quality. Here we examine the co-benefits of both global and regional GHG mitigation for US air quality in 2050 at fine resolution, using dynamical downscaling methods, building on a previous global co-benefits study (West et al., 2013). The co-benefits for US air quality are quantified via two mechanisms: through reductions in co-emitted air pollutants from the same sources and by slowing climate change and its influence on air quality, following West et al. (2013). Additionally, we separate the total co-benefits into contributions from domestic GHG mitigation vs. mitigation in foreign countries. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to dynamically downscale future global climate to the regional scale and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) program to directly process global anthropogenic emissions to the regional domain, and we provide dynamical boundary conditions from global simulations to the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The total co-benefits of global GHG mitigation from the RCP4.5 scenario compared with its reference are estimated to be higher in the eastern US (ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 µg m-3) than the west (0-0.4 µg m-3) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with an average of 0.47 µg m-3 over the US; for O3, the total co-benefits are more uniform at 2-5 ppb, with a US average of 3.55 ppb. Comparing the two mechanisms of co-benefits, we find that reductions in co-emitted air pollutants have a much greater influence on both PM2.5 (96 % of the total co-benefits) and O3 (89 % of the total) than the second co-benefits mechanism via slowing climate change, consistent with West et al. (2013). GHG mitigation from foreign countries contributes more to the US O3 reduction (76 % of the total) than that from domestic GHG mitigation only (24 %), highlighting the

  9. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.; Bartram, Jamie; Wade, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low- and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. PMID:27689546

  10. Rapid and conformal coating of polymer resins by airbrushing for continuous and high-speed roll-to-roll nanopatterning: parametric quality controls and extended applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Na, Minho; Kim, Jiyeop; Yoo, Kangeun; Park, Jaekyu; Kim, Jeong Dae; Oh, Dong Kyo; Lee, Seungjo; Youn, Hongseok; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Ok, Jong G.

    2017-05-01

    We present a facile and scalable coating method based on controlled airbrushing, which is suitable for conformal resin coating in continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process. By controlling the concentration of UV-curable polymeric resin with mixing the volatile solvent and its airbrushing time, the coated resin film thickness can be readily tuned. After R2R NIL using a flexible nanoscale line pattern (nanograting) mold is conducted upon the airbrushed resin film, a large-area uniform nanograting pattern is fabricated with controlled residual layer thickness (RLT) based on the initial film thickness. We investigate the faithful airbrushing condition that can reliably create the uniform thin films as well as various nanopatterns with controlled morphologies. Using more diluted resin and shorter airbrushing time can reduce the RLTs favourably for many applications, yet is apt to induce the nanoscale pores and discontinued lines. We also discuss how to further improve the quality and scalability of resin airbrushing and its potential applications particularly requiring high-speed and conformal coating on highly topographic and flexible surfaces.

  11. Rapid and conformal coating of polymer resins by airbrushing for continuous and high-speed roll-to-roll nanopatterning: parametric quality controls and extended applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Na, Minho; Kim, Jiyeop; Yoo, Kangeun; Park, Jaekyu; Kim, Jeong Dae; Oh, Dong Kyo; Lee, Seungjo; Youn, Hongseok; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Ok, Jong G

    2017-01-01

    We present a facile and scalable coating method based on controlled airbrushing, which is suitable for conformal resin coating in continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process. By controlling the concentration of UV-curable polymeric resin with mixing the volatile solvent and its airbrushing time, the coated resin film thickness can be readily tuned. After R2R NIL using a flexible nanoscale line pattern (nanograting) mold is conducted upon the airbrushed resin film, a large-area uniform nanograting pattern is fabricated with controlled residual layer thickness (RLT) based on the initial film thickness. We investigate the faithful airbrushing condition that can reliably create the uniform thin films as well as various nanopatterns with controlled morphologies. Using more diluted resin and shorter airbrushing time can reduce the RLTs favourably for many applications, yet is apt to induce the nanoscale pores and discontinued lines. We also discuss how to further improve the quality and scalability of resin airbrushing and its potential applications particularly requiring high-speed and conformal coating on highly topographic and flexible surfaces.

  12. Stories from OpenAQ, a Global and Grassroots Open Air Quality Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Flasher, J. C.; Veerman, O.; Scalamogna, A.; Silva, D.; Salmon, M.; Buuralda, D.; DeWitt, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution, responsible for more deaths each year than HIV/AIDS and malaria, combined, is a global public health crisis. Yet many scientific questions, including those directly relevant for policy, remain unanswered when it comes to the impact of air pollution on health in highly polluted environments. Often, specific solutions to improving air quality are local and sustained through public engagement, policy and monitoring. Both the overarching science of air quality and health and local solutions rely on access to reliable, timely air quality data. Over the past year, the OpenAQ community has opened up existing disparate air quality data in 24 countries through an open source platform (openaq.org) so that communities around the world can use it to advance science, public engagement, and policy. We will share stories of communities, from Delhi to Ulaanbaatar and from scientists to journalists, using open air quality data from our platform to advance their fight against air inequality. We will share recent research we have conducted on best practices for engaging different communities and building tools that enable the public to fully unleash the power of open air quality data to fight air inequality. The subsequent open-source tools (github.com/openaq) we have developed from this research and our entire data-sharing platform may be of interest to other open data communities.

  13. The Global Seismographic Network: New Sensor Developments, Quality Assessments and Continuing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, K.; Davis, J. P.; Wilson, D.; Woodward, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a 151 station, globally distributed permanent network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors that is a result of an ongoing successful partnership between IRIS, the USGS, the University of California at San Diego, NSF and numerous host institutions worldwide. In recent years, the GSN has standardized their dataloggers to the Quanterra Q330HR data acquisition system at all but three stations. Current equipment modernization efforts are focused on the development of a new very broadband borehole sensor to replace failing KS-54000 instruments and replacing the aging Streckeisen STS-1 surface instruments at many GSN stations. Aging of GSN equipment and discoveries of quality problems with GSN data (e.g., the long period response of the STS-1 sensors) have resulted in the GSN placing major emphasis on quantifying, validating and maintaining data quality. This has resulted in the implementation of MUSTANG and DQA systems for analyzing GSN data quality and enables both network operators and data end users to quickly characterize the performance of stations and networks. We will present summary data quality metrics for the GSN as obtained via these quality assurance tools. Data from the GSN are used not only for research, but on a daily basis are part of the operational missions of the USGS NEIC, NOAA tsunami warning centers, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization as well as other organizations. The primary challenges for the GSN include maintaining these operational capabilities while simultaneously developing and replacing the primary borehole sensors, replacing as needed the primary vault sensors, maintaining high quality data and repairing station infrastructure, all during a period of very tight federal budgets. We will provide an overview of the operational status of the GSN, with a particular emphasis on the status of the primary borehole and vault sensors.

  14. Patients' global ratings of their health care are not associated with the technical quality of their care.

    PubMed

    Chang, John T; Hays, Ron D; Shekelle, Paul G; MacLean, Catherine H; Solomon, David H; Reuben, David B; Roth, Carol P; Kamberg, Caren J; Adams, John; Young, Roy T; Wenger, Neil S

    2006-05-02

    Patient global ratings of care are commonly used to assess health care. However, the extent to which these assessments of care are related to the technical quality of care received is not well understood. To investigate the relationship between patient-reported global ratings of health care and the quality of providers' communication and technical quality of care. Observational cohort study. 2 managed care organizations. Vulnerable older patients identified by brief interviews of a random sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years of age or older who received care in 2 managed care organizations during a 13-month period. Survey questions from the second stage of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems program were used to determine patients' global rating of health care and provider communication. A set of 236 quality indicators, defined by the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders project, were used to measure technical quality of care given for 22 clinical conditions; 207 quality indicators were evaluated by using data from chart abstraction or patient interview. Data on the global rating item, communication scale, and technical quality of care score were available for 236 vulnerable older patients. In a multivariate logistic regression model that included patient and clinical factors, better communication was associated with higher global ratings of health care. Technical quality of care was not significantly associated with the global rating of care. Findings were limited to vulnerable elders who were enrolled in managed care organizations and may not be generalizable to other age groups or types of insurance coverage. Vulnerable elders' global ratings of care should not be used as a marker of technical quality of care. Assessments of quality of care should include both patient evaluations and independent assessments of technical quality.

  15. Fake conformal symmetry in unimodular gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry vanish exactly as in conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences in Einstein's general relativity, conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity, and the Weyl-transverse gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.

  16. Use of surface plasmon resonance for real-time measurements of the global conformational transition in human phenylalanine hydroxylase in response to substrate binding and catalytic activation.

    PubMed

    Flatmark, T; Stokka, A J; Berge, S V

    2001-07-15

    In the present study the optical biosensor technique, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, was used for real-time measurements of the reversible binding of the pterin cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) to human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH). When BH(4) (241 Da) was injected over the sensor chip with immobilized tetrameric wt-hPAH a positive DeltaRU response was observed with a square-wave type of sensorgram and a saturable response (about 25 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2)) with a [S](0.5) value of 5.6 +/- 0.8 microM for the pterin cofactor. The rapid on-and-off rates were, however, not possible to determine. By contrast, when l-Phe (165 Da) was injected a time-dependent increase in RU (up to about 3 min) and a much higher saturable DeltaRU response (about 75 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2)) at 2 mM l-Phe) than expected (i.e., <5 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2))) from the low molecular mass of l-Phe were observed in the sensorgram. The half-time for the on-and-off rates were 6 +/- 2 and 9 +/- 1 s, respectively, at 2 mM l-Phe. The steady-state (apparent equilibrium) response revealed a hyperbolic concentration dependence with a [S](0.5) value of 98 +/- 7 microM. The [S](0.5) values of both pterin cofactor and l-Phe were lower than those determined by steady-state enzyme kinetic analysis. Evidence is presented that the DeltaRU response to l-Phe is accounted for by the global conformational transition which occurs in the enzyme upon l-Phe binding, i.e., by the slow reversible transition from a low activity state ("T"-state) to a high activity state ("R"-state) characteristic of this hysteretic enzyme.

  17. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  18. Worldwide floods are changing: Evidence from global high-quality annual maximum streamflow records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Hong; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, floods have led to significant human and economic impacts (in 2014 alone the global cost of floods has been estimated to be US 37.4 billion), and reported flood losses have increased significantly from just US7 billion per year in the 1980s. Recent empirical evidence of significant increasing trends in heavy rainfall has raised the concern of potential changes in flooding magnitude and frequency as a result of large-scale climatic changes. However, other driving forces, including changes in channel capacity and catchment characteristics, also play a large role in rainfall-runoff processes so trends in heavy precipitation cannot be taken as a proxy for trends in flooding. In order to test whether global floods are changing or not, this study analyses a records global discharge time series from 1966 to 2005. Trends in worldwide flood magnitude were analysed using annual maxima daily streamflow obtained from Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9,213 stations across the globe, with an average time series length of 42 years per station. High quality records during the reference period (1966 - 2005) with no more than 2 year of missing data were selected as the input of this study (1209 stations in all). To remove streamflow records impacted by large dams, the HydroSHEDS watershed boundaries and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used to identify stations with existing dams in theirs upstream drainage basins. The Mann-Kendall test at the 5% significant level is applied on selected time series to identify stations showing significant positive and negative trends. The percentage of significantly increasing or decreasing stations are investigated in different climatic regions and catchment sizes, and compared against a bootstrap-based field significant test to represent the null hypothesis. The results indicate strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no change in flood magnitude at global and regional scales.

  19. U.S. air quality management: local, regional and global approaches.

    PubMed

    Cote, Ila; Samet, Jonathan; Vandenberg, John J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review approaches to air quality management (AQM) in the United States. To characterize AQM in the United States, four examples that addressed local, regional, and global scale air pollution are described. These examples include: (1) the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) program, (2) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) program, (3) "Cap & Trade" programs, and (4) U.S. global pollution control efforts. These four examples were chosen because each presents a different approach to AQM. This was not intended to be a comprehensive description of U.S. AQM programs, but rather representative of selected examples that highlight the themes of this program. Some general principles that are illustrated in the article and are considered important characteristics of U.S. AQM are: Ensure open access to information and transparency in decision making. Develop and sustain a well-trained workforce. Facilitate training, networking, and technology transfer among air quality managers. Integrate planning and coordination of efforts across jurisdictions (across federal, state, and local agencies). Educate and encourage participation of stakeholders. Balance of societal benefits and costs. Apply innovative approaches, where possible. Fund research to improve the scientific basis for problem identification and effective AQM strategy development.

  20. Global access to safe water: accounting for water quality and the resulting impact on MDG progress.

    PubMed

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as "improved" or "unimproved" as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF "Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality". A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator "use of an improved source" suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety.

  1. Perceived neighborhood safety and sleep quality: a global analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Wen, Ming; Hale, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    Building on previous North American and European studies of neighborhood context and sleep quality, we tested whether several self-reported sleep outcomes (sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sleepiness, lethargy, and overall sleep quality) vary according to the level of perceived neighborhood safety in six countries: Mexico, Ghana, South Africa, India, China, and Russia. Using data (n = 39,590) from Wave I of the World Health Organization's Longitudinal Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010), we estimated a series of multinomial and binary logistic regression equations to model each sleep outcome within each country. Taken together, our results show that respondents who feel safe from crime and violence in their neighborhoods tend to exhibit more favorable sleep outcomes than respondents who feel less safe. This general pattern is especially pronounced in China and Russia, moderately evident in Mexico, Ghana, and South Africa, and sporadic in India. Perceptions of neighborhood safety are strongly associated with insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality (past 30 days), moderately associated with sleepiness, lethargy, and poor sleep quality (past 2 days), and inconsistently associated with sleep duration (past two days). We show that perceived neighborhood safety is associated with more favorable self-reported sleep outcomes in six understudied countries. Additional research is needed to replicate our findings using longitudinal data, more reliable neighborhood measures, and more direct measures of sleep quality in these and other regions of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Creating climate quality global datasets for studying trends, variability and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, K.; Thorne, P.

    2010-09-01

    Historical instrumental records are essential for climate monitoring and climate research, yet the data are riddled with issues of quality and inhomogeneity. This leaves uncertainty surrounding any conclusions drawn from the data. It is essential that data are quality controlled and homogenised. Furthermore, this must be done in an objective, reproducible and globally consistent manner that enables quantification of uncertainty. The Met Office Hadley Centre is pursuing the quality control and homogenisation of 6000+ stations sub-daily synoptic near-surface temperature data. The data focus mainly on temperature and dewpoint temperature but also include sea level pressure, wind speed and cloud cover. Quality control efforts address many known issues with observational data in an automated manner including outliers and spikes (individual and clusters), repeated values, wet-bulb reservoir drying/freezing and frequently occurring values to name a few. Homogenisation is still work in progress but makes use of ‘pseudo-data' to validate breakpoint detection and adjustment methods. An bootstrap approach will be used on application of homogenisation covering a wide spread of decision parameters with which to estimate uncertainties. This paper details an automated quality control system and presents efforts to date to homogenise these data.

  3. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential impacts of global change. Using a large set...

  4. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential impacts of global change. Using a large set...

  5. World Calibration Center for SF6 - supporting the quality system of the global atmosphere observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Moon, D.; Min, D.; Yun, W.

    2012-10-01

    According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Strategic Plan: 2008-2015 (WMO, 2009a) WMO/GAW pays attention to systematical improvement of the quality of observations at global or regional monitoring sites. To ensure the comparability and compatibility of the measurements worldwide it is essential to maintain a traceability chain to the primary standard in the different laboratories around the world as well as to establish a quality control system. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), is reported to be very rare in the atmosphere at the global averaged annual mole fraction of about 7 ppt, it is one of the greenhouse gases regulated by Kyoto protocol and is increasing at a rate of 0.22 ppt yr-1. Development of a working (or transfer) standard with very low concentration of SF6 requires expert technologies and several knowhow of gas metrology. In order to meet the Data Quality Objective (DQO), the KMA has cooperated with the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), which is the National Metrology Institute in South Korea. So long as the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for SF6 was established, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) is now trying to take another step forward to systematically support GAW stations in improving their traceability and quality system for SF6, thereby making a contribution to the WMO/GAW. Through hosting the World Calibration Center for SF6, which is one of GAW facilities, KMA will contribute to harmonization of the global SF6 observations in the long run. This work performed to demonstrate some measurement results on SF6 which complies with the DQOs and is traceable to the WMO mole fraction scale for SF6. In order to produce a working standard which is traceable to the WMO scale, we developed highly precise method of a Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD) calibrated against the five cylinders (from NOAA, 2011) of the WMO scale. For all analysis the measurement

  6. Impact of Asian Dust on Global Surface Air Quality and Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Dust originating from Asian deserts and desertification areas can be transported regionally and globally to affect surface air quality, visibility, and radiation budget not only at immediate downwind locations (e.g., eastern Asia) but also regions far away from the sources (e.g., North America). Deposition of Asian dust to the North Pacific Ocean basin influences the ocean productivity. In this study, we will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, remote sensing data form satellite and from the ground-based network, and in-situ data from aircraft and surface observations to address the following questions: - What are the effects of Asian dust on the surface air quality and visibility over Asia and North America? - What are the seasonal and spatial variations of dust deposition to the North Pacific Ocean? How does the Asian dust affect surface radiation budget?

  7. Impact of Asian Dust on Global Surface Air Quality and Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Dust originating from Asian deserts and desertification areas can be transported regionally and globally to affect surface air quality, visibility, and radiation budget not only at immediate downwind locations (e.g., eastern Asia) but also regions far away from the sources (e.g., North America). Deposition of Asian dust to the North Pacific Ocean basin influences the ocean productivity. In this study, we will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, remote sensing data form satellite and from the ground-based network, and in-situ data from aircraft and surface observations to address the following questions: - What are the effects of Asian dust on the surface air quality and visibility over Asia and North America? - What are the seasonal and spatial variations of dust deposition to the North Pacific Ocean? How does the Asian dust affect surface radiation budget?

  8. Introducing GMXe: A new global aerosol dynamics and thermodynamics model for climate and air quality studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, K.; Metzger, S.; Tost, H.; Steil, B.; Lelieveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    The treatment of aerosols in global atmospheric models has advanced significantly in the past decade, but the global aerosol distribution is very complex and simplifications must be made in order to treat aerosols in global models. One common simplification is in the treatment of the partitioning of semi-volatile species (e.g. NH3, HNO3 and H2O) between the gas and the aerosol phases, which is often neglected in models or treated in a simplified manner. The treatment of partitioning is, however, important as it controls the aerosol composition (including the aerosol water concentration) as well as affecting the concentration of both aerosol and gas phase pollutants. This paper introduces the newly developed GMXe aerosol model, which has been developed to investigate gas / aerosol partitioning on a global scale. The model (implemented within the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model) combines an extended version of an established aerosol microphysics model (the M7, Stier et al ACP 2005) with a thermodynamic equilibrium model (EQSAM3, Metzger et al ACP 2008). The resulting model is capable of calculating gas / aerosol partitioning with relatively little additional computational overhead. In this paper we give an overview of the modelling approach used and show various model inter-comparisons, including a detailed comparison of the results of the GMXe and M7 models. We show the effect of including additional aerosol components - such as nitrate aerosol - on the global aerosol distribution and on the behaviour of other aerosol species (e.g. sulphate). The water uptake behaviour of the aerosol is examined, a factor that is important for the aerosol lifetime and also for the aerosol radiative forcing. We examine our results in the context of future emissions scenarios and air quality standards.

  9. Satellite remote sensing of particulate matter and air quality assessment over global cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Jun; Gehrig, Robert; Lee, Yc; Kumar, Naresh

    Using 1 year of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite along with ground measurements of PM 2.5 mass concentration, we assess particulate matter air quality over different locations across the global urban areas spread over 26 locations in Sydney, Delhi, Hong Kong, New York City and Switzerland. An empirical relationship between AOT and PM 2.5 mass is obtained and results show that there is an excellent correlation between the bin-averaged daily mean satellite and ground-based values with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.96. Using meteorological and other ancillary datasets, we assess the effects of wind speed, cloud cover, and mixing height (MH) on particulate matter (PM) air quality and conclude that these data are necessary to further apply satellite data for air quality research. Our study clearly demonstrates that satellite-derived AOT is a good surrogate for monitoring PM air quality over the earth. However, our analysis shows that the PM 2.5-AOT relationship strongly depends on aerosol concentrations, ambient relative humidity (RH), fractional cloud cover and height of the mixing layer. Highest correlation between MODIS AOT and PM 2.5 mass is found under clear sky conditions with less than 40-50% RH and when atmospheric MH ranges from 100 to 200 m. Future remote sensing sensors such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) that have the capability to provide vertical distribution of aerosols will further enhance our ability to monitor and forecast air pollution. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between satellite and ground measurements over several global locations.

  10. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health via Two Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J.; Smith, S. J.; Silva, R.; Naik, V.; Adelman, Z.; Fry, M. M.; Anenberg, S.; Zhang, Y.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Global actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will also reduce co-emitted air pollutants, with immediate air quality benefits. Climate change itself affects air quality (e.g., via meteorology and biogenic emissions); therefore, actions to reduce GHG emissions will also influence air quality by slowing global climate change. These two mechanisms of air quality co-benefits - reducing co-emitted air pollutants and slowing climate change - have not previously been quantified in a self-consistent way. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG emission reductions on air quality and human health via these two mechanisms in scenarios to 2100. Future emissions scenarios were developed by the GCAM global energy-economics model as part of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) process. We simulate global air quality for a reference case scenario and a scenario with aggressive GHG controls internationally (RCP4.5). Future meteorology is from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model (AM3) simulations of the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we simulate global changes in surface concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for RCP4.5 relative to the reference case. The two co-benefit mechanisms are isolated by simulating reference case emissions with meteorology from RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Co-benefits for future human mortality will be assessed using epidemiological concentration-response functions, and projections of future population and baseline mortality rates. Preliminary results indicate that the co-benefits of global GHG mitigation for ozone and PM2.5 are substantial globally and regionally, and that the direct co-benefits from reductions in emissions of co-emitted air pollutants exceed the co-benefits via slowing climate change. We aim to monetize the avoided mortalities as a basis for comparison with the costs of GHG mitigation.

  11. Validation of a global scale to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2016-07-27

    Few scales currently exist to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork through team members' perceptions of working together in mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to revise and validate an interprofessional scale to assess the quality of teamwork in inpatient psychiatric units and to use it multi-nationally. A literature review was undertaken to identify evaluative teamwork tools and develop an additional 12 items to ensure a broad global focus. Focus group discussions considered adaptation to different care systems using subjective judgements from 11 participants in a pre-test of items. Data quality, construct validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were investigated in the survey using an international comparative design. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with 21 items: 'patient/community centred care', 'collaborative communication', 'interprofessional conflict', 'role clarification', and 'environment'. High overall internal consistency, reproducibility, adequate face validity, and reasonable construct validity were shown in the USA and Japan. The revised Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT) is a valid measure to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in psychiatry and identifies the best strategies to improve team performance. Furthermore, the revised scale will generate more rigorous evidence for collaborative practice in psychiatry internationally.

  12. A global assessment of climate-water quality relationships in large rivers: an elasticity perspective.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiping; Sharma, Ashish; Sivakumar, Bellie; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-15

    To uncover climate-water quality relationships in large rivers on a global scale, the present study investigates the climate elasticity of river water quality (CEWQ) using long-term monthly records observed at 14 large rivers. Temperature and precipitation elasticities of 12 water quality parameters, highlighted by N- and P-nutrients, are assessed. General observations on elasticity values show the usefulness of this approach to describe the magnitude of stream water quality responses to climate change, which improves that of simple statistical correlation. Sensitivity type, intensity and variability rank of CEWQ are reported and specific characteristics and mechanism of elasticity of nutrient parameters are also revealed. Among them, the performance of ammonia, total phosphorus-air temperature models, and nitrite, orthophosphorus-precipitation models are the best. Spatial and temporal assessment shows that precipitation elasticity is more variable in space than temperature elasticity and that seasonal variation is more evident for precipitation elasticity than for temperature elasticity. Moreover, both anthropogenic activities and environmental factors are found to impact CEWQ for select variables. The major relationships that can be inferred include: (1) human population has a strong linear correlation with temperature elasticity of turbidity and total phosphorus; and (2) latitude has a strong linear correlation with precipitation elasticity of turbidity and N nutrients. As this work improves our understanding of the relation between climate factors and surface water quality, it is potentially helpful for investigating the effect of climate change on water quality in large rivers, such as on the long-term change of nutrient concentrations. © 2013.

  13. [Cost-effectiveness analysis and diet quality index applied to the WHO Global Strategy].

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Simões, Arlete Naresse

    2008-02-01

    To test the use of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision making tool in the production of meals for the inclusion of the recommendations published in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy. Five alternative options for breakfast menu were assessed previously to their adoption in a food service at a university in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Costs of the different options were based on market prices of food items (direct cost). Health benefits were estimated based on adaptation of the Diet Quality Index (DQI). Cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated by dividing benefits by costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated as cost differential per unit of additional benefit. The meal choice was based on health benefit units associated to direct production cost as well as incremental effectiveness per unit of differential cost. The analysis showed the most simple option with the addition of a fruit (DQI = 64 / cost = R$ 1.58) as the best alternative. Higher effectiveness was seen in the options with a fruit portion (DQI1=64 / DQI3=58 / DQI5=72) compared to the others (DQI2=48 / DQI4=58). The estimate of cost-effectiveness ratio allowed to identifying the best breakfast option based on cost-effectiveness analysis and Diet Quality Index. These instruments allow easy application easiness and objective evaluation which are key to the process of inclusion of public or private institutions under the Global Strategy directives.

  14. Comparison of boundary conditions from Global Chemistry Model (GCM) for regional air quality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Yun Fat; Cheung, Hung Ming; Fu, Joshua; Huang, Kan

    2015-04-01

    Applying Global Chemistry Model (GCM) for regional Boundary Conditions (BC) has become a common practice to account for long-range transport of air pollutants in the regional air quality modeling. The limited domain model such as CMAQ and CAMx requires a global BC to prescribe the real-time chemical flux at the boundary grids, in order to give a realistic estimate of boundary impacts. Several GCMs have become available recently for use in regional air quality studies. In this study, three GCM models (i.e., GEOS-chem, CHASER and IFS-CB05 MACC provided by Seoul National University, Nagoya University and ECWMF, respectively) for the year of 2010 were applied in CMAQ for the East Asia domain under the framework of Model Inter-comparison Study Asia Phase III (MISC-Asia III) and task force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) jointed experiments. Model performance evaluations on vertical profile and spatial distribution of O3 and PM2.5 have been made on those three models to better understand the model uncertainties from the boundary conditions. Individual analyses on various mega-cities (i.e., Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Taipei, Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Seoul and Tokyo) were also performed. Our analysis found that the monthly estimates of O3 for CHASER were a bit higher than GEOS-Chem and IFS-CB05 MACC, particularly in the northern part of China in the winter and spring, while the monthly averages of PM2.5 in GEOS-Chem were the lowest among the three models. The hourly maximum values of PM2.5 from those three models (GEOS-Chem, CHASER and IFS-CB05 MACC are 450, 321, 331 μg/m3, while the maximum O3 are 158, 212, 380 ppbv, respectively. Cross-comparison of CMAQ results from the 45 km resolution were also made to investigate the boundary impacts from the global GCMs. The results presented here provide insight on how global GCM selection influences the regional air quality simulation in East Asia.

  15. The Global Seismographic Network (GSN): Challenges and Methods for Maintaining High Quality Network Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Katrin; Davis, Peter; Wilson, David; Sumy, Danielle; Woodward, Bob

    2016-04-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a 152 station, globally-distributed, permanent network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors. The GSN has been operating for over 20 years via an ongoing successful partnership between IRIS, the USGS, the University of California at San Diego, NSF and numerous host institutions worldwide. The central design goal of the GSN may be summarized as "to record with full fidelity and bandwidth all seismic signals above the Earth noise, accompanied by some efforts to reduce Earth noise by deployment strategies". While many of the technical design goals have been met, we continue to strive for higher data quality with a combination of new sensors and improved installation techniques designed to achieve the lowest noise possible under existing site conditions. Data from the GSN are used not only for research, but on a daily basis as part of the operational missions of the USGS NEIC, NOAA tsunami warning centers, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization as well as other organizations. In the recent period of very tight funding budgets, the primary challenges for the GSN include maintaining these operational capabilities while simultaneously developing and replacing the primary sensors, maintaining high quality data and repairing station infrastructure. Aging of GSN equipment and station infrastructure has resulted in renewed emphasis on developing, evaluating and implementing quality control tools such as MUSTANG and DQA to maintain the high data quality from the GSN stations. These tools allow the network operators to routinely monitor and analyze waveform data to detect and track problems and develop action plans as issues are found. We will present summary data quality metrics for the GSN as obtained via these quality assurance tools. In recent years, the GSN has standardized dataloggers to the Quanterra Q330HR data acquisition system at all but three stations resulting in significantly improved

  16. Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global Warming Projections to Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global warming projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global warming in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface warming mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on air quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering air quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41

  17. Treatment-plan evaluation using the dose quality factor (DQF) for dynamic conformal arc (DCA)-based radiosurgery on patients presenting with an intracranial tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung Hoon; Min, Byung Jun; Kim, Kum Bae; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Won-Gyun; Kim, Geun Beom; Ko, Seung Young; Shin, Hyun Soo; Chang, Sei Kyung; Jeong, Ho Jin; Shin, Dongho; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to find the optimum dynamic conformal arc (DCA)-based radiosurgery conditions for treatment of patients with intracranial tumors. DCA plans were generated on a commercial treatment-planning system (BrainSCAN v.5.31) for various beam-number and gantry-angle combinations by using computed tomography (CT) scans to delineate the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OARs). To evaluate planning quality related to the various planning conditions, we analyzed the dose quality factors (DQFs) for 22 patients as a function of the number and the total angle of arcs related to the target volume, which were determined on the basis of patient-specific features. When the total angle of arcs was less than 250°, the DQF values were under 0.98 (worst group). When the total angle of arcs was more than 350 degrees, the DQF values were maximized, and the highest DQF values (best group, DQF > 0.995) occurred in the range between 50 and 120°/cm3 for the total angle/target volume condition. In this optimal range of angle/volume, the asymmetric distribution of the arcs resulted in decreased DQF values. For a relatively large target volume (more than 10 cm3), the DQF values were lower than these for a relatively small target volume (less than 10 cm3). Re-planning results showed that the planning quality could be improved using optimized planning conditions. We expect that this study will provide a basis for the evaluation of various DCA conditions prior to actual planning and treatment.

  18. Satellite Models for Global Environmental Change in the NASA Health and Air Quality Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. Health and Air Quality providers and researchers are effective by the global environmental changes that are occurring and they need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. This presentation maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas including environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality. Successfully providing predictions with the accuracy and specificity required by decision makers will require advancements over current capabilities in a number of interrelated areas. These areas include observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process. This presentation will highlight many projects on which NASA satellites have been a primary partner with local, state, Federal, and international operational agencies over the past twelve years in these areas. Domestic and International officials have increasingly recognized links between environment and health. Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental

  19. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Fritzsching, Keith J; Hong, Mei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations ((13)C-(13)C, (15)N-(13)C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 (13)C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited "hand-picked" data sets, we show that ~94% of the (13)C NMR data and almost all (15)N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6% of the (13)C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. -2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra-residue cross peaks by inspection or by using a provided

  20. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations (13C–13C, 15N–13C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 13C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited “hand-picked” data sets, we show that ~94 % of the 13C NMR data and almost all 15N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6 % of the 13C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. −2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra-residue cross peaks by inspection or by using a provided command

  1. OpenAQ: A Platform to Aggregate and Freely Share Global Air Quality Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Flasher, J. C.; Veerman, O.; DeWitt, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Thousands of ground-based air quality monitors around the world publicly publish real-time air quality data; however, researchers and the public do not have access to this information in the ways most useful to them. Often, air quality data are posted on obscure websites showing only current values, are programmatically inaccessible, and/or are in inconsistent data formats across sites. Yet, historical and programmatic access to such a global dataset would be transformative to several scientific fields, from epidemiology to low-cost sensor technologies to estimates of ground-level aerosol by satellite retrievals. To increase accessibility and standardize this disparate dataset, we have built OpenAQ, an innovative, open platform created by a group of scientists and open data programmers. The source code for the platform is viewable at github.com/openaq. Currently, we are aggregating, storing, and making publicly available real-time air quality data (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3) via an Application Program Interface (API). We will present the OpenAQ platform, which currently has the following specific capabilities: A continuous ingest mechanism for some of the most polluted cities, generalizable to more sources An API providing data-querying, including ability to filter by location, measurement type and value and date, as well as custom sort options A generalized, chart-based visualization tool to explore data accessible via the API At this stage, we are seeking wider participation and input from multiple research communities in expanding our data retrieval sites, standardizing our protocols, receiving feedback on quality issues, and creating tools that can be built on top of this open platform.

  2. Designing and evaluating the MULTICOM protein local and global model quality prediction methods in the CASP10 experiment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Renzhi; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Jianlin

    2014-04-15

    Protein model quality assessment is an essential component of generating and using protein structural models. During the Tenth Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP10), we developed and tested four automated methods (MULTICOM-REFINE, MULTICOM-CLUSTER, MULTICOM-NOVEL, and MULTICOM-CONSTRUCT) that predicted both local and global quality of protein structural models. MULTICOM-REFINE was a clustering approach that used the average pairwise structural similarity between models to measure the global quality and the average Euclidean distance between a model and several top ranked models to measure the local quality. MULTICOM-CLUSTER and MULTICOM-NOVEL were two new support vector machine-based methods of predicting both the local and global quality of a single protein model. MULTICOM-CONSTRUCT was a new weighted pairwise model comparison (clustering) method that used the weighted average similarity between models in a pool to measure the global model quality. Our experiments showed that the pairwise model assessment methods worked better when a large portion of models in the pool were of good quality, whereas single-model quality assessment methods performed better on some hard targets when only a small portion of models in the pool were of reasonable quality. Since digging out a few good models from a large pool of low-quality models is a major challenge in protein structure prediction, single model quality assessment methods appear to be poised to make important contributions to protein structure modeling. The other interesting finding was that single-model quality assessment scores could be used to weight the models by the consensus pairwise model comparison method to improve its accuracy.

  3. SYNOPTIC GLOBAL REMOTE SENSING OF LAND SURFACE VEGETATION: OVERVIEW OF DAILY DATA QUALITY, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-Munoz, A.; Didan, K.

    2009-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of a long data record from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT VGT, and other sensors. These records account now for 30+ years, and as the archive grows, it becomes an invaluable source of data for many environmental related studies dealing with trends and changes from local to global scale. Synoptic global remote sensing provides a multitude of land surface state variables and serves as a major foundation for global change research. However, these records are inhibited with problems that need to be accounted for in order to understand the limits and improve the science results derived from these records. The presence of clouds, aerosols, spatial gaps, variable viewing geometry, inconsistent atmosphere corrections, multiple reprocessing, and different sensors characteristics, makes it difficult to obtain frequently high quality data everywhere and every time. Moreover, these issues are location and season dependent making it even more difficult to construct the consistent time series required to study change over time. To evaluate these records, we analyzed 30+ years (1981 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009) of daily global land surface measurements (CMG resolution) from AVHRR (N07, N09, N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA, Collection 5, C5). We stratified the data based on land cover, latitudinal zone, and season and we examined the daily data quality, including cloud persistence, aerosol loads, data gaps, and an index of reliability that measures how likely an observation is acceptable for research. The aim was to generate aggregate maps of cloud distribution, aerosol levels distribution, and data reliability distribution in both time and space. This information was then converted into an uncertainty measure at the pixel level that indicates how suspect or significant a result could potentially be, depending on its location and season and consequently what geographic locations and times

  4. Global Clustering Quality Coefficient Assessing the Efficiency of PCA Class Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Ciochina, Stefanut

    2014-01-01

    An essential factor influencing the efficiency of the predictive models built with principal component analysis (PCA) is the quality of the data clustering revealed by the score plots. The sensitivity and selectivity of the class assignment are strongly influenced by the relative position of the clusters and by their dispersion. We are proposing a set of indicators inspired from analytical geometry that may be used for an objective quantitative assessment of the data clustering quality as well as a global clustering quality coefficient (GCQC) that is a measure of the overall predictive power of the PCA models. The use of these indicators for evaluating the efficiency of the PCA class assignment is illustrated by a comparative study performed for the identification of the preprocessing function that is generating the most efficient PCA system screening for amphetamines based on their GC-FTIR spectra. The GCQC ranking of the tested feature weights is explained based on estimated density distributions and validated by using quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). PMID:25210644

  5. Impacts of ozone-vegetation coupling and feedbacks on global air quality, ecosystems and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant of significant concerns due to its harmful effects on human health, vegetation and crop productivity. Chronic ozone exposure is shown to reduce photosynthesis and interfere with gas exchange in plants, thereby influencing surface energy balance and biogeochemical fluxes with important ramifications for climate and atmospheric composition, including possible feedbacks onto ozone itself that are not well understood. Ozone damage on crops has been well documented, but a mechanistic understanding is not well established. Here we present several results pertaining to the effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on air quality, ecosystems and agriculture. Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we find that inclusion of ozone damage on plants reduces the global land carbon sink by up to 5%, while simulated ozone is enhanced by up to 6 ppbv North America, Europe and East Asia. This strong positive feedback on ozone air quality via ozone-vegetation coupling arises mainly from reduced stomatal conductance, which induces two feedback pathways: 1) reduced dry deposition and ozone uptake; and 2) reduced evapotranspiration that enhances vegetation temperature and thus isoprene emission. Using the same ozone-vegetation scheme in a crop model within CESM, we further examine the impacts of historical ozone exposure on global crop production. We contrast our model results with a separate statistical analysis designed to characterize the spatial variability of crop-ozone-temperature relationships and account for the confounding effect of ozone-temperature covariation, using multidecadal global datasets of crop yields, agroclimatic variables and ozone exposures. We find that several crops (especially C4 crops such as maize) exhibit stronger sensitivities to ozone than found by field studies or in CESM simulations. We also find a strong anticorrelation between crop sensitivities and average ozone levels, reflecting biological adaptive ozone

  6. Simulation of in-stream water quality on global scale under changing climate and anthropogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Anja; Bärlund, Ilona; Punzet, Manuel; Williams, Richard; Teichert, Ellen; Malve, Olli; Voß, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Although catchment scale modelling of water and solute transport and transformations is a widely used technique to study pollution pathways and effects of natural changes, policies and mitigation measures there are only a few examples of global water quality modelling. This work will provide a description of the new continental-scale model of water quality WorldQual and the analysis of model simulations under changed climate and anthropogenic conditions with respect to changes in diffuse and point loading as well as surface water quality. BOD is used as an indicator of the level of organic pollution and its oxygen-depleting potential, and for the overall health of aquatic ecosystems. The first application of this new water quality model is to river systems of Europe. The model itself is being developed as part of the EU-funded SCENES Project which has the principal goal of developing new scenarios of the future of freshwater resources in Europe. The aim of the model is to determine chemical fluxes in different pathways combining analysis of water quantity with water quality. Simple equations, consistent with the availability of data on the continental scale, are used to simulate the response of in-stream BOD concentrations to diffuse and anthropogenic point loadings as well as flow dilution. Point sources are divided into manufacturing, domestic and urban loadings, whereas diffuse loadings come from scattered settlements, agricultural input (for instance livestock farming), and also from natural background sources. The model is tested against measured longitudinal gradients and time series data at specific river locations with different loading characteristics like the Thames that is driven by domestic loading and Ebro with relative high share of diffuse loading. With scenario studies the influence of climate and anthropogenic changes on European water resources shall be investigated with the following questions: 1. What percentage of river systems will have

  7. Effect of thermal treatment on secondary structure and conformational change of mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO) as food quality related enzyme: A FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Baltacıoğlu, Hande; Bayındırlı, Alev; Severcan, Mete; Severcan, Feride

    2015-11-15

    In order to understand the conformational changes of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a food quality related enzyme, after thermal treatment, secondary structure changes of the enzyme were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and compared with the change in enzyme activity in the temperature range of 25-80 °C. Fourier self-deconvolution, neural network (NN) and curve-fitting analysis were applied to the amide I band of FTIR spectra for detail analysis of secondary structure elements. FTIR analysis indicated that PPO is an α-helix dominating enzyme. Detail analysis revealed that, as temperature increased, α-helix and β-sheet decreased, but aggregated β-sheet, turns and random coil increased. The marked changes were noted at 40 °C with the occurrence of new bands due to aggregated β-sheet structures, all of which indicate protein denaturation. These aggregation bands were still observed when the temperature was reduced back to 25 °C, from 70 °C, demonstrating an irreversible change in the structure.

  8. The PyPES library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sibaev, Marat; Crittenden, Deborah L

    2015-11-05

    In this article, we present a Python-based library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules with up to six atoms. We anticipate that these surfaces will find widespread application in the testing of new potential energy surface construction algorithms and nuclear ro-vibrational structure theories. To this end, we provide the ability to generate the energy derivatives required for Taylor series expansions to sixth order about any point on the potential energy surface in a range of common coordinate systems, including curvilinear internal, Cartesian, and normal mode coordinates. The PyPES package, along with FORTRAN, C, MATLAB and Mathematica wrappers, is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pypes-lib.

  9. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. PMID:22690170

  10. Using Intel's Knight Landing Processor to Accelerate Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, H.; Chen, X.; Wu, Q.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System for Hg (GNAQPMS-Hg) is a global chemical transport model coupled Hg transport module to investigate the mercury pollution. In this study, we present our work of transplanting the GNAQPMS model on Intel Xeon Phi processor, Knights Landing (KNL) to accelerate the model. KNL is the second-generation product adopting Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) architecture. Compared with the first generation Knight Corner (KNC), KNL has more new hardware features, that it can be used as unique processor as well as coprocessor with other CPU. According to the Vtune tool, the high overhead modules in GNAQPMS model have been addressed, including CBMZ gas chemistry, advection and convection module, and wet deposition module. These high overhead modules were accelerated by optimizing code and using new techniques of KNL. The following optimized measures was done: 1) Changing the pure MPI parallel mode to hybrid parallel mode with MPI and OpenMP; 2.Vectorizing the code to using the 512-bit wide vector computation unit. 3. Reducing unnecessary memory access and calculation. 4. Reducing Thread Local Storage (TLS) for common variables with each OpenMP thread in CBMZ. 5. Changing the way of global communication from files writing and reading to MPI functions. After optimization, the performance of GNAQPMS is greatly increased both on CPU and KNL platform, the single-node test showed that optimized version has 2.6x speedup on two sockets CPU platform and 3.3x speedup on one socket KNL platform compared with the baseline version code, which means the KNL has 1.29x speedup when compared with 2 sockets CPU platform.

  11. Improvement of research quality in the fields of orthopaedics and trauma: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Fayaz, Hangama C; Haas, Norbert; Kellam, James; Bavonratanavech, Suthorn; Parvizi, Javad; Dyer, George; Pohlemann, Tim; Jerosch, Jörg; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Pape, Hans Christoph; Smith, Malcolm; Vrahas, Marc; Perka, Carsten; Siebenrock, Klaus; Elhassan, Bassem; Moran, Christopher; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2013-07-01

    The international orthopaedic community aims to achieve the best possible outcome for patient care by constantly modifying surgical techniques and expanding the surgeon's knowledge. These efforts require proper reflection within a setting that necessitates a higher quality standard for global orthopaedic publication. Furthermore, these techniques demand that surgeons acquire information at a rapid rate while enforcing higher standards in research performance. An international consensus exists on how to perform research and what rules should be considered when publishing a scientific paper. Despite this global agreement, in today's "Cross Check Era", too many authors do not give attention to the current standards of systematic research. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe these performance standards, the available choices for orthopaedic surgeons and the current learning curve for seasoned teams of researchers and orthopaedic surgeons with more than three decades of experience. These lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the topics that will significantly influence the research development as we arrive at an important globalisation era in orthopaedics and trauma-related research.

  12. The Problem and Goals Are Global, the Solutions Are Local: Revisiting Quality Measurements and the Role of the Private Sector in Global Health Professions Education.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Hossam

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of a competent health workforce is a global challenge. However, its manifestations and proposed solutions are very much context related (i.e., local). In addition to the shortage of health professionals, the quality of health professions education programs, institutions, and graduates, and how to measure quality, are also problematic. Commonly used metrics like the Credit Hours System and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System have limitations (e.g., being more focused on quantity than quality).In this Invited Commentary, the author discusses the need to revisit quality measurements in health professions education and the issue of whether the private sector has a role to play in narrowing the ever-increasing gap between the demand for health care professionals and the health care workforce shortage.

  13. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement current efforts on air pollution control through technology and fuel transformations in the energy system. A combination of stringent policies on air pollution control and climate change mitigation results in 40% of the global population exposed to PM levels below the WHO air quality guideline; with the largest improvements estimated for India, China, and Middle East. Our results stress the importance of integrated multisector policy approaches to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

  14. This Plow Needs More Than One Horse to Pull It: The Need for Global Cooperation to Promote Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Richard

    2000-01-01

    There is global concern over the quality of health information on the Internet, especially by those who see the tremendous potential benefit of the Internet as a communications tool. The sources for lack of quality can range from the misinformed to the misguided to fraud. Global solutions will require unprecedented levels of cooperation among all the stakeholders (consumers, academia, industry, governments) as well as the best use of available technology. Quality rating systems, self-regulation and aggressive law enforcement must all play a role. One of the most formidable challenges will be how to deal with the global nature of the commerce. Who will protect consumers in foreign countries and how will they be protected? At present, the answer is not readily apparent, but complaint data collection and sharing is a critical first step.

  15. Denaturant-dependent conformational changes in a beta-trefoil protein: global and residue-specific aspects of an equilibrium denaturation process.

    PubMed

    Latypov, Ramil F; Liu, Dingjiang; Jacob, Jaby; Harvey, Timothy S; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Kleemann, Gerd R; Brems, David N; Raibekas, Andrei A

    2009-11-24

    Conformational properties of the folded and unfolded ensembles of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are strongly denaturant-dependent as evidenced by high-resolution two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), limited proteolysis, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The folded ensemble was characterized in detail in the presence of different urea concentrations by (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR. The beta-trefoil fold characteristic of native IL-1ra was preserved until the unfolding transition region beginning at 4 M urea. At the same time, a subset of native resonances disappeared gradually starting at low denaturant concentrations, indicating noncooperative changes in the folded state. Additional evidence of structural perturbations came from the chemical shift analysis, nonuniform and bell-shaped peak intensity profiles, and limited proteolysis. In particular, the following nearby regions of the tertiary structure became progressively destabilized with increasing urea concentrations: the beta-hairpin interface of trefoils 1 and 2 and the H2a-H2 helical region. These regions underwent small-scale perturbations within the native baseline region in the absence of populated molten globule-like states. Similar regions were affected by elevated temperatures known to induce irreversible aggregation of IL-1ra. Further evidence of structural transitions invoking near-native conformations came from an optical spectroscopy analysis of its single-tryptophan variant W17A. The increase in the radius of gyration was associated with a single equilibrium unfolding transition in the case of two different denaturants, urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). However, the compactness of urea- and GuHCl-unfolded molecules was comparable only at high denaturant concentrations and deviated under less denaturing conditions. Our results identified the role of conformational flexibility in IL-1ra aggregation and shed light on the nature of structural transitions within the

  16. Denaturant-Dependent Conformational Changes in a [beta]-Trefoil Protein: Global and Residue-Specific Aspects of an Equilibrium Denaturation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Latypov, Ramil F.; Liu, Dingjiang; Jacob, Jaby; Harvey, Timothy S.; Bondarenko, Pavel V.; Kleemann, Gerd R.; Brems, David N.; Raibekas, Andrei A.

    2010-01-12

    Conformational properties of the folded and unfolded ensembles of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are strongly denaturant-dependent as evidenced by high-resolution two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), limited proteolysis, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The folded ensemble was characterized in detail in the presence of different urea concentrations by 1H-15N HSQC NMR. The {beta}-trefoil fold characteristic of native IL-1ra was preserved until the unfolding transition region beginning at 4 M urea. At the same time, a subset of native resonances disappeared gradually starting at low denaturant concentrations, indicating noncooperative changes in the folded state. Additional evidence of structural perturbations came from the chemical shift analysis, nonuniform and bell-shaped peak intensity profiles, and limited proteolysis. In particular, the following nearby regions of the tertiary structure became progressively destabilized with increasing urea concentrations: the {beta}-hairpin interface of trefoils 1 and 2 and the H2a-H2 helical region. These regions underwent small-scale perturbations within the native baseline region in the absence of populated molten globule-like states. Similar regions were affected by elevated temperatures known to induce irreversible aggregation of IL-1ra. Further evidence of structural transitions invoking near-native conformations came from an optical spectroscopy analysis of its single-tryptophan variant W17A. The increase in the radius of gyration was associated with a single equilibrium unfolding transition in the case of two different denaturants, urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). However, the compactness of urea- and GuHCl-unfolded molecules was comparable only at high denaturant concentrations and deviated under less denaturing conditions. Our results identified the role of conformational flexibility in IL-1ra aggregation and shed light on the nature of structural transitions within the

  17. Impacts of Future Land-Use Change on Nitrogen Leaching and Global Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiyappan, P.; Barman, R.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G.; Lawrence, P.

    2011-12-01

    experiments to examine the influence of cropland expansion and N-deposition on NO3-NH4-leaching, and its impact on water quality at a global scale. These experiments will be conducted based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) protocols, to be used in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). We will also evaluate the modeled estimates of N-leaching based on site specific observations from multiple sites. This study will provide insights on future water resources and water quality at a global scale.

  18. Conformal mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonera, Joanna

    2013-08-15

    The SL(2,R) invariant Hamiltonian systems are discussed within the framework of the orbit method. It is shown that both the dynamics and the symmetry transformations are globally well-defined on phase space. The flexibility in the choice of the time variable and the Hamiltonian function described in the paper by de Alfaro et al. [Nuovo Cimento 34A (1976) 569] is related to the nontrivial global structure of 1+0-dimensional space–time. The operational definition of time is discussed.

  19. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel-Thermo-Physical Characterization Project Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Mario M.; Slonecker, Bruce D.

    2012-06-01

    The charter of the Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is to ready Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) facilities and processes for the receipt of unirradiated and irradiated low enriched uranium (LEU) molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples, and to perform analysis to support the Global Threat Reduction Initiative conversion program. PNNL’s support for the program will include the establishment of post-irradiation examination processes, including thermo-physical properties, unique to the U.S. Department of Energy laboratories. These processes will ultimately support the submission of the base fuel qualification (BFQ) to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and revisions to High Performance Research Reactor Safety Analysis Reports to enable conversion from highly enriched uranium to LEU fuel. This quality assurance plan (QAP) provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that support the NRC BFQ. This QAP is designed to be used by project staff, and prescribes the required management control elements that are to be met and how they are implemented. Additional controls are captured in Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project plans, existing procedures, and procedures to be developed that provide supplemental information on how work is conducted on the project.

  20. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  1. The impact of hereditary multiple exostoses on quality of life, satisfaction, global health status, and pain.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Ragone, Vincenza; Caldarini, Camilla; Serra, Nicola; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Facchini, Renato Mario

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of life (QOL), global health status, pain, and level of satisfaction in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), and to correlate the association between the severity of diseases and age, sex, number of surgical procedures, and number of exostoses. The data of 50 patients with HME were retrospectively evaluated and recorded. QOL was evaluated with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-SF); intensity of pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS). The association of age, gender, pain, quality of life, number of exostoses, and number of surgical procedures were evaluated and correlated. Mean number of exostoses in our patient's cohort resulted 18.12 ± 8.60, and every patient underwent to a mean of 5.62 ± 5.74 surgical procedures for the exostoses. Mean VAS resulted 5.16 ± 2.90. Considering SF-12, mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component resulted, respectively, 45.36 ± 10.76 and 38.73 ± 11.09, while GHQ-12 and Q-LES-Q-SF were 15.48 ± 4.70 and 45.28 ± 9.55, respectively. We found a significant positive correlation between the number of exostoses and the number of surgical procedures (p < 0.001), a significant positive correlation between the number of surgical procedures and GHQ-12 (p = 0.422) and VAS (p = 0.0011), and a negative correlation between the number of surgical procedures and PCS (p = 0.0257) and between age and GHQ-12 (p = 0.0385). We can conclude that HME impact on patient quality of life as measured by the MCS and PCS scores similar to the disability associated with osteoarthritis in the mental component and tumors or diabetes as regards the physical component. Moreover, we found no difference in patients' quality of life as regards number of exostoses, age, and surgical procedure, but we found that women have a worse

  2. The quality analysis system implemented by fragema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopff, G.

    1988-04-01

    Systematic statistical processing of measurements and quality control data obtained through manufacturing and conformity inspection is necessary for global knowledge of the fuel quality, which is useful both to the designer and to the manufacturer. For this aim the quality control data management and processing system implemented by FRAGEMA is described and illustrated with examples of the different types of statistical quality reports which are printed out.

  3. A Natural Interruption Displays Higher Global Stability and Local Conformational Flexibility than a Similar Gly Mutation Sequence in Collagen Mimic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuxia; Chai, Yalin; Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Huanxiang; Wang, Shaoru; Xiao, Jianxi

    2015-10-06

    Natural interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X-Y)n amino acid sequence pattern are found normally in triple helix domains of all nonfibrillar collagens, while any Gly substitution in fibrillar collagens leads to pathological conditions. As revealed by our sequence analysis, two peptides, one modeling a natural G5G interruption (POALO) and the other one mimicking a pathological Gly-to-Ala substitution (LOAPO), are designed. Circular dichroism (CD), NMR, and computational simulation studies have discovered significant differences in stability, conformation, and folding between the two peptides. Compared with the Gly substitution sequence, the natural interruption maintains higher stability, higher triple helix content, and a higher folding rate while introducing more alterations in local triple helical conformation in terms of dihedral angles and hydrogen bonding. The conserved hydrophobic residues at the specific sites of interruptions may provide functional constraints for higher-order assembly as well as biomolecular interactions. These results suggest a molecular basis of different biological roles of natural interruptions and Gly substitutions and may guide the design of collagen mimic peptides containing functional natural interruptions.

  4. The impact of global budgets on pharmaceutical spending and utilization: early experience from the alternative quality contract.

    PubMed

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Fendrick, A Mark; Song, Zirui; Landon, Bruce E; Safran, Dana Gelb; Mechanic, Robert E; Chernew, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts implemented a global budget-based payment system, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), in which provider groups assumed accountability for spending. We investigate the impact of global budgets on the utilization of prescription drugs and related expenditures. Our analyses indicate no statistically significant evidence that the AQC reduced the use of drugs. Although the impact may change over time, early evidence suggests that it is premature to conclude that global budget systems may reduce access to medications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Impact of Global Budgets on Pharmaceutical Spending and Utilization: Early Experience from the Alternative Quality Contract

    PubMed Central

    Afendulis, Christopher C.; Fendrick, A. Mark; Song, Zirui; Landon, Bruce E.; Safran, Dana Gelb; Mechanic, Robert E.; Chernew, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts implemented a global budget-based payment system, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), in which provider groups assumed accountability for spending. We investigate the impact of global budgets on the utilization of prescription drugs and related expenditures. Our analyses indicate no statistically significant evidence that the AQC reduced the use of drugs. Although the impact may change over time, early evidence suggests that it is premature to conclude that global budget systems may reduce access to medications. PMID:25500751

  6. Affective mediators of the association between pleasant events and global sleep quality in community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Caitlan A; Shoji, Kristy D; Dautovich, Natalie D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Scogin, Forrest

    2016-02-01

    This study explored the association of engagement in pleasant events and global sleep quality, as well as examined the intermediary roles of positive affect and depressive symptoms in this association. Data were derived from the Midlife in the United States-II study. The sample consisted of 1054 community-dwelling adults. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and indicated the frequency and enjoyableness of experiences on a positive events scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Positive affect was measured using the Mood and Symptoms Questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated more frequent engagement in pleasant events was associated with better global sleep quality. Depressive symptoms, but not positive affect, partially mediated the association between pleasant events and global sleep quality. The findings suggest that behavioral engagement in pleasant events may be related to global sleep quality via depressive symptoms, but not positive affect. These findings highlight the potential for engagement in pleasant activities to influence both mood and sleep.

  7. Scattering Via Conformal Higher Spin Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, A. A.

    We consider a model of massless scalars interacting (via bilinear conserved currents) with conformal higher spin fields in flat space. We compute the tree-level four-scalar scattering amplitude using a natural prescription for summation over an infinite set of conformal higher spin exchanges and find that it vanishes. Independently, we show that the vanishing of the scalar scattering amplitude is, in fact, implied by the global conformal higher spin symmetry of this model.

  8. Impacts of Global Climate Variations and Changes on U.S. Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Zhu, J.; Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    This study will demonstrate how global climate variations and changes affect U.S. air quality: First, the Bermuda high plays a critical role on regional climate and air quality variations over the U.S. Observational data reveal that, in summer, a more westward extension of the high enhances the Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) along its west flank. The enhanced transport of cleaner marine air from the Gulf of Mexico reduces ozone along the LLJ path across the Great Plains to the Midwest. In contrast, larger transport of more polluted air from the Midwest to New England and more frequent air stagnation under the control of the high over the Southeast increase ozone along most of the eastern coastal States. This Bermuda high-induced ozone oscillation between the central U.S. and eastern coastal States exhibits strong decadal variations that must be considered in the dynamic management of the U.S. air quality. Second, long-range transport of pollutants under changing climate has important consequences on U.S. air quality projections. The actual outcome, however, strongly depends on the model ability to resolve the key physical and chemical processes. Here we illustrate how an improved physical dust aerosol model (PDAM) leads to substantially different projections of future U.S. PM 2.5 concentrations from existing studies. The incorporation of PDAM remarkably improves the CAM-Chem's ability in simulating the present aerosol distribution. Without PDAM, CAM-Chem projects that future PM2.5 will decrease over most of the U.S. due to emissions reduction for both A1B and A1FI scenarios; the changes are essentially the same between the two scenarios, with largest decreases of 8-15 μg m-3 over the Midwest-Northeast. This is similar to the general conclusion in the published literature. On the other hand, with PDAM, the A1B result remains almost the same, but the A1FI outcome shows large increases of 3-15 μg m-3 over the central U.S. In the southern part, these increases

  9. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  10. Folding of the hammerhead ribozyme: Pyrrolo-cytosine fluorescence separates core folding from global folding and reveals a pH-dependent conformational change

    PubMed Central

    Buskiewicz, Iwona A.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme is limited by its ability to fold into the native tertiary structure. Analysis of folding has been hampered by a lack of assays that can independently monitor the environment of nucleobases throughout the ribozyme–substrate complex in real time. Here, we report the development and application of a new folding assay in which we use pyrrolo-cytosine (pyC) fluorescence to (1) probe active-site formation, (2) examine the ability of peripheral ribozyme domains to support native folding, (3) identify a pH-dependent conformational change within the ribozyme, and (4) explore its influence on the equilibrium between the folded and unfolded core of the hammerhead ribozyme. We conclude that the natural ribozyme folds in two distinct noncooperative steps and the pH-dependent correlation between core folding and activity is linked to formation of the G8-C3 base pair. PMID:22274955

  11. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-10-02

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry (DG) algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms the median minimum RMSDs measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit DG algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the mid-ranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parameterize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  12. Two global conformation states of a novel NAD(P) reductase like protein of the thermogenic appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Skubatz, Hanna; Howald, William N

    2013-06-01

    A novel NAD(P) reductase like protein (RL) belonging to a class of reductases involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis was previously purified to homogeneity from the Sauromatum guttatum appendix. The Sauromatum appendix raises its temperature above ambient temperature to ~30 °C on the day of inflorescence opening (D-day). Changes in the charge state distribution of the protein in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry spectra were observed during the development of the appendix. RL adopted two conformations, state A (an extended state) that appeared before heat-production (D - 4 to D - 2), and state B (a compact state) that began appearing on D - 1 and reached a maximum on D-day. RL in healthy leaves of Arabidopsis is present in state A, whereas in thermogenic sporophylls of male cones of Encephalartos ferox is present in state B. These conformational changes strongly suggest an involvement of RL in heat-production. The biophysical properties of this protein are remarkable. It is self-assembled in aqueous solutions into micrometer sizes of organized morphologies. The assembly produces a broad range of cyclic and linear morphologies that resemble micelles, rods, lamellar micelles, as well as vesicles. The assemblies could also form network structures. RL molecules entangle with each other and formed branched, interconnected networks. These unusual assemblies suggest that RL is an oligomer, and its oligomerization can provide additional information needed for thermoregulation. We hypothesize that state A controls the plant basal temperature and state B allows a shift in the temperature set point to above ambient temperature.

  13. Global Harmonization of Quality Assurance Naming Conventions in Radiation Therapy Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Melidis, Christos; Bosch, Walther R.; Izewska, Joanna; Fidarova, Elena; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Ulin, Kenneth; Ishikura, Satoshi; Followill, David; Galvin, James; Haworth, Annette; Besuijen, Deidre; Clark, Clark H.; Miles, Elizabeth; Aird, Edwin; and others

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To review the various radiation therapy quality assurance (RTQA) procedures used by the Global Clinical Trials RTQA Harmonization Group (GHG) steering committee members and present the harmonized RTQA naming conventions by amalgamating procedures with similar objectives. Methods and Materials: A survey of the GHG steering committee members' RTQA procedures, their goals, and naming conventions was conducted. The RTQA procedures were classified as baseline, preaccrual, and prospective/retrospective data capture and analysis. After all the procedures were accumulated and described, extensive discussions took place to come to harmonized RTQA procedures and names. Results: The RTQA procedures implemented within a trial by the GHG steering committee members vary in quantity, timing, name, and compliance criteria. The procedures of each member are based on perceived chances of noncompliance, so that the quality of radiation therapy planning and treatment does not negatively influence the trial measured outcomes. A comparison of these procedures demonstrated similarities among the goals of the various methods, but the naming given to each differed. After thorough discussions, the GHG steering committee members amalgamated the 27 RTQA procedures to 10 harmonized ones with corresponding names: facility questionnaire, beam output audit, benchmark case, dummy run, complex treatment dosimetry check, virtual phantom, individual case review, review of patients' treatment records, and protocol compliance and dosimetry site visit. Conclusions: Harmonized RTQA harmonized naming conventions, which can be used in all future clinical trials involving radiation therapy, have been established. Harmonized procedures will facilitate future intergroup trial collaboration and help to ensure comparable RTQA between international trials, which enables meta-analyses and reduces RTQA workload for intergroup studies.

  14. A Resource Package Training Framework for Producing Quality Graduates to Work in Rural, Regional and Remote Australia: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to advocate the resource package for producing quality graduates to work in rural, regional and remote Australia (TERRR Network), using a global perspective. This paper argues that the resource package achieves more than the objectives of the original project; "Developing Strategies at the Pre-service Level to…

  15. A Resource Package Training Framework for Producing Quality Graduates to Work in Rural, Regional and Remote Australia: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to advocate the resource package for producing quality graduates to work in rural, regional and remote Australia (TERRR Network), using a global perspective. This paper argues that the resource package achieves more than the objectives of the original project; "Developing Strategies at the Pre-service Level to…

  16. 78 FR 9703 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University PharmaLink Conference-Quality in a Global Supply...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University PharmaLink Conference--Quality in a Global Supply Chain AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in...

  17. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential impacts of global change. Using a large set of en...

  18. Scientific quality of Mercator Ocean global analyses and forecast in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desportes, Charles; Levier, Bruno; Régnier, Charly; Drévillon, Marie; Perruche, Coralie; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Legalloudec, Olivier; Clavier, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service CMEMS, Mercator Ocean provides weekly analyses and daily updated 10-day forecasts of the global physical ocean at high resolution (1/12° horizontal grid, hourly outputs at the surface). Mercator Ocean also disseminates weekly updated estimates of the biogeochemical state of the ocean. The scientific quality of the products is controlled daily, and changes are monitored with a well-defined series of metrics, at the monthly, quarterly and yearly frequencies. This monitoring, also applied systematically to new versions of the production systems, allows to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the systems, and to quantify the improvements of new versions before the entry into service. This poster will display the results of the scientific qualification of Mercator Ocean's ocean analyses and forecast over the year 2016: error will be quantified for the physical ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical variables, at the scale of oceanic basins. Some major ocean large scale signals happening during year 2016 will be highlighted.

  19. A global assessment of civil registration and vital statistics systems: monitoring data quality and progress.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Lene; Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Setel, Philip W; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-03

    Increasing demand for better quality data and more investment to strengthen civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems will require increased emphasis on objective, comparable, cost-effective monitoring and assessment methods to measure progress. We apply a composite index (the vital statistics performance index [VSPI]) to assess the performance of CRVS systems in 148 countries or territories during 1980-2012 and classify them into five distinct performance categories, ranging from rudimentary (with scores close to zero) to satisfactory (with scores close to one), with a mean VSPI score since 2005 of 0·61 (SD 0·31). As expected, the best performing systems were mostly in the European region, the Americas, and Australasia, with only two countries from east Asia and Latin America. Most low-scoring countries were in the African or Asian regions. Globally, only modest progress has been made since 2000, with the percentage of deaths registered increasing from 36% to 38%, and the percentage of children aged under 5 years whose birth has been registered increasing from 58% to 65%. However, several individual countries have made substantial improvements to their CRVS systems in the past 30 years by capturing more deaths and improving accuracy of cause-of-death information. Future monitoring of the effects of CRVS strengthening will greatly benefit from application of a metric like the VSPI, which is objective, costless to compute, and able to identify components of the system that make the largest contributions to good or poor performance.

  20. DEA-I: A Globally Configurable Open Source Software Package in Support of Air Quality Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J.; Strabala, K.; Pierce, R.; Huang, H.; Schiffer, E.

    2012-12-01

    During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype for using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth retrievals in daily air quality forecasts; this became known as IDEA (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications). IDEA was part of the NASA Applied Sciences Program strategy to demonstrate practical uses of NASA-sponsored observations from space and predictions. Following its successful demonstration an export version of IDEA, known as IDEA International (IDEA-I), has now been released. IDEA-I supports the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Health Societal Benefit Area (SBA) and is being developed within the framework of the GEO Earth Observations in Decision Support Call for Proposals. The vehicle for IDEA-I release is the International MODIS and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) Processing Package (IMAPP), developed at the Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (SSEC/UW-Madison). IMAPP is a NASA-funded and freely-distributed software package which allows any ground station capable of receiving direct broadcast from Terra or Aqua to produce calibrated and geolocated radiances, and a suite of environmental products, of which the IDEA-I 48-hour forward trajectory prediction of high aerosol events is now a part. IDEA-I provides a tool for linking ground-based and satellite capabilities to support international air quality forecasting activities and is to be demonstrated internationally through user training and impact evaluation via a series of IMAPP workshops. This presentation describes the IMAPP implementation of IDEA-I in terms of its simple installation and configuration, and through examples of its operation in several regions known for periodic high aerosol events.; Screen capture of the University of Wisconsin implementation of the real-time direct broadcast IDEA-I Air Quality monitoring

  1. THE CLIMATE-AIR QUALITY SCALE CONTINUUM AND THE GLOBAL EMISSION INVENTORY ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA), a core program activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, develops data and other related information on key chemical emissions to the atmosphere and...

  2. THE CLIMATE-AIR QUALITY SCALE CONTINUUM AND THE GLOBAL EMISSION INVENTORY ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA), a core program activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, develops data and other related information on key chemical emissions to the atmosphere and...

  3. Conformation and conformational exchange of Olopatadine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lian-di; Zhu, Chuan-jun; Yang, Chun-hui; Cui, Yu-xin

    2008-12-01

    Besides the assignments of the 13C and 1H shifts by 1D and 2D NMR, the experiment 1H spectra of Olopatadine hydrochloride were recorded at temperature range 228-338 K. The variable-temperature spectra revealed a dynamic NMR effect which is attributed to conformational interconversion of the drug. At low temperature, the solution was shown to contain two conformers and the ration of them was 1:1. A conformational process with a free energy of activation of 56.7 kJ mol -1, coalescence temperature 298 K, was interpreted as geminal 1H exchange. Using molecule simulation, conformational candidates for two conformers are proposed.

  4. Optimizing Quality of Care and Patient Safety in Malaysia: The Current Global Initiatives, Gaps and Suggested Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Mu’taman; Rahman, Hamzah Abdul; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Demand for health care service has significantly increased, while the quality of healthcare and patient safety has become national and international priorities. This paper aims to identify the gaps and the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia. Design: Review of the current literature. Highly cited articles were used as the basis to retrieve and review the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety. The country health plan of Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia and the MOH Malaysia Annual Reports were reviewed. Results: The MOH has set four strategies for optimizing quality and sustaining quality of life. The 10th Malaysia Health Plan promotes the theme “1 Care for 1 Malaysia” in order to sustain the quality of care. Despite of these efforts, the total number of complaints received by the medico-legal section of the MOH Malaysia is increasing. The current global initiatives indicted that quality performance generally belong to three main categories: patient; staffing; and working environment related factors. Conclusions: There is no single intervention for optimizing quality of care to maintain patient safety. Multidimensional efforts and interventions are recommended in order to optimize the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia. PMID:26755459

  5. Optimizing Quality of Care and Patient Safety in Malaysia: The Current Global Initiatives, Gaps and Suggested Solutions.

    PubMed

    Jarrar, Mu'taman; Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-10-20

    Demand for health care service has significantly increased, while the quality of healthcare and patient safety has become national and international priorities. This paper aims to identify the gaps and the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia. Review of the current literature. Highly cited articles were used as the basis to retrieve and review the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety. The country health plan of Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia and the MOH Malaysia Annual Reports were reviewed. The MOH has set four strategies for optimizing quality and sustaining quality of life. The 10th Malaysia Health Plan promotes the theme "1 Care for 1 Malaysia" in order to sustain the quality of care. Despite of these efforts, the total number of complaints received by the medico-legal section of the MOH Malaysia is increasing. The current global initiatives indicted that quality performance generally belong to three main categories: patient; staffing; and working environment related factors. There is no single intervention for optimizing quality of care to maintain patient safety. Multidimensional efforts and interventions are recommended in order to optimize the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia.

  6. 48 CFR 46.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.504 Certificate of conformance. A certificate of conformance (see...'s reputation or past performance, it is likely that the supplies or services furnished will be...

  7. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of conformance. Before authorizing a certificate of conformance for aviation or ship critical safety items, obtain the...

  8. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of conformance. Before authorizing a certificate of conformance for aviation or ship critical safety items, obtain the...

  9. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of conformance. Before authorizing a certificate of conformance for aviation or ship critical safety items, obtain the...

  10. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of conformance. Before authorizing a certificate of conformance for aviation or ship critical safety items, obtain the...

  11. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  12. The Co-Benefits of Global and Regional Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on US Air Quality at Fine Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Bowden, J. H.; Adelman, Z.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Smith, S.; West, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) not only slows climate change, but can also have co-benefits for improved air quality. In this study, we examine the co-benefits of global and regional GHG mitigation on US air quality at fine resolution through dynamical downscaling, using the latest Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We will investigate the co-benefits on US air quality due to domestic GHG mitigation alone, and due to mitigation outside of the US. We also quantity the co-benefits resulting from reductions in co-emitted air pollutants versus slowing climate change and its effects on air quality. Projected climate in the 2050s from the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Anthropogenic emissions projections from the RCP4.5 scenario and its reference (REF), are directly processed in SMOKE to provide temporally- and spatially-resolved CMAQ emission input files. Chemical boundary conditions (BCs) are obtained from West et al. (2013), who studied the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on global air quality and human health. Our preliminary results show that the global GHG reduction (RCP4.5 relative to REF) reduces the 1hr daily maximum ozone by 3.3 ppbv annually over entire US, as high as 6 ppbv in September. The west coast of California and the Northeast US are the regions that benefit most. By comparing different scenarios, we find that foreign countries' GHGs mitigation has a larger influence on the US ozone decreases (accounting for 77% of the total decrease), compared with 23% from domestic GHG mitigation only, highlighting the importance of methane reductions and the intercontinental transport of air pollutants. The reduction of global co-emitted air pollutants has a more pronounced effect on ozone decreasing, relative to the effect from slowing climate and its effects on air quality. We also plan to report co-benefits for PM2.5 in the US.

  13. Steinberg conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. V.; Pinchuk, I. A.

    2005-06-01

    The structure of Steinberg conformal algebras is studied; these are analogues of Steinberg groups (algebras, superalgebras).A Steinberg conformal algebra is defined as an abstract algebra by a system of generators and relations between the generators. It is proved that a Steinberg conformal algebra is the universal central extension of the corresponding conformal Lie algebra; the kernel of this extension is calculated.

  14. A cognitive-existential intervention to improve existential and global quality of life in cancer patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Pierre; Fillion, Lise; Robitaille, Marie-Anik; Girard, Michèle; Tardif, François; Cochrane, Jean-Philippe; Le Moignan Moreau, Joanie; Breitbart, William

    2015-08-01

    We developed a specific cognitive-existential intervention to improve existential distress in nonmetastatic cancer patients. The present study reports the feasibility of implementing and evaluating this intervention, which involved 12 weekly sessions in both individual and group formats, and explores the efficacy of the intervention on existential and global quality of life (QoL) measures. Some 33 nonmetastatic cancer patients were randomized between the group intervention, the individual intervention, and the usual condition of care. Evaluation of the intervention on the existential and global QoL of patients was performed using the existential well-being subscale and the global scale of the McGill Quality of Life (MQoL) Questionnaire. All participants agreed that their participation in the program helped them deal with their illness and their personal life. Some 88.9% of participants agreed that this program should be proposed for all cancer patients, and 94.5% agreed that this intervention helped them to reflect on the meaning of their life. At post-intervention, both existential and psychological QoL improved in the group intervention versus usual care (p = 0.086 and 0.077, respectively). At the three-month follow-up, global and psychological QoL improved in the individual intervention versus usual care (p = 0.056 and 0.047, respectively). This pilot study confirms the relevance of the intervention and the feasibility of the recruitment and randomization processes. The data strongly suggest a potential efficacy of the intervention for existential and global quality of life, which will have to be confirmed in a larger study.

  15. A cognitive–existential intervention to improve existential and global quality of life in cancer patients: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    GAGNON, PIERRE; FILLION, LISE; ROBITAILLE, MARIE-ANIK; GIRARD, MICHÈLE; TARDIF, FRANÇOIS; COCHRANE, JEAN-PHILIPPE; LE MOIGNAN MOREAU, JOANIE; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2017-01-01

    Objective We developed a specific cognitive–existential intervention to improve existential distress in nonmetastatic cancer patients. The present study reports the feasibility of implementing and evaluating this intervention, which involved 12 weekly sessions in both individual and group formats, and explores the efficacy of the intervention on existential and global quality of life (QoL) measures. Method Some 33 nonmetastatic cancer patients were randomized between the group intervention, the individual intervention, and the usual condition of care. Evaluation of the intervention on the existential and global QoL of patients was performed using the existential well-being subscale and the global scale of the McGill Quality of Life (MQoL) Questionnaire. Results All participants agreed that their participation in the program helped them deal with their illness and their personal life. Some 88.9% of participants agreed that this program should be proposed for all cancer patients, and 94.5% agreed that this intervention helped them to reflect on the meaning of their life. At post-intervention, both existential and psychological QoL improved in the group intervention versus usual care (p = 0.086 and 0.077, respectively). At the three-month follow-up, global and psychological QoL improved in the individual intervention versus usual care (p = 0.056 and 0.047, respectively). Significance of results This pilot study confirms the relevance of the intervention and the feasibility of the recruitment and randomization processes. The data strongly suggest a potential efficacy of the intervention for existential and global quality of life, which will have to be confirmed in a larger study. PMID:25050872

  16. Assessing Student Engagement in China: Responding to Local and Global Discourse on Raising Educational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Heidi; Cen, Yuhao; Zhou, Zejun

    2011-01-01

    China's heated education policy climate in 2010 indicated an increasing national concern for improving educational quality and educational quality assessment. Despite glowing portraits of Chinese education painted by international observers, the Chinese public has expressed consistent dissatisfaction with educational quality. The inter-related…

  17. Improving the Representation of Near Source and Downwind Smoke Plume Chemistry in Regional and Global Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Travis, K.; Lin, J. C.; McNeill, V. F.; Blake, D. R.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Lee, T.; May, A.; McMeeking, G. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I. J.; Sullivan, A.; Urbanski, S. P.; Weise, D.

    2015-12-01

    The complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentration, size distribution, composition, and optical properties of the fine particles (PM2.5) emitted by the fires, as well as significant formation of ozone (O3) and organic nitrate species like peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) is designed to simulate this chemical evolution of biomass burning plumes under a wide variety of conditions, and can be used to parameterize this chemistry in regional and global air quality models. Here we present ASP simulations of the evolution of biomass burning aerosol from South Carolina prescribed fires in October and November of 2011. This data set contains more detailed measurements of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) in the smoke than the data sets previously used to develop and test ASP, allowing for a more detailed evaluation of the model's gas- and particle-phase chemistry. We also assess the potential impact of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from glyoxal and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) on the growth of biomass burning aerosols by incorporating the simpleGAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis) model into ASP. Finally, we will discuss our efforts to use the ASP model to build a sub-grid scale parameterization of the near-source chemistry of biomass burning plumes for use in regional and global air quality models, using examples from the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and the stochastic Lagrangian air quality model STILT-Chem.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer After 76 Gy Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy vs. 70 Gy Conformal Radiotherapy in a Prospective and Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene Dehnad, Human; Kruger, Arto Boeken; Moorselaar, Jeroen van; Heide, Uulke van; Battermann, Jan; Vulpen, Marco van

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of life (QoL) after 70 Gy conformal radiotherapy with QoL after 76 Gy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were treated with 70 Gy three-field conformal radiotherapy, and 92 patients received 76 Gy IMRT with fiducial markers for position verification. Quality of life was measured by RAND-36, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30(+3)), and the prostate-specific EORTC QLQ-PR25, before radiotherapy (baseline) and 1 month and 6 months after treatment. Quality of life changes in time (baseline vs. 1 month and baseline vs. 6 months) of {>=}10 points were considered clinically relevant. Results: Differences between the treatment groups for QoL changes over time occurred in several QoL domains. The 76-Gy group revealed no significant deterioration in QoL compared with the 70-Gy group. The IMRT 76-Gy group even demonstrated a significantly better change in QoL from baseline to 1 month in several domains. The conformal 70-Gy group revealed temporary deterioration in pain, role functioning, and urinary symptoms; for the IMRT 76-Gy group a better QoL in terms of change in health existed after 1 month, which persisted after 6 months. For both treatment groups temporary deterioration in physical role restriction occurred after 1 month, and an improvement in emotional role restriction occurred after 6 months. Sexual activity was reduced after treatment for both groups and remained decreased after 6 months. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and accurate position verification seem to provide a possibility to increase the radiation dose for prostate cancer without deterioration in QoL.

  19. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Dentener, F. J.; Emberson, L.; Fiore, A. M.; Schultz, M. G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ashmore, M. R.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lawrence, M. G.; van Noije, T.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Savage, N.; Strahan, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.

    2008-02-01

    Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000) and future (2030) concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5-10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15-20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2-4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative assessment of the risks to

  20. Exercise Improves Clinical Symptoms, Quality of Life, Global Functioning, and Depression in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dauwan, Meenakshi; Begemann, Marieke J H; Heringa, Sophie M; Sommer, Iris E

    2016-05-01

    Physical exercise may be valuable for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders as it may have beneficial effect on clinical symptoms, quality of life and cognition. A systematic search was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Controlled and uncontrolled studies investigating the effect of any type of physical exercise interventions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included. Outcome measures were clinical symptoms, quality of life, global functioning, depression or cognition. Meta-analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. A random effects model was used to compute overall weighted effect sizes in Hedges' g. Twenty-nine studies were included, examining 1109 patients. Exercise was superior to control conditions in improving total symptom severity (k = 14, n = 719: Hedges' g = .39, P < .001), positive (k = 15, n = 715: Hedges' g = .32, P < .01), negative (k = 18, n = 854: Hedges' g = .49, P < .001), and general (k = 10, n = 475: Hedges' g = .27, P < .05) symptoms, quality of life (k = 11, n = 770: Hedges' g = .55, P < .001), global functioning (k = 5, n = 342: Hedges' g = .32, P < .01), and depressive symptoms (k = 7, n = 337: Hedges' g = .71, P < .001). Yoga, specifically, improved the cognitive subdomain long-term memory (k = 2, n = 184: Hedges' g = .32, P < .05), while exercise in general or in any other form had no effect on cognition. Physical exercise is a robust add-on treatment for improving clinical symptoms, quality of life, global functioning, and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The effect on cognition is not demonstrated, but may be present for yoga. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Automated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) in Developing Decadal Global Lake Dynamics Products using Landsat-7 and 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Song, C.; Wang, J.; Garibay, D.; Woods, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Smith, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to climate change and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. To inventory dynamics of global lakes is rather challenging due to their high abundance and low accessibility. With its broad spatial coverage and monitoring capability, satellite remote sensing is the only feasible approach to inventory global lake dynamics, but requires tens of thousands of high-resolution satellite images, automated mapping algorithms, and more importantly tedious yet essential quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Millions of lakes have been mapped out using over 20 thousands Landsat images acquired at lake-stable seasons. Even though a set of highly replicable and automated lake mapping algorithms and tools have been developed, commission and omission errors still exist and some lake boundaries may not be adequately delineated. These errors need to be identified and fixed through intensive QA/QC processes. However, QA/QC of such a huge quantity of lakes remains a great challenge, and the currently available lake datasets from remote sensing were not produced through a rigorous QA/QC process. We have developed two QA/QC strategies with automation. Automated QA requires mapping the Earth twice in the same seasons for lakes and identifies "inconsistent" lakes for further QA/QC. Other lakes without significant changes are considered quality assured, and labor-intensive QA/QC is only limited to those "inconsistent" lakes. We have also developed semi-automated QC tools to further reduce the workload for manpower, and have produced a high-resolution systematically-generated circa-2000 global lake database with adequate QA/QC using Landsat-7. The recent operation of Landsat 8 extends the unprecedented Landsat record to over 40 years, allowing long-term, large-scale lake

  2. QAP co-sponsors global meeting on quality assurance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A consultative meeting on quality health care in developing countries was held in the Netherlands immediately before the 1993 conference of the International Society of Quality Assurance in Health Care. Sponsored by the USAID-funded Quality Assurance Project in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Danish foreign aid agency, DANIDA, the meeting brought together representatives from 17 developing countries. Participants enthusiastically exchanged experiences in adapting and applying quality assurance methods to resource-strained health care systems and valued the recommendations they received. Technical discussions focused on strategic planning, standard setting and monitoring, problem solving, and quality assurance capacity building. The meeting included background papers on each theme, synopses of the work of representatives of selected countries, and small group sessions. The participants recognized that certain structures, such as a data and health information monitoring system, must be in place to sustain a quality assurance program. There are also key environmental factors, including a commitment in the form of resource allocation from top leadership. The highlights of the meeting were presented at the general conference to great acclaim. Participants in the meeting benefitted from the information generated by the exchange of ideas and became unified in their understanding that quality assurance is a viable and necessary component of health care management. The success of the meeting led to the proposal which is under consideration that a permanent committee be established to ensure the participation of representatives of developing countries in international quality assurance activities.

  3. Modeling the Complex Photochemistry of Biomass Burning Plumes in Plume-Scale, Regional, and Global Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Travis, K.; Fischer, E. V.; Lin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting the impacts of biomass burning (BB) plumes on air quality is difficult due to the complex photochemistry that takes place in the concentrated young BB plumes. The spatial grid of global and regional scale Eulerian models is generally too large to resolve BB photochemistry, which can lead to errors in predicting the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and O3, as well as the partitioning of NOyspecies. AER's Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1) can be used within plume-scale Lagrangian models to simulate this complex photochemistry. We will present results of validation studies of the ASP model against aircraft observations of young BB smoke plumes. We will also present initial results from the coupling of ASP v2.1 into the Lagrangian particle dispersion model STILT-Chem in order to better examine the interactions between BB plume chemistry and dispersion. In addition, we have used ASP to develop a sub-grid scale parameterization of the near-source chemistry of BB plumes for use in regional and global air quality models. The parameterization takes inputs from the host model, such as solar zenith angle, temperature, and fire fuel type, and calculates enhancement ratios of O3, NOx, PAN, aerosol nitrate, and other NOy species, as well as organic aerosol (OA). We will present results from the ASP-based BB parameterization as well as its implementation into the global atmospheric composition model GEOS-Chem for the SEAC4RS campaign.

  4. Ensuring the global availability of high-quality dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Ferracane, J; Fisher, J; Eiselé, J L; Fox, C H

    2013-11-01

    The Minamata Convention, a global legally binding instrument (treaty) on mercury, has been the catalyst for the emerging agenda on global dental materials research. If the current and future challenges of oral health maintenance and healing on a global scale are to be met, a logical and effective research agenda for the discovery and introduction of new, environmentally sustainable, dental materials must be developed through a coordinated effort involving materials scientists, dental clinicians, representatives of industry, members of regional and national regulatory bodies, and advocacy from research organizations. For universal impact, this agenda should be created with awareness of several important ongoing initiatives, such as the WHO non-communicable diseases action plan, the UN sustainable development agenda, and the IADR Global Oral Health In Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA). A significant contributor to this cause is the FDI and its membership, who, through their Vision 2020 initiative, acknowledge their role and responsibility in globally preventing and managing dental disease and providing leadership to the profession in terms of information dissemination and affecting change. Dental researchers also have an obligation to advocate for appropriate funding to match the identified research needs, thus enhancing the possibility that key decision-makers will provide the needed support to achieve the research agenda agreed upon by this diverse group of stakeholders.

  5. Variational quality control of hydrographic profile data with non-Gaussian errors for global ocean variational data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storto, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Quality control procedures aiming at identifying observations suspected of gross errors are an important component of modern ocean data assimilation systems. On the one hand, assimilating observations whose departures from the background state are large may result in detrimental analyses and compromise the stability of the ocean analysis system. On the other hand, the rejection of these observations may prevent the analysis from ingesting useful information, especially in areas of large variability. In this work, we investigate the quality control of in-situ hydrographic profiles through modifying the probability density function (PDF) of the observational errors and relaxing the assumption of Gaussian PDF. The new PDF is heavier-tailed than Gaussian, thus accommodating the assimilation of observations with large misfits, albeit with smaller weight given to them in the analysis. This implies a different observational term in the analysis equation, and an adaptive quality control procedure based on the innovation statistics themselves. Implemented in a global ocean variational data assimilation system at moderate horizontal resolution, the scheme proves robust and successful in assimilating more observations with respect to the simpler background quality check scheme. This leads to better skill scores against both conventional and satellite observing systems. This approach proves superior also to the case where no quality control is considered. Furthermore, the implementation considers switching on the modified cost function at the 10th iteration of the minimization so that innovation statistics are based on a good approximation of the analysis. Neglecting this strategy and turning on the variational quality control since the beginning of the minimization exhibits worse scores, qualitatively similar to those of the experiment without quality control, suggesting that in this case quality control procedures are too gentle. A specific study investigating the upper

  6. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  7. Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-07-01

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  8. Solution conformational study of Scyliorhinin I analogues with conformational constraints by two-dimensional NMR and theoretical conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodziewicz-Motowidło, S; Legowska, A; Qi, X F; Czaplewski, C; Liwo, A; Sowiński, P; Mozga, W; Olczak, J; Zabrocki, J; Rolka, K

    2000-09-01

    Two analogues of Scyliorhinin I (Scyl), a tachykinin with N-MeLeu in position 8 and a 1,5-disubstituted tetrazole ring between positions 7 and 8, introduced in order to generate local conformational constraints, were synthesized using the solid-phase method. Conformational studies in water and DMSO-d6 were performed on these peptides using a combination of the two-dimensional NMR technique and theoretical conformational analysis. The algorithm of conformational search consisted of the following three stages: (i) extensive global conformational analysis in order to find all low-energy conformations; (ii) calculation of the NOE effects and vicinal coupling constants for each of the low energy conformations; (iii) determining the statistical weights of these conformations by means of a nonlinear least-squares procedure, in order to obtain the best fit of the averaged simulated spectrum to the experimental one. In both solvents the three-dimensional structure of the analogues studied can be interpreted only in terms of an ensemble of multiple conformations. For [MeLeu8]Scyl, the C-terminal 6-10 fragment adopts more rigid structure than the N-terminal one. In the case of the analogue with the tetrazole ring in DMSO-d6 the three-dimensional structure is characterized by two dominant conformers with similar geometry of their backbones. They superimpose especially well (RMSD = 0.28 A) in the 6-9 fragments. All conformers calculated in both solvents superimpose in their C-terminal fragments much better than those of the first analogue. The results obtained indicate that the introduction of the tetrazole ring into the Scyl molecule rigidifies its structure significantly more than that of MeLeu.

  9. Expert Instructional Designer Voices: Leadership Competencies Critical to Global Practice and Quality Online Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    The current economic challenge for students seeking to compete on a global scale with an advanced education has contributed to a continual rise in online enrollments (Allen & Seaman, 2010; Stern, 2009). However, Allen and Seaman (2012) reported that a persistent state of less than excellent online courses threatens to undermine the value of…

  10. Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the most important factors contributing to air pollution. Epidemiological studies have related increased levels of atmospheric particulate matter to premature human mortality caused by cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, a limited number of investigations have focused on the contribution of airborne desert dust particles. Here we assess the effects of dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (DU2.5) on human mortality for the year 2005. We used the EMAC atmospheric-chemistry general circulation model at high resolution to simulate global atmospheric dust concentrations. We applied a health impact function to estimate premature mortality for the global population of 30 yr and older, using parameters from epidemiological studies. We estimate a global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402 000 in 2005. The associated years of life lost are about 3.47 million per year. We estimate the global fraction of the cardiopulmonary deaths caused by atmospheric desert dust to be about 1.8%, though in the 20 countries most affected by dust this is much higher, about 15-50%. These countries are primarily found in the so-called "dust belt" from North Africa across the Middle East and South Asia to East Asia

  11. Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-09-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the most important factors contributing to air pollution. Epidemiological studies have related increased levels of atmospheric particulate matter to premature human mortality caused by cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, a limited number of investigations have focused on the contribution of airborne desert dust particles. Here we assess the effects of dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (DU2.5) on human mortality for the year 2005. We used the EMAC atmospheric chemistry general circulation model at high resolution to simulate global atmospheric dust concentrations. We applied a health impact function to estimate premature mortality for the global population of 30 yr and older, using parameters from epidemiological studies. We estimate a global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402 thousand and about 10 thousand by lung cancer in 2005. The associated years of life lost are about 3.47 million and 96 thousand per year due to cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, respectively. We estimate the global fraction of the cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths caused by atmospheric desert dust to be about 1.7%, though in the 20 countries most affected by dust this is much higher, about 15-50%. These countries are primarily found in the so-called "dust belt" from North Africa across the Middle East and South Asia to East Asia.

  12. Teacher Voice in Global Conversations around Education Access, Equity, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozali, Charlina; Claassen Thrush, Elizabeth; Soto-Peña, Michelle; Whang, Christine; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite public commitments internationally and nationally to include the voices of all stakeholders, the voices of teachers have continued to be marginalized in the literature and in policy-making related to global educational development. The purpose of the current study is to examine the process of invoking teacher voice using a sample of…

  13. Fire in Siberian boreal forests -- implications for global climate and air quality

    Treesearch

    Susan G. Conard; Eduard P. Davidenko

    1998-01-01

    Boreal forests and woodlands comprise about 29 percent of the world's forest cover. About 70 percent of this forest is in Eurasia, mostly in the Russian Federation. Boreal forests contain about 45 percent of the world's growing stock and are an increasingly important part of global timber production. Fire impacts large areas of boreal forest annually in...

  14. Higher Education for National Development: Quality Assurance and Fostering Global Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magzan, Masa; Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela

    2011-01-01

    Responding to the impact of globalization on delivering education and the increasing need to adapt to the needs of economic and social life, higher education institutions (HEI) effectiveness is depending on the use of technology and contribution to national development. While increasing access to higher education remains to be an important…

  15. Producing a Climate-Quality Database of Global Upper Ocean Profile Temperatures - The IQuOD (International Quality-controlled Ocean Database) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprintall, J.; Cowley, R.; Palmer, M. D.; Domingues, C. M.; Suzuki, T.; Ishii, M.; Boyer, T.; Goni, G. J.; Gouretski, V. V.; Macdonald, A. M.; Thresher, A.; Good, S. A.; Diggs, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Historical ocean temperature profile observations provide a critical element for a host of ocean and climate research activities. These include providing initial conditions for seasonal-to-decadal prediction systems, evaluating past variations in sea level and Earth's energy imbalance, ocean state estimation for studying variability and change, and climate model evaluation and development. The International Quality controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD) initiative represents a community effort to create the most globally complete temperature profile dataset, with (intelligent) metadata and assigned uncertainties. With an internationally coordinated effort organized by oceanographers, with data and ocean instrumentation expertise, and in close consultation with end users (e.g., climate modelers), the IQuOD initiative will assess and maximize the potential of an irreplaceable collection of ocean temperature observations (tens of millions of profiles collected at a cost of tens of billions of dollars, since 1772) to fulfil the demand for a climate-quality global database that can be used with greater confidence in a vast range of climate change related research and services of societal benefit. Progress towards version 1 of the IQuOD database, ongoing and future work will be presented. More information on IQuOD is available at www.iquod.org.

  16. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climat...

  17. LAND USE AS A MITIGATON STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. Changing land use types was used as a nitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climate scenarios wer...

  18. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types were used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The Thorn...

  19. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climat...

  20. LAND USE AS A MITIGATON STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. Changing land use types was used as a nitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climate scenarios wer...

  1. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types were used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The Thorn...

  2. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    The recent International Panel on Climate change (IPCC) report identifies significant co-benefits from climate policies on near-term ambient air pollution and related human health outcomes [1]. This is increasingly relevant for policy making as the health impacts of air pollution are a major global concern- the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study identifies outdoor air pollution as the sixth major cause of death globally [2]. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are an effective tool to evaluate future air pollution outcomes across a wide range of assumptions on socio-economic development and policy regimes. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) [3] were the first set of long-term global scenarios developed across multiple integrated assessment models that provided detailed estimates of a number of air pollutants until 2100. However these scenarios were primarily designed to cover a defined range of radiative forcing outcomes and thus did not specifically focus on the interactions of long-term climate goals on near-term air pollution impacts. More recently, [4] used the RCP4.5 scenario to evaluate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health in 2030. [5-7] have further examined the interactions of more diverse pollution control regimes with climate policies. This paper extends the listed studies in a number of ways. Firstly it uses multiple IAMs to look into the co-benefits of a global climate policy for ambient air pollution under harmonized assumptions on near-term air pollution control. Multi-model frameworks have been extensively used in the analysis of climate change mitigation pathways, and the structural uncertainties regarding the underlying mechanisms (see for example [8-10]. This is to our knowledge the first time that a multi-model evaluation has been specifically designed and applied to analyze the co-benefits of climate change policy on ambient air quality, thus enabling a better understanding of at a detailed

  3. The National Mastitis Council: A Global Organization for Mastitis Control and Milk Quality, 50 Years and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John R; Saeman, Anne; Fox, Larry K; Lombard, Jason; Hogan, Joe S; Smith, K Larry

    2014-12-01

    The National Mastitis Council was founded in 1961 based on the desire of a forward-thinking group of individuals to bring together "all forces of organized agriculture in the United States to combat, through every practical device, the mastitis threat to the Nation's health and food safety". What started as a small organization focused on mastitis of dairy cattle in the United States has grown into a global organization for mastitis and milk quality. Over the last 50-plus years the concerted efforts of the membership have led to the synthesis and dissemination of a considerable body of knowledge regarding udder health, milk quality, and food safety which has improved dairy cattle health and well-being and farm productivity.

  4. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    PubMed

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  5. The role of seasonal water scarcity on water quality: a global analysis with case study in the Magdalena, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Sophia; Mulligan, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is not just a problem of its own right (hydrological drought) but cascades the hydro-economic system to create problems for crop growth and livestock (agricultural drought) and thus for wellbeing and economic productivity (economic drought). One of these cascades is the impact of reduced water quantity on water quality as a result of non-point source pollutant concentration in water bodies such as rivers, lakes and wetlands. This paper investigates the impact of seasonal water shortages on the quality of supplied water to urban centres with a view to better understanding how land use management can reduce dry-season pollutant spikes. We apply a widely used spatial hydrological model (WaterWorld) and its water quality index (the human footprint on water quality, HFWQ) to examine to what extent HFWQ of water flowing into urban water intakes is affected by flow seasonality and by typical "dry year" events. A global analysis shows trends across climatic and land use gradients and is followed by a regional analysis of the Magdalena basin in Colombia: a large basin with 79% of the countries population and a mixture of intensively farmed and protected lands along a seasonality gradient from South to North. The Magdalena is a case study basin of the EartH2Observe project.

  6. The importance of quality assurance/quality control of diagnostics to increase the confidence in global foot-and-mouth disease control.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    The last decade international trade in animals and animal products was liberated and confidence in this global trade can increase only if appropriate control measures are applied. As foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics will play an essential role in this respect, the Food and Agriculture Organization European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EUFMD) co-ordinates, in collaboration with the European Commission, several programmes to increase the quality of FMD diagnostics. A quality assurance (QA) system is deemed essential for laboratories involved in certifying absence of FMDV or antibodies against the virus. Therefore, laboratories are encouraged to validate their diagnostic tests fully and to install a continuous quality control (QC) monitoring system. Knowledge of performance characteristics of diagnostics is essential to interpret results correctly and to calculate sample rates in regional surveillance campaigns. Different aspects of QA/QC of classical and new FMD virological and serological diagnostics are discussed in respect to the EU FMD directive (2003/85/EC). We recommended accepting trade certificates only from laboratories participating in international proficiency testing on a regular basis.

  7. The use of radiochromic EBT2 film for the quality assurance and dosimetric verification of 3D conformal radiotherapy using Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL flatbed scanner.

    PubMed

    Sim, G S; Wong, J H D; Ng, K H

    2013-07-08

    Radiochromic and radiographic films are widely used for radiation dosimetry due to the advantage of high spatial resolution and two-dimensional dose measurement. Different types of scanners, including various models of flatbed scanners, have been used as part of the dosimetry readout procedure. This paper focuses on the characterization of the EBT2 film response in combination with a Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL scanner and the subsequent use in the dosimetric verification of a 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment. The film reproducibility and scanner uniformity of the Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL was studied. A three-field 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment was planned on an anthropomorphic phantom and EBT2 film measurements were carried out to verify the treatment. The interfilm reproducibility was found to be 0.25%. Over a period of three months, the films darkened by 1%. The scanner reproducibility was ± 2% and a nonuniformity was ±1.9% along the direction perpendicular to the scan direction. EBT2 measurements showed an underdose of 6.2% at high-dose region compared to TPS predicted dose. This may be due to the inability of the treatment planning system to predict the correct dose distribution in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities and the uncertainty of the scanner reproducibility and uniformity. The use of EBT2 film in conjunction with the axial CT image of the anthropomorphic phantom allows the evaluation of the anatomical location of dose discrepancies between the EBT2 measured dose distribution and TPS predicted dose distribution.

  8. Functioning free gracilis transfer to reconstruct elbow flexion and quality of life in global brachial plexus injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiang-Ming; Qin, Ben-Gang; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In the study, the functional recovery and relative comprehensive quality of life of cases of global brachial plexus treated with free functioning muscle transfers were investigated. Patients who received functioning gracilis muscle transfer between August 1999 and October 2014 to reconstruct elbow flexion, wrist and fingers extension were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 26.36 (range, 16–42) years. The mean period of time from gracilis transfer to the last follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 12–185 months). Muscle power, active range of motion of the elbow flexion, wrist extension, and total active fingers extension were recorded. SDS, SAS and DASH questionnaires were given to estimate patients’ quality of life. 35.71% reported good elbow flexion and 50.00% reported excellent elbow flexion. The average ROM of the elbow flexion was 106.5° (range, 0–142°) and was 17.00° (range, 0–72°) for wrist extension. The average DASH score was 51.14 (range, 17.5–90.8). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.86% and 45.24%. Thrombosis and bowstringing were the most common short and long-term complications. Based on these findings, free gracilis transfer using accessory nerve as donor nerve is a satisfactory treatment to reconstruct the elbow flexion and wrist extension in global-brachial-plexus-injured patients. PMID:26935173

  9. Mind the Gap: Global Quality Norms, National Policy Interpretations and Local Praxis in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh; Quinn, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, the imperative for improving educational quality in schooling systems throughout the developing world is harnessed to a particular set of teaching and learning practices, such as child-centred, child-friendly or learner-centred pedagogy (LCP). Such was the case in Timor-Leste where, after independence, LCP was heavily promoted as a…

  10. The Global Challenge: Education in a Competitive World. Quality Counts, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Quality Counts 2012," the 16th edition of "Education Week"'s annual examination of issues and challenges facing America's public schools, takes aim at topics high on the policy agenda, from the White House and Congress down to the level of local school boards and chambers of commerce: the nation's international standing in…

  11. Mind the Gap: Global Quality Norms, National Policy Interpretations and Local Praxis in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh; Quinn, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, the imperative for improving educational quality in schooling systems throughout the developing world is harnessed to a particular set of teaching and learning practices, such as child-centred, child-friendly or learner-centred pedagogy (LCP). Such was the case in Timor-Leste where, after independence, LCP was heavily promoted as a…

  12. Why India should become a global leader in high-quality, affordable TB diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The scale up of DOTS in India is one of the greatest public health accomplishments, and yet undiagnosed and poorly managed TB continues to fuel the epidemic such that India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of India has set an ambitious goal of providing universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment for all TB patients in the country. Innovative tools and delivery systems in both the public and private sectors are essential for reaching this goal. Fortunately, India has the potential to solve its TB problem with "home-grown" solutions. Just as Indian pharmaceutical companies revolutionized access to high-quality, affordable AIDS drugs through generic production, Indian diagnostic companies could also become the world's hub for high-quality generic diagnostics. In the long term, India has the potential to lead the world in developing innovative TB diagnostics. For this to happen, Indian industry must move from the import and imitation approach to genuine innovation in both product development as well as delivery. This must be supported by permissive policies and enhanced funding by the Indian government and the private sector. Strict regulation of diagnostics, increased attention to quality assurance in laboratories, and greater engagement of the private health care providers are also needed to effectively deliver innovative products and approaches.

  13. ASSESSING THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO, U.S.A

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper uses a watershed-scale hydrologic model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate the water quality impacts of future climate change in the Little Miami River (LMR) watershed in southwestern Ohio. The LMR watershed, the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 mi...

  14. ASSESSING THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO, U.S.A

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper uses a watershed-scale hydrologic model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate the water quality impacts of future climate change in the Little Miami River (LMR) watershed in southwestern Ohio. The LMR watershed, the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 mi...

  15. Lost in Translation: Degree Definition and Quality in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Madeleine F.

    2011-01-01

    Within the United States, defining the meaning of a degree and comparing the quality of institutions on a common set of metrics is no simple matter. In fact, there is no common definition of a US college degree beyond a general consensus that an undergraduate degree generally includes about 120 credits and consists of a general education…

  16. The Global Challenge: Education in a Competitive World. Quality Counts, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Quality Counts 2012," the 16th edition of "Education Week"'s annual examination of issues and challenges facing America's public schools, takes aim at topics high on the policy agenda, from the White House and Congress down to the level of local school boards and chambers of commerce: the nation's international standing in…

  17. Lost in Translation: Degree Definition and Quality in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Madeleine F.

    2011-01-01

    Within the United States, defining the meaning of a degree and comparing the quality of institutions on a common set of metrics is no simple matter. In fact, there is no common definition of a US college degree beyond a general consensus that an undergraduate degree generally includes about 120 credits and consists of a general education…

  18. Comparing Beginning Teachers' Instructional Quality Growth on Subject-Specific and Global Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neergaard, Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Observation measures of instructional quality tend to fall into two broad categories--those for use across subject areas and those intended for use in specific subject areas. The move toward content-specific measures is a result of research suggesting that effective teaching looks different across subject areas and that both content knowledge and…

  19. Dimensions of hospital service quality: a critical review: perspective of patients from global studies.

    PubMed

    Pai, Yogesh P; Chary, Satyanarayana T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the service quality dimensions established in various studies conducted across the world specifically applied to health care. Studies conducted on quality of care selected from literature databases - Ebsco, Emerald Insight, ABI/Inform - was subjected to a comprehensive in-depth content analysis. Service quality has been extensively studied with considerable efforts taken to develop survey instruments for measuring purposes. The number of dimensional structure varies across the studies. Self-administered questionnaire dominates in terms of mode of administration adopted in the studies, with respondents ranging from 18 to 85 years. Target sample size ranged from 84-2,000 respondents in self-administered questionnaires and for mail administration ranged from 300-2,600 respondents. Studies vary in terms of the scores used ranging from four to ten-point scale. A total of 27 of the studies have used EFA, 11 studies have used structural equation modelling and eight studies used gap scores. Cronbach's alpha is the most commonly used measure of scale reliability. There is variation in terms of measuring the content, criteria and construct validation among the studies. The literature offers dimensions used in assessing patient perceived service quality. The review reveals diversity and a plethora of dimensions and methodology to develop the construct discussed. The reported study describes and contrasts a large number of service-quality measurement constructs and highlights the usage of dimensions. The findings are valuable to academics in terms of dimensions and methodology used, approach for analysis; whereas findings are of value to practitioners in terms of the dimensions found in the research and to identify the gap in their setting.

  20. Quality in health care and globalization of health services: accreditation and regulatory oversight of medical tourism companies.

    PubMed

    Turner, Leigh G

    2011-02-01

    Patients are crossing national borders in search of affordable and timely health care. Many medical tourism companies are now involved in organizing cross-border health services. Despite the rapid expansion of the medical tourism industry, few standards exist to ensure that these businesses organize high-quality, competent international health care. Addressing the regulatory vacuum, 10 standards are proposed as a framework for regulating the medical tourism industry. Medical tourism companies should have to undergo accreditation review. Care should be arranged only at accredited international health-care facilities. Standards should be established to ensure that clients of medical tourism companies make informed choices. Continuity of care needs to become an integral feature of cross-border care. Restrictions should be placed on the use of waiver of liability forms by medical tourism companies. Medical tourism companies must ensure that they conform to relevant legislation governing privacy and confidentiality of patient information. Restrictions must be placed on the types of health services marketed by medical tourism companies. Representatives of medical tourism agencies should have to undergo training and certification. Medical travel insurance and medical complications insurance should be included in the health-care plans of patients traveling for care. To protect clients from financial losses, medical tourism companies should be mandated to contribute to compensation funds. Establishing high standards for the operation of medical tourism companies should reduce risks facing patients when they travel abroad for health care.

  1. Performance and Quality Assessment of the Forthcoming Copernicus Marine Service Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting Real-Time System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouche, J. M.; Le Galloudec, O.; Greiner, E.; Garric, G.; Regnier, C.; Drillet, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean currently delivers in real-time daily services (weekly analyses and daily forecast) with a global 1/12° high resolution system. The model component is the NEMO platform driven at the surface by the IFS ECMWF atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Along track altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity.Since May 2015, Mercator Ocean opened the Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) and is in charge of the global ocean analyses and forecast, at eddy resolving resolution. In this context, R&D activities have been conducted at Mercator Ocean these last years in order to improve the real-time 1/12° global system for the next CMS version in 2016. The ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme benefit among others from the following improvements: large-scale and objective correction of atmospheric quantities with satellite data, new Mean Dynamic Topography taking into account the last version of GOCE geoid, new adaptive tuning of some observational errors, new Quality Control on the assimilated temperature and salinity vertical profiles based on dynamic height criteria, assimilation of satellite sea-ice concentration, new freshwater runoff from ice sheets melting …This presentation doesn't focus on the impact of each update, but rather on the overall behavior of the system integrating all updates. This assessment reports on the products quality improvements, highlighting the level of performance and the reliability of the new system.

  2. Application of process mining to assess the data quality of routinely collected time-based performance data sourced from electronic health records by validating process conformance.

    PubMed

    Perimal-Lewis, Lua; Teubner, David; Hakendorf, Paul; Horwood, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Effective and accurate use of routinely collected health data to produce Key Performance Indicator reporting is dependent on the underlying data quality. In this research, Process Mining methodology and tools were leveraged to assess the data quality of time-based Emergency Department data sourced from electronic health records. This research was done working closely with the domain experts to validate the process models. The hospital patient journey model was used to assess flow abnormalities which resulted from incorrect timestamp data used in time-based performance metrics. The research demonstrated process mining as a feasible methodology to assess data quality of time-based hospital performance metrics. The insight gained from this research enabled appropriate corrective actions to be put in place to address the data quality issues.

  3. Physical comorbidity, insight, quality of life and global functioning in first episode schizophrenia: a 24-month, longitudinal outcome study.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kang; Chan, Yiong Huak; Chua, Thiam Hee; Mahendran, Rathi; Chong, Siow Ann; McGorry, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    This prospective study sought to determine the clinical impact of physical comorbidity on patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) and we tested the hypothesis that patients with physical comorbidity were associated with poorer clinical and functional outcomes. The severity of psychopathology, insight, social/occupational functioning and quality of life were evaluated using Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), and World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref Scale (WHOQOL-Bref) respectively at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Out of 142 patients, physical comorbidity was present in 21.8% (n=31) of the patients, and they were mainly related to the cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine systems. Compared to baseline measurements, patients with physical comorbidity had greater awareness into the consequences of their psychiatric illness at 12 months, the need for treatment at 12 and 18 months, and better improvement of PANSS total and general psychopathology subscale scores at 24 months. FES patients with physical comorbidity also had less reduction in their WHOQOL-Bref scores in the physical health domain at 12 and 18 months and greater increase in the GAF scores at 18 and 24 months, indicating better subjective rating of quality of life and objective measure of their global functioning prospectively. Clinicians need to be aware of the substantial rates of physical comorbidity in FES patients which may not be necessarily associated with worse longitudinal outcomes and the findings should encourage even greater efforts at early identification and management of these physical conditions.

  4. MICS-Asia II: Impact of global emissions on regional air quality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Tracey; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Ehlers, Susanna; Spak, Scott N.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Hozumi, Y.; Ueda, Hiromasa; Park, S. U.; Fung, Christopher; Kajino, M.; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Engardt, Magnuz; Bennet, Cecilia; Hayami, Hiroshi; Sartelet, Karine; Wang, Zifa; Matsuda, K.; Amann, Markus

    This study quantifies the seasonality and geographic variability of global pollutant inflow to Asia. Asia is often looked to as a major source of intercontinental air pollution transport with rising emissions and efficient pollutant export processes. However, the degree to which foreign emissions have been imported to Asia has not been thoroughly examined. The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) is an international collaboration to study air pollution transport and chemistry in Asia. Using the global atmospheric chemistry Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v. 2.4), and comparing results with a suite of regional models participating in MICS-Asia, we find that imported O 3 contributes significantly throughout Asia. The choice of upper boundary condition is found to be particularly important for O 3, even for surface concentrations. Both North America and Europe contribute to ground-level O 3 concentrations throughout the region, though the seasonality of these two sources varies. North American contributions peak at over 10% of monthly mean O 3 during winter months in East Asia, compared to Europe's spring- and autumn-maxima (5-8%). In comparison to observed data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), MOZART concentrations for O 3 generally fall within the range of the MICS models, but MOZART is unable to capture the fine spatial variability of shorter-lived species as well as the regional models.

  5. Using climate models to estimate the quality of global observational data sets.

    PubMed

    Massonnet, François; Bellprat, Omar; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J

    2016-10-28

    Observational estimates of the climate system are essential to monitoring and understanding ongoing climate change and to assessing the quality of climate models used to produce near- and long-term climate information. This study poses the dual and unconventional question: Can climate models be used to assess the quality of observational references? We show that this question not only rests on solid theoretical grounds but also offers insightful applications in practice. By comparing four observational products of sea surface temperature with a large multimodel climate forecast ensemble, we find compelling evidence that models systematically score better against the most recent, advanced, but also most independent product. These results call for generalized procedures of model-observation comparison and provide guidance for a more objective observational data set selection. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Using climate models to estimate the quality of global observational data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, François; Bellprat, Omar; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2016-10-01

    Observational estimates of the climate system are essential to monitoring and understanding ongoing climate change and to assessing the quality of climate models used to produce near- and long-term climate information. This study poses the dual and unconventional question: Can climate models be used to assess the quality of observational references? We show that this question not only rests on solid theoretical grounds but also offers insightful applications in practice. By comparing four observational products of sea surface temperature with a large multimodel climate forecast ensemble, we find compelling evidence that models systematically score better against the most recent, advanced, but also most independent product. These results call for generalized procedures of model-observation comparison and provide guidance for a more objective observational data set selection.

  7. The Conformal Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    These notes are from courses given at TASI and the Advanced Strings School in summer 2015. Starting from principles of quantum field theory and the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, we develop the basics of conformal field theory, including conformal Ward identities, radial quantization, reection positivity, the operator product expansion, and conformal blocks. We end with an introduction to numerical bootstrap methods, focusing on the 2d and 3d Ising models.

  8. Mutual Recognition of the Food and Drug Administration and European Community Member State Conformity Assessment Procedures; pharmaceutical GMP inspection reports, medical device quality system evaluation reports, and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports--FDA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-04-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its regulations pursuant to an international agreement that is expected to be concluded between the United States and the European Community (EC) (Ref. 1). Under the terms of that agreement, FDA may normally endorse good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspection reports for pharmaceuticals provided by equivalent EC Member State regulatory authorities and medical device quality system evaluation reports and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports provided by equivalent conformity assessment bodies. FDA is taking this action to enhance its ability to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and medical devices through more efficient and effective utilization of its regulatory resources. The agency is requesting comments on the proposed rule.

  9. Performance and quality assessment of the recent updated CMEMS global ocean monitoring and forecasting real-time system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Galloudec, Olivier; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Greiner, Eric; Garric, Gilles; Régnier, Charly; Drévillon, Marie; Drillet, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Since May 2015, Mercator Ocean opened the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service (CMEMS) and is in charge of the global eddy resolving ocean analyses and forecast. In this context, Mercator Ocean currently delivers in real-time daily services (weekly analyses and daily forecast) with a global 1/12° high resolution system. The model component is the NEMO platform driven at the surface by the IFS ECMWF atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Along track altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. R&D activities have been conducted at Mercator Ocean these last years to improve the real-time 1/12° global system for recent updated CMEMS version in 2016. The ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme benefited of the following improvements: large-scale and objective correction of atmospheric quantities with satellite data, new Mean Dynamic Topography taking into account the last version of GOCE geoid, new adaptive tuning of some observational errors, new Quality Control on the assimilated temperature and salinity vertical profiles based on dynamic height criteria, assimilation of satellite sea-ice concentration, new freshwater runoff from ice sheets melting, … This presentation will show the impact of some updates separately, with a particular focus on adaptive tuning experiments of satellite Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations errors. For the SLA, the a priori prescribed observation error is globally greatly reduced. The median value of the error changed

  10. Conformal radiotherapy, reduced boost volume, hyperfractionated radiotherapy, and online quality control in standard-risk medulloblastoma without chemotherapy: Results of the French M-SFOP 98 protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Carrie, Christian . E-mail: carrie@lyon.fnclcc.fr; Muracciole, Xavier; Gomez, Frederic

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Between December 1998 and October 2001, patients <19 years old were treated for standard-risk medulloblastoma according to the Medulloblastome-Societe Francaise d'Oncologie Pediatrique 1998 (M-SFOP 98) protocol. Patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy (36 Gy in 36 fractions) to the craniospinal axis, a boost with conformal therapy restricted to the tumor bed (to a total dose of 68 Gy in 68 fractions), and no chemotherapy. Records of craniospinal irradiation were reviewed before treatment start. Results: A total of 48 patients were considered assessable. With a median follow-up of 45.7 months, the overall survival and progression-free survival rate at 3 years was 89% and 81%, respectively. Fourteen major deviations were detected and eight were corrected. No relapses occurred in the frontal region and none occurred in the posterior fossa outside the boost volume. Nine patients were available for volume calculation without reduction of the volume irradiated. We observed a reduction in the subtentorial volume irradiated to >60 Gy, but a slight increase in the volume irradiated to 40 Gy. No decrease in intelligence was observed in the 22 children tested during the first 2 years. Conclusion: This hyperfractionated radiotherapy protocol with a reduced boost volume and without chemotherapy was not associated with early relapses in children. Moreover, intellectual function seemed to be preserved. These results are promising.

  11. GNAQPMS v1.1: accelerating the Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) on Intel Xeon Phi processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Huansheng; Wu, Qizhong; Lin, Junmin; Chen, Xueshun; Xie, Xinwei; Wang, Rongrong; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa

    2017-08-01

    The Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) is the global version of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), which is a multi-scale chemical transport model used for air quality forecast and atmospheric environmental research. In this study, we present the porting and optimisation of GNAQPMS on a second-generation Intel Xeon Phi processor, codenamed Knights Landing (KNL). Compared with the first-generation Xeon Phi coprocessor (codenamed Knights Corner, KNC), KNL has many new hardware features such as a bootable processor, high-performance in-package memory and ISA compatibility with Intel Xeon processors. In particular, we describe the five optimisations we applied to the key modules of GNAQPMS, including the CBM-Z gas-phase chemistry, advection, convection and wet deposition modules. These optimisations work well on both the KNL 7250 processor and the Intel Xeon E5-2697 V4 processor. They include (1) updating the pure Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel mode to the hybrid parallel mode with MPI and OpenMP in the emission, advection, convection and gas-phase chemistry modules; (2) fully employing the 512 bit wide vector processing units (VPUs) on the KNL platform; (3) reducing unnecessary memory access to improve cache efficiency; (4) reducing the thread local storage (TLS) in the CBM-Z gas-phase chemistry module to improve its OpenMP performance; and (5) changing the global communication from writing/reading interface files to MPI functions to improve the performance and the parallel scalability. These optimisations greatly improved the GNAQPMS performance. The same optimisations also work well for the Intel Xeon Broadwell processor, specifically E5-2697 v4. Compared with the baseline version of GNAQPMS, the optimised version was 3.51 × faster on KNL and 2.77 × faster on the CPU. Moreover, the optimised version ran at 26 % lower average power on KNL than on the CPU. With the combined performance and energy

  12. Online Tools for Uncovering Data Quality (DQ) Issues in Satellite-Based Global Precipitation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Heo, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Data quality (DQ) has many attributes or facets (i.e., errors, biases, systematic differences, uncertainties, benchmark, false trends, false alarm ratio, etc.)Sources can be complicated (measurements, environmental conditions, surface types, algorithms, etc.) and difficult to be identified especially for multi-sensor and multi-satellite products with bias correction (TMPA, IMERG, etc.) How to obtain DQ info fast and easily, especially quantified info in ROI Existing parameters (random error), literature, DIY, etc.How to apply the knowledge in research and applications.Here, we focus on online systems for integration of products and parameters, visualization and analysis as well as investigation and extraction of DQ information.

  13. Spectral Analysis of a Protein Conformational Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackovsky, S.

    2011-06-01

    The existence of conformational switching in proteins, induced by single amino acid mutations, presents an important challenge to our understanding of the physics of protein folding. Sequence-local methods, commonly used to detect structural homology, are incapable of accounting for this phenomenon. We examine a set of proteins, derived from the GA and GB domains of Streptococcus protein G, which are known to show a dramatic conformational change as a result of single-residue replacement. It is shown that these sequences, which are almost identical locally, can have very different global patterns of physical properties. These differences are consistent with the observed complete change in conformation. These results suggest that sequence-local methods for identifying structural homology can be misleading. They point to the importance of global sequence analysis in understanding sequence-structure relationships.

  14. Combustion emissions from refining lower quality oil: what is the global warming potential?

    PubMed

    Karras, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The greenhouse gas emission intensity of refining lower quality petroleum was estimated from fuel combustion for energy used by operating plants to process crude oils of varying quality. Refinery crude feed, processing, yield, and fuel data from four regions accounting for 97% of U.S. refining capacity from 1999 to 2008 were compared among regions and years for effects on processing and energy consumption predicted by the processing characteristics of heavier, higher sulfur oils. Crude feed density and sulfur content could predict 94% of processing intensity, 90% of energy intensity, and 85% of carbon dioxide emission intensity differences among regions and years and drove a 39% increase in emissions across regions and years. Fuel combustion energy for processing increased by approximately 61 MJ/m(3) crude feed for each 1 kg/m(3) sulfur and 44 MJ/m(3) for each 1 kg/m(3) density of crude refined. Differences in products, capacity utilized, and fuels burned were not confounding factors. Fuel combustion increments observed predict that a switch to heavy oil and tar sands could double or triple refinery emissions and add 1.6-3.7 gigatons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere annually from fuel combustion to process the oil.

  15. New potentials for conformal mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G.

    2013-04-01

    We find under some mild assumptions that the most general potential of one-dimensional conformal systems with time-independent couplings is expressed as V = V0 + V1, where V0 is a homogeneous function with respect to a homothetic motion in configuration space and V1 is determined from an equation with source a homothetic potential. Such systems admit at most an SL(2,{R}) conformal symmetry which, depending on the couplings, is embedded in {Diff}({R}) in three different ways. In one case, SL(2,{R}) is also embedded in Diff(S1). Examples of such models include those with potential V = αx2 + βx-2 for arbitrary couplings α and β, the Calogero models with harmonic oscillator couplings and nonlinear models with suitable metrics and potentials. In addition, we give the conditions on the couplings for a class of gauge theories to admit a SL(2,{R}) conformal symmetry. We present examples of such systems with general gauge groups and global symmetries that include the isometries of AdS2 × S3 and AdS2 × S3 × S3 which arise as backgrounds in AdS2/CFT1.

  16. Standards of the Instructional Performances in Higher-Education Institutions; Conformity to Quality Requirements: Ar-Rass College of Science and Arts--Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Jobier Suliman

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the standard of the educational process in higher institutions and the extent of compliance with quality requirements. The college of science and Arts, Qassim University is considered as a case study. In order to assure the success of the study there are a questionnaire is designed and prepared for this purpose. It contains main…

  17. [Dosimetric evaluation of conformal radiotherapy: conformity factor].

    PubMed

    Oozeer, R; Chauvet, B; Garcia, R; Berger, C; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of three-dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT) is to treat the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the prescribed dose while reducing doses to normal tissues and critical structures, in order to increase local control and reduce toxicity. The evaluation tools used for optimizing treatment techniques are three-dimensional visualization of dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probabilities (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). These tools, however, do not fully quantify the conformity of dose distributions to the PTV. Specific tools were introduced to measure this conformity for a given dose level. We have extended those definitions to different dose levels, using a conformity index (CI). CI is based on the relative volumes of PTV and outside the PTV receiving more than a given dose. This parameter has been evaluated by a clinical study including 82 patients treated for lung cancer and 82 patients treated for prostate cancer. The CI was low for lung dosimetric studies (0.35 at the prescribed dose 66 Gy) due to build-up around the GTV and to spinal cord sparing. For prostate dosimetric studies, the CI was higher (0.57 at the prescribed dose 70 Gy). The CI has been used to compare treatment plans for lung 3DCRT (2 vs 3 beams) and prostate 3DCRT (4 vs 7 beams). The variation of CI with dose can be used to optimize dose prescription.

  18. Facilitators and barriers to quality of care in maternal, newborn and child health: a global situational analysis through metareview.

    PubMed

    Nair, Manisha; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Lambrechts, Thierry; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bose, Krishna; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Mathai, Matthews

    2014-05-22

    Conduct a global situational analysis to identify the current facilitators and barriers to improving quality of care (QoC) for pregnant women, newborns and children. Metareview of published and unpublished systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted between January 2000 and March 2013 in any language. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) is used to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Health systems of all countries. Study outcome: QoC measured using surrogate indicators--effective, efficient, accessible, acceptable/patient centred, equitable and safe. Conducted in two phases (1) qualitative synthesis of extracted data to identify and group the facilitators and barriers to improving QoC, for each of the three population groups, into the six domains of WHO's framework and explore new domains and (2) an analysis grid to map the common facilitators and barriers. We included 98 systematic reviews with 110 interventions to improve QoC from countries globally. The facilitators and barriers identified fitted the six domains of WHO's framework--information, patient-population engagement, leadership, regulations and standards, organisational capacity and models of care. Two new domains, 'communication' and 'satisfaction', were generated. Facilitators included active and regular interpersonal communication between users and providers; respect, confidentiality, comfort and support during care provision; engaging users in decision-making; continuity of care and effective audit and feedback mechanisms. Key barriers identified were language barriers in information and communication; power difference between users and providers; health systems not accounting for user satisfaction; variable standards of implementation of standard guidelines; shortage of resources in health facilities and lack of studies assessing the role of leadership in improving QoC. These were common across the three population groups. The barriers to good-quality

  19. Facilitators and barriers to quality of care in maternal, newborn and child health: a global situational analysis through metareview

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Lambrechts, Thierry; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bose, Krishna; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Mathai, Matthews

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conduct a global situational analysis to identify the current facilitators and barriers to improving quality of care (QoC) for pregnant women, newborns and children. Study design Metareview of published and unpublished systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted between January 2000 and March 2013 in any language. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) is used to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Settings Health systems of all countries. Study outcome: QoC measured using surrogate indicators––effective, efficient, accessible, acceptable/patient centred, equitable and safe. Analysis Conducted in two phases (1) qualitative synthesis of extracted data to identify and group the facilitators and barriers to improving QoC, for each of the three population groups, into the six domains of WHO's framework and explore new domains and (2) an analysis grid to map the common facilitators and barriers. Results We included 98 systematic reviews with 110 interventions to improve QoC from countries globally. The facilitators and barriers identified fitted the six domains of WHO's framework––information, patient–population engagement, leadership, regulations and standards, organisational capacity and models of care. Two new domains, ‘communication’ and ‘satisfaction’, were generated. Facilitators included active and regular interpersonal communication between users and providers; respect, confidentiality, comfort and support during care provision; engaging users in decision-making; continuity of care and effective audit and feedback mechanisms. Key barriers identified were language barriers in information and communication; power difference between users and providers; health systems not accounting for user satisfaction; variable standards of implementation of standard guidelines; shortage of resources in health facilities and lack of studies assessing the role of leadership in improving QoC. These were common across

  20. Imbedding Locally Euclidean and Conformally Euclidean Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. A.

    1992-02-01

    The possibility of imbedding n-dimensional locally Euclidean metrics in the large in Rn is studied by means of the global inverse function theorem in the forms suggested by Hadamard, John, Levy and Plastock. The imbeddability of conformally Euclidean metrics is studied by means of a theorem of Zorich on the removability of an isolated singularity of a locally quasiconformal mapping.

  1. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  2. Conformations of Substituted Ethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews state-of-the-art of conformational analysis and factors which affect it. Emphasizes sp-3 hybridized acrylic molecules. Provides examples on the importance of certain factors in determining conformation. Purpose, is to provide examples for examination questions. (Author/SA)

  3. Conformal differential invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, Boris

    2017-03-01

    We compute the Hilbert polynomial and the Poincaré function counting the number of fixed jet-order differential invariants of conformal metric structures modulo local diffeomorphisms, and we describe the field of rational differential invariants separating generic orbits of the diffeomorphism pseudogroup action. This resolves the local recognition problem for conformal structures.

  4. Conformations of Substituted Ethanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews state-of-the-art of conformational analysis and factors which affect it. Emphasizes sp-3 hybridized acrylic molecules. Provides examples on the importance of certain factors in determining conformation. Purpose, is to provide examples for examination questions. (Author/SA)

  5. CONSENSUS AND CONFORMITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, VERNON L.; LEVINE, JOHN M.

    IN THIS STUDY, PROFESSOR ALLEN EMPLOYS TWO METHODS OF BREAKING GROUP CONSENSUS, AND HE MEASURES THE EFFECTS ON THE RESPONSES OF COLLEGE SUBJECTS TO BOTH OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE STIMULI. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THE NEED FOR MODIFICATION OF EXISTING THEORIES OF CONFORMITY BEHAVIOR. IN ADDITION, THESE RESULTS EMPHASIZE THE DIFFERENCES IN CONFORMITY OF…

  6. New global communication process in thermodynamics: impact on quality of published experimental data.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, M; Chirico, R D; Diky, V; Muzny, C; Dong, Q; Marsh, K N; Dymond, J H; Wakeham, W A; Stein, S E; Königsberger, E; Goodwin, A R H; Magee, J W; Thijssen, M; Haynes, W M; Watanasiri, S; Satyro, M; Schmidt, M; Johns, A I; Hardin, G R

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are a key resource in the search for new relationships between properties of chemical systems that constitutes the basis of the scientific discovery process. In addition, thermodynamic information is critical for development and improvement of all chemical process technologies. Historically, peer-reviewed journals are the major source of this information obtained by experimental measurement or prediction. Technological advances in measurement science have propelled enormous growth in the scale of published thermodynamic data (almost doubling every 10 years). This expansion has created new challenges in data validation at all stages of the data delivery process. Despite the peer-review process, problems in data validation have led, in many instances, to publication of data that are grossly erroneous and, at times, inconsistent with the fundamental laws of nature. This article describes a new global data communication process in thermodynamics and its impact in addressing these challenges as well as in streamlining the delivery of the thermodynamic data from "data producers" to "data users". We believe that the prolific growth of scientific data in numerous and diverse fields outside thermodynamics, together with the demonstrated effectiveness and versatility of the process described in this article, will foster development of such processes in other scientific fields.

  7. Global and regional trends in particulate air quality and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Edward W.; Turnock, Steven T.; Rigby, Richard; Reddington, Carly L.; Yoshioka, Masaru; Johnson, Jill S.; Regayre, Leighton A.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Mann, Graham W.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) is associated with premature mortality. Previous studies have focussed on present day or future attributable health burdens. Few studies have estimated changes in PM2.5 concentrations and associated health burdens over the last few decades, a period where air quality has changed rapidly. Here we used the HadGEM3-UKCA coupled chemistry-climate model, integrated exposure-response relationships, demographic data and background disease prevalence to provide the first estimate of the changes in global and regional health burdens attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure over the period 1960 to 2009. Over this period, simulated global mean population-weighted PM2.5 increased by 37% to 48% dominated by large increases over China (53% to 66%) and India (70% to 116%). We find that global attributable mortality due to long-term PM2.5 exposure increased by 124% to 147% between 1960 and 2009, substantially more than the increase in PM2.5 concentrations over the same period. This increase is dominated by India and China and is driven by population growth and an ageing population combined with increased PM2.5 concentrations. Our results show that PM2.5 concentrations in China and India will need to be reduced substantially to slow the increasing attributable health burdens that are being driven by population growth and an older population.

  8. Role of vaccine manufacturers in developing countries towards global healthcare by providing quality vaccines at affordable prices.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, S; Gautam, M; Gairola, S

    2014-05-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of science and medicine in the fight against infectious diseases. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective public health tools to prevent infectious diseases. Significant progress has been made in expanding the coverage of vaccines globally, resulting in the prevention of more than two million deaths annually. In 2010, nearly 200 countries endorsed a shared vision to extend the benefits of vaccines to every person by 2020, known as the Decade of Vaccine Initiative (DoV). Vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, as represented by the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN), make a significant contribution to DoV by supplying quality vaccines at affordable prices to the people who need them most. About 70% of the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccine supplies are met by DCVMN. Besides EPI vaccine supplies, DCVMN is also targeting vaccines against rotavirus, Japanese encephalitis, pneumonia, human papillomavirus, meningitis and neglected tropical diseases. This article reviews the roles and contributions of DCVMN in making the vaccines accessible and affordable to all. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Regional and Global Aspects of Aerosols in Western Africa: From Air Quality to Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Kucsera, Tom; Spinhime, Jim; Palm, Stephen; Holben, Brent; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Western Africa is one of the most important aerosol source regions in the world. Major aerosol sources include dust from the world's largest desert Sahara, biomass burning from the Sahel, pollution aerosols from local sources and long-range transport from Europe, and biogenic sources from vegetation. Because these sources have large seasonal variations, the aerosol composition over the western Africa changes significantly with time. These aerosols exert large influences on local air quality and regional climate. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to analyze satellite lidar data from the GLAS instrument on the ICESat and the sunphotometer data from the ground-based network AERONET taken in both the wet (September - October 2003) and dry (February - March 2004) seasons over western Africa. We will quantify the seasonal variations of aerosol sources and compositions and aerosol spatial (horizontal and vertical) distributions over western Africa. We will also assess the climate impact of western African aerosols. Such studies will be applied to support the international project, Africa Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) and to analyze the AMMA data.

  10. Regional and Global Aspects of Aerosols in Western Africa: From Air Quality to Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Kucsera, Tom; Spinhime, Jim; Palm, Stephen; Holben, Brent; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Western Africa is one of the most important aerosol source regions in the world. Major aerosol sources include dust from the world's largest desert Sahara, biomass burning from the Sahel, pollution aerosols from local sources and long-range transport from Europe, and biogenic sources from vegetation. Because these sources have large seasonal variations, the aerosol composition over the western Africa changes significantly with time. These aerosols exert large influences on local air quality and regional climate. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to analyze satellite lidar data from the GLAS instrument on the ICESat and the sunphotometer data from the ground-based network AERONET taken in both the wet (September - October 2003) and dry (February - March 2004) seasons over western Africa. We will quantify the seasonal variations of aerosol sources and compositions and aerosol spatial (horizontal and vertical) distributions over western Africa. We will also assess the climate impact of western African aerosols. Such studies will be applied to support the international project, Africa Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) and to analyze the AMMA data.

  11. Is environmental health a determinant or an afterthought in policies ranging from water quality to global warming?

    PubMed

    Listorti, J A

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this discussion is to draw attention to the regrettable fact that health repercussions are not being addressed in policy setting. This absence covers a spectrum from policies as technically focused as that governing water quality, where the health dimensions are well known, to policies as broad as those dealing with global warming, where the health dimensions are still being defined. This situation is likely to worsen unless the environmental health community accepts the responsibility to do more outreach. The presentation also gives examples of how inclusion of environmental health in policy deliberations can increase economically quantifiable benefits and can help justify investments that are otherwise considered too costly. Despite advances in environmental health, many, if not most, important decisions affecting human health are being made without the input of health specialists. At best, considerations of environmental health are afterthoughts in the policies of business, commerce, industry, and many government agencies that are involved--even if inadvertently--with creating most environmental health problems, and by implication, are potentially responsible for their solutions. Examples of situations where the health dimensions are well known, such as with water quality, are provided from some 200 past World Bank projects in water supply, waste disposal, transportation, housing, urban development, and telecommunications, designed mainly by engineers and economists. The absence of health input is not necessarily detrimental if agency policies or environmental reviews can compensate for the absence of direct health input by other means such as environmental assessments, which currently do not systematically include health.

  12. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  13. Calculation of global carbon dioxide emissions: Review of emission factors and a new approach taking fuel quality into consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiete, Michael; Berner, Ulrich; Richter, Otto

    2001-03-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions resulting from fossil fuel consumption play a major role in the current debate on climate change. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated on the basis of a carbon dioxide emission factor (CEF) for each type of fuel. Published CEFs are reviewed in this paper. It was found that for nearly all CEFs, fuel quality is not adequately taken into account. This is especially true in the case of the CEFs for coal. Published CEFs are often based on generalized assumptions and inexact conversions. In particular, conversions from gross calorific value to net calorific value were examined. A new method for determining CEFs as a function of calorific value (for coal, peat, and natural gas) and specific gravity (for crude oil) is presented that permits CEFs to be calculated for specific fuel qualities. A review of proportions of fossil fuels that remain unoxidized owing to incomplete combustion or inclusion in petrochemical products, etc., (stored carbon) shows that these figures need to be updated and checked for their applicability on a global scale, since they are mostly based on U.S. data.

  14. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  15. The conformational free-energy map for solvated neocarrabiose.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazuyoshi; Ueda, Tatsuro; Sato, Taiken; Nakayama, Haruo; Brady, John W

    2004-08-02

    A Ramachandran map of the conformational potential of mean force (pmf) for neocarrabiose in water was obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with umbrella sampling. The potential energy map calculated in a previous study for this molecule in vacuum exhibited a global minimum located at (phi = 81 degrees, psi = -141 degrees). However, the global minimum on the new pmf map in aqueous solution is located in an area centered around (phi = 175 degrees, psi = 180 degrees), indicating a considerable solvent shift. This new global minimum-energy solution conformation was found to correspond to the experimental value obtained from NMR-NOE measurements, and is also consistent with the experimental crystal structure for neocarrabiose and the fiber diffraction conformation for iota-carrageenan. The global minimum of the solution pmf and its local topology were found to be approximately reproduced by quick vacuum conformational energy mapping using several approximations that mimic solvation effects by de-emphasizing intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

  16. A global quality assurance system for personalized radiation therapy treatment planning for the prostate (or other sites)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Obioma; Sihono, Dwi Seno K.; Schneider, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-09-01

    likely dose that OARs will receive before treatment planning. This prospective knowledge could be used to implement a global quality assurance system for personalized radiation therapy treatment planning.

  17. Developing global indicators for quality of maternal and newborn care: a feasibility assessment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen; Mathai, Matthews; Roos, Nathalie; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the feasibility of applying the World Health Organization’s proposed 15 indicators of quality of care for maternal and newborn health at health-facility level in low- and middle-income settings. Methods Six of the indicators are about maternal health, five are for newborn health and four are general cross-cutting indicators. We used data collected routinely in facility registers and obtained as part of facility assessments from 963 health-care facilities specializing in maternity services in 10 countries in Africa and Asia. We made a feasibility assessment of the availability of data and the clarity of indicator definitions and identified additional information and data collection processes needed to apply the proposed indicators in real-life settings. Findings Of the indicators evaluated, 10 were clearly defined, of which four could be applied directly in the field and six would require revisions to operationalize them. The other five indicators require further development, with one of them being ready for implementation by using information readily available in registers and four requiring further information before deployment. For indicators that measure coverage of care or availability of services or products, there is a need to further strengthen measurement. Information on emergency obstetric complications was not recorded in a standard manner, thus limiting the reliability of the information. Conclusion While some of the proposed indicators can already be applied, other indicators need to be refined or will need additional sources and methods of data collection to be applied in real-world settings. PMID:28603311

  18. The health-related quality of life of Indigenous populations: a global systematic review.

    PubMed

    Angell, Blake; Muhunthan, Janani; Eades, Anne-Marie; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Cass, Alan; Howard, Kirsten; Ratcliffe, Julie; Eades, Sandra; Jan, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Indigenous conceptions of health have been shown to differ from that of their non-Indigenous counterparts. As a result, there remains uncertainty over the appropriateness and value of using existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) instruments in Indigenous communities. The objective of this review was to identify studies that either measure the HRQoL of an Indigenous population or validated a measure used to elicit the HRQoL in an Indigenous population. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted to (1) investigate the extent to which HRQoL instruments are used in Indigenous populations; (2) to identify which instruments have been validated in which populations; and (3) to identify which instruments have been tailored for use with Indigenous populations. Forty-one studies were included in the review. Only three of the 41 studies utilised Indigenous-specific instruments. The remainder (38 studies) utilised generic population or disease-specific instruments. Four studies found specific HRQoL instruments to be valid in these populations and 32 estimated the HRQoL of an Indigenous population. The limited examples of Indigenous-specific instruments highlighted the potential importance to the HRQoL of these populations of domains that lie outside of traditional measures including social and community domains as well as domains relating to culture, diet and land use on top of more traditional HRQoL domains. Ensuring that the HRQoL of Indigenous populations is being appropriately measured is vital to prioritising available resources to the most effective interventions. HRQoL instruments present an opportunity to directly elicit and incorporate Indigenous preferences and conceptions of health into these decisions. Further work is required in the field to ensure that this potential is realised.

  19. Small molecule specific run acceptance, specific assay operation, and chromatographic run quality assessment: recommendation for best practices and harmonization from the global bioanalysis consortium harmonization teams.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Eric J; McDougall, Stuart; Fast, Douglas M; Andraus, Maristela; Barfield, Matthew; Blackburn, Michael; Gordon, Ben; Hoffman, David; Inoue, Noriko; Marcelin-Jimenez, Gabriel; Flynn, Amy; LeLacheur, Richard; Reuschel, Scott; Santhanam, Ravisankar; Bennett, Patrick; Duncan, Barbara; Hayes, Roger; Lausecker, Berthold; Sharma, Abhishek; Togashi, Kazutaka; Trivedi, Ravi Kumar; Vago, Miguel; White, Stephen; Barton, Hollie; Dunn, John A; Farmen, Raymond H; Heinig, Katja; Holliman, Christopher; Komaba, Junji; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Consensus practices and regulatory guidance for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays of small molecules are more aligned globally than for any of the other bioanalytical techniques addressed by the Global Bioanalysis Consortium. The three Global Bioanalysis Consortium Harmonization Teams provide recommendations and best practices for areas not yet addressed fully by guidances and consensus for small molecule bioanalysis. Recommendations from all three teams are combined in this report for chromatographic run quality, validation, and sample analysis run acceptance.

  20. EC declaration of conformity.

    PubMed

    Donawa, M E

    1996-05-01

    The CE-marking procedure requires that manufacturers draw up a written declaration of conformity before placing their products on the market. However, some companies do not realize that this is a requirement for all devices. Also, there is no detailed information concerning the contents and format of the EC declaration of conformity in the medical device Directives or in EC guidance documentation. This article will discuss some important aspects of the EC declaration of conformity and some of the guidance that is available on its contents and format.

  1. Γ-conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenishcheva-Kutuzova, Maria I.; Kac, Victor G.

    1998-04-01

    Γ-conformal algebra is an axiomatic description of the operator product expansion of chiral fields with simple poles at finitely many points. We classify these algebras and their representations in terms of Lie algebras and their representations with an action of the group Γ. To every Γ-conformal algebra and a character of Γ we associate a Lie algebra generated by fields with the OPE with simple poles. Examples include twisted affine Kac-Moody algebras, the sin algebra (which is a "Γ-conformal" analogue of the general linear algebra) and its analogues, the algebra of pseudodifferential operators on the circle, etc.

  2. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  3. Recent progress in irrational conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.

    1993-09-01

    In this talk, I will review the foundations of irrational conformal field theory (ICFT), which includes rational conformal field theory as a small subspace. Highlights of the review include the Virasoro master equation, the Ward identities for the correlators of ICFT and solutions of the Ward identities. In particular, I will discuss the solutions for the correlators of the g/h coset construction and the correlators of the affine-Sugawara nests on g {contains} h{sub 1} {contains} {hor_ellipsis} {contains} h{sub n}. Finally, I will discuss the recent global solution for the correlators of all the ICFT`s in the master equation.

  4. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  5. Comparison of Effectiveness of the Metacognition Treatment and the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Treatment on Global and Specific Life Quality of Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash; Ghanbary-Motlagh, ALi

    2014-01-01

    Background This study is conducted to compare the metacognition treatment and the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment on life quality of women with breast cancer. Methods In a quasi-experimental design, with pre-test, post-test and control group, 36 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer, among patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran, were selected in accessible way and were assigned randomly to three experimental groups, the first group receiving meta-cognition treatment (n=12), the second one receiving mindfulness-based stress reduction program (n=12), and the other was the control group. Participants completed global life quality in cancer patient's questionnaire and specific quality of life in breast cancer patient's questionnaire in three stages: baseline, after intervention and two-month follow-up. Data were analyzed using the multivariate repeated measurement model. Results Findings showed both treatments were effective in improving global and specific quality of life in patients with breast cancer. The mindfulness -based stress reduction treatment excelled in functions and roles, fatigue, pain, future perspective and treatment side effects symptoms at the end of the treatment and follow-up in comparison to the metacognition treatment. Conclusion Results of this research showed the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality of women with breast cancer and is a selective method for improving quality of life in patients. PMID:25628839

  6. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  7. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  8. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  9. Conformational sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Marcus P D; Lovas, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    The potential energy hyper-surface of a protein relates the potential energy of the protein to its conformational space. This surface is useful in determining the native conformation of a protein or in examining a statistical-mechanical ensemble of structures (canonical ensemble). In determining the potential energy hyper-surface of a protein three aspects must be considered; reducing the degrees of freedom, a method to determine the energy of each conformation and a method to sample the conformational space. For reducing the degrees of freedom the choice of solvent, coarse graining, constraining degrees of freedom and periodic boundary conditions are discussed. The use of quantum mechanics versus molecular mechanics and the choice of force fields are also discussed, as well as the sampling of the conformational space through deterministic and heuristic approaches. Deterministic methods include knowledge-based statistical methods, rotamer libraries, homology modeling, the build-up method, self-consistent electrostatic field, deformation methods, tree-based elimination and eigenvector following routines. The heuristic methods include Monte Carlo chain growing, energy minimizations, metropolis monte carlo and molecular dynamics. In addition, various methods to enhance the conformational search including the deformation or smoothing of the surface, scaling of system parameters, and multi copy searching are also discussed.

  10. Effects of land use and land cover change on global ozone air quality in the mid-21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A. Y. H.; Tai, A. P. K.; Geddes, J.

    2016-12-01

    Over the coming century, processes such as cropland expansion are projected to substantially alter global land use patterns, while the simultaneous changes in CO2 concentration are also expected to influence vegetation growth. The resulting changes in global land cover and land use (LCLU) have the potential to greatly influence atmospheric composition, but the magnitudes and even the signs of impacts are still highly uncertain due to the complex interactions between climate, CO2, air pollutants and vegetation, with substantial ramifications for the accuracy of future air quality projections. In this study, we use a one-way coupled land-atmosphere modeling framework to investigate how future LCLU changes will affect ozone air quality under two future scenarios of anthropogenic land use changes (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). We first use the fractional coverage of different plant functional types (PFTs) and PFT-specific leaf area index (LAI) to characterize a land cover for the present day and for a future that considers anthropogenic land use change only. We then use CLM (Community Land Model) to simulate the evolution of the land cover from 2000 to 2050 under the simultaneous influence of CO2 on vegetation variables (e.g., LAI, stomatal conductance, biogenic emissions). The results are then fed into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model with a novel land cover harmonization scheme to investigate their individual and combined effects on atmospheric chemistry.We show that different projected scenarios for cropland expansion and reforestation can lead to drastically different responses of surface ozone to land use change alone under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 by year 2050. Surface ozone is projected to increase by up to 4 ppbv under RCP4.5 but decrease by up to 3 ppbv under RCP8.5 over North America, South America and Africa. In China, both land use scenarios produce large decreases in surface ozone (by up to 8 ppbv for RCP4.5 and 6 ppbv for RCP8.5). While the changes in isoprene

  11. Confronting the Impact of HIV and AIDS: The Consequences of the Pandemics for Education Supply, Demand and Quality--A Global Review from a Southern African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The global spread of the HIV and AIDS pandemics will, for the next three generations at least, underline education access, quality and provision. Reforms within the sector will necessarily take account of the implications of this plague within national, provincial and local contexts. This article is based on several assumptions. The first is that…

  12. Global Quality of Life (QOL), Health and Ability Are Primarily Determined by Our Consciousness: Research Findings from Denmark 1991-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventegodt, Soren; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Niels Jorgen; Nielsen, Michael; Mohammed, Morad; Merrick, Joav

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explain the global quality of life (QOL) from 2000 indicators representing all aspects of life. Design and setting: Two cross sectional population studies, one prospective cohort study and one retrospective cohort study. Participants: (1) Representative sample of 2500 Danes (18-88 years), (2) 7222 members of the Copenhagen Perinatal…

  13. C-terminal truncations of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PMA1 H+-ATPase have major impacts on protein conformation, trafficking, quality control, and function.

    PubMed

    Mason, A Brett; Allen, Kenneth E; Slayman, Carolyn W

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal tail of yeast plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase extends approximately 38 amino acids beyond the final membrane-spanning segment (TM10) of the protein and is known to be required for successful trafficking, stability, and regulation of enzyme activity. To carry out a detailed functional survey of the entire length of the tail, we generated 15 stepwise truncation mutants. Eleven of them, lacking up to 30 amino acids from the extreme terminus, were able to support cell growth, even though there were detectable changes in plasma membrane expression, protein stability, and ATPase activity. Three functionally distinct regions of the C terminus could be defined. (i) Truncations upstream of Lys(889), removing more than 30 amino acid residues, yielded no viable mutants, and conditional expression of such constructs supported the conclusion that the stretch from Ala(881) (at the end of TM10) to Gly(888) is required for stable folding and PM targeting. (ii) The stretch between Lys(889) and Lys(916), a region known to be subject to kinase-mediated posttranslational modification, was shown here to be ubiquitinated in carbon-starved cells as part of cellular quality control and to be essential for normal ATPase folding and stability, as well as for autoinhibition of ATPase activity during glucose starvation. (iii) Finally, removal of even one or two residues (Glu(917) and Thr(918)) from the extreme C terminus led to visibly reduced expression of the ATPase at the plasma membrane. Thus, the C terminus is much more than a simple appendage and profoundly influences the structure, biogenesis, and function of the yeast H(+)-ATPase.

  14. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  15. Application of the quality by design approach to the drug substance manufacturing process of an Fc fusion protein: towards a global multi-step design space.

    PubMed

    Eon-duval, Alex; Valax, Pascal; Solacroup, Thomas; Broly, Hervé; Gleixner, Ralf; Strat, Claire L E; Sutter, James

    2012-10-01

    The article describes how Quality by Design principles can be applied to the drug substance manufacturing process of an Fc fusion protein. First, the quality attributes of the product were evaluated for their potential impact on safety and efficacy using risk management tools. Similarly, process parameters that have a potential impact on critical quality attributes (CQAs) were also identified through a risk assessment. Critical process parameters were then evaluated for their impact on CQAs, individually and in interaction with each other, using multivariate design of experiment techniques during the process characterisation phase. The global multi-step Design Space, defining operational limits for the entire drug substance manufacturing process so as to ensure that the drug substance quality targets are met, was devised using predictive statistical models developed during the characterisation study. The validity of the global multi-step Design Space was then confirmed by performing the entire process, from cell bank thawing to final drug substance, at its limits during the robustness study: the quality of the final drug substance produced under different conditions was verified against predefined targets. An adaptive strategy was devised whereby the Design Space can be adjusted to the quality of the input material to ensure reliable drug substance quality. Finally, all the data obtained during the process described above, together with data generated during additional validation studies as well as manufacturing data, were used to define the control strategy for the drug substance manufacturing process using a risk assessment methodology.

  16. soil organic matter pools and quality are sensitive to global climate change in tropical forests from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Shanmugam; Merino, Agustín; García-Oliva, Felipe; Riotte, Jean; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and quality are some of the most important factors determining ecological process in tropical forests, which are especially sensitive to global climate change (GCC). In India, the GCC scenarios expect increasing of drought period and wildfire, which may affect the SOC, and therefore the capacity of forest for C sequestration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of soil C and its quality in the mineral soil across precipitation gradient with different factors (vegetation, pH, soil texture and bedrock composition) for generate SOC predictions under GCC. Six soil samples were collected (top 10 cm depth) from 19 1-ha permanent plots in the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary of southern India, which are characterised by four types of forest vegetation (i.e. dry thorn, dry deciduous, moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forest) distributed along to rainfall gradient. The driest sites are dominated by sandy soils, while the soil clay proportion increased in the wet sites. Total organic C (Leco CN analyser), and the SOM quality was assessed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Solid-state 13CCP-MAS NMR analyses. Soil organic C was positively correlated with precipitation (R2 = 0.502, p<0.01) and with soil clay content (R2 =0.15, p<0.05), and negatively with soil sand content (R2=0.308, p<0.001) and with pH (R2=0.529, p<0.01); while the C/N was only found positive correlation with clay (R2= 0.350, p<0.01). The driest sites (dry thorn forest) has the lowest proportion of thermal combustion of recalcitrant organic matter (Q2,375-475 °C) than the other sites (p<0.05) and this SOC fraction correlated positively with rainfall (R2=0.27, p=0.01). The Q2 model with best fit included rainfall, pH, sand, clay, C and C/N (R2=0.52, p=0.01). Principal component analysis explains 77% of total variance. The sites on the fist component are distributed along the rainfall gradient. These results suggest that the 50% of variance was explained

  17. A systematic review and quality appraisal of international guidelines for early breast cancer systemic therapy: Are recommendations sensitive to different global resources?

    PubMed

    Gandhi, S; Verma, S; Ethier, J-L; Simmons, C; Burnett, H; Alibhai, S M H

    2015-08-01

    The breast cancer incidence in low and middle income countries (LMCs) is increasing globally, and patient outcomes are generally worse in these nations compared to high income countries (HICs). This is partly due to resource constraints associated with implementing recommended breast cancer therapies. Clinical practice guideline (CPG) adherence can improve breast cancer outcomes, however, many CPGs are created in HICs, and include costly recommendations that may not be feasible in LMCs. In addition, the quality of CPGs can be variable. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of CPGs on early breast cancer systemic therapy with potential international impact, to evaluate their content, quality, and resource sensitivity. A MEDLINE and gray literature search was completed for English language CPGs published between 2005 and 2010, and then updated to July 2014. Extracted guidelines were evaluated using the AGREE 2 instrument. Guidelines were specifically analyzed for resource sensitivity. Most of the extracted CPGs had similar recommendations with regards to systemic therapy. However, only one, the Breast Health Global Initiative, made recommendations with consideration of different global resources. Overall, the CPGs were of variable quality, and most scored poorly in the quality domain evaluating implementation barriers such as resources. Published CPGs for early breast cancer are created in HICs, have similar recommendations, and are generally resource-insensitive. Given the visibility and influence of these CPGs on LMCs, efforts to create higher quality, resource-sensitive guidelines with less redundancy are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Aquatic Ecosystems and Global Change: The Challenges of conducting Multi-Stressor Global Change Vulnerability Assessments. This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and ...

  19. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Aquatic Ecosystems and Global Change: The Challenges of conducting Multi-Stressor Global Change Vulnerability Assessments. This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and ...

  20. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of conformance. 246.504 Section 246.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of conformance...

  1. 48 CFR 46.315 - Certificate of conformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of conformance. 46.315 Section 46.315 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.315 Certificate of conformance. The contracting officer...

  2. Conformity: Implications for ABE Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1977-01-01

    Provides an interpretative review of the literature of conforming behavior with special attention to implications for adult education. Eight different research areas of conformity research are summarized, and five reasons for conformity and three different kinds of conforming behavior are identified and discussed. (SH)

  3. Conformational kinetics reveals affinities of protein conformational states.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kyle G; Suo, Yang; Oas, Terrence G

    2015-07-28

    Most biological reactions rely on interplay between binding and changes in both macromolecular structure and dynamics. Practical understanding of this interplay requires detection of critical intermediates and determination of their binding and conformational characteristics. However, many of these species are only transiently present and they have often been overlooked in mechanistic studies of reactions that couple binding to conformational change. We monitored the kinetics of ligand-induced conformational changes in a small protein using six different ligands. We analyzed the kinetic data to simultaneously determine both binding affinities for the conformational states and the rate constants of conformational change. The approach we used is sufficiently robust to determine the affinities of three conformational states and detect even modest differences in the protein's affinities for relatively similar ligands. Ligand binding favors higher-affinity conformational states by increasing forward conformational rate constants and/or decreasing reverse conformational rate constants. The amounts by which forward rate constants increase and reverse rate constants decrease are proportional to the ratio of affinities of the conformational states. We also show that both the affinity ratio and another parameter, which quantifies the changes in conformational rate constants upon ligand binding, are strong determinants of the mechanism (conformational selection and/or induced fit) of molecular recognition. Our results highlight the utility of analyzing the kinetics of conformational changes to determine affinities that cannot be determined from equilibrium experiments. Most importantly, they demonstrate an inextricable link between conformational dynamics and the binding affinities of conformational states.

  4. Conformational kinetics reveals affinities of protein conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Kyle G.; Suo, Yang; Oas, Terrence G.

    2015-01-01

    Most biological reactions rely on interplay between binding and changes in both macromolecular structure and dynamics. Practical understanding of this interplay requires detection of critical intermediates and determination of their binding and conformational characteristics. However, many of these species are only transiently present and they have often been overlooked in mechanistic studies of reactions that couple binding to conformational change. We monitored the kinetics of ligand-induced conformational changes in a small protein using six different ligands. We analyzed the kinetic data to simultaneously determine both binding affinities for the conformational states and the rate constants of conformational change. The approach we used is sufficiently robust to determine the affinities of three conformational states and detect even modest differences in the protein’s affinities for relatively similar ligands. Ligand binding favors higher-affinity conformational states by increasing forward conformational rate constants and/or decreasing reverse conformational rate constants. The amounts by which forward rate constants increase and reverse rate constants decrease are proportional to the ratio of affinities of the conformational states. We also show that both the affinity ratio and another parameter, which quantifies the changes in conformational rate constants upon ligand binding, are strong determinants of the mechanism (conformational selection and/or induced fit) of molecular recognition. Our results highlight the utility of analyzing the kinetics of conformational changes to determine affinities that cannot be determined from equilibrium experiments. Most importantly, they demonstrate an inextricable link between conformational dynamics and the binding affinities of conformational states. PMID:26162682

  5. Conformers of Gaseous Serine.

    PubMed

    He, Kedan; Allen, Wesley D

    2016-08-09

    The myriad conformers of the neutral form of natural amino acid serine (Ser) have been investigated by systematic computations with reliable electronic wave function methods. A total of 85 unique conformers were located using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The 12 lowest-energy conformers of serine fall within a 8 kJ mol(-1) window, and for these species, geometric structures, precise relative energies, equilibrium and vibrationally averaged rotational constants, anharmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants, dipole moments, and (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were computed. The relative energies were refined through composite focal-point analyses employing basis sets as large as aug-cc-pV5Z and correlation treatments through CCSD(T). The rotational constants for seven conformers measured by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy are in good agreement with the vibrationally averaged rotational constants computed in this study. Our anharmonic vibrational frequencies are compared to the large number of experimental vibrational absorptions attributable to at least six conformers.

  6. Conformal perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Magnoli, Nicodemo

    2017-08-01

    Statistical systems near a classical critical point have been intensively studied from both theoretical and experimental points of view. In particular, correlation functions are of relevance in comparing theoretical models with the experimental data of real systems. In order to compute physical quantities near a critical point, one needs to know the model at the critical (conformal) point. In this line, recent progress in the knowledge of conformal field theories, through the conformal bootstrap, gives the hope of getting some interesting results also outside of the critical point. In this paper, we will review and clarify how, starting from the knowledge of the critical correlators, one can calculate in a safe way their behavior outside the critical point. The approach illustrated requires the model to be just scale invariant at the critical point. We will clarify the method by applying it to different kind of perturbations of the 2D Ising model.

  7. Nutritional status assessed by the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is associated with qualities of diet and life in Korean cerebral infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Jung; Choue, Ryowon

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the nutritional status of patients with cerebral infarction (CI) is important because their nutritional status influences disease outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with CI using the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and to investigate the relation of the quality of their diet and life with their nutritional status. Seventy-three patients with CI were recruited from Kyung Hee University Oriental Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, from May to July 2007. The subjects' PG-SGA, dietary quality (Dietary Diversity Score, Dietary Variety Score, and Diet Quality Index-International), and quality of life (Stroke-Specific Quality of Life, modified Barthel Index, and Beck Depression Inventory) were investigated. The patients were classified by PG-SGA categories as well nourished (26.0%), moderately malnourished (49.3%), or severely malnourished (24.7%). Quality of diet assessed by the Dietary Diversity Score and Dietary Variety Score was significantly lower in severely malnourished patients (P < 0.001). The overall dietary quality expressed by the Diet Quality Index-International was significantly greater in the well-nourished group, followed by the moderately malnourished and severely malnourished groups. Quality of life assessed by the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life and modified Barthel Index was significantly lower in the malnourished group (P < 0.05). Quality of diet (P < 0.001) and life (P < 0.05) in patients with CI were significantly correlated with their nutritional status. The PG-SGA is a useful nutritional assessment tool for patients with CI with stable vital signs. When patients with CI were categorized according to their PG-SGA score, well-nourished patients demonstrated better diet quality and better quality of life. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  9. Global chemical profiling based quality evaluation approach of rhubarb using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Haiyu; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Qingqing; Lu, Zhiwei; Wei, Shengli; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    A global chemical profiling based quality evaluation approach using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the quality evaluation of three rhubarb species, including Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., and Rheum officinale Baill. Considering that comprehensive detection of chemical components is crucial for the global profile, a systemic column performance evaluation method was developed. Based on this, a Cortecs column was used to acquire the chemical profile, and Chempattern software was employed to conduct similarity evaluation and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed R. tanguticum could be differentiated from R. palmatum and R. officinale at the similarity value 0.65, but R. palmatum and R. officinale could not be distinguished effectively. Therefore, a common pattern based on three rhubarb species was developed to conduct the quality evaluation, and the similarity value 0.50 was set as an appropriate threshold to control the quality of rhubarb. A total of 88 common peaks were identified by their accurate mass and fragmentation, and partially verified by reference standards. Through the verification, the newly developed method could be successfully used for evaluating the holistic quality of rhubarb. It would provide a reference for the quality control of other herbal medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Data quality through a web-based QA/QC system: implementation for atmospheric mercury data from the global mercury observation system.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Francesco; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Cinnirella, Sergio; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    The overall goal of the on-going Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project is to develop a coordinated global monitoring network for mercury, including ground-based, high altitude and sea level stations. In order to ensure data reliability and comparability, a significant effort has been made to implement a centralized system, which is designed to quality assure and quality control atmospheric mercury datasets. This system, GMOS-Data Quality Management (G-DQM), uses a web-based approach with real-time adaptive monitoring procedures aimed at preventing the production of poor-quality data. G-DQM is plugged on a cyberinfrastructure and deployed as a service. Atmospheric mercury datasets, produced during the first-three years of the GMOS project, are used as the input to demonstrate the application of the G-DQM and how it identifies a number of key issues concerning data quality. The major issues influencing data quality are presented and discussed for the GMOS stations under study. Atmospheric mercury data collected at the Longobucco (Italy) station is used as a detailed case study.

  11. Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and

  12. The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life quality in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer. This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and control group. In this study, 24 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer were selected among the patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. All the participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Global Life Quality of Cancer Patient and Specific Life Quality of Cancer Patient questionnaires. Data were analyzed by multivariate repeated measurement variance analysis model. Findings revealed that the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment significantly improved the overall quality of life, role, cognitive, emotion, social functions and pain and fatigue symptoms in global life quality in the experimental group. It also significantly improved the body image, future functions and therapy side effects in specific life quality of the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, fatigue severity caused by cancer was reduced significantly. The results showed that the mindfulness - based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality and fatigue severity in women with breast cancer.

  13. Project-Level Conformity and Hot-Spot Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains policy guidance issued by EPA and/or the U.S. Department of Transportation to assist state and local transportation and air quality agencies implement the transportation conformity program.

  14. The World Database for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery: The Dawn of a New Era of Global Communication and Quality Improvement in Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    St Louis, James D; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Jonas, Richard A; Sandoval, Nestor; Cervantes, Jorge; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Jeffery P; Sakamoto, Kisaburo; Stellin, Giovanni; Kirklin, James K

    2017-09-01

    The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery was founded with the mission to "promote the highest quality comprehensive cardiac care to all patients with congenital heart disease, from the fetus to the adult, regardless of the patient's economic means, with an emphasis on excellence in teaching, research, and community service." Early on, the Society's members realized that a crucial step in meeting this goal was to establish a global database that would collect vital information, allowing cardiac surgical centers worldwide to benchmark their outcomes and improve the quality of congenital heart disease care. With tireless efforts from all corners of the globe and utilizing the vast experience and invaluable input of multiple international experts, such a platform of global information exchange was created: The World Database for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease went live on January 1, 2017. This database has been thoughtfully designed to produce meaningful performance and quality analyses of surgical outcomes extending beyond immediate hospital survival, allowing capture of important morbidities and mortalities for up to 1 year postoperatively. In order to advance the societal mission, this quality improvement program is available free of charge to WSPCHS members. In establishing the World Database, the Society has taken an essential step to further the process of global improvement in care for children with congenital heart disease.

  15. Global Seismology by Autonomous Mid-Column Oceanic Floats: A Quality Assessment of Four Years of MERMAID Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F.; Nolet, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Mobile Earthquake Recorder in Marine Areas by Independent Divers(MERMAID) project was launched in late 2012 with the mission ofclosing the seismic data gap in the world's oceans. Originally amodified ARGO float, the platform has matured to specially designedfloats that sink to a predetermined depth (usually 1500 m), listen viaa hydrophone, and then resurface to transmit data when an onboardevent detection algorithm determines a seismic signal was received. More than 20 MERMAIDs have been deployed over the past four years,first into the Mediterranean Sea and later in the Pacific and IndianOceans. Deployments range in length from months to years and havereturned over 1100 seismograms of positively identifiedearthquakes. Perhaps more interestingly, over 2000 seismograms havebeen returned which have not been matched to any earthquake in theNEIC PDE catalog. This evidence proves the project's value since dataare being recorded in previously unsampled regions and from smallearthquakes that all other stations on Earth have missed. Here we report on the quality and investigate the utility of thesedata. We ask: What can we realistically expect in terms ofsignal-to-noise ratios for this type of experiment? Can we construct arobust distance-magnitude relationship for positively identifiedevents, and if so, how does this inform our analysis of the thousandsof unidentified phases in the MERMAID catalog? How coherent aresignals across multiple MERMAIDs drifting in the same region and howdo network-based methods that are normally applied to land stationsalter or amplify the utility of these data? In short, we seek toanswer the question: How useful are the data, especially for regionaland global tomography? We employ wavelet-based analysis methods to answer many of thesequestions. We also investigate wavelet-based methods in order toimprove the timing accuracy of the automatic picking algorithm, avitally important consideration when applying these data totomographic inversions.

  16. Conformal cloak for waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huanyang; Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomas

    2011-05-15

    Conformal invisibility devices are only supposed to work within the valid range of geometrical optics. Here, we show by numerical simulations and analytical arguments that for certain quantized frequencies, they are nearly perfect even in a regime that clearly violates geometrical optics. The quantization condition follows from the analogy between the Helmholtz equation and the stationary Schroedinger equation.

  17. Conformational properties of pyrethroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaley, Anne; Taylor, Robin

    1994-04-01

    X-ray database searches and theoretical potential-energy calculations indicate that the acid moieties of pyrethroid cyclopropanecarboxylate esters adopt a well-defined, relatively inflexible conformation. In contrast, the alcohol moieties can exist in many low-energy geometries. One of the least conformationally flexible pyrethroid alcohols is 4-phenylindan-2-ol. The approximate overall conformation adopted at the biological binding site by insecticidal esters of this alcohol can be deduced with reasonable confidence by molecular modelling. Graphics superposition of a variety of pyrethroid acids suggests the existence of a large but rather narrow pocket at the binding site, in which substituents at the 3-position of the cyclopropane ring can be accommodated. This pocket is asymmetric with respect to the plane of the cyclopropane ring, extending further on the side remote from the ester group. The effects of α-substitution on the insecticidal activity of pyrethroid esters may be due to the influence of substituents on the preferred conformations of the molecules. This hypothesis rationalises the paradoxical dependence on absolute stereochemistry of the activities of various allylbenzyl and cinnamyl alcohol derivatives.

  18. Conformal Image Warping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    the unit disk Henrici has recently surveyed existing numerical conformal mapping algorithms [8]. For arbitrary shaped regions (which are approximated...22, 3 (August 1988),. 8. Henrici , P., in Applied and computational complex analysis, vol. 3, Wiley, New York,NY, 1986, 402-413. 9. Preparata, F. P

  19. PERSONALITY AND CONFORMITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAROCAS, RALPH; GORLOW, LEON

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS AND CONFORMITY. THE SUBJECTS WERE 243 RANDOMLY SELECTED STUDENTS ENROLLED IN COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY COURSES WHO WERE DIVIDED INTO GROUPS OF 97, 96, AND 50 SUBJECTS. A PERSONALITY FACTOR INVENTORY WAS OBTAINED FROM RESPONSES TO A LARGE LIST OF TRUE-FALSE PERSONALITY ITEM…

  20. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin; Geiko, Roman; Rappoport, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  1. Conformational changes in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vassili

    2005-12-01

    Biopolymer conformational changes are involved in many biological processes. This thesis summarizes some theoretical and experimental approaches which I have taken at UCLA to explore conformational changes in biopolymers. The reversible thermal denaturation of the DNA double helix is, perhaps, the simplest example of biopolymer conformational change. I have developed a statistical mechanics model of DNA melting with reduced degrees of freedom, which allows base stacking interaction to be taken into account and treat base pairing and stacking separately. Unlike previous models, this model describes both the unpairing and unstacking parts of the experimental melting curves and explains the observed temperature dependence of the effective thermodynamic parameters used in models of the nearest neighbor type. I developed a basic kinetic model for irreversible thermal denaturation of F-actin, which incorporates depolymerization of F-actin from the ends and breaking of F-actin fiber in the middle. The model explains the cooperativity of F-actin thermal denaturation observed by D. Pavlov et al. in differential calorimetry measurements. CG-rich DNA sequences form left-handed Z-DNA at high ionic strength or upon binding of polyvalent ions and some proteins. I studied experimentally the B-to-Z transition of the (CG)6 dodecamer. Improvement of the locally linearized model used to interpret the data gives evidence for an intermediate state in the B-to-Z transition of DNA, contrary to previous research on this subject. In the past 15 years it has become possible to study the conformational changes of biomolecules using single-molecule techniques. In collaboration with other lab members I performed a single-molecule experiment, where we monitored the displacement of a micrometer-size bead tethered to a surface by a DNA probe undergoing the conformational change. This technique allows probing of conformational changes with subnanometer accuracy. We applied the method to detect

  2. Ratings, Quality, and Accreditation: Policy Implications for Educational Communications and Technology Programs in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Ellen S.

    2013-01-01

    At a time when higher education is being pushed not only to increase efficiencies to provide greater value and to innovate to meet new global challenges, processes of accountability and accreditation to demonstrate quality may be leading to conformance and a one-size-fits-all model of what institutions and programs should be. Further, in the…

  3. Galilean conformal and superconformal symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Lukierski, J.

    2012-10-15

    Firstly we discuss briefly three different algebras named as nonrelativistic (NR) conformal: Schroedinger, Galilean conformal, and infinite algebra of local NR conformal isometries. Further we shall consider in some detail Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) obtained in the limit c{yields}{infinity} from relativistic conformal algebraO(d+1, 2) (d-number of space dimensions). Two different contraction limits providing GCA and some recently considered realizations will be briefly discussed. Finally by considering NR contraction of D = 4 superconformal algebra the Galilei conformal superalgebra (GCSA) is obtained, in the formulation using complexWeyl supercharges.

  4. Role of Global Stress in the Health-Related Quality of Life of Caregivers: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Litzelman, Kristin; Skinner, Halcyon G.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Nieto, F. Javier; Malecki, Kristen; Witt, Whitney P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Informal caregivers play a critical role in the care of individuals who are aging or have disabilities, and are at increased risk for poor health outcomes. This study sought to determine if and to what extent: 1) global stress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differed between caregivers and non-caregivers; 2) global stress mediated the relationship between caregiving status and HRQoL; and 3) caregiver strain (i.e., stress attributable to caregiving) was associated with worse HRQoL after accounting for global stress. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the 2008–2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a representative sample of adults aged 21–74 years. Participants (n=1,364) completed questionnaires about caregiving status, socio-demographics, global stress, and HRQoL. Staged generalized additive models assessed the impact of caregiving on HRQoL and the role of caregiver strain and global stress in this relationship. Results 17.2% of the sample reported caregiving in the last 12 months. Caregivers reported worse mental HRQoL than non-caregivers (Beta: −1.88, p=0.02); global stress mediated this relationship (p<0.01). Caregivers with the highest levels of strain reported worse mental and physical HRQoL (Beta: −7.12, p<0.01) and caregivers with the lowest levels of strain reported better mental HRQoL (Beta: 2.06, p=0.01) than non-caregivers; these associations were attenuated by global stress (p<0.01). Conclusion Global stress, rather than caregiving per se, contributes to poor HRQoL among caregivers, above and beyond the effect of caregiving strain. Screening, monitoring, and reducing stress in multiple life domains presents an opportunity to improve HRQoL outcomes for caregivers. PMID:24322907

  5. Japan's efforts to promote global health using satellite remote sensing data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for prediction of infectious diseases and air quality.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tamotsu; Kuze, Akihiko; Sobue, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Aya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Oyoshi, Kei; Imaoka, Keiji; Fukuda, Toru

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we review the status of new applications research of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for global health promotion using information derived from Earth observation data by satellites in cooperation with inter-disciplinary collaborators. Current research effort at JAXA to promote global public health is focused primarily on the use of remote sensing to address two themes: (i) prediction models for malaria and cholera in Kenya, Africa; and (ii) air quality assessment of small, particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Respiratory and cardivascular diseases constitute cross-boundary public health risk issues on a global scale. The authors report here on results of current of a collaborative research to call attention to the need to take preventive measures against threats to public health using newly arising remote sensing information from space.

  6. Driving photomask supplier quality through automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Drew; Espenscheid, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    In 2005, Freescale Semiconductor's newly centralized mask data prep organization (MSO) initiated a project to develop an automated global quality validation system for photomasks delivered to Freescale Semiconductor fabs. The system handles Certificate of Conformance (CofC) quality metric collection, validation, reporting and an alert system for all photomasks shipped to Freescale fabs from all qualified global suppliers. The completed system automatically collects 30+ quality metrics for each photomask shipped. Other quality metrics are generated from the collected data and quality metric conformance is automatically validated to specifications or control limits with failure alerts emailed to fab photomask and mask data prep engineering. A quality data warehouse stores the data for future analysis, which is performed quarterly. The improved access to data provided by the system has improved Freescale engineers' ability to spot trends and opportunities for improvement with our suppliers' processes. This paper will review each phase of the project, current system capabilities and quality system benefits for both our photomask suppliers and Freescale.

  7. The novel 2016 WHO Neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strains for global quality assurance of laboratory investigations: phenotypic, genetic and reference genome characterization.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Grad, Yonatan; Jacobsson, Susanne; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M; Limnios, Athena; Sikora, Aleksandra E; Wi, Teodora; Harris, Simon R

    2016-11-01

    Gonorrhoea and MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae remain public health concerns globally. Enhanced, quality-assured, gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is essential worldwide. The WHO global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was relaunched in 2009. We describe the phenotypic, genetic and reference genome characteristics of the 2016 WHO gonococcal reference strains intended for quality assurance in the WHO global GASP, other GASPs, diagnostics and research worldwide. The 2016 WHO reference strains (n = 14) constitute the eight 2008 WHO reference strains and six novel strains. The novel strains represent low-level to high-level cephalosporin resistance, high-level azithromycin resistance and a porA mutant. All strains were comprehensively characterized for antibiogram (n = 23), serovar, prolyliminopeptidase, plasmid types, molecular AMR determinants, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing STs and MLST STs. Complete reference genomes were produced using single-molecule PacBio sequencing. The reference strains represented all available phenotypes, susceptible and resistant, to antimicrobials previously and currently used or considered for future use in gonorrhoea treatment. All corresponding resistance genotypes and molecular epidemiological types were described. Fully characterized, annotated and finished references genomes (n = 14) were presented. The 2016 WHO gonococcal reference strains are intended for internal and external quality assurance and quality control in laboratory investigations, particularly in the WHO global GASP and other GASPs, but also in phenotypic (e.g. culture, species determination) and molecular diagnostics, molecular AMR detection, molecular epidemiology and as fully characterized, annotated and finished reference genomes in WGS analysis, transcriptomics, proteomics and other molecular technologies and data analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  8. Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.

  9. Consistent High-Quality Global SO2 and HCHO Datasets from EOS Aura/OMI and Suomi NPP/OMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Joiner, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C. A.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We report on recent effort and progress at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in developing consistent SO2 and HCHO retrieval products from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP)/Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper. Given the substantial differences between OMI and OMPS in several key aspects, such as spatial and spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, a major challenge in ensuring data continuity between the two instruments is to properly account for different instrument characteristics as well as instruments' degradation over time. To this end, we have developed an innovative approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) of measured Earthshine radiances. We utilize a PCA technique to extract a series of spectral features (principal components or PCs) explaining the variance of measured reflectance spectra, associated with both physical processes (e.g., ozone absorption, rotational Raman scattering) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). By fitting these PCs along with pre-computed Jacobians for our target species (SO2 or HCHO) to the measured radiance spectra, we can estimate the atmospheric loading of SO2 or HCHO while minimizing the impacts of interfering processes and measurement imperfection on retrievals. Since no explicit instrument-specific radiance data correction scheme is required, the PCA method is easily implemented with both OMI and OMPS and maximizes data continuity. The PCA algorithm currently runs operationally in the production of the new generation NASA standard OMI planetary boundary layer (PBL) SO2 data that have been shown to improve the detection limit of anthropogenic SO2 emission sources by a factor of two, as compared with the previous generation product. In this presentation, we will demonstrate that the PCA algorithm can produce SO2 and HCHO retrievals from OMPS that have comparable data quality with our OMI retrievals. We will also demonstrate

  10. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  11. Conformal ALON® windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Smith, Mark; Nag, Nagendra; Foti, Robyn; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet controls every aspect of the manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in its production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for complex geometries, larger sizes and higher quantities, is underway. The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. Surmet's ability to produce large curved ALON® blanks is an important step in the development of conformal windows for future aircraft applications.

  12. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  13. Conformal gripping device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a conformal gripping device. In an embodiment of the present invention a conformal gripper device may be disclosed comprising a frame that includes an array of movable pins. The device may also include a roller locking and unlocking system within the frame. The system may comprise a pair of locking rollers for each row of gripper pins to facilitate locking and unlocking the array of gripper pins on a column-by-column basis. The system may also include a striker element that may force the locking rollers to roll along an angled roll surface to facilitate unlocking of the array of pins on a column-by-column basis. The system may further include an electromagnetic actuator or solenoid and permanent magnets to facilitate movement of the striker element and the locking rollers.

  14. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  16. Ordering in Conformal Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Vishal; Gomez, Leopoldo; Irvine, William

    2014-03-01

    Condensed matter systems commonly undergo ordering processes that are frustrated by geometric constraints. Experiments on interfacial colloidal systems have resulted in several recent insights into the two dimensional ordering of crystalline lattices frustrated by Gaussian curvature. We study the ordering of flat colloidal Wigner crystals immersed in an axially symmetric potential. By relating the resulting inhomogenous structure to a lattice with Gaussian curvature, we investigate the role of topological defects in organizing the conformal crystal-like ground state.

  17. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  18. The conformal bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2016-06-01

    The conformal bootstrap was proposed in the 1970s as a strategy for calculating the properties of second-order phase transitions. After spectacular success elucidating two-dimensional systems, little progress was made on systems in higher dimensions until a recent renaissance beginning in 2008. We report on some of the main results and ideas from this renaissance, focusing on new determinations of critical exponents and correlation functions in the three-dimensional Ising and O(N) models.

  19. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 force field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.

  20. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    DOE PAGES

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; ...

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore » field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  1. Hot conformal gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g6ln⁡(1/g) in the coupling constant for vectorlike SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Because of large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation. We show that the reduced free energy changes sign, at the second, fifth, and sixth order in the coupling, when decreasing the number of flavors from the upper end of the conformal window. If the change in sign is interpreted as a signal of an instability of the system then we infer a critical number of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i.e. they are independent of the specific matter representation.

  2. Electrical control of protein conformation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Alwin M D; Schur, Rebecca M; Ober, Christopher K; Fischbach, Claudia; Gourdon, Delphine; Malliaras, George G

    2012-05-08

    Conducting polymer devices that enable precise control of fibronectin conformation over macroscopic areas are reported. Single conformations as well as conformation gradients are achieved by applying an appropriate potential. These surfaces remain biologically relevant and support cell culture; hence, they may serve as a model to understand and control cell-surface interactions, with applications in basic research, medical diagnostics, and tissue engineering.

  3. Surgeons' and Trauma Care Physicians' Perception of the Impact of the Globalization of Medical Education on Quality of Care in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    LaGrone, Lacey N; Isquith-Dicker, Leah N; Huaman Egoavil, Eduardo; Rodriguez Castro, Manuel J A; Allagual, Alfredo; Revoredo, Fernando; Mock, Charles N

    2017-03-01

    The globalization of medical education-the process by which trainees in any region gain access to international training (electronic or in-person)-is a growing trend. More data are needed to inform next steps in the responsible stewardship of this process, from the perspective of trainees and institutions at all income levels, and for use by national and international policymakers. To describe the impact of the globalization of medical education on surgical care in Peru from the perspective of Peruvian surgeons who received international training. Observational study of qualitative interviews conducted from September 2015 to January 2016 using grounded theory qualitative research methods. The study was conducted at 10 large public institutions that provide most of the trauma care in Lima, Peru, and included urban resident and faculty surgery and trauma care physicians. Access to international surgical rotations and medical information. Outcome measures defining the impact of globalization on surgical care were developed as part of simultaneous data collection and analysis during qualitative research as part of a larger project on trauma quality improvement practices in Peru. Fifty qualitative interviews of surgeons and emergency medicine physicians were conducted at 10 hospitals, including multiple from the public and social security systems. A median of 4 interviews were conducted at each hospital, and fewer than 3 interviews were conducted at only 1 hospital. From the broader theme of globalization emerged subthemes of an eroded sense of agency and a perception of inadequate training on the adaptation of international standards as negative effects of globalization on surgical care in Peru. Access to research funds, provision of incentives for acquisition of advanced clinical training, increased expectations for patient outcomes, and education in quality improvement skills are ways in which globalization positively affected surgeons and their patients in Peru

  4. Broken current anomalous dimensions, conformal manifolds, and renormalization group flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashmakov, Vladimir; Bertolini, Matteo; Raj, Himanshu

    2017-03-01

    We consider deformations of a conformal field theory that explicitly break some global symmetries of the theory. If the deformed theory is still a conformal field theory, one can exploit the constraints put by conformal symmetry to compute broken currents anomalous dimensions. We consider several instances of this scenario, using field theory techniques and also holographic ones, where necessary. Field theoretical methods suffice to discuss examples of symmetry-breaking deformations of the O (N ) model in d =4 -ɛ dimensions. Holography is instrumental, instead, for computing current anomalous dimensions in β -deformed superconformal field theories and in a class of supersymmetric renormalization group flows at large N .

  5. Sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk among older adults from six middle-income countries: findings from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Gildner, Theresa E; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Josh Snodgrass, J

    2014-01-01

    Changes in sleep patterns often occur in older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends in lower-income countries. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to examine these relationships. Two hypotheses related to obesity risk and sleep patterns were tested using data from the first wave of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). This longitudinal study draws on samples of older adults (>50 years old) in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa). Self-report data were used to measure sleep duration, sleep quality, lifestyle and sociodemographic information, while anthropometric measurements were collected to assess body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and obesity risk while controlling for lifestyle factors. Shorter sleep durations in both men and women were significantly associated with higher BMI and WC measures (P < 0.05). Low sleep quality did not significantly contribute to increased obesity risk. Surprisingly, high sleep quality was significantly associated with increased male BMI and WC in China and India (P < 0.01). This study documented an association between short sleep duration and increased obesity risk, which is important given the global increase of obesity-related diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist binding site. Part I: Active conformation of cyproheptadine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drooge, Marc J.; Donné-op den Kelder, Gabriëlle M.; Timmerman, Hendrik

    1991-08-01

    The active conformation of several histamine H1-antagonists is investigated. As a template molecule we used the antagonist cyproheptadine, which consists of a piperidylene ring connected to a tricyclic system. The piperidylene moiety is shown to be flexible. The global minimum is a chair conformation but, additionally, a second chair and various boat conformations have to be considered, as their energies are less than 5 kcal/mol above the energy of the global minimum. Two semi-rigid histamine H1-antagonists, phenindamine and triprolidine, were fitted onto the various conformations of cyproheptadine in order to derive the pharmacologically active conformation of cyproheptadine. At the same time, the active conformation of both phenindamine and triprolidine was derived. It is demonstrated that, within the receptor-bound conformation of cyproheptadine, the piperidylene ring most probably exists in a boat form.

  7. Utilizing global data to estimate analytical performance on the Sigma scale: A global comparative analysis of methods, instruments, and manufacturers through external quality assurance and proficiency testing programs.

    PubMed

    Westgard, Sten A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the analytical performance of instruments and methods through external quality assessment and proficiency testing data on the Sigma scale. A representative report from five different EQA/PT programs around the world (2 US, 1 Canadian, 1 UK, and 1 Australasian) was accessed. The instrument group standard deviations were used as surrogate estimates of instrument imprecision. Performance specifications from the US CLIA proficiency testing criteria were used to establish a common quality goal. Then Sigma-metrics were calculated to grade the analytical performance. Different methods have different Sigma-metrics for each analyte reviewed. Summary Sigma-metrics estimate the percentage of the chemistry analytes that are expected to perform above Five Sigma, which is where optimized QC design can be implemented. The range of performance varies from 37% to 88%, exhibiting significant differentiation between instruments and manufacturers. Median Sigmas for the different manufacturers in three analytes (albumin, glucose, sodium) showed significant differentiation. Chemistry tests are not commodities. Quality varies significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer, instrument to instrument, and method to method. The Sigma-assessments from multiple EQA/PT programs provide more insight into the performance of methods and instruments than any single program by itself. It is possible to produce a ranking of performance by manufacturer, instrument and individual method. Laboratories seeking optimal instrumentation would do well to consult this data as part of their decision-making process. To confirm that these assessments are stable and reliable, a longer term study should be conducted that examines more results over a longer time period. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective versus interviewer assessment of global quality of life among persons with schizophrenia living in the community: a Nordic multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Hansson, Lars; Sandlund, Mikael; Bjarnason, Olafur; Korkeila, Jyrki; Merinder, Lars; Nilsson, Liselotte; Sørgaard, Knut Wollo; Vinding, Hanne R; Middelboe, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Few studies have investigated differences between subjective and externally assessed quality of life in individuals with a severe mental illness. In a sample of 387 patients with schizophrenia living in the community the present study investigated the association between subjective and interviewer-rated quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic factors related to the two assessments, and if discrepancies in the assessments were related to any clinical or social features of the patients. The study was a Nordic multicentre study with a cross-sectional design. Instruments used were the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction, Camberwell Assessment of Needs and General Assessment of Functioning. The correlation between subjective and interviewer-rated quality of life was moderate (ICC = 0.33). More severe affective symptoms, fewer emotional relations and a lower monthly income were related to poorer subjectively rated quality of life but in a stepwise multiple regression analysis accounted for only 14.1% of the variance. Poorer interviewer-rated quality of life was mainly related to a more severe psychopathology but also to a lower monthly income, fewer emotional relations and not being employed. Together these factors accounted for 45.5% of the variance. A greater discrepancy between the subjective and the interviewer rating was found in patients with less affective symptoms, unemployment, and a better social network. Only a moderate correlation between subjective and interviewer-assessed global quality of life was found, implying that the sources of assessment differed, as was also shown in subsequent regression models. It is concluded that both perspectives on the patient's quality of life may be valuable for treatment planning, especially in cases where differences in quality of life assessment related to the patient's psychopathology may be expected.

  9. Simulating Massive Conformation Changes within Polypeptide Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaspinder Paul

    In this dissertation I employ all-atom structure based models with stable energy basins to several existing and novel polypeptide systems (postulated conformation changes of the mammalian prion protein and structurally dual proteins). The common themes are finding unfolding and refolding pathways between highly dissimilar protein structures as a means of understanding exactly how and why a protein may misfold. The modeling is based on the energy funnel landscape theory of protein conformation space. The principle of minimal frustration is considered as the model includes parameters which vary the roughness of the landscape and give rise to off-pathway misfoldings. The dual basin model is applied to the C-terminal (residues 166-226) of the mammalian prion protein. One basin represents the known alpha-helical (aH) structure while the other represents the same residues in a lefthanded beta-helical (LHBH) conformation. The LHBH structure has been proposed to help describe one class of in vitro grown fibrils, as well as possibly self-templating the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to the infectious form. Yet, it is unclear how the protein may make this global rearrangement. Our results demonstrate that the conformation changes are not strongly limited by large-scale geometry modification and that there may exist an overall preference for the LHBH conformation. Furthermore, our model presents novel intermediate trapping conformations with twisted LHBH structure. Polypeptides that display structural duality have primary structures that can give rise to different potential native conformations. We apply the structure-based all-atom model to a leucine zipper protein template with a stable aH structure that has been shown in experiment to switch to a β hairpin structure when exposed to a low-pH environment. We show that the model can be used to perform large-scale temperature-dependent conformational switching by simulating this switching behavior. We augmented

  10. Conformal Janus on Euclidean sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-12-01

    We interpret Janus as an interface in a conformal field theory and study its properties. The Janus is created by an exactly marginal operator and we study its effect on the interface conformal field theory on the Janus. We do this by utilizing the AdS/CFT correspondence. We compute the interface free energy both from leading correction to the Euclidean action in the dual gravity description and from conformal perturbation theory in the conformal field theory. We find that the two results agree each other and that the interface free energy scales precisely as expected from the conformal invariance of the Janus interface.

  11. Conformal vectors and stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjonjo, A. M.; Maharaj, S. D.; Moopanar, S.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between conformal symmetries and relativistic spheres in astrophysics is studied. We use the nonvanishing components of the Weyl tensor to classify the conformal symmetries in static spherical spacetimes. It is possible to find an explicit connection between the two gravitational potentials for both conformally flat and nonconformally flat cases. We show that the conformal Killing vector admits time dependence in terms of quadratic, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. The Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell field equations can be written in terms of a single potential, any choice of which leads to an exact solution. Previous results of conformally invariant static spheres are contained in our treatment.

  12. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  13. Improving the global SST record: estimates of biases from engine room intake SST using high quality satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.; Morak-Bozzo, Simone; Merchant, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is the marine component of the global surface temperature record, a primary metric of climate change. SST observations from ships form one of the longest instrumental records of surface marine climate. However, over the years several different methods of measuring SST have been used, each with different bias characteristics. The estimation of systematic biases in the SST record is critical for climatic decadal predictions, and uncertainties in long-term trends are expected to be dominated by uncertainties in biases introduced by changes of instrumentation and measurement practices. Although the largest systematic errors in SST observations relate to the period before about 1940, where SST measurements were mostly made using buckets, there are also issues with modern data, in particular when the SST reported is the temperature of the engine-room cooling water intake (ERI). Physical models for biases in ERI SSTs have not been developed as the details of the individual setup on each ship are extremely important, and almost always unknown. Existing studies estimate that the typical ERI biases are around 0.2°C and most estimates of the mean bias fall between 0.1°C and 0.3°C, but there is some evidence of much larger differences. However, these analyses provide only broad estimates, being based only on subsamples of the data and ignoring ship-by-ship differences. Here we take advantage of a new, high spatial resolution, gap-filled, daily SST for the period 1992-2010 from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) for SST dataset version 1.1. In this study, we use a Bayesian statistical model to characterise the uncertainty in reports of ERI SST for individual ships using the ESA CCI SST as a reference. A Bayesian spatial analysis is used to model the differences of the observed SST from the ESA CCI SST for each ship as a constant offset plus a function of the climatological SST. This was found to be an important term

  14. Conformal dome aberration correction by designing the inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    The ray transmission models of optical domes were established, and the characteristics of the rays while passing through a hemispherical dome and a conformal dome were comparatively analysed. Acquiring the minimum deviated angles from the inner surface of the conformal dome was then determined to be the designing goal for reducing the dynamic aberrations. Based on this, the inner surface of the conformal dome was optimized and thus, the dynamic aberrations were reduced. Finally, a completely cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the optical system have produced good imaging quality within all the fields of regard, which further illustrates that designing the inner surface of a conformal dome is an effective method for aberration correction.

  15. OSI Conformance Testing for Bibliographic Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbez, Gilbert; Swain, Leigh

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) conformance testing sites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services. Discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing. A glossary is included. (24 references) (SD)

  16. OSI Conformance Testing for Bibliographic Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbez, Gilbert; Swain, Leigh

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) conformance testing sites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services. Discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing. A glossary is included. (24 references) (SD)

  17. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  18. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-01-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control. PMID:22355655

  19. The conformal manifold of Chern-Simons matter theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marco S.; Penati, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We determine perturbatively the conformal manifold of mathcal{N} = 2 Chern-Simons matter theories with the aim of checking in the three dimensional case the general prescription based on global symmetry breaking, recently introduced in [1-3]. We discuss in details few remarkable cases like the mathcal{N} = 6 ABJM theory and its less supersymmetric generalizations with/without flavors. In all cases we find perfect agreement with the predictions of global symmetry breaking prescription. For unflavored theories the conformal manifold is a three dimensional compact surface. This feature is peculiar of three dimensions, as it has no direct analogue in four dimensional supersymmetric models.

  20. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-04-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally, from eight world regions, and from three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8%) and avoids 157 000 (95% confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. While most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving East Asian emissions (54%), followed by South Asian emissions (31%), South Asian emissions have 50% greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, the contribution of residential, industrial, and transportation BC emissions to PM2.5-related mortality is 1.3, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's contribution to anthropogenic BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population. Impacts of residential BC emissions are underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ~8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting that these results greatly underestimate the full air pollution-related mortality benefits of BC mitigation strategies which generally decrease both BC and OC. Confidence in our results would be strengthened by reducing uncertainties in emissions, model parameterization of aerosol processes, grid resolution, and PM2

  1. Conformational Dynamics and Allostery in Pyruvate Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Katherine A.; Zhu, Shaolong; Liuni, Peter; Peng, Fen; Kessans, Sarah A.; Wilson, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the final step in glycolysis and is allosterically regulated to control flux through the pathway. Two models are proposed to explain how Escherichia coli pyruvate kinase type 1 is allosterically regulated: the “domain rotation model” suggests that both the domains within the monomer and the monomers within the tetramer reorient with respect to one another; the “rigid body reorientation model” proposes only a reorientation of the monomers within the tetramer causing rigidification of the active site. To test these hypotheses and elucidate the conformational and dynamic changes that drive allostery, we performed time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies followed by mutagenic analysis to test the activation mechanism. Global exchange experiments, supported by thermostability studies, demonstrate that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding to the allosteric domain causes a shift toward a globally more dynamic ensemble of conformations. Mapping deuterium exchange to peptides within the enzyme highlight site-specific regions with altered conformational dynamics, many of which increase in conformational flexibility. Based upon these and mutagenic studies, we propose an allosteric mechanism whereby the binding of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate destabilizes an α-helix that bridges the allosteric and active site domains within the monomeric unit. This destabilizes the β-strands within the (β/α)8-barrel domain and the linked active site loops that are responsible for substrate binding. Our data are consistent with the domain rotation model but inconsistent with the rigid body reorientation model given the increased flexibility at the interdomain interface, and we can for the first time explain how fructose 1,6-bisphosphate affects the active site. PMID:26879751

  2. An evaluation study of the determinants of future perspective and global Quality of Life in Spanish long-term premenopausal early-stage breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Illarramendi, Jose Juan; Salgado, Esteban; de la Cruz, Susana; Asin, Gemma; Manterola, Ana; Ibañez, Berta; Zarandona, Uxue; Dominguez, Miguel Angel; Vera, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Quality of life (QL) is important in premenopausal long-term breast cancer survivors. In this study we assessed QL and factors associated with future perspective and global QL in premenopausal early-stage long-term breast cancer survivors from Spain. Material and methods 243 premenopausal stage I-IIIA relapse-free breast cancer patients who had received surgery 5–20 years previously completed EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires once during follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results QL mean scores were high in most areas (> 80 in functioning; < 20 in symptoms). The main factors for future perspective were emotional and social functioning, fatigue, breast symptom, and body image. The main factors for global QL were fatigue, pain and physical functioning, and emotional and social functioning. The best logistic model to explain future perspective associated high emotional and social functioning and low breast symptoms with a lower risk of low future perspective (R2 = 0.56). Higher scores in physical and emotional functioning and lower scores in fatigue were associated with a lower risk of low global QL (R2 = 0.50). Conclusions Psychological, social, and physical factors were found to be possible determinants of global QL and future perspective. QL in premenopausal early-stage long-term breast cancer survivors may benefit from multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:27358597

  3. Effecting change in primary care management of respiratory conditions: a global scoping exercise and literature review of educational interventions to inform the IPCRG's E-Quality initiative.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Juliet; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Fardy, H John; Fletcher, Monica; Stout, James; Tomlins, Ron; Yusuf, Osman M; Pinnock, Hilary

    2012-12-01

    This discussion paper describes a scoping exercise and literature review commissioned by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) to inform their E-Quality programme which seeks to support small-scale educational projects to improve respiratory management in primary care. Our narrative review synthesises information from three sources: publications concerning the global context and health systems development; a literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases; and a series of eight interviews conducted with members of the IPCRG faculty. Educational interventions sit within complex healthcare, economic, and policy contexts. It is essential that any development project considers the local circumstances in terms of economic resources, political circumstances, organisation and administrative capacities, as well as the specific quality issue to be addressed. There is limited evidence (in terms of changed clinician behaviour and/or improved health outcomes) regarding the merits of different educational and quality improvement approaches. Features of educational interventions that were most likely to show some evidence of effectiveness included being carefully designed, multifaceted, engaged health professionals in their learning, provided ongoing support, were sensitive to local circumstances, and delivered in combination with other quality improvement strategies. To be effective, educational interventions must consider the complex healthcare systems within which they operate. The criteria for the IPCRG E-Quality awards thus require applicants not only to describe their proposed educational initiative but also to consider the practical and local barriers to successful implementation, and to propose a robust evaluation in terms of changed clinician behaviour or improved health outcomes.

  4. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  5. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  6. Supergravitational conformal Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-08-01

    The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios

  7. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  8. Amitriptylinium picrate: conformational disorder.

    PubMed

    Bindya, S; Wong, Wing-Tak; Ashok, M A; Yathirajan, H S; Rathore, R S

    2007-09-01

    In the structure of the title salt [systematic name: 3-(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d][7]annulen-5-ylidene)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-aminium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate] of a tricyclic antidepressant, C(20)H(24)N+.C(6)H(2)N(3)O(7)-, the dimethylaminopropyl subunit possesses a classical static conformational disorder. The central cycloheptadiene ring adopts a bent conformation that is intermediate between boat and chair forms, leading to a butterfly shape for the hetero-tricyclic moiety. In a complementary fashion, donors from amitriptyline and acceptors from picrate form intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bonds and N-H...O salt bridges. These hydrogen bonds cluster amitriptyline and picrate ions into a closed R4(4)(36) hetero-tetramer, whereas intermolecular C-H...pi interactions between amitriptyline ions cluster them into homo-dimers. Significant pi-pi stacking interactions are also observed between aromatic rings of amitriptyline and picrate, and these, combined with the C-H...pi interactions, associate molecules into linear arrays along the [111] direction.

  9. Evaluating the Research Quality of Education Journals in China: Implications for Increasing Global Impact in Peripheral Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Wang, Lihshing Leigh

    2017-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth of academic research and publishing in non-Western countries. However, academic journal articles in these peripheral countries suffer from low citation impact and limited global recognition. This critical review systematically analyzed 1,096 education research journal articles that were published in China in a 10-year…

  10. Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is intended for managers and scientists worki...

  11. How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review.

    PubMed

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Biehl, João; Ribeiro, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Tackling climate change at the global level is central to a growing field of scientific research on topics such as environmental health, disease burden, and its resulting economic impacts. At the local level, cities constitute an important hub of atmospheric pollution due to the large amount of pollutants that they emit. As the world population shifts to urban centers, cities will increasingly concentrate more exposed populations. Yet, there is still significant progress to be made in understanding the contribution of urban pollutants other than CO2, such as vehicle emissions, to global climate change. It is therefore particularly important to study how local governments are managing urban air pollution. This paper presents an overview of local air pollution control policies and programs that aim to reduce air pollution levels in megacities. It also presents evidence measuring their efficacy. The paper argues that local air pollution policies are not only beneficial for cities but are also important for mitigating and adapting to global climate change. The results systematize several policy approaches used around the world and suggest the need for more in-depth cross-city studies with the potential to highlight best practices both locally and globally. Finally, it calls for the inclusion of a more human rights-based approach as a mean of guaranteeing of clean air for all and reducing factors that exacerbate climate change.

  12. Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is intended for managers and scientists worki...

  13. The impact of global budgeting on health service utilization, health care expenditures, and quality of care among patients with pneumonia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-Y; Ma, T; Lin, C-C; Kao, C-H

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of global budgeting on health service utilization, health care expenditures, and the quality of care among patients with pneumonia in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used for analysis. Data on patients diagnosed with pneumonia during 2000-2001 (the prebudget group) were used as the baseline data, and data on patients diagnosed with pneumonia during 2004-2005 (the postbudget group) were used as the postintervention data. The length of stay (LOS), diagnostic costs, drug costs, therapy costs, total costs, risk of readmission within 14 days, and risk of revisiting the Emergency Department (ED) within 3 days of discharge before and after implementing the global budget system were analyzed and compared. Data on 32,535 patients with pneumonia were analyzed. The mean LOS increased from 6.36 ± 0.07 to 10.78 ± 0.09 days after implementing the global budget system. The mean total costs in the prebudget and postbudget groups were 22,697.82 ± 542.40 and 62,016.7 ± 793.19 New Taiwan dollars (NT$), respectively. The mean rate of revisiting the ED within 3 days decreased from 5.5 ± 0.2 % to 4.6 ± 0.1 % in the prebudget and postbudget groups, respectively. The mean rates of readmission within 14 days before were 6.1 ± 0.2 % and 8.2 ± 0.2 % in the prebudget and postbudget groups, respectively. Global budgeting is associated with a significantly longer LOS, higher health care costs, and poorer quality of care among patients with pneumonia.

  14. Impacts on quality-induced water scarcity: drivers of nitrogen-related water pollution transfer under globalization from 1995 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liyang; Cai, Wenjia; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can

    2016-07-01

    Globalization enables the transfer of impacts on water availability. We argue that the threat should be evaluated not only by decrease of quantity, but more importantly by the degradation of water quality in exporting countries. Grouping the world into fourteen regions, this paper establishes a multi-region input-output framework to calculate the nitrogen-related grey water footprint and a water quality-induced scarcity index caused by pollution, for the period of 1995 to 2009. It is discovered that grey water embodied in international trade has been growing faster than total grey water footprint. China, the USA and India were the three top grey water exporters which accounted for more than half the total traded grey water. Dilemma rose when China and India were facing highest grey water scarcity. The EU and the USA were biggest grey water importers that alleviated their water stress by outsourcing water pollution. A structural decomposition analysis is conducted to study the drivers to the evolution of virtual flows of grey water under globalization during the period of 1995 to 2009. The results show that despite the technical progress that offset the growth of traded grey water, structural effects under globalization including both evolution in the globalized economic system and consumption structure, together with consumption volume made a positive contribution. It is found that the structural effect intensified the pollution-induced water scarcity of exporters as it generally increased all nations’ imported grey water while resulting in increases in only a few nations’ exported grey water, such as Brazil, China and Indonesia. At last, drawing from the ‘cap-and-trade’ and ‘boarder-tax-adjustment’ schemes, we propose policy recommendations that ensure water security and achieve environmentally sustainable trade from both the sides of production and consumption.

  15. Effect of Global Posture Reeducation and of Static Stretching on Pain, Range of Motion, and Quality of Life in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana Cláudia Violino; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15) performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16) performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale), range of motion (by goniometry), and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire). The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS Significant pain relief and range of motion improvement were observed after treatment in both groups, with a slight reduction at follow-up time. Quality of life also improved after treatment, except for the global posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients. PMID:19060998

  16. Modeling the Impacts of Global Climate and Regional Land Use Change on Regional Climate, Air Quality and Public Health in the New York Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Kinney, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    There is an imminent need to downscale the global climate models used by international consortiums like the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to predict the future regional impacts of climate change. To meet this need, a "place-based" climate model that makes specific regional projections about future environmental conditions local inhabitants could face is being created by the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, in collaboration with other researchers and universities, for New York City and the 31 surrounding counties. This presentation describes the design and initial results of this modeling study, aimed at simulating the effects of global climate change and regional land use change on climate and air quality over the northeastern United States in order to project the associated public health impacts in the region. Heat waves and elevated concentrations of ozone and fine particles are significant current public health stressors in the New York metropolitan area. The New York Climate and Health Project is linking human dimension and natural sciences models to assess the potential for future public health impacts from heat stress and air quality, and yield improved tools for assessing climate change impacts. The model will be applied to the NY metropolitan east coast region. The following questions will be addressed: 1. What changes in the frequency and severity of extreme heat events are likely to occur over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and land cover (LU/LC) and climate change in the region? 2. How might the frequency and severity of episodic concentrations of ozone (O3) and airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5 æm in diameter (PM2.5) change over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and climate change in the metropolitan region? 3. What is the range of possible human health impacts of these changes in the region? 4. How might projected future human

  17. Freely available conformer generation methods: how good are they?

    PubMed

    Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Morris, Garrett M; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-05-25

    Conformer generation has important implications in cheminformatics, particularly in computational drug discovery where the quality of conformer generation software may affect the outcome of a virtual screening exercise. We examine the performance of four freely available small molecule conformer generation tools (Balloon, Confab, Frog2, and RDKit) alongside a commercial tool (MOE). The aim of this study is 3-fold: (i) to identify which tools most accurately reproduce experimentally determined structures; (ii) to examine the diversity of the generated conformational set; and (iii) to benchmark the computational time expended. These aspects were tested using a set of 708 drug-like molecules assembled from the OMEGA validation set and the Astex Diverse Set. These molecules have varying physicochemical properties and at least one known X-ray crystal structure. We found that RDKit and Confab are statistically better than other methods at generating low rmsd conformers to the known structure. RDKit is particularly suited for less flexible molecules while Confab, with its systematic approach, is able to generate conformers which are geometrically closer to the experimentally determined structure for molecules with a large number of rotatable bonds (≥10). In our tests RDKit also resulted as the second fastest method after Frog2. In order to enhance the performance of RDKit, we developed a postprocessing algorithm to build a diverse and representative set of conformers which also contains a close conformer to the known structure. Our analysis indicates that, with postprocessing, RDKit is a valid free alternative to commercial, proprietary software.

  18. Recent Advances in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James; Chaykov, Spasen

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in alternative gravitational theories. Although MOND remains the leading candidate among the alternative models, Conformal Gravity has been studied by Mannheim and O'Brien to solve the rotation curve problem without the need for dark matter. Recently, Mannheim, O'Brien and Chaykov have begun solving other gravitational questions in Conformal Gravity. In this presentation, we highlight the new work of Conformal Gravity's application to random motions of clusters (the original Zwicky problem), gravitational bending of light, gravitational lensing and a very recent survey of dwarf galaxy rotation curves. We will show in each case that Conformal Gravity can provide an accurate explanation and prediction of the data without the need for dark matter. Coupled with the fact that Conformal Gravity is a fully re-normalizable metric theory of gravity, these results help to push Conformal Gravity onto a competitive stage against other alternative models.

  19. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  20. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  1. NOAA's National Air Quality Predictions and Development of Aerosol and Atmospheric Composition Prediction Components for the Next Generation Global Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; Hou, Y. T.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Stein, A. F.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J.; Huang, H. C.; Upadhayay, S.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA provides operational air quality predictions using the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC): ozone and wildfire smoke for the United States and airborne dust for the contiguous 48 states at http://airquality.weather.gov. NOAA's predictions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) became publicly available in February 2016. Ozone and PM2.5 predictions are produced using a system that operationally links the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with meteorological inputs from the North American mesoscale forecast Model (NAM). Smoke and dust predictions are provided using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Current NAQFC focus is on updating CMAQ to version 5.0.2, improving PM2.5 predictions, and updating emissions estimates, especially for NOx using recently observed trends. Wildfire smoke emissions from a newer version of the USFS BlueSky system are being included in a new configuration of the NAQFC NAM-CMAQ system, which is re-run for the previous 24 hours when the wildfires were observed from satellites, to better represent wildfire emissions prior to initiating predictions for the next 48 hours. In addition, NOAA is developing the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) to represent the earth system for extended weather prediction. NGGPS will include a representation of atmospheric dynamics, physics, aerosols and atmospheric composition as well as coupling with ocean, wave, ice and land components. NGGPS is being developed with a broad community involvement, including community developed components and academic research to develop and test potential improvements for potentially inclusion in NGGPS. Several investigators at NOAA's research laboratories and in academia are working to improve the aerosol and gaseous chemistry representation for NGGPS, to develop and evaluate the representation of atmospheric composition, and to establish and improve the coupling with radiation and microphysics

  2. Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Henan Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.

  3. Conformal array antenna subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    An antenna subsystem to communicate between Ariane 4 and a data relay satellite was studied, concluding that the original ideas on ring antennas should be corrected due to the wide margin of coverage required in elevation for such antennas, which implies the need of splitting the coverage. Nevertheless, the study of cylindrical and conical conformal arrays was continued in view of their intrinsic interest. Needed coverages with specified gain can be obtained with a set of microstrip circular patch antennas. For the lower stage, a single patch is enough. For geostationary missions, one horizontal array is used, and for heliosynchronous missions two horizontal arrays and a vertical one. The numerical study carried out on omniazimuthal ring antennas shows that a tendency to omnidirectional pattern exists in spite of the directivity of the elementary radiators. A small pointing improvement of the meridian pattern can be obtained by means of conical arrays instead of the cylindrical ones.

  4. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  5. Thermal insulating conformal blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Andrea (Inventor); Whittington, Charles A (Inventor); Eilertson, Bryan (Inventor); Siminski, Zenon (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The conformal thermal insulating blanket may have generally rigid batting material covered by an outer insulating layer formed of a high temperature resistant woven ceramic material and an inner insulating layer formed of a woven ceramic fiber material. The batting and insulating layers may be fastened together by sewing or stitching using an outer mold layer thread fabricated of a high temperature resistant material and an inner mold layer thread of a ceramic fiber material. The batting may be formed to a composite structure that may have a firmness factor sufficient to inhibit a pillowing effect after the stitching to not more than 0.03 inch. The outer insulating layer and an upper portion of the batting adjacent the outer insulating layer may be impregnated with a ceramic coating material.

  6. Conformally symmetric relativistic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Sardar, Iftikar Hossain; Chakraborty, Koushik

    2017-03-01

    We investigate whether compact stars having Tolman-like interior geometry admit conformal symmetry. Taking anisotropic pressure along the two principal directions within the compact object, we obtain physically relevant quantities such as transverse and radial pressure, density and redshift function. We study the equation of state (EOS) for the matter distribution inside the star. From the relation between pressure and density function of the constituent matter, we explore the nature and properties of the interior matter. The redshift function and compactness parameter are found to be physically reasonable. The matter inside the star satisfies the null, weak and strong energy conditions. Finally, we compare the masses and radii predicted from the model with corresponding values in some observed stars.

  7. Conformal model of gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, John F.

    2017-08-01

    In the description of general covariance, the vierbein and the Lorentz connection can be treated as independent fundamental fields. With the usual gauge Lagrangian, the Lorentz connection is characterized by an asymptotically free running coupling. When running from high energy, the coupling gets large at a scale which can be called the Planck mass. If the Lorentz connection is confined at that scale, the low energy theory can have the Einstein Lagrangian induced at low energy through dimensional transmutation. However, in general there will be new divergences in such a theory and the Lagrangian basis should be expanded. I construct a conformally invariant model with a larger basis size which potentially may have the same property.

  8. Conformal Aspects of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S

    2003-11-19

    Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.

  9. Generally covariant vs. gauge structure for conformal field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Campigotto, M.; Fatibene, L.

    2015-11-15

    We introduce the natural lift of spacetime diffeomorphisms for conformal gravity and discuss the physical equivalence between the natural and gauge natural structure of the theory. Accordingly, we argue that conformal transformations must be introduced as gauge transformations (affecting fields but not spacetime point) and then discuss special structures implied by the splitting of the conformal group. -- Highlights: •Both a natural and a gauge natural structure for conformal gravity are defined. •Global properties and natural lift of spacetime transformations are described. •The possible definitions of physical state are considered and discussed. •The gauge natural theory has less physical states than the corresponding natural one. •The dynamics forces to prefer the gauge natural structure over the natural one.

  10. Conformation effects on the molecular orbitals of serine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Dong; Ma, Peng-Fei; Shan, Xu

    2011-03-01

    This paper calculates the five most stable conformers of serine with Hartree—Fock theory, density functional theory (B3LYP), Møller—Plesset perturbation theory (MP4(SDQ)) and electron propagation theory with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. The calculated vertical ionization energies for the valence molecular orbitals of each conformer are in agreement with the experimental data, indicating that a range of molecular conformations would coexist in an equilibrium sample. Information of the five outer valence molecular orbitals for each conformer is explored in coordinate and momentum spaces using dual space analysis to investigate the conformational processes, which are generated from the global minimum conformer Ser1 by rotation of C2-C3 (Ser4), C1-C2 (Ser5) and C1-O2 (Ser2 and Ser3). Orbitals 28a, 27a and 26a are identified as the fingerprint orbitals for all the conformational processes. Project supported by the Doctoral Research Fund of Henan Normal University, China (Grant No. 525449).

  11. Improvement in health-related quality of life after renal sympathetic denervation in real-world hypertensive patients: 12-month outcomes in the Global SYMPLICITY Registry.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Ingrid; Wedegärtner, Sonja Maria; Mahfoud, Felix; Weil, Joachim; Brilakis, Nicole; Ukena, Julia; Ewen, Sebastian; Linz, Dominik; Fahy, Martin; Mancia, Giuseppe; Böhm, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Renal denervation has been shown to reduce blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension, but less is known about its impact on quality of life. This analysis evaluated 12-month blood pressure and quality of life outcomes in 934 patients from the Global SYMPLICITY Registry who completed the EuroQoL five-dimensions three-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L). At baseline, 32% of patients reported anxiety/depression and 48% reported pain/discomfort. At 12 months (n=496), office and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure were reduced by 13.9±26.6 and 7.7±19.3 mm Hg, respectively, and 8% (P<.001) more patients reported no problems in anxiety/depression. Furthermore, numerically more patients reported no problems in pain/discomfort (4%, P=.08). Perceived health-related quality of life (visual analog scale) improved from baseline to 12 months (68±18 vs 73±17, P<.001), and the improvement was largest among patients with severe anxiety/depression at baseline (50±24 vs 64±22, P=.005 [n=32]). In this analysis, renal denervation was associated with a significant improvement in health-related quality of life, particularly anxiety/depression. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, Attila; Gunther, David; Levine, Joshua A.; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio

    2014-08-11

    Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.

  13. Conformal symmetry and light flavor baryon spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, M.; Compean, C. B.

    2010-08-01

    The degeneracy among parity pairs systematically observed in the N and Δ spectra is interpreted to hint on a possible conformal symmetry realization in the light flavor baryon sector in line with AdS5/CFT4. The case is made by showing that all the observed N and Δ resonances with masses below 2500 MeV distribute fairly well each over the first levels of a unitary representation of the conformal group, a representation that covers the spectrum of a quark-diquark system, placed directly on a conformally compactified Minkowski spacetime, R1⊗S3, as approached from the AdS5 cone. The free geodesic motion on the S3 manifold is described by means of the scalar conformal equation there, which is of the Klein-Gordon-type. The equation is then gauged by the curved Coulomb potential that has the form of a cotangent function. Conformal symmetry is not exact, this because the gauge potential slightly modifies the conformal centrifugal barrier of the free geodesic motion. Thanks to this, the degeneracy between P11-S11 pairs from same level is relaxed, while the remaining states belonging to same level remain practically degenerate. The model describes the correct mass ordering in the P11-S11 pairs through the spectra as a combined effect of the above conformal symmetry breaking, on the one side, and a parity change of the diquark from a scalar at low masses, to a pseudoscalar at higher masses, on the other. The quality of the wave functions is illustrated by calculations of realistic mean square charge radii and electric charge form factors on the examples of the proton, and the protonic P11(1440), and S11(1535) resonances. The scheme also allows for a prediction of the dressing function of an effective instantaneous gluon propagator from the Fourier transform of the gauge potential. We find a dressing function that is finite in the infrared and tends to zero at infinity.

  14. Testing Conformal Theory:. 3-STATE Potts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkema, G. T.; McCabe, J.; Wydro, T.

    2001-04-01

    Conformal theory predictions and Monte Carlo measurements of structure constants in 3-state Potts model were reviewed. The results provide a direct confirmation of the quality of conformal theory predictions of universal 3-point amplitudes. The prediction of these type of universal amplitudes sparked much of the original interest in conformal models, but are almost untested outside of the Ising model. Structure constants, C123, are universal amplitudes that define 3-point correlations, i.e., <∫1(X1)∫2(X2) ∫3(X3)+> = C123/ |X12|2(Δ1+Δ2-Δ3)·× cyclic perms. To predict the values of these universal numbers, one constructs a 4-point correlation as a sum of products of conformal blocks and then, determines coefficients that weight the sum by demanding that the 4-point correlation satisfy a bootstrap equation. The bootstrap equation imposes consistency of the 4-point correlation with operator product expansions in multiple channels. The 3-state Potts model was chosen, because this model is easy of simulate. But, this Potts model has an added complication, i.e., a discrete Z3 symmetry at criticality. The discrete symmetry had to be implemented to calculate structure constants. Conformal theory predicted that Cσσσ = 1.092 and Cɛσσ* = 0.546. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on 500 × 500 lattices on which sample configurations were generated by the cluster algorithm of Wolff. To obtain the structure constants both 2-point and 3-point correlations were measured. The 2-point correlations fixed non-universal normalizatons. The quality of the Monte-Carlo methods were tested by measuring structure constants of the Ising model-good agreement with known results was found. For 3-state Potts, the simulations found that Cσσσ = 1.116 ± 0.14 and Cɛσσ* = 0.61 ± 0.06. These results provide striking agreement with predictions and a confirmation of conformal field theory.

  15. Scoring docking conformations using predicted protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since proteins function by interacting with other molecules, analysis of protein-protein interactions is essential for comprehending biological processes. Whereas understanding of atomic interactions within a complex is especially useful for drug design, limitations of experimental techniques have restricted their practical use. Despite progress in docking predictions, there is still room for improvement. In this study, we contribute to this topic by proposing T-PioDock, a framework for detection of a native-like docked complex 3D structure. T-PioDock supports the identification of near-native conformations from 3D models that docking software produced by scoring those models using binding interfaces predicted by the interface predictor, Template based Protein Interface Prediction (T-PIP). Results First, exhaustive evaluation of interface predictors demonstrates that T-PIP, whose predictions are customised to target complexity, is a state-of-the-art method. Second, comparative study between T-PioDock and other state-of-the-art scoring methods establishes T-PioDock as the best performing approach. Moreover, there is good correlation between T-PioDock performance and quality of docking models, which suggests that progress in docking will lead to even better results at recognising near-native conformations. Conclusion Accurate identification of near-native conformations remains a challenging task. Although availability of 3D complexes will benefit from template-based methods such as T-PioDock, we have identified specific limitations which need to be addressed. First, docking software are still not able to produce native like models for every target. Second, current interface predictors do not explicitly consider pairwise residue interactions between proteins and their interacting partners which leaves ambiguity when assessing quality of complex conformations. PMID:24906633

  16. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  17. International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics: a global agenda for clinical research and quality of care in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Tolson, Debbie; Rolland, Yves; Andrieu, Sandrine; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Beard, John; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Coll-Planas, Laura; Dong, Birong; Forette, Françoise; Franco, Alain; Franzoni, Simone; Salvà, Antoni; Swagerty, Daniel; Trabucchi, Marco; Vellas, Bruno; Volicer, Ladislav; Morley, John E

    2011-03-01

    A workshop charged with identifying the main clinical concerns and quality of care issues within nursing homes was convened by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, with input from the World Health Organization. The workshop met in Toulouse, France, during June 2010. Drawing on the latest evidence and mindful of the international development agenda and specific regional challenges, consensus was sought on priority actions and future research. The impetus for this work was the known variation in the quality of nursing home care experiences of older people around the world. The resulting Task Force recommendations include instigation of sustainable strategies designed to enhance confidence among older people and their relatives that the care provided within nursing homes is safe, mindful of their preferences, clinically appropriate, and delivered with respect and compassion by appropriately prepared expert doctors, registered nurses, administrators, and other staff. The proposals extend across 4 domains (Reputational Enhancement and Leadership, Clinical Essentials and Care Quality Indicators, Practitioner Education, and Research) that, in concert, will enhance the reputation and status of nursing home careers among practitioners, promote effective evidence-informed quality improvements, and develop practice leadership and research capabilities.

  18. Quality criteria for micronutrient powder products: report of a meeting organized by the World Food Programme and Sprinkles Global Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; van den Briel, Tina; Boy, Erick; Grasset, Christopher; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Zlotkin, Stanley; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-09-01

    Distribution of micronutrient powder (MNP), also known as Sprinkles", is becoming a preferred strategy for addressing micronutrient deficiencies. In response, different formulations are being developed, different producers manufacture MNP and several organizations coordinate distribution. However, as yet, the supply of MNP as well as experience with large-scale MNP programs is limited. To facilitate expansion of MNP use such that acceptability and compliance are high and effectiveness maintained, product quality, of both powder and packaging, good advocacy among decision makers, and providing good information to the target population are crucial. A meeting was organized in Toronto by the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative and the World Food Programme to review and reach consensus on quality criteria for composition, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of MNP propose guidelines for wide-scale production, and discuss MNP program experience. It was recognized that the durability of some of the more sensitive micronutrients in their powdered form in the harsh climatic conditions of many countries has implications for formulation, packaging, storage, and handling of the MNP product. A question-and-answer manual would greatly facilitate program design and implementation. It was agreed to form an interim Technical Advisory Group to prepare for formation of a Technical Advisory Group with agreed-upon tasks and responsibilities. The MNP manufacturing manual of the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative can continue to be used, with reference to the recommendations from the Toronto Meeting outlined in this paper. Meanwhile, the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative will not place any encumbrances on production using its manual; however, the brand name Sprinkles" will stay protected under various trademark laws.

  19. Comparison of Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in First Psychotic Episode of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder: Impact on Global Functioning and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Spaniel, Filip; Konradova, Lucie; Sedlakova, Katerina; Dvorska, Karolina; Prajsova, Jitka; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Levcik, David; Vlcek, Kamil; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Deficit in visuospatial functions can influence both simple and complex daily life activities. Despite the fact that visuospatial deficit was reported in schizophrenia, research on visuospatial functions as an independent entity is limited. Our study aims to elucidate the impact of visuospatial deficit in comparison with verbal deficit on global functioning and quality of life in the first psychotic episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (FES). The significance of clinical symptoms and antipsychotic medication was also studied. Methods: Thirty-six FES patients and a matched group of healthy controls (HC group) were assessed with a neuropsychological battery focused on visuospatial (VIS) and verbal (VERB) functions. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the cumulative effect of VERB and VIS functions, psychiatric symptoms (PANSS) and antipsychotic medication on global functioning (GAF) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) in the FES group. Results: The FES group demonstrated significant impairment both in VIS and VERB cognitive abilities compared to the HC group. Antipsychotic medication did not significantly affect either VIS or VERB functioning. PANSS was not related to cognitive functioning, apart from the Trail Making Test B. In the FES group, the GAF score was significantly affected by the severity of positive symptoms and VERB functioning, explaining together 60% of GAF variability. The severity of negative and positive symptoms affected only the Physical health domain of WHOQOL-BREF. The degree of VERB deficit was associated with both Physical and Psychological health. Although we did not find any relation between VIS functioning, GAF, and WHOQOL-BREF, a paradoxical finding emerged in the Environment quality domain, where a worse quality of the environment was associated with better VIS functioning. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the deficit in VIS functions is an integral part of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia spectrum

  20. Impacts of long-range transport of global pollutants and precursor gases on U.S. air quality under future climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ho-Chun; Lin, Jintai; Tao, Zhining; Choi, Hyun; Patten, Kenneth; Kunkel, Kenneth; Xu, Min; Zhu, Jinhong; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Williams, Allen; Caughey, Michael; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Wang, Julian

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. air quality is impacted by emissions both within and outside the United States. The latter impact is manifested as long-range transport (LRT) of pollutants across the U.S. borders, which can be simulated by lateral boundary conditions (LBC) into a regional modeling system. This system consists of a regional air quality model (RAQM) that integrates local-regional source emissions and chemical processes with remote forcing from the LBC predicted by a nesting global chemical transport model (model for ozone and related chemical tracers (MOZART)). The present-day simulations revealed important LRT effects, varying among the five major regions with ozone problems, i.e., northeast United States, midwest United States, Texas, California, and southeast United States. To determine the responses of the LRT impacts to projected global climate and emissions changes, the MOZART and RAQM simulations were repeated for future periods (2048-2052 and 2095-2099) under two emissions scenarios (IPCC A1Fi and B1). The future U.S. air quality projected by the MOZART is less sensitive to the emissions scenarios than that simulated by the RAQM with or without incorporating the LRT effects via the LBC from the MOZART. The result of RAQM with the LRT effects showed that the southeast United States has the largest sensitivity of surface ozone mixing ratio to the emissions changes in the 2095-2099 climate (-24% to +25%) followed by the northeast and midwest United States. The net increase due to the LRT effects in 2095-2099 ranges from +4% to +13% in daily mean surface ozone mixing ratio and +4% to +11% in mean daily maximum 8-h average ozone mixing ratios. Correspondingly, the LRT effects in 2095-2099 cause total column O3 mixing ratio increases, ranging from +7% to +16%, and also 2 to 3 more days with the surface ozone exceeding the national standard. The results indicate that future U.S. air quality changes will be substantially affected by global emissions.

  1. HadISD: a quality-controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Thorne, P. W.; Woolley, E. V.; Durre, I.; Dai, A.; Parker, D. E.; Vose, R. S.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the creation of HadISD: an automatically quality-controlled synoptic resolution dataset of temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover from global weather stations for 1973-2011. The full dataset consists of over 6000 stations, with 3427 long-term stations deemed to have sufficient sampling and quality for climate applications requiring sub-daily resolution. As with other surface datasets, coverage is heavily skewed towards Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The dataset is constructed from a large pre-existing ASCII flatfile data bank that represents over a decade of substantial effort at data retrieval, reformatting and provision. These raw data have had varying levels of quality control applied to them by individual data providers. The work proceeded in several steps: merging stations with multiple reporting identifiers; reformatting to netCDF; quality control; and then filtering to form a final dataset. Particular attention has been paid to maintaining true extreme values where possible within an automated, objective process. Detailed validation has been performed on a subset of global stations and also on UK data using known extreme events to help finalise the QC tests. Further validation was performed on a selection of extreme events world-wide (Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the cold snap in Alaska in 1989 and heat waves in SE Australia in 2009). Some very initial analyses are performed to illustrate some of the types of problems to which the final data could be applied. Although the filtering has removed the poorest station records, no attempt has been made to homogenise the data thus far, due to the complexity of retaining the true distribution of high-resolution data when applying adjustments. Hence non-climatic, time-varying errors may still exist in many of the individual station records and care is needed in inferring long-term trends from these data. This dataset will allow the

  2. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  3. Recent advancements in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Moss, Robert J.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing.

  4. Conformal Transformations and Space Travel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S N

    1961-10-27

    Conformal transformations are applied to the motion of a space ship experiencing a constant acceleration. The role of proper time is interpreted in terms of atomic periods, and the relationship between the conformal transformations and the general theory of relativity is clarified.

  5. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    PubMed

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  6. Influence of lateral and top boundary conditions on regional air quality prediction: A multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youhua; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Chai, Tianfeng; Horowitz, Larry W.; Pierce, Robert B.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Pfister, Gabriele; Vukovich, Jeffrey M.; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Holloway, John S.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Flocke, Frank M.; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, L. Gregory; Dibb, Jack E.; Streets, David G.; Brune, William H.

    2007-05-01

    The sensitivity of regional air quality model to various lateral and top boundary conditions is studied at 2 scales: a 60 km domain covering the whole USA and a 12 km domain over northeastern USA. Three global models (MOZART-NCAR, MOZART-GFDL and RAQMS) are used to drive the STEM-2K3 regional model with time-varied lateral and top boundary conditions (BCs). The regional simulations with different global BCs are examined using ICARTT aircraft measurements performed in the summer of 2004, and the simulations are shown to be sensitive to the boundary conditions from the global models, especially for relatively long-lived species, like CO and O3. Differences in the mean CO concentrations from three different global-model boundary conditions are as large as 40 ppbv, and the effects of the BCs on CO are shown to be important throughout the troposphere, even near surface. Top boundary conditions show strong effect on O3 predictions above 4 km. Over certain model grids, the model's sensitivity to BCs is found to depend not only on the distance from the domain's top and lateral boundaries, downwind/upwind situation, but also on regional emissions and species properties. The near-surface prediction over polluted area is usually not as sensitive to the variation of BCs, but to the magnitude of their background concentrations. We also test the sensitivity of model to temporal and spatial variations of the BCs by comparing the simulations with time-varied BCs to the corresponding simulations with time-mean and profile BCs. Removing the time variation of BCs leads to a significant bias on the variation prediction and sometime causes the bias in predicted mean values. The effect of model resolution on the BC sensitivity is also studied.

  7. Protein Conformational Switches: From Nature to Design

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jeung-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Protein conformational switches alter their shape upon receiving an input signal, such as ligand binding, chemical modification, or change in environment. The apparent simplicity of this transformation—which can be carried out by a molecule as small as a thousand atoms or so—belies its critical importance to the life of the cell as well as its capacity for engineering by humans. In the realm of molecular switches, proteins are unique because they are capable of performing a variety of biological functions. Switchable proteins are therefore of high interest to the fields of biology, bio-technology, and medicine. These molecules are beginning to be exploited as the core machinery behind a new generation of biosensors, functionally regulated enzymes, and “smart” biomaterials that react to their surroundings. As inspirations for these designs, researchers continue to analyze existing examples of allosteric proteins. Recent years have also witnessed the development of new methodologies for introducing conformational change into proteins that previously had none. Herein we review examples of both natural and engineered protein switches in the context of four basic modes of conformational change: rigid-body domain movement, limited structural rearrangement, global fold switching, and folding–unfolding. Our purpose is to highlight examples that can potentially serve as platforms for the design of custom switches. Accordingly, we focus on inducible conformational changes that are substantial enough to produce a functional response (e.g., in a second protein to which it is fused), yet are relatively simple, structurally well-characterized, and amenable to protein engineering efforts. PMID:22688954

  8. GEM-AC, a stratospheric-tropospheric global and regional model for air quality and climate change: evaluation of gas phase properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, J. W.; Semeniuk, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Lupu, A.; Mamun, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale model for Air Quality and climate change (GEM-AC) is a global general circulation model based on the GEM model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. It can be run with a global uniform (GU) grid or a global variable (GV) grid where the core has uniform grid spacing and the exterior grid expands. With a GV grid high resolution regional runs can be accomplished without a concern for boundary conditions. The work described here uses GEM version 3.3.2. The gas-phase chemistry consists in detailed reactions of Ox, NOx, HOx, CO, CH4, NMVOCs, halocarbons, ClOx and BrO. We have recently added elements of the Global Modal-aerosol eXtension (GMXe) scheme to address aerosol microphysics and gas-aerosol partitioning. The evaluation of the MESSY GMXe aerosol scheme is addressed in another poster. The Canadian aerosol module (CAM) is also available. Tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid scale turbulence and large scale convection. Dry deposition is implemented as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. For climate runs the GHGs CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs in the radiation scheme are adjusted to the scenario considered. In GV regional mode at high resolutions a lake model, FLAKE is also included. Wet removal comprises both in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging. With the gas phase chemistry the model has been run for a series of ten year time slices on a 3°×3° global grid with 77 hybrid levels from the surface to 0.15 hPa. The tropospheric and stratospheric gas phase results are compared with satellite measurements including, ACE, MIPAS, MOPITT, and OSIRIS. Current evaluations of the ozone field and other stratospheric fields are encouraging and tropospheric lifetimes for CH4 and CH3CCl3 are in reasonable accord with tropospheric models. We will present results for current and future climate

  9. The Principle of Maximum Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Giustino, Di; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale of the running coupling {alpha}{sub s}({mu}{sup 2}). It is common practice to guess a physical scale {mu} = Q which is of order of a typical momentum transfer Q in the process, and then vary the scale over a range Q/2 and 2Q. This procedure is clearly problematic since the resulting fixed-order pQCD prediction will depend on the renormalization scheme, and it can even predict negative QCD cross sections at next-to-leading-order. Other heuristic methods to set the renormalization scale, such as the 'principle of minimal sensitivity', give unphysical results for jet physics, sum physics into the running coupling not associated with renormalization, and violate the transitivity property of the renormalization group. Such scale-setting methods also give incorrect results when applied to Abelian QED. Note that the factorization scale in QCD is introduced to match nonperturbative and perturbative aspects of the parton distributions in hadrons; it is present even in conformal theory and thus is a completely separate issue from renormalization scale setting. The PMC provides a consistent method for determining the renormalization scale in pQCD. The PMC scale-fixed prediction is independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a key requirement of renormalization group invariance. The results avoid renormalon resummation and agree with QED scale-setting in the Abelian limit. The PMC global scale can be derived efficiently at NLO from basic properties of the PQCD cross section. The elimination of the renormalization scheme ambiguity using the PMC will not only increases the precision of QCD tests, but it will also increase the sensitivity of colliders to new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  10. Global Transcriptional Analysis Reveals the Complex Relationship between Tea Quality, Leaf Senescence and the Responses to Cold-Drought Combined Stress in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In field conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, tea plants are often simultaneously exposed to various abiotic stresses such as cold and drought, which have profound effects on leaf senescence process and tea quality. However, most studies of gene expression in stress responses focus on a single inciting agent, and the confounding effect of multiple stresses on crop quality and leaf senescence remain unearthed. Here, global transcriptome profiles of tea leaves under separately cold and drought stress were compared with their combination using RNA-Seq technology. This revealed that tea plants shared a large overlap in unigenes displayed “similar” (26%) expression pattern and avoid antagonistic responses (lowest level of “prioritized” mode: 0%) to exhibit very congruent responses to co-occurring cold and drought stress; 31.5% differential expressed genes and 38% of the transcriptome changes in response to combined stresses were unpredictable from cold or drought single-case studies. We also identified 319 candidate genes for enhancing plant resistance to combined stress. We then investigated the combined effect of cold and drought on tea quality and leaf senescence. Our results showed that drought-induced leaf senescence were severely delayed by (i) modulation of a number of senescence-associated genes and cold responsive genes, (ii) enhancement of antioxidant capacity, (iii) attenuation of lipid degradation, (iv) maintenance of cell wall and photosynthetic system, (v) alteration of senescence-induced sugar effect/sensitivity, as well as (vi) regulation of secondary metabolism pathways that significantly influence the quality of tea during combined stress. Therefore, care should be taken when utilizing a set of stresses to try and maximize leaf longevity and tea quality. PMID:28018394

  11. Downscaling a Global Climate Model to Simulate Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional and Urban Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Russell, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can exacerbate future regional air pollution events by making conditions more favorable to form high levels of ozone. In this study, we use spectral nudging with WRF to downscale NASA earth system GISS modelE2 results during the years 2006 to 2010 and 2048 to 2052 over the continental United States in order to compare the resulting meteorological fields from the air quality perspective during the four seasons of five-year historic and future climatological periods. GISS results are used as initial and boundary conditions by the WRF RCM to produce hourly meteorological fields. The downscaling technique and choice of physics parameterizations used are evaluated by comparing them with in situ observations. This study investigates changes of similar regional climate conditions down to a 12km by 12km resolution, as well as the effect of evolving climate conditions on the air quality at major U.S. cities. The high resolution simulations produce somewhat different results than the coarse resolution simulations in some regions. Also, through the analysis of the meteorological variables that most strongly influence air quality, we find consistent changes in regional climate that would enhance ozone levels in four regions of the U.S. during fall (Western U.S., Texas, Northeastern, and Southeastern U.S), one region during summer (Texas), and one region where changes potentially would lead to better air quality during spring (Northeast). We also find that daily peak temperatures tend to increase in most major cities in the U.S. which would increase the risk of health problems associated with heat stress. Future work will address a more comprehensive assessment of emissions and chemistry involved in the formation and removal of air pollutants.

  12. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program--IQIC.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases.

  13. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program - IQIC

    PubMed Central

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. Objective To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. Methods The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Results Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. Conclusion It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases. PMID:24896168

  14. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    PubMed

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Remarks on Polyelectrolyte Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennes, P. G.; Pincus, P.; Velasco, R. M.; Brochard, F.

    Nous discutons des conformations de polymères linéaires chargés en faisant les hypothèses suivantes : a) la chaĬne sans charge est flexible, b) la force éctrostatique domine les interactions monomère-monomère c) il n'y a pas de sels. 1) Pour le cas dilué (chaĬne non enchevetrees) en corrigeant le calcul self-consistant fait récemment par Richmond [1a], on trouve une taille des polyions égale a = R ND, qui est une fonction linéaire de l'indice de polymérisation N. Ce rèsultat est en accord avec les prècèdents travaux de Hermans et Overbeek [1b], Kuhn, Kunzle et Katchalsky [1c]. 2) Il existe un domaine pour des concentrations très petites c (c** < c < c*) oò les interactions èlectrostatiques entre les polyions sont supèrieures aux ènergies thermiques, il semble donc possible que les polyions puissent former un rèseau pèriodique à trois dimensions. Nèanmoins, il semble difficile de mettre en èvidence un rèseau si diluè. 3) Jusqu'ici toutes les expériences avec les polyélectrolytes sans sels ont été pratiquement faites à des concentrations c > c*, pour lesquelles les différentes cha.nes sont enchevêtrées. Pour discuter ce régime on s.intéresse uniquement au cas où la charge par unité de longueur est près du (ou audessus du) seuil de condensation, donc il existe une seule longueur ξ(c) caractérisant les corrélations; à trois dimensions 03BE a le même comportement que le rayon de Debye pour les contre-ions. On a considéré quelques conformations possibles : a) un réseau hexagonal de batonnets; b) un réseau cubique de batonnets; c) une phase isotrope de cha.nes partiellement flexibles. Les différentes structures formées de batonnets semblent avoir la même énergie électrostatique. Ce fait suggère que la phase isotrope peut être la plus favorable. On analyse cette dernière phase en utilisant les mêmes méthodes qui se sont révélées efficaces pour les solutions des polymères neutres. Dans le modèle isotrope

  16. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: Enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable effects and ''projection'' terms.

  17. Imaging of conformational changes

    SciTech Connect

    Michl, Josef

    2016-03-13

    Control of intramolecular conformational change in a small number of molecules or even a single one by an application of an outside electric field defined by potentials on nearby metal or dielectric surfaces has potential applications in both 3-D and 2-D nanotechnology. Specifically, the synthesis, characterization, and understanding of designed solids with controlled built-in internal rotational motion of a dipole promises a new class of materials with intrinsic dielectric, ferroelectric