Science.gov

Sample records for global daily irradiation

  1. Parameterization of daily solar global ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, U; Jäkel, E; Gericke, K

    2002-09-01

    Daily values of solar global ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA irradiation as well as erythemal irradiation have been parameterized to be estimated from pyranometer measurements of daily global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone. Data recorded at the Meteorological Observatory Potsdam (52 degrees N, 107 m asl) in Germany over the time period 1997-2000 have been used to derive sets of regression coefficients. The validation of the method against independent data sets of measured UV irradiation shows that the parameterization provides a gain of information for UVB, UVA and erythemal irradiation referring to their averages. A comparison between parameterized daily UV irradiation and independent values of UV irradiation measured at a mountain station in southern Germany (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg at 48 degrees N, 977 m asl) indicates that the parameterization also holds even under completely different climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953-2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are 15% and 21% higher for UVA and UVB, respectively, at Hohenpeissenberg than they are at Potsdam. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at 28 weather stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst German Radiation Network and grid values of column ozone from the EPTOMS satellite experiment served as inputs to calculate the estimates of the spatial distribution of daily and annual values of UV irradiation across Germany. Using daily values of global and diffuse irradiation recorded at Potsdam since 1937 as well as atmospheric column ozone measured since 1964 at the same site, estimates of daily and annual UV irradiation have been derived for this site over the period from 1937 through 2000, which include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period of ozone measurements from 1964 to 2000, in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the eruption of Mt

  2. The frequency distribution of daily global irradiation at Kumasi

    SciTech Connect

    Akuffo, F.O.; Brew-Hammond, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Cumulative frequency distribution curves (CDC) for daily global irradiation on the horizontal produced by Liu and Jordan in 1963 have until recently been considered to have universal validity. Results obtained by Saunier et al. in 1987 and Ideriah and Suleman in 1989 for two tropical locations, Ibadan in Nigeria and Bangkok in Thailand, respectively, have thrown into question the universal validity of the Liu and Jordan generalized CDC. Saunier et al., in particular, showed that their results disagreed with the generalized CDC mainly because of differences in the values of the maximum clearness index (Kmax), as well as the underlying probability density functions. Consequently, they proposed two expressions for determining Kmax and probability densities in tropical locations. This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of daily global irradiation for Kumasi, Ghana, also a tropical location. The results show that the expressions of Saunier et al. provide a better description of the observations than the generalized CDC and, in particular, the empirical equation for Kmax may be valid for Kumasi. Furthermore, the results show that the values of the minimum clearness index (Kmin) for Kumasi are much higher than the generally accepted value of 0.05 for overcast sky conditions. A comparison of the results for Kumasi and Ibadan shows that there is satisfactory agreement when the values of Kmax and Kmin are comparable; in cases where there are discrepancies in the Kmax and Kmin values, the CDC also disagree. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Temporal changes of the global reflectance of a wheat field as a function of daily solar irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franceschini, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Based on in situ measurements of incident and reflected solar irradiation over a wheat field, daily values of the surface reflectance, a scene signature, were determined for a crop year. Diagnoses of these data reveal the character of the signature, and its changes with time, crop stage, and the magnitude of incident irradiance. The latter varies inversely with cloud cover.

  4. Parameterization of Solar Global Uv Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, U.; Jaekel, E.; Gericke, K.

    Daily doses of solar global UV-B, UV-A, and erythemal irradiation have been param- eterized to be calculated from pyranometer data of global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam (52 N, 107 m asl). The method has been validated against independent data of measured UV irradiation. A gain of information is provided by use of the parameterization for the three UV compo- nents (UV-B, UV-A and erythemal) referring to average values of UV irradiation. Ap- plying the method to UV irradiation measured at the mountain site Hohenpeissenberg (48 N, 977 m asl) shows that the parameterization even holds under completely differ- ent climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953 - 2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are by 15 % (UV-A) and 21 % (UV-B), respectively, higher at Hohenpeissenberg, than they are at Potsdam. Using measured input data from 27 Ger- man weather stations, the method has been also applied to estimate the spatial distribu- tion of UV irradiation across Germany. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at Potsdam (1937 -2000) as well as atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam between1964 - 2000 have been used to derive long-term estimates of daily and annual totals of UV irradiation that include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period 1964 to 2000, also in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 have substantially enhanced UV-B irradiation in the first half of the 90ies of the last century. The non-linear long-term changes between 1968 and 2000 amount to +4% ...+5% for annual global and UV-A irradiation mainly due to changing cloudiness, and +14% ... +15% for UV-B and erythemal irradiation due to both chang- ing cloudiness and decreasing column ozone. Estimates of long-term changes in UV irradiation derived from data measured at other German sites are

  5. A comparison between one year of daily global irradiation from ground-based measurements versus meteosat images from seven locations in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Djemaa, A.B.; Delorme, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Three numerical images from METEOSAT B2 per day have been processed over a period of 12 months, from October 1985 to September 1986, to estimate the daily values of available solar radiation in Tunisia. The methodology used, GISTEL, on the images of the visible' channel of METEOSAT, is described. Results are compared with measured radiation values from seven stations of the Institut de la Meteorologie de Tunisie.' Among more than 2,200 measured-estimated daily pairs, a high percentage, 89%, show a relative error of + or {minus}10%. Many figures concerning Sidi-Bou-Said, Kairouan, Thala, and Gafsa are presented to show the capability of GISTEL to map the daily available solar radiation with a sufficient spatial resolution in countries where radiation measurements are too scarce.

  6. Mars Daily Global Maps and Animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2000-10-01

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been taking global map swaths of Mars using its red and blue wide angle cameras every two hours since March 1999. We have processed the global map swaths taken from June to August 1999 which correspond to the end of the northern summer (150 < Ls < 185), and made them into daily global maps and animations with 2-hour and 1-day time steps for the polar regions. The south polar seasonal cap recession, the north polar dust and condensate cloud activity, and the condensate clouds over the Tharsis volcanos and Valles Marineris are clearly displayed. We will continue processing data as they become available. The north polar region stays relatively calm before Ls 160. Active dust storms and condensate clouds show up afterwards. Cloud tracked winds are typically about 15m/s in the north polar region during this season, and there are winds blowing onto and even across the cap. North of 65N, condensate clouds change shape quickly, suggesting transient waves in the atmosphere. Dust storms about 500km and larger usually have well developed cyclonic structure and have lifetime of several days. Dust storms often blow across the residual cap, especially in late summer (Ls 180). There are sometimes condensate clouds that seem to be associated with the dust storms. Dust storms usually show up at longitudes 0 +/- 90 around the north polar cap in this season, suggesting an asymmetric circulation.

  7. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  8. Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.

    PubMed

    Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

    2007-08-01

    Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance.

  9. Fuzzy Sets Theory Applied for Computing Global Solar Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Boata, R.; Paulescu, M.; Tulcan-Paulescu, E.; Gravila, P.

    2011-10-01

    A new model to estimate daily global solar irradiation via air temperature data developed inside Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy approach is reported. A critical assessment of the model performance and limitations is conducted, overall results demonstrating a reasonable level of accuracy. The model uses as input only the daily air temperature extremes, worldwide the most available meteorological parameters, which greatly increases its area of application.

  10. Modeling monthly mean variation of the solar global irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The monthly mean variation of the solar global reaching the Earth's surface has been characterized at a global level by a regression model. This model considers the monthly variation itself (to different horizons and even the maximum annual variation) as the study variable, and it is applied without using data corresponding to measured meteorological variable. Two explicative variables have been used, the variation of the extraterrestrial irradiation and the variation of the clear sky global horizontal irradiation. The work has been carried out from datasets including average global daily solar irradiation for each month of the year measured on the ground. The model quality has been proven to be very dependent of the temporal variation considered, in such a way that higher variations, that is to say, higher distances between months, lead to an improvement in the model outcomes.

  11. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic

  12. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

  13. Creating a global sub-daily precipitation dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley

    2016-04-01

    Extremes of precipitation can cause flooding and droughts which can lead to substantial damages to infrastructure and ecosystems and can result in loss of life. It is still uncertain how hydrological extremes will change with global warming as we do not fully understand the processes that cause extreme precipitation under current climate variability. The INTENSE project is using a novel and fully-integrated data-modelling approach to provide a step-change in our understanding of the nature and drivers of global precipitation extremes and change on societally relevant timescales, leading to improved high-resolution climate model representation of extreme rainfall processes. The INTENSE project is in conjunction with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)'s Grand Challenge on 'Understanding and Predicting Weather and Climate Extremes' and the Global Water and Energy Exchanges Project (GEWEX) Science questions. The first step towards achieving this is to construct a new global sub-daily precipitation dataset. Data collection is ongoing and already covers North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Comprehensive, open source quality control software is being developed to set a new standard for verifying sub-daily precipitation data and a set of global hydroclimatic indices will be produced based upon stakeholder recommendations. This will provide a unique global data resource on sub-daily precipitation whose derived indices, e.g. monthly/annual maxima, will be freely available to the wider scientific community.

  14. Temporal scaling analysis of irradiance estimated from daily satellite data and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, Jose M.; Navarro, Ana A.; Valenzuela, Rita X.; Ramírez, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    The temporal variability of global irradiance estimated from daily satellite data and numerical models has been compared for different spans of time. According to the time scale considered, a different behaviour can be expected for each climate. Indeed, for all climates and at small scale, the persistence decreases as this scale increases, but the mediterranean climate, and its continental variety, shows higher persistence than oceanic climate. The probabilities of maintaining the values of irradiance after a certain period of time have been used as a first approximation to analyse the quality of each source, according to the climate. In addition, probability distributions corresponding to variations of clearness indices measured at several stations located in different climate zones have been compared with those obtained from satellite and modelling estimations. For this work, daily radiation data from the reanalysis carried out by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and from the Satellite Application Facilities on climate monitoring have been used for mainland Spain. According to the results, the temporal series estimation of irradiance is more accurate when using satellite data, independent of the climate considered. In fact, the coefficients of determination corresponding to the locations studied are always above 0.92 in the case of satellite data, while this coefficient decreases to 0.69 for some cases of the numerical model. This conclusion is more evident in oceanic climates, where the most important errors can be observed. Indeed, in this case, the RRMSE derived from the CM-SAF estimations is 20.93%, while in the numerical model, it is 48.33%. Analysis of the probabilities corresponding to variations in the clearness indices also shows a better behaviour of the satellite-derived estimates for oceanic climate. For the standard mediterranean climate, the satellite also provides better results, though the numerical model improves

  15. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System.

  16. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  17. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    PubMed Central

    Cober, Elroy R.; Curtis, Daniel F.; Stewart, Douglas W.; Morrison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  18. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines.

    PubMed

    Cober, Elroy R; Curtis, Daniel F; Stewart, Douglas W; Morrison, Malcolm J

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R² = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R² = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  19. Study of the division of global irradiance into direct beam and diffuse irradiance at seven Canadian sites

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Sahami, K.

    1995-12-31

    Canadian hourly global and diffuse irradiation data and associated daily surface meterological data of humidity, temperature and snow depth for the years 1977-1984 are analyzed. These data have been measured at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto and Winnipeg. Hourly values of the clearness index k{sub t} and diffuse index k{sub d} are sorted into bivariate histograms according to their numerical values. Different histograms are established for different ranges of the three variables: solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth for each station. Properties of the different histograms are compared using standard statistical procedures. It is found that the division of global irradiation into direct beam and diffuse irradiation is correlated with the four variables k{sub t}, precipitable water, solar elevation, and snow depth. It is also found that many, but not all, of the differences between data from the same station at different times and between different stations can be attributed to conditions associated with differences in these four variables. The data show evidence that the division of global irradiation into direct and diffuse irradiation can depend upon the properties of the clouds beyond how these clouds are characterized by the four variables. 37 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Global irradiance calibration of multifilter UV radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedehierro, A. A.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; Antón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the amount of ultraviolet solar radiation (UV) reaching the Earth's surface is governed by stratospheric ozone, which has exhibited notable variations since the late 1970s. A thorough monitoring of UV radiation requires long-term series of accurate measurements worldwide, and to keep track of its evolution, it is essential to use high-quality instrumentation with an excellent long-term performance capable of detecting low UV signal. There are several UV monitoring networks worldwide based on multifilter UV radiometers; however, there is no general agreement about the most suitable methodology for the global irradiance calibration of these instruments. This paper aims to compare several calibration methods and to analyze their behavior for different ranges of solar zenith angle (SZA). Four methods are studied: the two currently most frequently used methods referred to in the literature and two new methods that reduce systematic errors in calibrated data at large solar zenith angles. The results evidence that proposed new methods show a clear improvement compared to the classic approaches at high SZA, especially for channels 305 and 320 nm. These two channels are of great interest for calculating the total ozone column and other products such as dose rates of biological interest in the UV range (e.g., the erythemal dose).

  1. Longitudinal Patterns of Daily Affect and Global Mood during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Hedeker, Donald; Flay, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined grade and sex patterns in real-time measures of daily mood using Ecological Momentary Assessments via palmtop computers among 8th (N=296) and 10th graders (N=266) for 1 year using a three-wave longitudinal design. Participants responded to five to seven random prompts/day for 7 consecutive days; when prompted, participants…

  2. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  3. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  4. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  5. Global Daily Atmospheric State Profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 (micro)m to 15.4 (micro)m and a 13.5 km footprint. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles, clouds, dust and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4.[1] AIRS data are used for weather forecasting and studies of global climate change. The AIRS is a 'facility' instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations.

  6. Hematopoietic responses under protracted exposures to low daily dose gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, T. M.; Fritz, T. E.; Tolle, D. V.; Jackson, W. E.

    In attempting to evaluate the possible health consequences of chronic ionizing radiation exposure during extended space travel (e.g., Mars Mission), ground-based experimental studies of the clinical and pathological responses of canines under low daily doses of 60Co gamma irradiation (0.3-26.3 cGy d -1) have been examined. Specific reference was given to responses of the blood forming system. Results suggest that the daily dose rate of 7.5 cGy d -1 represents a threshold below which the hematopoietic system can retain either partial or full trilineal cell-producing capacity (erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, and megakaryopoiesis) for extended periods of exposure (> 1yr). Trilineal capacity was fully retained for several years of exposure at the lowest dose-rate tested (0.3 cGy d -1) but was completely lost within several hundred days at the highest dose-rate (26.3 cGy d -1). Retention of hematopoietic capacity under chronic exposure has been demonstrated to be mediated by hematopoietic progenitors with acquired radioresistance and repair functions, altered cytogenetics, and cell-cycle characteristics. Radiological, biological, and temporal parameters responsible for these vital acquisitions by hematopoietic progenitors have been partially characterized. These parameters, along with threshold responses, are described and discussed in relation to potential health risks of the space traveler under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation.

  7. Hematopoietic responses under protracted exposures to low daily dose gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Seed, T M; Fritz, T E; Tolle, D V; Jackson, W E

    2002-01-01

    In attempting to evaluate the possible health consequences of chronic ionizing radiation exposure during extended space travel (e.g., Mars Mission), ground-based experimental studies of the clinical and pathological responses of canines under low daily doses of 60Co gamma irradiation (0.3-26.3 cGy d-1) have been examined. Specific reference was given to responses of the blood forming system. Results suggest that the daily dose rate of 7.5 cGy d-1 represents a threshold below which the hematopoietic system can retain either partial or full trilineal cell-producing capacity (erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, and megakaryopoiesis) for extended periods of exposure (>1 yr). Trilineal capacity was fully retained for several years of exposure at the lowest dose-rate tested (0.3 cGy d-1) but was completely lost within several hundred days at the highest dose-rate (26.3 cGy d-1). Retention of hematopoietic capacity under chronic exposure has been demonstrated to be mediated by hematopoietic progenitors with acquired radioresistance and repair functions, altered cytogenetics, and cell-cycle characteristics. Radiological, biological, and temporal parameters responsible for these vital acquisitions by hematopoietic progenitors have been partially characterized. These parameters, along with threshold responses, are described and discussed in relation to potential health risks of the space traveler under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation.

  8. Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the

  9. Modification of global erythemally effective irradiance by clouds.

    PubMed

    Thiel, S; Steiner, K; Seidlitz, H K

    1997-06-01

    The role clouds play in the modification of global radiation is still a major uncertainty in the risk assessment of UV effects on ecological systems and human health. This study presents cloud transmission data obtained from measurements with Robertson-Berger meters and simultaneous cloud observations. The global transmission of erythemally weighted irradiance depends strongly on cloud amount and can be described by a cubic function. The comparison with results derived from long-term records of total global irradiance indicates no statistically significant difference between the attenuation of erythemal and total global radiation. The large variance of data results from lumping together data from different cloud types. Classification of data according to cloud forms yields a more satisfactory fit. The coefficient of the cubic term characterizes the ability of various cloud forms to attenuate UV radiation. It varies between 0.4 for high clouds and approximately 1.0 for cumulonimbus. This attenuation parameter allows a quantitative description of the cloud influence on irradiance and therefore a more accurate risk assessment.

  10. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  11. Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codato, G.; Oliveira, A. P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J. F.; Gomes, E. N.; Pai, A. D.

    2008-06-01

    The seasonal evolution of daily and hourly values of global and diffuse solar radiation at the surface are compared for the cities of São Paulo and Botucatu, both located in Southeast Brazil and representative of urban and rural areas, respectively. The comparisons are based on measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance carried out at the surface during a six year simultaneous period in these two cities. Despite the similar latitude and altitude, the seasonal evolution of daily values indicate that São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 7.8% less global irradiance in August and 5.1% less in June than Botucatu. On the other hand, São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 3.6% more diffuse irradiance in August and 15.6% more in June than Botucatu. The seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle confirms these differences and indicates that they are more pronounced during the afternoon. The regional differences are related to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, systematic penetration of the sea breeze and daytime evolution of the particulate matter in São Paulo. An important mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of solar radiation, on a regional scale, is the sea breeze penetration in São Paulo, bringing moisture and maritime aerosol that in turn further increases the solar radiation scattering due to pollution and further reduces the intensity of the direct component of solar radiation at the surface. Surprisingly, under clear sky conditions the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation in Botucatu during winter the biomass burning period due to the sugar cane harvest is equivalent to that at São Paulo City, indicating that the contamination during sugar cane harvest in Southeast Brazil has a large impact in the solar radiation field at the surface.

  12. Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schneider, U.; Schröder, M.; Stender, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the new First Guess Daily product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The new product gives an estimate of the global daily precipitation gridded at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. It is based on rain gauge data reported in near-real time via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and available about three to five days after the end of each observation month. In addition to the gridded daily precipitation totals in mm day-1, the standard deviation in mm day-1, the kriging interpolation error in % and the number of measurements per grid cell are also encoded into the monthly netCDF product file and provided for all months since January 2009. Prior to their interpolation, the measured precipitation values undergo a preliminary automatic quality control. For the calculation of the areal mean of the grid, anomalies are interpolated with ordinary block kriging. This approach allows for a near-real-time release. Therefore, the purely GTS-based data processing lacks an intensive quality control as well as a high data density and is denoted as First Guess. The daily data set is referenced under doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_D_100. Two further products, the Full Data Daily and a merged satellite-gauge product, are currently under development at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). These additional products will not be available in near-real time, but based on significantly more and strictly quality controlled observations. All GPCC products are provided free of charge via the GPCC webpage: ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html.

  13. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  14. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  15. Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution From Multi-Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Morrissey, Mark M.; Curtis, Scott; Joyce, Robert; McGavock, Brad; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1 deg x 1 deg lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40 deg N-40 deg S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR T(sub b)) are thresholded and all "cold" pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index (GPI), but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite-gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting non-zero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual grid -box values shows a very high root-mean-square error but, it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

  16. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  17. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  18. High-Resolution Daily Flood Extent Depiction from Microwave Remote Sensing: Global Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantowicz, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The need for frequent, accurate, high-resolution characterization of the temporal and spatial progression of flood hazards is evident, but has been beyond the capabilities of remote sensing methods. The surface is too often obscured by cloud cover for visual and infrared sensors and observations from radar sensors are too infrequent to create consistent historical databases or for monitoring current conditions. Passive microwave sensors, such as SSM/I, AMSR-E, and AMSR-2, acquire useful data during clear and cloudy conditions, have revisit periods of up to twice daily, and provide a continuous record of data from 1987 to the present. In this presentation, we will describe results from a flood mapping system capable of producing high-resolution (100-m) flood extent depictions from lower resolution (10-40-km) microwave data. The system uses the strong sensitivity of microwave data to surface water extent combined with land surface and atmospheric data to derive daily flooded fraction estimates globally on a sensor footprint basis. The system downscales flooded fraction to make a high-resolution Boolean flood extent depiction that is both spatially continuous and consistent with the lower resolution data (see Figure). The downscaling step is based on a relative floodability index derived from higher resolution topographic and hydrological data and processed to represent the minimum total water fraction threshold above which each grid point is expected to be flooded given microwave-derived water fraction inputs. We have completed daily, 100-m resolution flood maps for Africa for the 9.3-year AMSR-E period and will soon complete global flood maps fo the same period. We will present animations of daily flood extents during major events and discuss: validation of the flood maps against imagery derived from MODIS and Landsat data; analyses of minimum detectable flood size; statistical analyses of flooding over time; applications for this novel historical dataset; and

  19. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are

  20. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  1. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  2. Parameterization of instantaneous global horizontal irradiance: Cloudy-sky component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Liang, H.

    2012-07-01

    Radiation calculations in global numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models are usually conducted in 3-hourly time interval in order to reduce the computational cost. This treatment can lead to an incorrect solar radiation at the Earth's surface which could be one of the error sources in modeled convection and precipitation. In order to improve the simulation of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation a fast scheme has been developed based on detailed radiative transfer calculations for a wide range of atmospheric conditions and can be used to determine the surface solar radiation at each model integration time step with affordable costs. This scheme is divided into components for clear-sky and cloudy-sky conditions. The clear-sky component has been described in a companion paper. The cloudy-sky component is introduced in this paper. The input variables required by this scheme are all available in NWP and climate models or can be obtained from satellite observations. Therefore, the scheme can be used in a global model to determine the surface GHI. It can also be used as an offline scheme to calculate the surface GHI using data from satellite measurements. SUNFLUX scheme has been tested using observations obtained from three Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) stations established by the U. S. Department of Energy. The results show that a half hourly mean relative error of GHI under all-sky conditions is less than 7%. An important application of the scheme is in global climate models. The radiation sampling error due to infrequent radiation calculations is investigated using the SUNFLUX and ARM observations. It is found that errors in the surface net solar irradiance are very large, exceeding 800 W m-2at many non-radiation time steps due to ignoring the effects of clouds. Use of the SUNFLUX scheme can reduce these errors to less than 50 W m-2.

  3. Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with daily temperature cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.

    1990-01-01

    Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.

  4. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  5. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  6. Sub-daily resolution of earth rotation variations with Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Marcus, Steven L.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1992-01-01

    Data from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking experiment have been used to determine variations in earth rotation (UT1-UTC) over a time period of three weeks. Kalman filtering and smoothing enabled changes in UT1-UTC over intervals of 2 to 24 hrs to be detected with the GPS data. Internal consistency checks and comparisons with other solutions from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) indicate that the GPS UT1-UTC estimates are accurate to about 2 cm. Comparison of GPS-estimated variations in UT1-UTC with 2-hr time resolution over 4 days with predicted variations computed from diurnal and semidiurnal oceanic tidal contributions strongly suggests that the observed periodic sub-daily variations of about 0.1 msec are largely of tidal origin.

  7. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  8. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  9. A 24.5-Year Global Dataset of Direct Normal Irradiance: Result from the Application of a Global-to-Beam Model to the NASA GEWEX SRB Global Horizontal Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Westberg, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The DIRINDEX model has previously been applied to the NASA GEWEX SRB Release 3.0 global horizontal irradiances (GHIs) to derive 3-hourly, daily and monthly mean direct normal irradiances (DNIs) for the period from 2000 to 2005 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2014.09.006), though the model was originally designed to estimate hourly DNIs from hourly GHIs. Input to the DIRINDEX model comprised 1.) the 3-hourly all-sky and clear-sky GHIs from the GEWEX SRB dataset; 2.) the surface pressure and the atmospheric column water vapor from the GEOS4 dataset; and 3.) daily mean aerosol optical depth at 700 nm derived from the daily mean aerosol data from the Model of Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry (MATCH). The GEWEX SRB data is spatially available on a quasi-equal-area global grid system consisting of 44016 boxes ranging from 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude around the Equator to 1 degree latitude by 120 degree longitude next to the poles. The derived DNIs were on the same grid system. Due to the limited availability of the MATCH aerosol data, the model was applied to the years from 2000 to 2005 only. The results were compared with ground-based measurements from 39 sites of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The comparison statistics show that the results were in better agreement with their BSRN counterparts than the current Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 data (https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/). In this paper, we present results from the model over the entire time span of the GEWEX SRB Release 3.0 data (July 1983 to December2007) in which the MERRA atmospheric data were substituted for the GEOS4 data, and the Max-Planck Aerosol Climatology Version 1 (MAC-v1) data for the MATCH data. As a consequence, we derived a 24.5-year DNI dataset of global coverage continuous from July 1983 to December 2007. Comparisons with the BSRN data show that the results are comparable in quality with that from the earlier application.

  10. Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans

  11. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ěk; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on

  12. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to global scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (soil moisture, advection, air temperature) are affecting plant stress. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil+canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5-10 km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI), spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions of 30 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe and, Africa and other continents

  13. Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and daily meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on daily timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating daily precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a daily time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual daily meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean temperature (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to daily estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate daily precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of daily precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.

  14. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  15. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these

  16. Daily global mapping of Mars ozone column abundances with MARCI UV band imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lefèvre, Franck; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Smith, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Since November of 2006, The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has obtained multiple-filter daily global images of Mars centered upon a local time (LT) of 3 pm. Ultraviolet imaging bands placed within (260 nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band (240-300 nm) ozone (O3) absorption support retrievals of atmospheric ozone columns, with detection limits (∼1 μm-atm) appropriate to mapping elevated O3 abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI O3 maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial (∼1° lat/long, for 8 × 8 pixel binned resolution) and temporal (daily, with substantial LT coverage at pole) behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx-OH, HO2, and H) responsible for the catalytic destruction of O3 in the Mars atmosphere. A detailed description of the MARCI O3 data set, including measurement and retrieval characteristics, is provided in conjunction with comparisons to Mars Express SPICAM ozone measurements (Perrier, S. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 111) and LMD GCM simulated O3 abundances (Lefèvre, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 109). Presented aspects of the MARCI ozone mapping data set include aphelion increases in low latitude O3, dynamically evolving high latitude O3 maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and distinctive winter/spring O3 and CO increases within the Hellas Basin associated with transport of condensation-enhanced south polar air mass. Comparisons of coincident MARCI measurements and LMD simulations for ice cloud and O3 columns are considered in the context of potential heterogeneous photochemical processes (Lefèvre, F. [2008]. Nature 454, 971-975), which are not strongly evidenced in the MARCI observations. Modest interannual variations are exhibited, most notably a 20% reduction

  17. Two global climatologies of daily fire emission injection heights since 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Samuel; Veira, Andreas; Paugam, Ronan; Sofiev, Mikhail; Kaiser, Johannes; Marenco, Franco; Burton, Sharon P.; Benedetti, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) assimilates Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from satellite-based MODIS sensors to produce daily estimates of biomass burning emission. It has been extended to include information about injection heights of biomass burning species provided by two distinct algorithms, which also use meteorological information from the operational weather forecasts of ECMWF. Injection heights are provided by the semi-empirical Sofiev parameterization and an analytical one-dimension Plume Rise Model (PRM). The two algorithms provide estimates for injection heights for each satellite pixel. Similarly to FRP observations, these estimates are then gridded, averaged and assimilated, using a simple observation operator, so as to fill the observational gaps. A global database of daily biomass burning emissions and injection heights at 0.1° resolution has thus been produced for 2003-2015. The database is being extended in near-real-time with the operational GFAS service of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). The two injection height datasets were compared against a new dataset of satellite-based plume height observations. The Sofiev parameterization showed a better overall agreement against observations, while the PRM was better at capturing the variability of injection heights and at estimating the injection heights of large fires. The results from both also show a differentiation depending on the type of vegetation. A positive trend with time in median injection heights from the PRM was noted, less marked from the Sofiev parameterization. This is provoked by a negative trend in number of small fires, especially in some regions such as South America. The use of biomass burning emission heights in atmospheric composition forecasts was assessed in two case studies: the SAMBBA campaign which took place in September 2012 in Brazil, and a series of large fire events in the Western U.S. in August 2013. For these case studies

  18. A strategy for merging objective estimates of global daily precipitation from gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Suping; Wu, Tongwen; Luo, Yong; Deng, Xueliang; Shi, Xueli; Wang, Zaizhi; Liu, Xiangwen; Huang, Jianbin

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for merging daily precipitation information from gauge observations, satellite estimates (SEs), and numerical predictions at the global scale. The strategy is designed to remove systemic bias and random error from each individual daily precipitation source to produce a better gridded global daily precipitation product through three steps. First, a cumulative distribution function matching procedure is performed to remove systemic bias over gauge-located land areas. Then, the overall biases in SEs and model predictions (MPs) over ocean areas are corrected using a rescaled strategy based on monthly precipitation. Third, an optimal interpolation (OI)-based merging scheme (referred as the HL-OI scheme) is used to combine unbiased gauge observations, SEs, and MPs to reduce random error from each source and to produce a gauge—satellite-model merged daily precipitation analysis, called BMEP-d (Beijing Climate Center Merged Estimation of Precipitation with daily resolution), with complete global coverage. The BMEP-d data from a four-year period (2011-14) demonstrate the ability of the merging strategy to provide global daily precipitation of substantially improved quality. Benefiting from the advantages of the HL-OI scheme for quantitative error estimates, the better source data can obtain more weights during the merging processes. The BMEP-d data exhibit higher consistency with satellite and gauge source data at middle and low latitudes, and with model source data at high latitudes. Overall, independent validations against GPCP-1DD (GPCP one-degree daily) show that the consistencies between BMEP-d and GPCP-1DD are higher than those of each source dataset in terms of spatial pattern, temporal variability, probability distribution, and statistical precipitation events.

  19. A new perspective on recent global warming: Asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, T.R.; Knight, R.W.; Gallo, K.P.; Peterson, T.C. ); Jones, P.D. ); Kukla, G. ); Plummer, N. ); Razuvayev, V. ); Lindseay, J. ); Charlson, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature during the period 1951-90 (0.84[degrees]C versus 0.28[degrees]C). The decrease of the diurnal temperature range is approximately equal to the increase of mean temperature. The asymmetry is detectable in all seasons and in most of the regions studied. The decrease in the daily temperature range is partially related to increases in cloud cover. Furthermore, a large number of atmospheric and surface boundary conditions are shown to differentially affect the maximum and minimum temperature. Linkages of the observed changes in the diurnal temperature range to large-scale climate forcings, such as anthropogenic increases in sulfate aerosols, greenhouse gases, or biomass burning (smoke), remain tentative. Nonetheless, the observed decrease of the diurnal temperature range is clearly important, both scientifically and practically. 36 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C.; Gidding, Corrie E.M.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

  1. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  2. A technique for global monitoring of net solar irradiance at the ocean surface. I - Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Chertock, Beth

    1992-01-01

    An accurate long-term (84-month) climatology of net surface solar irradiance over the global oceans from Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view planetary-albedo data is generated via an algorithm based on radiative transfer theory. Net surface solar irradiance is computed as the difference between the top-of-atmosphere incident solar irradiance (known) and the sum of the solar irradiance reflected back to space by the earth-atmosphere system (observed) and the solar irradiance absorbed by atmospheric constituents (modeled). It is shown that the effects of clouds and clear-atmosphere constituents can be decoupled on a monthly time scale, which makes it possible to directly apply the algorithm with monthly averages of ERB planetary-albedo data. Compared theoretically with the algorithm of Gautier et al. (1980), the present algorithm yields higher solar irradiance values in clear and thin cloud conditions and lower values in thick cloud conditions.

  3. Global surface solar irradiance product derived from SCIAMACHY FRESCO cloud fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Stammes, Piet; Müller, Richard

    The FRESCO cloud retrieval algorithm has been developed as a simple but fast and efficient algorithm for GOME and SCIAMACHY (Koelemeijer et al., 2001; Fournier et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2008). FRESCO employs the O2 A band at 760 nm to retrieve the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure using a simple Lambertian cloud model. The effective cloud fraction is a combination of geometric cloud fraction and cloud optical thickness, which yield the same reflectance at the top of the atmosphere as the cloud in the scene. It is well-known that clouds reduce the surface solar irradiance. Therefore the all-sky irradiance can be derived from the clear-sky irradiance with a scaling factor related to the cloud index. The cloud index is very similar to the effective cloud fraction by definition. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) software converts the cloud index to the surface solar irradiance using the Heliosat method (Mueller et al. 2009). The MAGIC algorithm is also used by the CM-SAF surface solar irradiance product for clear sky cases. We applied the MAGIC software to FRESCO effective cloud fraction with slight modifications. In this presentation we will show the FRESCO-SSI monthly mean product and the comparison with the BSRN global irradiance data at Cabauw, the Netherlands and surface solar irradiance measurement at Tibetan plateau in China.

  4. A Gauge - OLR Blended Analysis of Global Daily Precipitation: A 37-Year Data Record for Hydroclimate Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Lee, H. T.; Meng, J.; Mo, K. C.; Ek, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Many precipitation data sets have been produced in the past two decades based on gauge measurements, satellite observations and their combinations. Their applications in hydroclimate, however, are compromised by a number of shortcomings in long-term homogeneity, quantitative accuracy, and time/space resolution. The objective of this work is to construct a homogenous analysis of daily precipitation on a 0.25olat/lon grid over the global land for a 37-year period from 1979 to the present through combining information from CDR for the satellite observed HIRS OLR, as well as daily and monthly gauge data. First, CPC unified daily gauge analysis is calibrated against the GPCC monthly gauge data set to correct under-estimates in the daily analysis caused by the negatively biased daily station reports. The resulting adjusted daily gauge analysis presents improved quantitative accuracy over regions with reasonable gauge coverage. A technique is then developed to derive precipitation estimates from the OLR data. PDF tables are created for the OLR and matched against those for the collocated CMORPH satellite precipitation estimates using data for 1998 to 2014. An observed HIRS OLR value is converted to precipitation through the matched OLR and precipitation PDF tables. The technique is applied to generate precipitation estimates on a 0.25olat/lon grid over the globe for the entire HIRS OLR data period from 1979. The adjusted daily gauge analysis and the HIRS OLR-based precipitation estimates are then blended through the OI technique. The OLR precipitation estimates are used as the first guess, while the gauge data are utilized as the observation to refine the first guess. A suite of comprehensive procedures are implemented to examine the quantitative accuracy and homogeneity of the 37-year daily precipitation data set. In particular, experiments are conducted to force the Noah land model with our new daily precipitation analysis operating under the NCEP Global Land Data

  5. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  6. Evaluation of an innovative sensor for measuring global and diffuse irradiance, and sunshine duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneer, Tariq; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wood, John

    2002-03-01

    Delta-T Device Limited of Cambridge, UK have developed an integrated device which enables simultaneous measurement of horizontal global and diffuse irradiance as well as sunshine status at any given instance in time. To evaluate the performance of this new device, horizontal global and diffuse irradiance data were simultaneously collected from Delta-T device and Napier University's CIE First Class daylight monitoring station. To enable a cross check a Kipp & Zonen CM11 global irradiance sensor has also been installed in Currie, south-west Edinburgh. Sunshine duration data have been recorded at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh using their Campbell-Stokes recorder. Hourly data sets were analysed and plotted within the Microsoft Excel environment. Using the common statistical measures, Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Mean Bias Difference (MBD) the accuracy of measurements of Delta-T sensor's horizontal global and diffuse irradiance, and sunshine duration were investigated. The results show a good performance on the part of Delta-T device for the measurement of global and diffuse irradiance. The sunshine measurements were found to have a lack of consistency and accuracy. It is argued herein that the distance between the respective sensors and the poor accuracy of Campbell-Stokes recorder may be contributing factors to this phenomenon.

  7. A global survey on the seasonal variation of the marginal distribution of daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the seasonal variation of the marginal distribution of daily precipitation, it is important to find which statistical characteristics of daily precipitation actually vary the most from month-to-month and which could be regarded to be invariant. Relevant to the latter issue is the question whether there is a single model capable to describe effectively the nonzero daily precipitation for every month worldwide. To study these questions we introduce and apply a novel test for seasonal variation (SV-Test) and explore the performance of two flexible distributions in a massive analysis of approximately 170,000 monthly daily precipitation records at more than 14,000 stations from all over the globe. The analysis indicates that: (a) the shape characteristics of the marginal distribution of daily precipitation, generally, vary over the months, (b) commonly used distributions such as the Exponential, Gamma, Weibull, Lognormal, and the Pareto, are incapable to describe "universally" the daily precipitation, (c) exponential-tail distributions like the Exponential, mixed Exponentials or the Gamma can severely underestimate the magnitude of extreme events and thus may be a wrong choice, and (d) the Burr type XII and the Generalized Gamma distributions are two good models, with the latter performing exceptionally well.

  8. Variability of daily winter wind speed distribution over Northern Europe during the past millennium in regional and global climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierstedt, Svenja; Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian; José Gomez-Navarro, Juán

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the variability of the probability distribution of daily wind speed in wintertime over Northern and Central Europe in a series of global and regional climate simulations covering the last centuries, and in reanalysis products covering approximately the last 60 years. The focus of the study lies on identifying the link of the variations in the wind speed distribution to the regional near-surface temperature, to the meridional temperature gradient and to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The climate simulations comprise three simulations, each conducted with a global climate model that includes a different version of the atmospheric model ECHAM. Two of these global simulations have been downscaled with the regional climate models MM5 and CCLM. The reanalysis products are the global NCEP/NCAR meteorological reanalysis version 1 and a regional reanalysis conducted with a regional atmospheric model driven at its domain boundaries by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Our main result is that the link between the daily wind distribution and the regional climate drivers is strongly model dependent. The global models tend to behave similarly, although they show some discrepancies. The two regional models also tend to behave similarly to each other, but surprisingly the results derived from each regional model strongly deviates from the results derived from its driving global model. The links between wind speed and large-scale drivers derived from the reanalysis data sets overall tend to resemble those of the global models. In addition, considering multi-centennial time scales, we find in two global simulations a long term tendency for the probability distribution of daily wind speed to widen through the last centuries. The cause for this widening is likely the effect of the deforestation prescribed in these simulations. We conclude that no clear systematic relationship between the mean temperature, the temperature gradient and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation, with the

  9. A daily high-resolution global gridded precipitation product (1979-2016) based on gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Hylke; de Roo, Ad; van Dijk, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Existing global precipitation (P) products suffer from several limitations, most importantly that they fail to take advantage of the complementary performance of satellite and reanalysis products. In this work we introduce Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), a daily high-resolution global P product for the period 1979-2016 based on merging the P estimates from different sources with disparate error characteristics. For each grid cell, a normalized (unitless) daily P time series was computed by weighted averaging of bias-corrected estimates from three sources: (i) interpolated maps based on thousands of gauges worldwide; (ii) three satellite products (CMORPH, GSMaP, and TMPA 3B42RT); and (iii) a reanalysis product (ERA-Interim). The weight assigned to the gauge-based estimate was based on the distance to surrounding gauges, while the weights assigned to the satellite- and reanalysis-based estimates were based on their performance at surrounding gauges. The normalized daily P time series were subsequently multiplied by climatic mean P estimates from high-quality global and regional climatic datasets explicitly corrected for orographic effects (WorldClim and PRISM, among others). MSWEP was successfully validated in two ways, (i) by comparing its performance to that of existing P products at several hundred independent gauges, and (ii) by forcing a hydrologic model with MSWEP and existing P products for several hundred small catchments around the globe and comparing the streamflow simulation performance. We expect MSWEP to be useful for numerous large-scale hydrological applications.

  10. Suitability of global circulation model downscaled BCCA daily precipitation for local hydrologic applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monthly precipitation projections for various climate change scenarios have been available for over a decade. More recently, Bias Corrected Constructed Analogue (BCCA) daily precipitation projections have been available for climate change investigations. In this study, the direct use of BCCA precipi...

  11. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  12. Simulation Study of Effects of Solar Irradiance and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and Global Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar irradiation and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used daily-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar irradiation at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.

  13. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  14. Daily Time Step Refinement of Optimized Flood Control Rule Curves for a Global Warming Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Fitzgerald, C.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest temperatures have warmed by 0.8 °C since 1920 and are predicted to further increase in the 21st century. Simulated streamflow timing shifts associated with climate change have been found in past research to degrade water resources system performance in the Columbia River Basin when using existing system operating policies. To adapt to these hydrologic changes, optimized flood control operating rule curves were developed in a previous study using a hybrid optimization-simulation approach which rebalanced flood control and reservoir refill at a monthly time step. For the climate change scenario, use of the optimized flood control curves restored reservoir refill capability without increasing flood risk. Here we extend the earlier studies using a detailed daily time step simulation model applied over a somewhat smaller portion of the domain (encompassing Libby, Duncan, and Corra Linn dams, and Kootenai Lake) to evaluate and refine the optimized flood control curves derived from monthly time step analysis. Moving from a monthly to daily analysis, we found that the timing of flood control evacuation needed adjustment to avoid unintended outcomes affecting Kootenai Lake. We refined the flood rule curves derived from monthly analysis by creating a more gradual evacuation schedule, but kept the timing and magnitude of maximum evacuation the same as in the monthly analysis. After these refinements, the performance at monthly time scales reported in our previous study proved robust at daily time scales. Due to a decrease in July storage deficits, additional benefits such as more revenue from hydropower generation and more July and August outflow for fish augmentation were observed when the optimized flood control curves were used for the climate change scenario.

  15. Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from

  16. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  17. 33 Years of Near-Global Daily Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-global (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and daily spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the global scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR daily precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and global drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.

  18. Daily Water Temperature and River Discharge Modeling for Climate Change Impact Assessment in Large River Basins Globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2010-12-01

    Recent and future changes in climate will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes, having a direct impact on water quality and in turn the growth rate and distribution of freshwater organisms. In addition, changes in river temperature and streamflow are of economic importance for water requirements for industry, electricity and drinking water production. Although integrated hydrological and deterministic water temperature modeling approaches have been successfully applied for small-scale catchments, much less work has been done at large scales. A computationally efficient modeling approach is needed to simulate water temperature and river discharge at large temporal and spatial scales, for purposes such as addressing climate change issues. In addition, realistic simulations of daily water temperature and discharge of rivers with different basin characteristics and anthropogenic impacts are needed to address large-scale water management issues. Here we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the computationally efficient 1D stream temperature model RBM to simulate river discharge and water temperature on a daily basis for selected large-scale river basins globally. The models were forced with a new global gridded 0.5° x 0.5° meteorological dataset provided by the EU FP6 Water and Global Change (WATCH) project. The performance of this modeling approach was tested for the period 1980-1999 and during warm, dry periods specifically when water temperatures and water availability are generally most critical for usage functions and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, the impact of climate change on water temperature and river discharge is assessed by forcing the models with bias corrected output of selected Global Climate Models.

  19. Improved entrance optic for global irradiance measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, Julian

    2003-06-20

    A new entrance optic for a Brewer spectrophotometer has been designed and tested both in the laboratory and during solar measurements. The integrated cosine response deviates by 2.4% from the ideal, with an uncertainty of +/- 1%. The systematic uncertainties of global solar irradiance measurements with this new entrance optic are considerably reduced compared with measurements with the traditional design. Simultaneous solar irradiance measurements between the Brewer spectrophotometer and a spectroradiometer equipped with a state-of-the-art shaped diffuser agreed to within +/- 2% during a five-day measurement period. PMID:12833953

  20. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  1. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: The role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Blanchard Fields, Fredda

    2013-01-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (Charles, 2010) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examines how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults aged 18–81 (N=190). Results indicated older adults’ negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure three to six hours afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, nor any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. Implications of these results for emotion theories of aging are discussed. PMID:24364410

  2. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  3. Comparative analysis of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models for simulating the daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Duan, Qingyun

    2015-05-01

    This study assesses the simulations of the daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation over China during the period 1990-1999, based on phase 3 and phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5). Fourteen CMIP3 models and 14 CMIP5 models were investigated over eight regions across China. Skill scores quantifying the match between the simulated and observed probability density functions (PDFs) were applied to evaluate the performance of the models. For daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures, the results revealed that CMIP3 and CMIP5 models captured the basic pattern of the observed PDFs in all regions. However, the probabilities at lower values were overestimated in most models. In all regions except the west of Northwest China (region 7), all CMIP5 models captured more than 80% of the observed PDFs. Compared with performance at the annual time scale, the models tended to perform relatively worse over the period June to August. The performances of the CMIP5 and CMIP3 models were not as good for daily precipitation as for daily temperature, and the skill scores for precipitation were generally lower than 0.7 in all regions. The amount of drizzle (daily precipitation < 5 mm) was overestimated notably in all regions. The amount of very heavy precipitation (daily precipitation ≥ 20 mm) tended to be underestimated in humid regions but overestimated in arid regions. Compared with CMIP3, CMIP5 models showed some improvements in the simulation of daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures, but there was a lack of apparent improvement for simulation of daily precipitation.

  4. A technique for global monitoring of net solar irradiance at the ocean surface. II - Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertock, Beth; Frouin, Robert; Gautier, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    The generation and validation of the first satellite-based long-term record of surface solar irradiance over the global oceans are addressed. The record is generated using Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view plentary-albedo data as input to a numerical algorithm designed and implemented based on radiative transfer theory. The mean monthly values of net surface solar irradiance are computed on a 9-deg latitude-longitude spatial grid for November 1978-October 1985. The new data set is validated in comparisons with short-term, regional, high-resolution, satellite-based records. The ERB-based values of net surface solar irradiance are compared with corresponding values based on radiance measurements taken by the Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer aboard GOES series satellites. Errors in the new data set are estimated to lie between 10 and 20 W/sq m on monthly time scales.

  5. Daily estimates of the earth's pole position with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Freedman, Adam P.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Daily estimates of the earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of GPS receivers, obtained during the three week GIG '91 experiment in January-February 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to about 0.4 mas rms, after the removal of mean biases of order 1-3 mas. The small error in day-to-day variability is not sensitive to the fiducial strategy used, nor are fiducial sites even necessary for monitoring high frequency pole position variability. The small biases indicate that the applied reference frames of the three geodetic techniques are nearly aligned, that the GPS fiducial errors are small, and that systematic errors in GPS are also small (of order 5 ppb). A well determined reference frame is necessary for monitoring the long-term stability of polar motion and for separating it from other long-term signals such as tectonic motion and internal systematic errors.

  6. Global surface mass time variations by using a two-step inversion for cumulating daily satellite gravity information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, Guillaume; Frappart, Frappart; Seoane, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new method to produce time series of global maps of surface mass variations by progressive integration of daily geopotential variations measured by orbiting satellites. In the case of the GRACE mission (2002 - 2012), these geopotential variations can be determined from very accurate inter-satellite K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurements of 5-second daily orbits. In particular, the along-track gravity contribution of hydrology is extracted by removing de-aliasing models for static field, atmosphere, oceans mass variations (including periodical tides), as well as polar movements. Our determination of surface mass sources consists of two successive dependent Kalman filter stages. The first one consists of reducing the satellite-based potential anomalies by adjusting the longest spatial wavelengths (i.e., low-degree spherical harmonics less than 5-6). In the second stage, the residual potential anomalies from the previous stage are used to recover surface mass density changes - in terms of Equivalent-Water Height (EWH) - over a global network of juxtaposed triangular elements. These surface tiles of ~40,000 km x km are imposed to be identical and homogeneously-distributed over the terrestrial sphere, however they can be adapted to the local geometry of the surface mass. Our global approach was tested by inverting simulated hydrology-related geopotential data, and successfully applied to estimate time-varying surface mass densities from real GRACE-based residuals. This strategy of combined Kalman filter-type inversions can also be useful for exploring the possibility of reaching better time and space resolutions for hydrology, that would be hopefully brought by future low altitude geodetic missions.

  7. Combination of spaceborne sensor(s) and 3-D aerosol models to assess global daily near-surface air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol Particulate Matter (PM), measured by ground-based monitoring stations, is used as a standard by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to evaluate daily air quality. PM monitoring is particularly important for human health protection because the exposure to suspended particles can contribute, among others, to lung and respiratory diseases and even premature death. However, most of the PM monitoring stations are located close to cities, leaving large areas without any operational data. Satellite remote sensing is well suited for a global coverage of the aerosol load and can provide an independent and supplemental data source to in situ monitoring. Nevertheless, PM at the ground cannot easily be determined from satellite AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) without additional information on the optical/microphysical properties and vertical distribution of the aerosols. The objective of this study is to explore the efficacy and accuracy of combining a 3-D aerosol transport model and satellite remote sensing as a cost-effective approach for estimating ground-level PM on a global and daily basis. The estimation of the near-surface PM will use the vertical distribution (and, if possible, the physicochemical properties) of the aerosols inferred from a transport model and the measured total load of particles in the atmospheric column retrieved by satellite sensor(s). The first step is to select a chemical transport model (CTM) that provides “good” simulated aerosol vertical profiles. A few global (e.g., WRF-Chem-GOCART) or regional (e.g., MM5-CMAQ, PM-CAMx) CTM will be compared during selected airborne campaigns like ARCTAS-CARB (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites- California Air Resources Board). The next step will be to devise an algorithm that combines the satellite and model data to infer PM mass estimates at the ground, after evaluating different spaceborne instruments and possible multi-sensor combinations.

  8. Global surface density of water mass variations by using a two-step inversion by cumulating daily satellite gravity information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, Guillaume; Frappart, Frédéric; Seoane, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new method to produce time series of global maps of surface mass variations by progressive integration of daily geopotential variations measured by orbiting satellites. In the case of the GRACE mission, these geopotential variations can be determined from very accurate inter-satellite K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurements of 5-second daily orbits. In particular, the along-track gravity contribution of hydrological mass changes is extracted by removing de-aliasing models for static field, atmosphere, oceans mass variations (including periodical tides), as well as polar movements. Our determination of surface mass sources is composed of two successive dependent Kalman filter stages. The first one consists of reducing the satellite-based potential anomalies by adjusting the longest spatial wavelengths (i.e., low-degree spherical harmonics lower than 2). In the second stage, the residual potential anomalies from the previous stage are used to recover surface mass density changes - in terms of Equivalent-Water Height (EWH) - over a global network of juxtaposed triangular elements. These surface tiles of ~100,000 km x km (or equivalently 330 km by 330 km) are defined to be of equal areas over the terrestrial sphere. However they can be adapted to the local geometry of the surface mass. Our global approach was tested by inverting geopotential data, and successfully applied to estimate time-varying surface mass densities from real GRACE-based residuals. This strategy of combined Kalman filter-type inversions can also be useful for exploring the possibility of improving time and space resolutions for ocean and land studies that would be hopefully brought by future low altitude geodetic missions.

  9. UV and global irradiance measurements and analysis during the Marsaxlokk (Malta) campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, J.; Román, R.; Yousif, C.; Mateos, D.; de Miguel, A.

    2015-07-01

    A solar radiation measurement campaign was performed in the south-eastern village of Marsaxlokk (35°50' N; 14°33' E; 10 m a.s.l), Malta, between 15 May and 15 October 2012. Erythemal solar radiation data (from a UVB-1 pyranometer), and total horizontal solar radiation (global and diffuse components) from two CM21 pyranometer were recorded. A comparison of atmospheric compounds from ground measurements and satellites shows that TOC (total ozone column) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMI, TOMS and DOAS algorithms correlate well with ground-based recorded data. The water vapour column and the aerosol optical depth at 550 nm show a significant correlation at the confidence level of 99 %. Parametric models for evaluating the solar UV erythemal (UVER), global (G) and diffuse (D) horizontal irradiances are calibrated, from which aerosol effects on solar irradiance are evaluated using the Aerosol Modification Factor (AMF). The AMFUVER values are lower than AMFG, indicating a greater aerosol effect on UVER than on global solar irradiance. In this campaign, several dust event trajectories are identified by means of the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and by synoptic conditions for characterizing desert dust events. Hence, changes in the UV index due to atmospheric aerosols are described.

  10. The Circadian Clock Modulates Global Daily Cycles of mRNA Ribosome Loading[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Missra, Anamika; Ernest, Ben; Jia, Qidong; Ke, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Circadian control of gene expression is well characterized at the transcriptional level, but little is known about diel or circadian control of translation. Genome-wide translation state profiling of mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in long day was performed to estimate ribosome loading per mRNA. The experiments revealed extensive translational regulation of key biological processes. Notably, translation of mRNAs for ribosomal proteins and mitochondrial respiration peaked at night. Central clock mRNAs are among those subject to fluctuations in ribosome loading. There was no consistent phase relationship between peak translation states and peak transcript levels. The overlay of distinct transcriptional and translational cycles can be expected to alter the waveform of the protein synthesis rate. Plants that constitutively overexpress the clock gene CCA1 showed phase shifts in peak translation, with a 6-h delay from midnight to dawn or from noon to evening being particularly common. Moreover, cycles of ribosome loading that were detected under continuous light in the wild type collapsed in the CCA1 overexpressor. Finally, at the transcript level, the CCA1-ox strain adopted a global pattern of transcript abundance that was broadly correlated with the light-dark environment. Altogether, these data demonstrate that gene-specific diel cycles of ribosome loading are controlled in part by the circadian clock. PMID:26392078

  11. Derivation of Daily Global Distribution of Mid-Tropospheric C02 from AIRS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, M. T.; Olsen, E. T.; Chen, L.; Li, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2006-12-01

    We have applied the Vanishing Partial Derivative (VPD) method to AIRS spectra to retrieve the global distribution of CO2 in the mid-troposphere, between 500 and 300 mb, for selected periods of time in 2003. These results [Chahine et al. in GRL, 2005] agree well with the aircraft flask data obtained by Matsueda et al. (Tellus, 2002) in the tropicalmid-latitude regions. As part of the VPD solution we have also retrieved auxiliary data on the distribution of ozone and water vapor in the same tropospheric layer. We will show the robustness of the retrieved CO2 results with respect to different initial input or background conditions, briefly discuss the geographical and seasonal variation of the retrieved results, and show our detection of the expected anti- correlation between the CO2 and ozone variations in mid to high latitudes. The AIRS instrument on the NASA Aqua mission is a cross-track scanning grating spectrometer that covers the 3.7 to 15.4 micron spectral range with 2378 channels at a nominal spectral resolving power of 1200 and a 13.5 km field of view at nadir. After 4 years in space, AIRS has demonstrated a stability of 10 milli-Kelvin per year with a spectral accuracy of the center frequency of 2 parts per million.

  12. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and global-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's global decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.

  14. Improvement of domain wall conduit properties in cobalt nanowires by global gallium irradiation.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ramón, L; Fernández-Pacheco, A; Córdoba, R; Magén, C; Rodríguez, L A; Petit, D; Cowburn, R P; Ibarra, M R; De Teresa, J M

    2013-08-30

    Applications based on the movement of domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) require a good DW conduit behavior, i.e. a significant difference between DW nucleation and propagation fields. In this work, we have systematically studied how this property evolves in cobalt NWs grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) as a function of global gallium irradiation, for irradiation doses up to 1.24 × 10(17) ions cm(-2). Whereas for high doses the DW conduit is lost, below 6.42 × 10(15) ions cm(-2) the difference between the two fields increases with irradiation, becoming up to ∼9 times larger than for non-irradiated wires, due to a strong increase in the nucleation field, while the propagation field remains approximately constant. This behavior stems from two effects. The first effect is a decrease in the magnetic volume of the parasitic halo around the NW, typically present in FEBID nanostructures, leading to the disappearance of weak nucleation centers. The second effect is the formation of a 20 nm outer shell with Co crystals about twice the size of those forming the NW core, causing a net increase of the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The results presented here are important for the potential use of magnetic NWs grown by FEBID in DW-based devices, and might also be of interest for magnetic NWs fabricated by other techniques.

  15. Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-irradiated skin: comparative effects of short and daily versus a single harmful UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H

    2015-05-01

    The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. PMID:25438991

  16. Time–course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-irradiated skin: comparative effects of short and daily versus a single harmful UV exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. PMID:25438991

  17. Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-irradiated skin: comparative effects of short and daily versus a single harmful UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H

    2015-05-01

    The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced.

  18. Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.

    1986-09-15

    Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as daily treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic irradiation and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.

  19. Solar total irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, G.C. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )

    1991-02-20

    The record of globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total irradiance (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total irradiance from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between irradiance and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of irradiance values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to global climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.

  20. Combining satellite observations to develop a daily global soil moisture product for a wide range of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, M.; Reimer, C.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Pfeil, I.; Parinussa, R.; De Jeu, R.

    2015-11-01

    The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for daily global updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.

  1. Changes in sub-daily precipitation extremes in a global climate model with super-parameterization under CO2 warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairoutdinov, Marat; Zhou, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Virtually all of the projections for future change of extreme precipitation statistics under CO2 warming have been made using global climate models (GCMs) in which clouds and, in particular, convective cloud systems are not explicitly resolved, but rather parameterized. In our study, a different kind of a GCM, a super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SP-CAM), is employed. In SP-CAM, all the conventional cloud parameterizations are replaced with a small-domain cloud resolving model (CRM), called super-parameterization (SP). The SP is embedded in each grid column of the host GCM. The resolution of each embedded CRM is 4 km, which is generally sufficient to explicitly represent deep convection, which is mostly responsible for extreme precipitation events. In this study, we use the SP-CAM to contrast to the present and to conventional climate model, CAM, the sub-daily extreme precipitation statistics in response to the sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and CO2 levels as projected for the end of 21st century in response to the IPCC AR5 RCP8.5 emission scenario. Different mechanisms for extreme precipitation changes are discussed.

  2. Daily global solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petković, Dalibor; Ma, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the daily horizontal global solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.

  3. Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on global horizontal irradiance estimation: UAE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=δ/δ_R where δ is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and δR is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the daily variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffused horizontal irradiance (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations

  4. Error analysis of global satellite precipitation products using daily gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje

    2015-04-01

    Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and global reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall globally. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available global satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and daily temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical daily rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted

  5. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  6. Image guidance using 3D-ultrasound (3D-US) for daily positioning of lumpectomy cavity for boost irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) breast IGRT for electron and photon lumpectomy site boost treatments. Materials and methods 20 patients with a prescribed photon or electron boost were enrolled in this study. 3DUS images were acquired both at time of simulation, to form a coregistered CT/3DUS dataset, and at the time of daily treatment delivery. Intrafractional motion between treatment and simulation 3DUS datasets were calculated to determine IGRT shifts. Photon shifts were evaluated isocentrically, while electron shifts were evaluated in the beam's-eye-view. Volume differences between simulation and first boost fraction were calculated. Further, to control for the effect of change in seroma/cavity volume due to time lapse between the 2 sets of images, interfraction IGRT shifts using the first boost fraction as reference for all subsequent treatment fractions were also calculated. Results For photon boosts, IGRT shifts were 1.1 ± 0.5 cm and 50% of fractions required a shift >1.0 cm. Volume change between simulation and boost was 49 ± 31%. Shifts when using the first boost fraction as reference were 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 24% required a shift >1.0 cm. For electron boosts, shifts were 1.0 ± 0.5 cm and 52% fell outside the dosimetric penumbra. Interfraction analysis relative to the first fraction noted the shifts to be 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 36% fell outside the penumbra. Conclusion The lumpectomy cavity can shift significantly during fractionated radiation therapy. 3DUS can be used to image the cavity and correct for interfractional motion. Further studies to better define the protocol for clinical application of IGRT in breast cancer is needed. PMID:21554697

  7. Correlation between total solar irradiance and global land temperatures for the last 120 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varonov, A.; Shopov, Y. Y.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the solar impact on one of the main Earth climate system components—the land-near-surface air temperature—during the past 120 years. Using statistical analysis, a correlation between the variations of the total solar irradiance and of the annual-mean land-near-surface air temperatures was found. An unknown time lag between both data sets was expected to be present due to the complexity of the Earth's climate system leading to a delayed response to changes in influencing factors. We found the best correlation with coefficient over 90% for a 14-year shift of the annual mean land temperature record ahead with data before 1970, while the same comparison with data until 2006 yields 61% correlation. These results show the substantially higher influence of the total solar irradiance on the global land temperatures before 1970. The decline of this influence during the last 40 years could be attributed to the increasing concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  9. Empirical evaluation of global vitamin D effective ultraviolet irradiances under cloudy conditions for a subtropical southern hemisphere site.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, David J; Parisi, Alfio V; Schouten, Peter W

    2010-05-01

    This paper evaluates the global vitamin D effective UV (UV(vitd)) irradiances under cloudy conditions at a subtropical, southern hemisphere site. The UV(vitd) irradiances were analyzed on a horizontal plane and sampled at 5-min intervals over 18 months so that a wide range of parameters including cloud conditions, solar zenith angles (SZA) and ozone levels were taken into account. Cloud modification factors were determined from the influence of clouds on the global broadband solar radiation, and these were applied to the cloud-free vitamin D effective UV irradiance to evaluate the UV(vitd) irradiances on a horizontal plane for cloudy conditions. For vitamin D effective UV irradiance, cloud modification factors were found to range from 0.9 to 1.0 for no cloud and 0.4 to 0.5 for 8 octa of cloud cover. SZA played a minimal role in this variation. A comparison of the measured and calculated UV(vitd) irradiances for the 2004 data set in the range of SZA of 70 degrees or less provided an R(2) value of 0.90. The output of the model was compared to data measured during the first 6 months of 2005 for an SZA of 70 degrees or less and provided an R(2) value of approximately 0.82.

  10. Investigation of the effect of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef

    2013-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the global radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse irradiance is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.

  11. Estimation of daily global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected temperature-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of temperature-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected temperature-based empirical models for estimating the daily global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: daily mean clearness index (KT), temperature range (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the range of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader range of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of daily global solar radiation.

  12. Modeling the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation and global horizontal irradiance using singular spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Taylor, Michael; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kazadzis, Stelios

    2016-10-01

    We report on the construction of generic models to calculate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and vice versa. Our study took place at stations of the Greek UV network (UVNET) and the Hellenic solar energy network (HNSE) with measurements from NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers and CM pyranometers, chosen due to their long (≈1 M record/site) high temporal resolution (≈1 min) record that captures a broad range of atmospheric environments and cloudiness conditions. The uncertainty of the PAR measurements is quantified to be ±6.5% while the uncertainty involved in GHI measurements is up to ≈±7% according to the manufacturer. We show how multi-linear regression and nonlinear neural network (NN) models, trained at a calibration site (Thessaloniki) can be made generic provided that the input-output time series are processed with multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA). Without M-SSA, both linear and nonlinear models perform well only locally. M-SSA with 50 time-lags is found to be sufficient for identification of trend, periodic and noise components in aerosol, cloud parameters and irradiance, and to construct regularized noise models of PAR from GHI irradiances. Reconstructed PAR and GHI time series capture ≈95% of the variance of the cross-validated target measurements and have median absolute percentage errors <2%. The intra-site median absolute error of M-SSA processed models were ≈8.2±1.7 W/m2 for PAR and ≈9.2±4.2 W/m2 for GHI. When applying the models trained at Thessaloniki to other stations, the average absolute mean bias between the model estimates and measured values was found to be ≈1.2 W/m2 for PAR and ≈0.8 W/m2 for GHI. For the models, percentage errors are well within the uncertainty of the measurements at all sites. Generic NN models were found to perform marginally better than their linear counterparts.

  13. Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

  14. Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour Global Horizontal Irradiance Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102

  15. Estimation of confidence intervals of global horizontal irradiance obtained from a weather prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence

  16. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-03-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and

  17. Fast calculations of the spectral diffuse-to-global ratios for approximating spectral irradiance at the street canyon level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Hernandez, Roberto; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Webb, Ann R.

    2016-05-01

    Two radiative transfer models are presented that simplify calculations of street canyon spectral irradiances with minimum data input requirements, allowing better assessment of urban exposures than can be provided by standard unobstructed radiation measurements alone. Fast calculations improve the computational performance of radiation models, when numerous repetitions are required in time and location. The core of the models is the calculation of the spectral diffuse-to-global ratios (DGR) from an unobstructed global spectral measurement. The models are based on, and have been tested against, outcomes of the SMARTS2 algorithm (i.e. Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine). The modelled DGRs can then be used to partition global spectral irradiance values into their direct and diffuse components for different solar zenith angles. Finally, the effects of canyon obstructions can be evaluated independently on the direct and diffuse components, which are then recombined to give the total canyon irradiance. The first model allows ozone and aerosol inputs, while the second provides a further simplification, restricted to average ozone and aerosol contents but specifically designed for faster calculations. To assess the effect of obstructions and validate the calculations, a set of experiments with simulated obstructions (simulated canyons) were performed. The greatest source of uncertainty in the simplified calculations is in the treatment of diffuse radiation. The measurement-model agreement is therefore dependent on the region of the sky obscured and ranges from <5 % at all wavelengths to 20-40 % (wavelength dependent) when diffuse sky only is visible from the canyon.

  18. CMSAF products Cloud Fraction Coverage and Cloud Type used for solar global irradiance estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Viorel; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2016-08-01

    Two products provided by the climate monitoring satellite application facility (CMSAF) are the instantaneous Cloud Fractional Coverage (iCFC) and the instantaneous Cloud Type (iCTY) products. Previous studies based on the iCFC product show that the simple solar radiation models belonging to the cloudiness index class n CFC = 0.1-1.0 have rRMSE values ranging between 68 and 71 %. The products iCFC and iCTY are used here to develop simple models providing hourly estimates for solar global irradiance. Measurements performed at five weather stations of Romania (South-Eastern Europe) are used. Two three-class characterizations of the state-of-the-sky, based on the iCTY product, are defined. In case of the first new sky state classification, which is roughly related with cloud altitude, the solar radiation models proposed here perform worst for the iCTY class 4-15, with rRMSE values ranging between 46 and 57 %. The spreading error of the simple models is lower than that of the MAGIC model for the iCTY classes 1-4 and 15-19, but larger for iCTY classes 4-15. In case of the second new sky state classification, which takes into account in a weighted manner the chance for the sun to be covered by different types of clouds, the solar radiation models proposed here perform worst for the cloudiness index class n CTY = 0.7-0.1, with rRMSE values ranging between 51 and 66 %. Therefore, the two new sky state classifications based on the iCTY product are useful in increasing the accuracy of solar radiation models.

  19. Improvements and Extension to a Global Earth System Data Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status Determined from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Glassy, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A global satellite microwave Earth System Data Record of daily landscape freeze-thaw status (FT-ESDR) has been commonly used to quantify cold temperature impacts on productivity, phenology, evapotranspiration and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Overlapping 37 GHz, vertically polarized brightness temperature (Tb) measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) were integrated to produce a temporally consistent and continuous global daily FT data record from 1979 to 2012 and derived at 25-km pixel resolution. In this study, we develop and evaluate FT-ESDR enhancements, including expanded record length and spatial coverage, alternate algorithm calibrations, and a finer scale FT classification. A larger global domain is evaluated that encompasses all land areas affected by seasonally frozen temperatures, including urban, snow-ice dominant, barren, and permafrost landscapes. The FT retrieval is obtained using a seasonal threshold algorithm (STA) that classifies daily Tb changes in relation to frozen and non-frozen Tb reference states on a per-pixel basis. STA sensitivity to FT reference states is evaluated and alternative ancillary data are applied for defining Tb reference conditions, including surface temperatures from global reanalysis and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) seasonal climatology. The resulting FT record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 92 and 86 percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in-situ temperature measurements. Despite the larger domain and longer record, the new FT-ESDR showed a 1-3 percent spatial classification accuracy improvement over previous FT-ESDR versions. Areas with enhanced accuracy include the Central USA, Central Asia, and North and Central Europe. Sub-grid land surface spatial heterogeneity effects on the aggregate FT retrievals are also assessed to refine FT-ESDR data quality metrics. The results of this study are being

  20. A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (δ). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated δ using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an

  1. Application of A Global-To-Beam Irradiance Model to the Satellite-Based NASA GEWEX SRB Data and Validation of the Results against the Ground-Based BSRN Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous global record of shortwave and longwave radiation flux dataset at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude. SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. The inputs to the models include: 1.) Cloud parameters derived from pixel-level DX product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP); 2.) Temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere generated with the Goddard Earth Observing System model Version 4.0.3 (GEOS-4.0.3) from a 4-D data assimilation product of the Data Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; 3.) Atmospheric column ozone record constructed from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus-7 (July 1983 - November 1994), from the Operational Vertical Sounder aboard the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS, TOVS) (December 1994 - October 1995), from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and from Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis (SMOBA) products; 4.) Surface albedos based on monthly climatological clear-sky albedos at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) which in turn were derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data during 2000-2005; 5.) Surface emissivities from a map developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The SRB global irradiances have been extensively validated against the ground-based BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), GEBA (Global Energy Balance Archive), and WRDC (World Radiation Data Centre) data, and generally good agreement is achieved. In this paper, we apply the DirIndex model, a modified version of the DirInt model, to the SRB 3-hourly global irradiances and derive the 3-hourly beam, or direct normal, irradiances. Daily and monthly mean direct

  2. The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit daily global temperature anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.

    1995-01-01

    Temperature data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric temperatures on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of daily temperature anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric temperatures.

  3. Time-dependent MHD modeling of the global solar corona for year 2007: Driven by daily-updated magnetic field synoptic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. P.; Feng, X. S.; Xiang, C. Q.; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xuepu; Wu, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a time-dependent MHD model driven by the daily-updated synoptic magnetograms (MHD-DUSM) to study the dynamic evolution of the global corona with the help of the 3D Solar-Interplanetary (SIP) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) MHD model (SIP-AMR-CESE MHD Model). To accommodate the observations, the tangential component of the electric field at the lower boundary is specified to allow the flux evolution to match the observed changes of magnetic field. Meanwhile, the time-dependent solar surface boundary conditions derived from the method of characteristics and the mass flux limit are incorporated to couple the observation and the 3D MHD model. The simulated evolution of the global coronal structure during 2007 is compared with solar observations and solar wind measurements from both Ulysses and spacecrafts near the Earth. The MHD-DUSM model is also validated by comparisons with the standard potential field source surface (PFSS) model, the newly improved Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) empirical formula, and the MHD simulation with a monthly synoptic magnetogram (MHD-MSM). Comparisons show that the MHD-DUSM results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the sizes and distributions of coronal holes, the positions and shapes of the streamer belts, and the transitions of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. The MHD-DUSM results also display many features different from those of the PFSS, the WSA, and the MHD-MSM models.

  4. Daily affect and daily beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Human resource directorate employees of a large United Kingdom public hospital (N=36) completed an initial questionnaire and then participated in a daily diary study. The questionnaire included measures of affect and beliefs about high work demands' influence on affect and work performance. The diary included measures of affect, extent of high work demands, and daily beliefs, corresponding to those measured in the questionnaire. Participants were required to complete the diary twice daily, before and after work over a 2-week period. Measures of affect after work were associated with beliefs concerning work demands' influence on work performance and on affect measured after work. Beliefs about work demands measured in the questionnaire were associated with subsequent daily assessments of beliefs.

  5. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  6. Hourly global irradiance from satellite data in Badajoz, Spain: Spatial and temporal dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.

    2013-05-01

    Satellite estimates of solar radiation at the hourly scale depend on the spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation within a region. To examine this effect, a field program was established near Badajoz, Spain (38.88°N, 7.01°W) consisting in deployment of seven pyranometers at or adjoining the Meteosat pixel for the area. A simple semiempirical retrieval approach based on the satellite reflectance was developed using data from one pyranometer station at the University campus and subsequently tested with an independent data set for the same station. The accuracy of the satellite estimate is a strong function of the averaging period and the frequency of satellite scans used. At the hourly scale, best estimates of solar irradiance are obtained with satellite data taken every 5 min, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.883. Within-pixel spatial variability of measured irradiance is substantial but only for averaging periods less than 1 h. Comparison of surface point measurements with the satellite retrieval algorithm at the 5 min scale are associated with a relative RMS difference of 20.2% out of which 19.5% is due to model-induced uncertainties and 5.2% is due to instrumentation uncertainties involved in the retrieval process. Within-pixel point sampling will lower both the instrument uncertainty and the uncertainty in the retrieval algorithm for averaging periods lower than 1 h. Beyond this time, a single pyranometer is well representative of the overhead cloud structure, reaching root mean square difference values of 14% at the hourly scale.

  7. The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Chantal M.; Nelson, Norman B.; Siegel, David A.; Kostadinov, Tihomir S.

    2012-05-01

    The cycling pathways of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within marine systems must be constrained to better assess the impact of CDOM on surface ocean photochemistry and remote sensing of ocean color. Photobleaching, the loss of absorption by CDOM due to light exposure, is the primary sink for marine CDOM. Herein the susceptibility of CDOM to photobleaching by sea surface-level solar radiation was examined in 15 samples collected from wide-ranging open ocean regimes. Samples from the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans were irradiated over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ temperature in order to measure photobleaching rate and derive an empirical matrix, ɛsurf (m-1 μEin-1), which quantifies the effect of surface irradiance on the spectral absorption of CDOM. Irradiation responses among the ocean samples were similar within the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum spanning 300-360 nm, generally exhibiting a decrease in the CDOM absorption coefficient (m-1) and concomitant increase in the CDOM spectral slope parameter, S (nm-1). However, an unexpected irradiation-induced increase in CDOM absorption between approximately 360 and 500 nm was observed for samples from high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) environments. This finding was linked to the presence of dissolved nitrate and may explain discrepancies in action spectra for dimethylsulfide (DMS) photobleaching observed between the Equatorial Pacific and Subtropical North Atlantic Oceans. The nitrate-to-phosphate ratio explained 27-70% of observed variability in ɛsurf at observation wavelengths of 330-440 nm, while the initial spectral slope of the samples explained up to 52% of variability in ɛsurf at observation wavelengths of 310-330 nm. These results suggest that the biogeochemical and solar exposure history of the water column, each of which influence the chemical character and thus the spectral quality of CDOM and its photoreactivity, are the

  8. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse irradiation can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus global irradiance could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar irradiance are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-global irradiance, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.

  9. Estimation of monthly values of atmospheric turbidity using measured values of global irradiation and estimated values from CSR and Yang Hybrid models. Study case: Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Germán A.

    2011-05-01

    For ten sites in Argentina, monthly average Ångström turbidity coefficient β values were estimated using mean monthly global solar irradiation values measured at these sites from the former Argentinean radiometric network REDSOL. The values of the horizontal direct and diffuse components of the global irradiation were estimated using the Yang Hybrid model (YHM) and, to determine the representativeness of those results, they were compared to values from the SWERA database which uses the CSR model, developed by NREL, to make estimates. An inconsistency in the estimated values of the diffuse component was detected, therefore a new expression for that component was proposed, generating a corrected version of the YHM (CYHM). The turbidity coefficient β is considered an independent variable in the equation that estimates the direct transmittance and the values that forces an exact correlation between the measured monthly average global irradiance values with those estimated with the CYHM are considered representative for each site since the RMSE between the monthly global irradiation values of SWERA and CYHM is 11.7%, this value being very close to that found by the designers of the CSR model (10%) when they tested it with meteorological data from USA. The monthly average value estimates of turbidity coefficient β show expected behavior, with values varying according to the season of the year.

  10. Dependence on solar elevation and the daily sunshine fraction of the correlation between monthly-average-hourly diffuse and global radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, A. )

    1992-01-01

    In the present work the authors study for Uccle, Belgium data (50{degree}48 minutes N, 4{degree}21 minutes E), the dependence on {anti {gamma}} and {sigma} of the correlations between {anti K}{sub d} = {anti I}{sub d}/{anti I}{sub o} and {anti I}{sub t} = {anti I}/{anti I}{sub o}, where {anti I}, {anti I}{sub d}, and {anti I}{sub o} are respectively, the monthly-average-hourly value of global, diffuse, and extraterrestrial radiation (all of them on a horizontal surface), {anti {gamma}} is the solar elevation at midhour and {sigma} the daily sunshine fraction. The dependence on {sigma} is studied for different ranges of values, from {sigma} = 0 to {sigma} > 0.9. The dependence on {anti {gamma}} is studied for {anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}, 10{degree}, 15{degree}, 25{degree}-30{degree}; 35{degree}-40{degree}; 45{degree}-60{degree} ({delta}{anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}). Relating the dependence on {sigma}, for increasing values of {sigma}({sigma} {>=} 0), there is an increase in {anti K}{sub d} with the increase in {anti K}{sub t}. For 0.42 < {anti K}{sub t} < 0.52 a maximum is obtained for {anti K}{sub d}. After the maximum, as the skies become clearer, {anti K}{sub d} decreases as {anti K}{sub t} increases. Relating the dependence on {anti {gamma}}, for each range of values of {sigma} ({sigma} > 0.2), values of the slope for linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations show a tendency to decrease as {anti {gamma}} increases. For each value of {anti {gamma}} the slopes of the linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations tend to decrease when {sigma} increases.

  11. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  12. A Comparative Study of Daily 3-Gy Hypofractionated and 1.8-Gy Conventional Breast Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sea-Won; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Han, Wonshik; Im, Seock-Ah; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Keun Seok; Lee, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We retrospectively compared accelerated hypofractionation (AHF) with conventional fractionation (CF) in the radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage breast cancer patients. Three hundred seventy-nine early-stage (pT1–2 and pN0–1a) breast cancer patients who received RT with AHF after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. These patients were matched with 379 corresponding patients who received BCS and RT with CF at a different center with respect to the year BCS was performed, patient age (±3 years), and cancer stage. The AHF regimen consisted of 39 Gy in 13 fractions to the whole breast and a consecutive boost of 9 to 12 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions to the tumor bed. CF comprised whole-breast irradiation up to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and a boost of 9 to 14 Gy in 5 to 7 fractions to the tumor bed. The median follow-up period was 75 months (range, 3.8–110.8 months). There was no statistically significant difference between the AHF and CF groups in terms of age distribution, T and N stage, resection margin, and histologic grade. There were 5 ipsilateral breast tumor relapse (IBTR) cases in the AHF group compared with 7 cases in the CF group. Seven and eight locoregional relapse (LRR) cases were observed in the AHF and CF groups, respectively. The 7-year rates of IBTR-free survival, LRR-free survival, and disease-free survival were 98.9%, 98.4%, and 97.1% in the AHF group and 98.1%, 97.9%, and 96.0% in the CF group, respectively (P > 0.05). The incident rates of grade 3 edema, hyperpigmentation, or wet desquamation at the end of RT were higher in the CF group than in the AHF group (16.4% vs 0.2%, respectively; P < 0.01). AHF RT of 39 Gy to the whole breast plus a 9-Gy boost in 16 fractions showed excellent tumor control and tolerable skin toxicity, a finding that is comparable to CF RT in patients with early-stage breast cancer. PMID:27175630

  13. A reconstruction of solar irradiance using a flux transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Jiang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    Solar irradiance is one of the important drivers of the Earth's global climate, but it has only been measured for the past 33 years. Its reconstructions are therefore crucial to study longer term variations relevant to climate timescales. Most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations have being the models that are based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these, which uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. To reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. The concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles is used to describe the secular change in the irradiance.

  14. Inter-daily variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.

    2015-07-01

    Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24″ S; 69° 7' 58″ W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). Daily cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-daily time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model Global Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced daily cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-daily and inter-daily variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.

  15. Water vapour correction of the daily 1 km AVHRR global land dataset: Part I validation and use of the Water Vapour input field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Lloyd, D.; Meyer, D.J.; Baltzer, T. T.; Piraina, P.

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm developed for the 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) global land dataset was modified to include a near real-time total column water vapour data input field to account for the natural variability of atmospheric water vapour. The real-time data input field used for this study is the Television and Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder A global total column water vapour dataset. It was validated prior to its use in the AVHRR atmospheric correction process using two North American AVHRR scenes, namely 13 June and 28 November 1996. The validation results are consistent with those reported by others and entail a comparison between TOVS, radiosonde, experimental sounding, microwave radiometer, and data from a hand-held sunphotometer. The use of this data layer as input to the AVHRR atmospheric correction process is discussed.

  16. White Paper on SBUV/2 Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of solar irradiance measurements by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Model 2 (SBUV/2) instruments on NOAA's operational satellites is described. These measurements are necessary accurately monitor the long-term changes in the global column ozone amount, the altitude distribution of ozone in the upper stratosphere, and the degree to which ozone changes are caused by anthropogenic sources. Needed to accomplish these goals are weekly solar irradiance measurements at the operational ozone wavelengths, daily measurements of the Mg II proxy index, instrument-specific Mg II scale factors, and daily measurements of the solar spectral irradiance at photochemically important wavelengths. Two solar measurement schedules are provided: (1) a baseline schedule for all instruments except the NOAA-14 instrument and (2) a modified schedule for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This latter schedule is needed due to the NOAA-14 grating drive problems.

  17. Analysis of the total solar irradiance composite and their contribution to global mean air surface temperature rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, N.

    2008-12-01

    Herein I discuss and propose updated satellite composites of the total solar irradiance covering the period 1978-2008. The composites are compiled from measurements made with the three ACRIM experiments. Measurements from the NIMBUS7/ERB, the ERBS/ERBE satellite experiments and a total solar irradiance proxy reconstruction are used to fill the gap from June 1989 to October 1991 between ACRIM1 and ACRIM2 experiments. The result of the analysis does suggests that the total solar irradiance did increase from 1980 to 2002. The climate implications of the alternative satellite composites are discussed by using a phenomenological climate model which depends on two characteristics time response at tau1 =0.4 year and tau2=8-12 years, as determined phenomenologically [Scafetta, JGR 2008]. Reconstructions of total solar irradiance signature on climate during the last four centuries are discussed. The solar variability appears to have significantly contributed to climate change during the last four centuries, including the last century. Indirectly, the model suggests that the preindustrial climate experienced a large variability which is incompatible with an Hockey Stick temperature graph.

  18. The Second Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health: developing an action plan to promote health in daily practice and reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Dean, Elizabeth; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas; O'Donoghue, Grainne; Skinner, Margot; Umereh, Gloria; Beenen, Paul; Cleaver, Shaun; Afzalzada, DelAfroze; Delaune, Mary Fran; Footer, Cheryl; Gannotti, Mary; Gappmaier, Ed; Figl-Hertlein, Astrid; Henderson, Bobbie; Hudson, Megan K; Spiteri, Karl; King, Judy; Klug, Jerry L; Laakso, E-Liisa; LaPier, Tanya; Lomi, Constantina; Maart, Soraya; Matereke, Noel; Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; M'kumbuzi, Vyvienne R P; Mostert-Wentzel, Karien; Myezwa, Hellen; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Peterson, Cathy; Pétursdóttir, Unnur; Robinson, Jan; Sangroula, Kanchan; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Tan, Bee Yee; Tschoepe, Barbara A; Bruno, Selma; Mathur, Sunita; Wong, Wai Pong

    2014-05-01

    Based on indicators that emerged from The First Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health (2007), the Second Summit (2011) identified themes to inform a global physical therapy action plan to integrate health promotion into practice across the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) regions. Working questions were: (1) how well is health promotion implemented within physical therapy practice; and (2) how might this be improved across five target audiences (i.e. physical therapist practitioners, educators, researchers, professional body representatives, and government liaisons/consultants). In structured facilitated sessions, Summit representatives (n = 32) discussed: (1) within WCPT regions, what is working and the challenges; and (2) across WCPT regions, what are potential directions using World Café(TM) methodology. Commonalities outweighed differences with respect to strategies to advance health-focused physical therapy as a clinical competency across regions and within target audiences. Participants agreed that health-focused practice is a professional priority, and a strategic action plan was needed to develop it as a clinical competency. The action plan and recommendations largely paralleled the principles and objectives of the World Health Organization's non-communicable diseases action plan. A third Summit planned for 2015 will provide a mechanism for follow-up to evaluate progress in integrating health-focused physical therapy within the profession.

  19. The signature of atmospheric tides in sub-daily variations of Earth rotation as unveiled by globally-gridded atmospheric angular momentum functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    Thermally-driven atmospheric tides provide a small but distinct contribution to shortperiod variations of Earth rotation parameters (ERP). The effect of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, commonly denoted as S1 and S2, respectively, is in the range of 2 - 10 uas for polar motion and 2 - 10 uas for changes in length-of-day (LOD). Even though ocean tides represent a much more dominant driving agent for ERP fluctuations at short time scales, high-frequency atmospheric effects are non-negligible, particularly given the prospective measurement accuracy of space geodetic techniques. However, previous studies, such as Brzezinski et al. (2002), de Viron et al. (2005) or Schindelegger et al. (2011), have been noticeably inconclusive on the exact amplitude and phase values of S1 and S2 atmospheric excitation signals. This study aims at shedding light on the origin of these uncertainties with respect to the axial component of Earth's rotation vector by investigating times series of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) functions that are given on global grids and computed from three-hourly meteorological data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The signature of diurnal and semi-diurnal atmospheric tides is clearly visible in the gridded axial AAM functions, revealing a distinct spatial and temporal phase difference between pressure and wind tidal constituents of about ± π. It is shown that due to this counterbalance and the explicit axisymmetric spatial structure of S1 and S2, the net effect in sub-diurnal AAM (which is calculated from the global sum of gridded AAM functions) is always a small quantity, particularly sensitive to minor differences between the analysis fields of numerical weather models.

  20. Global Increase in UV Irradiance during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Zonal average ultraviolet irradiance (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted irradiances. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted irradiances. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV irradiance levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.

  1. UV-B radiation amplification factor determined based on the simultaneous observation of total ozone and global spectral irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Kajihara, R.; Uekubo, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Shitamichi, M.; Ueno, T.; Ito, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency started the spectral observation of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance on 1 January 1990 at Tateno, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba (35 deg N, 140 deg E). The observation has been carried out using the Brewer spectrophotometer for the wavelengths from 290 to 325 nm with a 0.5 nm interval every hour from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset throughout a year. Because of remarkable similarity within observed spectra, an observed spectrum can be expressed by a simple combination of a reference spectrum and two parameters expressing the deformation of the observed spectrum from the reference. By use of the relation between one of the deformation parameters and the total ozone simultaneously observed with the Dobson spectrophotometer, the possible increase of UV irradiance due to ozone depletion is estimated. For damaging UV, the irradiance possibly increases about 19 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 percent at noon throughout the year in the northern midlatitudes. DUV at noon on the summer solstice possibly increases about 5.6 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 m atm-cm for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. Fatigue, pain and patient global assessment responses to biological treatment are unpredictable, and poorly inter-connected in individual rheumatoid arthritis patients followed in the daily clinic.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ole Rintek; Egsmose, Eva Marie

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate relations on group level and agreements on the individual patient level between changes in fatigue, pain and patient global assessment (PaGl) assessed on visual analogue scales (VAS) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after initiating or switching biological treatment. Associations with other disease measures were also examined. Traditional disease activity data on 177 patients with RA registered before and after 6-month treatment were extracted from the Danish DANBIO registry. Associations were examined using multiple regression analysis. Agreement between the VAS score changes (∆) was expressed as the bias (mean difference) and the 95 % lower and upper limits of agreement (LoA). All disease measures improved significantly. ∆fatigue, ∆pain and ∆PaGl were independently associated with each other (r partial range 0.38-0.81, p < 0.0001), but not to a significant degree with changes in other measures. Lower and upper LoA [bias] for ∆fatigue versus ∆pain was -44.0 and 51.8 [3.9], for ∆fatigue versus ∆PaGl -38.2 and 52.4 [4.2], and for ∆PaGl versus ∆pain -34.3 and 34.3 [0.0]. ∆fatigue, ∆pain and ∆PaGl were independently but weakly predicted by their own baseline values (r partial range -0.30 to -0.46, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, changes in fatigue, pain and PaGl were independently associated and nearly identical on group level but agreements were poor in individual patients. The changes were poorly explained by other potential predictor variables and by baseline values. The results expose the unpredictable nature of patient-reported VAS scores in individual patients with RA. PMID:27449345

  3. Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from Global Energy Balance Archive Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.

    2009-05-01

    Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave irradiance decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave irradiance recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.

  4. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  5. Sensitivity of simulated tropical climate variability and its global teleconnections to reconstructed volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodri, Myriam; Servonnat, Jérome; Fluteau, Frédérique; Gastineau, Guillaume; Alexandrine Sicre, Marie; Mignot, Juliette

    2010-05-01

    Tropical climate variability based on proxy reconstructions for the last millennium suggests important interannual to decadal changes probably modulated by external forcing such as volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations. For example these proxy reconstructions suggest a warming of the Pacific warm pool (Newton et al 2009), a low ENSO variance and a northward shift of the ITCZ during periods of increased Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and low volcanic activity such as during the so-called Warm Medieval Period (Haug et al, 2001; McGregor et al, 2009). The opposite situation is suggested for the Little Ice Age (LIA), a climatic period around the Maunder Minimum characterised by higher volcanic activity and small, yet sizable reduction of the TSI. Furthermore, first evidence suggest a significant role played by such tropical changes in driving teleconnected megaflood/megadroughts and threshold-like response in monsoons over South and North America while modulating significantly the climate of the North Atlantic region during the Warm Medieval Period and the Little Ice Age (Rein et al., 2004; Moy et al., 2002; Conroy et al. 2009; McGregor et al, 2009; Seager et al, 2008; Sicre et al, 2008…). In link with these issues, we will explore tropical Pacific climate variability and its tropical and extra tropical teleconnections in particular over the Americas and North Atlantic, in externally forced and unforced millennial-long simulations run with the IPSL model. This will allow us evaluating the sensitivity of tropical Pacific internal dynamics and global teleconnections to the applied reconstructed volcanic and solar forcings for this period and hopefully shade some light on the processes underlying proxy-based reconstructions for the last millennium climate variability.

  6. [Wound healing after laser and red light irradiation].

    PubMed

    Hutschenreiter, G; Haina, D; Paulini, K; Schumacher, G

    1980-04-01

    Laser irradiation and red light irradiation, daily 2 respectively 4 J/cm2, do not bring any acceleration of wound healing in rats. No significant effect was evident in the cell pattern of wounds during various phases of healing through the irradiation. The tensile strength of cicatrices increased by laser irradiation, but not by red light irradiation (monochromatic lambda = 633 nm).

  7. Within-canopy sampling of global irradiance to describe downwelling light distribution and infer canopy stratification in a broadleaf forest.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Rita; Brown, Kim J

    2008-09-01

    A broadleaf mixed forest diversified through partial tree thinning was studied to identify expedient sampling and data analysis procedures to capture the heterogeneous within-canopy downward distribution of instantaneous global photosynthetic photon flux (PPF); to extract foliage structural properties from the acquired light values; and to compute statistics descriptive of the within-canopy light and leaf layer distributions. We sampled PPF at 1-m intervals along vertical gradients using a helium-filled balloon as a platform for a light sensor. A random method was used to identify the forest floor locations for the within-canopy balloon ascents. About 400 PPF measurements were recorded per vertical transect. For each PPF value, we computed, by inversion of the Monsi-Saeki model, the number of leaf strata cumulated along the sunbeam direction from the position where the light was measured. Variability in PPF and leaf layer at different vegetation scales was computed by non-parametric statistics. The methods were evaluated as appropriate for intra-canopy PPF sampling, particularly in an undisturbed canopy. The minimum number of vertical PPF profiles required to capture the within-canopy PPF variability was 9-10 (equivalent to about 4000 measurements). The reliability and sensitivity of the inversion of the Monsi-Saeki method were sufficient to capture the canopy structural differences between undisturbed and partially thinned forests. The proposed PPF canopy sampling and data analysis procedures provide a fast, reliable and inexpensive way to characterize tree crown structure, and to predict plant growth and forest dynamics and could be applied whenever vegetation absorbed radiation is a main driving force for forest canopy processes. The experimental light attenuation data and the extracted canopy leaf layer numbers could serve to corroborate canopy mechanistic models of radiative transfer and net primary production.

  8. CCD fiber optic spectrometer for the measurement of spectral irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, J. U.; McArthur, L. J. B.; Halliwell, D.; Poissant, Y.; Pelland, S.

    2010-08-01

    Recent technological advancements have made CCD spectrometers an increasingly suitable alternative to traditional monochromator-based instrumentation. The authors have developed instrumentation for the near instantaneous measurement of spectral global, direct, diffuse, reflected and southward-tilted irradiances. The system uses an AvaSpec2048TEC-2 - a dual channel thermo-electric-cooled fiber optic spectrometer from Avantes Inc. Each channel has a 2048-pixel linear array detector and the system achieves a spectral resolution of 0.0007 μm (FWHM) over the range 0.241-1.1 μm. The system also includes sensor heads, fiber optic cables and a multiplexer. Two types of sensor heads have been developed: a pyrheliometer configuration for direct beam, and a pyranometer configuration for global, diffuse, reflected and tilted measurements. Calibration uses a system of standard light sources. Cosine errors inherent to the spectralon diffusers have been characterized and corrections are applied to data from each sensor head. Accuracy of global irradiance is examined by comparing measurements against global photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (0.395 - 0.695 μm) from Eppley red and green dome pyranometers. PAR daily totals (MJ/m2/day) and one minute averages (W/m2) are compared for 35 days in 2009 and daily totals are within +/- 10% from June to October.

  9. Estimation of monthly global solar irradiation using the Hargreaves-Samani model and an artificial neural network for the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyra, Gustavo Bastos; Zanetti, Sidney Sára; Santos, Anderson Amorim Rocha; de Souza, José Leonaldo; Lyra, Guilherme Bastos; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lemes, Marco Antônio Maringolo

    2016-08-01

    The monthly global solar irradiation ( H g) was estimated using the Hargreaves-Samani model (HS) with three different approaches for determining the k r coefficient and using an artificial neural network (ANN). The data consisted of long-term climate series measured at eight conventional meteorological stations in the state of Alagoas and its borders in northeastern Brazil. The approaches to determine the k r coefficient of the HS model included (i) the method proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (0.190 and 0.162 for coastal and interior regions, respectively), (ii) a method analogous to the previous except with altitude correction, and (iii) k r fitted with local climatic data. A new spatial interpolation method is also proposed to determine k r as a function of geographical coordinates and altitude. The fitted local values of k r (0.168-0.179 and 0.189-0.231 for interior and coastal stations, respectively) exhibited a strong dependence ( r 2 = 0.81) on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The estimates of H g obtained with the HS model using fitted local values of k r and those using the ANN were similar (determination coefficient - r 2 = 0.75 and Willmontt agreement coefficient - d = 0.93) and better than those from the HS model using an altitude-corrected k r ( r 2 = 0.68 and d = 0.90) or the values proposed by Hargreaves (1994) ( r 2 = 0.57 and d = 0.85). The estimates of H g were less accurate and precise for the coastal stations, where cloudiness and humidity are high and the thermal amplitude is small.

  10. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Share Plus on Google Plus I Have Alzheimer's Disease alz.org | IHaveAlz I Have Alz Homepage Know ... others living with Alzheimer's back to top The Alzheimer's ... living with the disease, share their personal insights about the daily strategies ...

  11. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  12. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  13. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; and others

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  14. Evaluation of the Delta-T SPN1 radiometer for the measurement of solar irradiance components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estelles, Victor; Serrano, David; Segura, Sara; Wood, John; Webb, Nick; Utrillas, Maria Pilar

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse the performance of an SPN1 radiometer built by Delta-T Devices Ltd. to retrieve global solar irradiance at ground and its components (diffuse, direct) in comparison with measurements from two Kipp&Zonen CMP21 radiometers and a Kipp&Zonen CHP1 pirheliometer, mounted on an active Solys-2 suntracker at the Burjassot site (Valencia, Spain) using data acquired every minute during years 2013 - 2015. The measurement site is close to sea level (60 m a.s.l.), near the Mediterranean coast (10 km) and within the metropolitan area of Valencia City (over 1.500.000 inhabitants). The SPN1 is an inexpensive and versatile instrument for the measurement of the three components of the solar radiation without any mobile part and without any need to azimuthally align the instrument to track the sun (http://www.delta-t.co.uk). The three components of the solar radiation are estimated from a combination of measurements performed by 7 different miniature thermopiles. The SPN1 pyranometer measures the irradiance between 400 and 2700 nm, and the nominal uncertainty for the individual readings is about 8% ± 10 W/m2 (5% for the daily averages). The pyranometer Kipp&Zonen CMP21 model is a secondary standard for the measurement of broadband solar global irradiance in horizontal planes. Two ventilated CMP21 are used for the measurement of the global and diffuse irradiances. The expected total daily uncertainty of the radiometer is estimated to be 2%. The pirheliometer Kipp&Zonen CHP1 is designed for the measurement of the direct irradiance. The principles are similar to the CMP21 pyranometer. The results of the comparison show that the global irradiance from the SPN1 compares very well with the CMP21, with absolute RMSD and MBD differences below the combined uncertainties (15 W/m2 and -5.4 W/m2, respectively; relative RMSD of 3.1%). Both datasets are very well correlated, with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.997 and a slope and intercept very close to 1 and 0

  15. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  16. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  18. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  19. Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar irradiance using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances in atmosphere composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Z.; Gschwind, B.; Lefevre, M.; Wald, L.

    2014-11-01

    The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3) provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min, estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the irradiation under clear skies from the new McClear clear-sky model, whose inputs are the advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC (Monitoring Atmosphere Composition and Climate) projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for daily irradiation for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and daily irradiation. The bias ranges from -4 to 4% of the mean observed irradiation for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD) varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h irradiation, and 6 and 20% for daily irradiation. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0° and longitude 0°, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases, and with no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.

  20. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  1. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  2. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  3. Recent Trends in Global Ocean Chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.

  4. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  5. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill.

  6. Influenza virus subpopulations: interferon induction-suppressing particles require expression of NS1 and act globally in cells; UV irradiation of interferon-inducing particles blocks global shut-off and enhances interferon production.

    PubMed

    Malinoski, Christopher P; Marcus, Philip I

    2013-02-01

    Influenza virus populations contain several subpopulations of noninfectious biologically active particles that are measured by the unique phenotypes they express. Two of these subpopulations were studied: (1) interferon (IFN)-inducing particles (IFP) and (2) IFN induction-suppressing particles (ISP). ISP are dominant in cells coinfected with one or more IFP; they completely suppress IFN production in cells otherwise programmed to induce it. Influenza virus ISP were shown to act in host cells in a nonspecific and global manner, suppressing IFN induction independent of the family of viruses serving as IFN inducers. ISP must be present within the first 3 h of coinfection with IFP to be maximally effective; by 7 hpi IFN induction/production is refractory to the action of superinfecting ISP. UV target and thermal inactivation analyses revealed that ISP activity was dependent solely on the expression of the NS gene. Low doses of UV radiation enhanced by ∼10-fold the already high IFN-inducing capacity of a virus that expressed truncated NS1. There was no change in the number of IFP, implying that the production of IFN/cell had increased. We postulated that preventing degradation of cellular RNA pol II by viral polymerase prolonged the transcription of cellular mRNA, including IFN mRNA, to enhance the IFN-inducing capacity of the cell without any increase in the number of IFP. These studies point to the dueling roles of IFP and ISP in modulating IFN induction/production, the former activity being critical to the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines.

  7. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  8. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  9. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December

  10. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  11. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  12. Brush border intestinal enzymes after multiple daily fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Becciolini, A.; Giache, V.; Balzi, M.; Morrone, A.

    1987-03-01

    The modifications in brush border enzyme activity of the epithelial cell of the small intestine were studied after multiple daily fractionation (MDF) of 3 Gy X and 3 Gy X 2 X 2 (12 h split). Disaccharase and dipeptidase activities changed in the same way after irradiation. The results show that both total doses caused the three known phases of increase, decrease, and a return to normal. With MDF, activity at the end of irradiation was similar to or greater than that of controls and remained higher longer than a single dose of 8 Gy. However, the return to normal occurred sooner than after a single dose of 8 Gy. After 11 days, circadian oscillations of brush border enzyme activity appeared similar to those of controls in many segments of the intestine, reaching the highest activity during the night and the lowest in the afternoon.

  13. Monitoring global snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Richard; Hardman, Molly

    1991-01-01

    A snow model that supports the daily, operational analysis of global snow depth and age has been developed. It provides improved spatial interpolation of surface reports by incorporating digital elevation data, and by the application of regionalized variables (kriging) through the use of a global snow depth climatology. Where surface observations are inadequate, the model applies satellite remote sensing. Techniques for extrapolation into data-void mountain areas and a procedure to compute snow melt are also contained in the model.

  14. Variability of annual daily maximum rainfall of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, Faisal; Hewa, Guna Alankarage; Argue, John R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with a study on rainfall characterises of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh for the period of 1953 to 2009. Data were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department in January 2011 and found 2.84% missing data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on annual rainfall, annual daily and monthly maximum rainfall. We applied Gumbel distribution function to estimate return periods of extreme rainfall events and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 425 mm had a return period of 100 years. Normal distribution function was adopted to forecast rainfall variability due to global climate change and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 200 mm might occur in any 12 years during the period of 2010 to 2066. The outcomes of this paper can be used in better understanding rainfall patterns of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  15. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  16. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  17. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  18. Urban tree influences on ultraviolet irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, Gordon M.; Grant, Richard H.; Gao, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Many of the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on people and their environment--damage to various materials, survival of insects and microbial pathogens, growth of vegetation, and adverse or beneficial effects on human health--are modified by the presence of trees. Human epidemiological investigations generally consider exposure as given by indices of UVR irradiance on horizontal surfaces in the open. Though many people are exposed to UVR while reclining at a beach or swimming pool, thus experiencing irradiance on essentially horizontal surfaces in the open, exposure to UVR during daily routines in urban areas may also be important in affecting human health. Tree influences on UVR irradiance, particularly in the UVB, can differ substantially from influences on the visible portion of the solar spectrum. Trees greatly reduce UVB irradiance in their shade when they obscure both the sun and sky. Where trees obscure the sun but leave much of the sky in view, UVB irradiance will be greater than suggested by the visible shadow. In small sunny areas near trees that block much of the sky from view, UVB irradiance is reduced substantially, whereas visible irradiance may be nearly as great or slightly greater than in the open.

  19. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  20. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  1. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  2. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  3. The daily changing pattern of hydrogen peroxide in New Zealand surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, R.

    1996-05-01

    Concerns are rising about a global change of climate, which is based on changes of UV irradiance, rainfall, and temperature for example. One possible impact of increased UV irradiance on lake ecosystems is increased formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Studies on the temporal and spatial behavior of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lake waters may be a precondition for a better understanding of the impact of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were measured during daytime every 2 h at several depths in a catena of lakes of different trophic states including oligotrophic lakes Selfe and Oxbow, eutrophic Lake Hayes, dystrophic Lake Hochstetter, and a hypertrophic oxidation pond. The daily patterns of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of the various lakes can be explained firstly by the turnover regime of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which results out of simultaneous biological or chemical decay and formation yield (ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed per UV radiation dose) and secondly by internal transport. As in dystrophic, eutrophic, and hypertrophic lakes with high turnover, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed near the surface and the decay is rapid over the entire water column, a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern with sharp temporal and vertical gradients develops. In contrast, oligotrophic lakes allow deeper penetration of UV radiation, thus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed over greater depths. Further, the (biological) decay is slower than in lakes of higher trophic state leading to less sharp gradients within the daily H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern. Input of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by wet deposition can contribute considerably to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lakes, whereas dry deposition and groundwater flow do not.

  4. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  5. Enhancement of the MODIS Daily Snow Albedo Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The MODIS daily snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo globally at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require daily snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS daily snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the daily snow albedo product can be improved using a daily version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 daily snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the daily snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with daily surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we

  6. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  7. The effects of sunspots on solar irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Silva, S.; Woodard, M.; Willson, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the darkness of a sunspot on the visible hemisphere of the sun will reduce the solar irradiance on the earth. Approaches are discussed for obtaining a crude estimate of the irradiance deficit produced by sunspots and of the total luminosity reduction for the whole global population of sunspots. Attention is given to a photometric sunspot index, a global measure of spot flux deficit, and models for the compensating flux excess. A model is shown for extrapolating visible-hemisphere spot areas to the invisible hemisphere. As an illustration, this extrapolation is used to calculate a very simple model for the reradiation necessary to balance the flux deficit.

  8. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  9. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  10. Brief Daily Periods of Unrestricted Vision Preserve Stereopsis in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Earl L.; Hung, Li-Fang; Harwerth, Ronald S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study examines whether brief periods of binocular vision could preserve stereopsis in monkeys reared with optical strabismus. Methods. Starting at 4 weeks of age, six infant monkeys were reared with a total of 30 prism diopters base-in split between the eyes. Two of the six monkeys wore prisms continuously, one for 4 weeks and one for 6 weeks. Four of the six monkeys wore prisms but had 2 hours of binocular vision daily, one for 4, one for 6, and two for 16 weeks. Five normally reared monkeys provided control data. Behavioral methods were used to measure spatial contrast sensitivity, eye alignment, and stereopsis with Gabor and random dot targets. Results. The same pattern of results was evident for both local and global stereopsis. For monkeys treated for 4 weeks, daily periods of binocular vision rescued stereopsis from the 10-fold reduction observed with continuous optical strabismus. Six weeks of continuous strabismus resulted in stereo blindness, whereas daily periods of binocular vision limited the reduction to a twofold loss from normal. Daily periods of binocular vision preserved stereopsis over 16 weeks of optical strabismus for one of the two monkeys. Conclusions. Two hours of daily binocular vision largely preserves local and global stereopsis in monkeys reared with optical strabismus. During early development, the effects of normal vision are weighed more heavily than those of abnormal vision. The manner in which the effects of visual experience are integrated over time reduces the likelihood that brief episodes of abnormal vision will cause abnormal binocular vision development. PMID:21398285

  11. Irradiance Variability of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, Claus

    1990-01-01

    Direct measurements of the solar constant--the total irradiance at mean Sun-Earth distance--during the last ten years from satellites show variations over time scales from minutes to years and decades. At high frequencies the spectral power is determined by granulation, super- and mesogranulation. In the 5-minute range, moreover, it is dominated by power from the solar p-mode oscillations. Their power and frequencies change with time, yielding information about changes in the convection zone. During periods of several hours, the power is steadily increasing and may be partly due to solar gravity modes. The most important variance is in the range from days to several months and is related to the photospheric features of solar activity, decrease of the irradiance during the appearance of sunspots, and increasing by faculae and the magnetic network. Long-term modulation by the 11-year activity cycle are observed conclusively with the irradiance being higher during solar maximum. All these variations can be explained--at least qualitatively--by their manifestation on the photosphere. For the long-term changes, the simultaneous changes of the frequencies of solar p-mode oscillations suggest a more global origin of the variations. Indeed, it seems that the observed irradiance modulation is a true luminosity change with the magnetic cycle of the Sun.

  12. Solar Spectral Irradiance and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrally resolved solar irradiance is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar irradiance to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's global temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral irradiance are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar irradiance, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.

  13. Effects of UV-B irradiation on a marine microecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Roberto; Messina, Nicola; Gioffré, Domenico; Colombetti, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of this work was to study the effect of UV irradiation on a microecosystem consisting of several interacting species. The system chosen was of a hypersaline type, where all the species present live at high salt concentration; it comprises different bacteria; a producer, the photosynthetic green alga Dunaliella salina; and a consumer, the ciliated protozoan Fabrea salina, which form a complete food chain. We were able to establish the initial conditions that give rise to a self-sustaining microecosystem, stable for at least 3 weeks. We then determined the effect of UV irradiation on this microecosystem under laboratory-controlled conditions, in particular by measuring the critical UV exposure for the two main components of the microecosystem (algae and protozoa) under UV-B irradiances comparable to those of solar irradiation. In our experiments, we varied irradiance, total dose and spectral composition of the actinic light. The critical doses at irradiances of the order of 56 kJ/m(2) (typical average daily irradiance in a sunny summer day in Pisa), measured for each main component of the microecosystem (algae and ciliates), turned out to be around 70 kJ/m(2) for ciliates and 50 kJ/m(2) for D. salina. By exposing microecosystems to daily UV-B irradiances of the order of 8 kJ/m(2) (typical average daily irradiance in a sunny winter day in Pisa), we found no effect at total doses of the order of the critical doses at high irradiances, showing that the reciprocity law does not hold. We have also measured a preliminary spectral-sensitive curve of the UV effects, which shows an exponential decay with wavelength. PMID:15339218

  14. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored. PMID:26011417

  15. Daily regulation of hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the daily rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialised organisation of the connections between the mammalian circadian clock neurons and neuroendocrine as well as pre-autonomic neurons in the hypothalamus. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioural, endocrine and metabolic functions that will help the organism adjust to the time of day most efficiently. For example, activation of the orexin system by the hypothalamic biological clock at the start of the active phase not only ensures that we wake up on time but also that our glucose metabolism and cardiovascular system are prepared for this increased activity. Nevertheless, it is very likely that the circadian clock present within the endocrine glands plays a significant role as well, for instance, by altering these glands' sensitivity to specific stimuli throughout the day. In this way the net result of the activity of the hypothalamic and peripheral clocks ensures an optimal endocrine adaptation of the metabolism of the organism to its time-structured environment. PMID:23604480

  16. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.

  17. Surface Irradiances Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface irradiances using observational constraints of TOA irradiance from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA irradiance is consistent with CERES-derived irradiance to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface irradiance adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean irradiances calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave irradiances over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface irradiance computations.

  18. Gap opening planets in stellar irradiated disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Gomes, Aiara; Klahr, Hubert; Kuiper, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the influence of radiative effects on planetary gap structures, aiming to understand cavities that have recently been observed in protoplanetary disks and suggested to be a result of planet-disk interactions. We use 3D global radiative-hydrodynamical simulations, including dust radiation as well as stellar irradiation in the PLUTO code.

  19. Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Wenzler, T.; Podlipnik, B.

    2009-09-01

    Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115-400 nm over the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) data. The evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic flux, which is a central input to the model, is described by the magnetograms and continuum images recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory between 1974 and 2003 and by the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on SOHO since 1996. The reconstruction extends the available observational record by 1.5 solar cycles. The reconstructed Ly-α irradiance agrees well with the composite time series by Woods et al. (2000). The amplitude of the irradiance variations grows with decreasing wavelength and in the wavelength regions of special interest for studies of the Earth's climate (Ly-α and oxygen absorption continuum and bands between 130 and 350 nm) is 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than in the visible or if integrated over all wavelengths (total solar irradiance).

  20. Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Yeh, Alexander M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-daily whole-abdomen irradiation (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic irradiation (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once daily (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice daily (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-daily treatment and 32 days for twice-daily treatment. Patients receiving twice-daily WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size {<=}6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-daily WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-daily treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.

  1. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  2. Developmental stage is an important factor that determines the antioxidant responses of young and old grapevine leaves under UV irradiation in a green-house.

    PubMed

    Majer, Petra; Hideg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The impact of UV irradiation was studied on photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical yields and antioxidant responses using green-house grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) leaves. Supplemental UV irradiation (280-400 nm) was centred in the UV-B region, and corresponded to 8.95 kJ m⁻² d⁻¹ global (280-400 nm) or 8.04 kJ m⁻² d⁻¹ UV-B (280-315 nm) biologically effective dose. UV irradiation was applied daily and its effects were evaluated after 4-days. Younger (1-3 weeks-old) leaves (YL) and older (4-6 weeks-old) leaves (OL) were affected differently, UV irradiation decreased their photochemical yields to 78% and 56%, respectively. Unlike OL, YL responded by an increase in UV-B absorbing pigment, anthocyanin and total phenolics contents. UV irradiation increased total antioxidant capacities in YL but not in OL. YL were also different in their ability to increase specific hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen neutralizing capacities in response to the supplemental UV irradiation, which is reported here for the first time. Our results suggest that the ability of maintaining photosynthesis under supplemental UV is not necessarily determined by base levels of antioxidants but rather by their inducibilities in response to the irradiation and emphasise the importance of comparing leaves of the same age in UV studies. Correlations between various antioxidant capacities, pigment contents and photosynthesis parameters were also examined. However, no single element of the defence system can be picked up as decisive factor of sensitivity to UV.

  3. Time variation analysis of the daily Forbush decrease indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper we have analyzed the daily Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar irradiance, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.

  4. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  5. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  6. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  7. Daily Oral Language: Is It Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Jeff L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Daily Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through daily editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…

  8. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  9. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  10. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  11. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  12. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  13. A reconstruction of solar irradiance using a flux transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the irradiance, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1610.

  14. Modelling total solar irradiance using a flux transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the irradiance, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1700.

  15. Daily rhythm of nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, AJM; Merlin, NJ; Vijaya, C; Jayaprakash, S; Murugesh, N

    2004-03-25

    BACKGROUND: Many behavioral and physiological variables exhibit daily rhythmicity. Few investigations of the daily rhythmicity in nociception have been conducted, and conflicting results have been obtained. The present study evaluated the daily rhythmicity in nociception in Wistar rats. METHODS: Nociception was investigated by Eddy's hot plate method, tail immersion method, and tail clip method. The latency between the noxious stimulus and the animal's response was recorded as reaction time. Separate groups of rats were tested in 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. RESULTS: There was clear daily variation in response latency. Reaction time was shortest a few hours before lights-on and longest at the light-dark transition. CONCLUSION: Nociception exhibits robust daily rhythmicity in rats. Sensitivity to pain is highest late in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle and lowest at the light-dark transition.

  16. Daily rhythm of nociception in rats

    PubMed Central

    Christina, AJM; Merlin, NJ; Vijaya, C; Jayaprakash, S; Murugesh, N

    2004-01-01

    Background Many behavioral and physiological variables exhibit daily rhythmicity. Few investigations of the daily rhythmicity in nociception have been conducted, and conflicting results have been obtained. The present study evaluated the daily rhythmicity in nociception in Wistar rats. Methods Nociception was investigated by Eddy's hot plate method, tail immersion method, and tail clip method. The latency between the noxious stimulus and the animal's response was recorded as reaction time. Separate groups of rats were tested in 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Results There was clear daily variation in response latency. Reaction time was shortest a few hours before lights-on and longest at the light-dark transition. Conclusion Nociception exhibits robust daily rhythmicity in rats. Sensitivity to pain is highest late in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle and lowest at the light-dark transition. PMID:15043763

  17. Variability of solar ultraviolet irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A model of solar Lyman alpha irradiance developed by multiple linear regression analysis, including the daily values and 81-day running means of the full disk equivalent width of the Helium line at 1083 nm, predicts reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. In contrast, Lyman alpha models calculated from the 10.7-cm radio flux overestimate the observed variations in the rising portion and maximum period of solar cycle, and underestimates them during solar minimum. Models are shown of Lyman alpha based on the He-line equivalent width and 10.7-cm radio flux for those time intervals when no satellite observations exist, namely back to 1974 and after April 1989, when the measurements of the Solar Mesosphere Satellite were terminated.

  18. Global Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

  19. A New Look at Solar Irradiance Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2012-08-01

    We compare total solar irradiance (TSI) and ultraviolet ( F uv) irradiance variation reconstructed using Ca K facular areas since 1915, with previous values based on less direct proxies. Our annual means for 1925 - 1945 reach values 30 - 50 % higher than those presently used in IPCC climate studies. A high facula/sunspot area ratio in spot cycles 16 and 17 seems to be responsible. New evidence from solar photometry increases the likelihood of greater seventeenth century solar dimming than expected from the disappearance of magnetic active regions alone. But the large additional brightening in the early twentieth century claimed from some recent models requires complete disappearance of the magnetic network. The network is clearly visible in Ca K spectroheliograms obtained since the 1890s, so these models cannot be correct. Changes in photospheric effective temperature invoked in other models would be powerfully damped by the thermal inertia of the convection zone. Thus, there is presently no support for twentieth century irradiance variation besides that arising from active regions. The mid-twentieth century irradiance peak arising from these active regions extends 20 years beyond the early 1940s peak in global temperature. This failure of correlation, together with the low amplitude of TSI variation and the relatively weak effect of Fuv driving on tropospheric temperature, limits the role of solar irradiance variation in twentieth century global warming.

  20. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  1. Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

  2. ERP time series with daily and sub-daily resolution determined from CONT05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, T.; Böckmann, S.; Nothnagel, A.; Tesmer, V.

    2007-07-01

    From time to time, continuous VLBI campaigns take place under the direction of the IVS. Even though these observations are continuous over two weeks, the standard VLBI analysis procedure leads to independent daily datasets. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to estimate earth rotation parameters with different temporal resolutions. By stacking the single sessions to a two-weekly solution on the normal equation level, a consistent time series is produced over the whole CONT05 period. Stacked parameters are station positions which are estimated in a 'global' approach and borders of time dependent parameters e.g. zenith wet delay. Analysis of the correlation matrix of estimated parameters gives an impression of the dependencies between them. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how these dependencies depend on the type of datum used. E.g. correlations between earth rotation parameters (ERP) and tropospheric zenith delay of certain VLBI sites have been detected. The ERP time series resulting from the stacking approach turned out to be more consistent over the fortnightly time span. In particular, time series of hourly ERP exhibit a better behaviour at the session boundaries, since the discrepancies at session borders due to poorly determined intervals is minimized.

  3. Globalization and global health.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1999-01-01

    Along with the positive or negative consequences of the globalization of health, we can consider global health as a goal, responding to human rights and to common interests. History tells us that after the "microbial unification" of the world, which began in 1492, over three centuries elapsed before the recognition of common risks and attempts to cope with them in a cross-boundary effort. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the struggle against epidemics united countries, world health became a common goal, and considerable results were achieved. However, in recent decades the notion of health as a cornerstone of economic development has been replaced by the idea that public health and health services are an obstacle to the wealth of nations. Meanwhile, new common threats are growing: among them, the exacerbation of old infections and emergence of new ones, the impact of environmental changes, drug traffic on a world scale, and destructive and self-destructive violence. New and stronger empirical motives relate the interests of peoples to universal rights and to global health. The author concludes with some proposals for policies.

  4. Daily thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B.

    2012-07-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)

  5. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  6. Ground-satellite measurement of Direct Normal Irradiance in South Portugal and its interaction with local atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaco, Afonso; Canhoto, Paulo; Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Collares Pereira, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is of crucial importance for the performance of Solar Thermal Plants (STP) and their use of solar concentrators. This has triggered a worldwide interest in the evaluation of this resource that started around 40 years ago (Collares-Pereira and Rabl, 1979). This is especially relevant in regions that have exceptional good solar resources, as it is the case of the South of Portugal (Cavaco et al, 2016). For that reason a network of seven meteorological stations measuring Direct (DNI), Global and Diffuse Solar Irradiance has been installed in this region, one year ago. This study presents the first results from that initial effort. First, this network will be used in correlating ground-based measurements with satellite data, in order to improve data calibration of remote acquisition. This will allow the extension of the results to other locations. The long-term validity of the present time-series will be secured by statistical correlation with previous local Global and Diffuse Solar Irradiance data. Second, new insights are expected to emerge on the complex relation between DNI and local meteorological variables (namely, relative humidity, optical thickness, and atmospheric turbidity), in order to improve the selection of possible locations for STP. These relations will be connected to the calibration of satellite data and to the statistical weighting of the various atmospheric elements in the TMY algorithm, thus giving a physical meaning to those different weights. Collares-Pereira, M. and Rabl, A. (1979). The average distribution of solar radiation correlations between Diffuse and hemispherical and between daily and hourly insolation values. Solar Energy 22(2), 155-164. Cavaco, A., Canhoto, P., Costa, M.J., and Collares-Pereira, M. (2016). DNI measurements in the South of Portugal: Long term results through direct comparison with global and diffuse radiation measurements and existing time series. Energy Procedia (in press).

  7. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  8. REL3.0 LPSA DAILY

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Shortwave Model Daily Data in Native grid binary format News:  LPSA ... Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) Spatial Resolution:  ...

  9. AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

  10. REL3.0 SW DAILY UTC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_daily ...

  11. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_daily ...

  12. Analytical solution for the vertical profile of daily production in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Morović, Mira

    2016-05-01

    Photosynthesis parameters are routinely estimated from in vitro measurements of primary production under constant light reaching each incubation bottle, by fitting a photosynthesis-irradiance function to the measurements. Here we take one such function and integrate it in time for variable light input, similar to natural conditions, to obtain the analytical solution for the vertical profile of daily phytoplankton production in the field. This solution is then fitted to in situ measurements of primary production profiles in the same manner as a photosynthesis-irradiance function is fitted to in vitro measurements under controlled and constant light conditions to retrieve the photosynthesis-irradiance parameters. The method is tested on the Hawaii Ocean Time-series data set. The solution explained 97.88% of the variance in measured normalized production at individual depths. The recovered parameters were then used to model the normalized daily water-column production. The model explained 99.21% of variance in normalized watercolumn production of the entire data set. The seasonal cycle of the photosynthesis parameters recovered with the analytical solution was further studied for the Hawaii Ocean Time-series. With respect to the photosynthesis parameter determination, the solution bridges the gap between classical photosynthesis-irradiance measurements under controlled light conditions and in situ measurements which are made under natural, variable light conditions. It presents a new tool for the estimation of photosynthesis parameters from in situ measurements of primary production.

  13. [Daily life disability associated with dementia].

    PubMed

    Asada, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Daily life disability associated with dementia including Alzheimer disease involves a series of difficulties in performing daily tasks. People with this disability have difficulty in being active individually, participating in society, and carrying out daily tasks. Evidence suggests that its causes are lesions in specific areas of the brain. For example, focal lesions appear to be specifically correlated with symptoms of apraxia and agnosia. In general, cognitive decline in the course of dementing illnesses worsens as brain lesions expand. This may be accompanied by the impairment of other organs. However, brain lesions appear to be the overall cause of daily life disability associated with dementia. There are three basic measures that can be taken in response to daily life disability : first, analysis of normal daily life activities ; next, the observation of how the activities of people with dementia deviate from the normal pattern ; and finally, collecting information on caregivers' effective practices to appropriately respond to these deviations. Care for daily life disability associated with dementia should aim to maximize the performance of people with dementia based on their existing abilities. To do this, it is important to recognize disruptions to the normal flow of activity, and understand clues pointing to the causes of these disruptions. In order to examine the daily life disability associated with dementia, we conducted preliminary experiments on the background brain activity. For this purpose, capsaicin derived from red pepper was used to stimulate taste bud receptors on the tongue. During this physiological process, we examined the response within the brain, and observed activity in specific brain regions. For further studies on the background of the disability, we will use fMRI and magnetoencephalography.

  14. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  15. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  16. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  17. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  18. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  19. Solar Irradiance, Plage and SOHO UV Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Manross, Kevin

    1996-05-01

    Calcium K and H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored using Big Bear Observatory images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the correlation of changing plage area and solar irradiance changes. We also monitor changes in the K2 spec- tral index provided daily from Sacramento Peak. With the recent launching of the SOHO satellite, we are able to monitor the plage in the He II 304 Angstroms UV image. This image is near the top of the chromosphere nar or just under the transition region. The images show limb brightening as expected. Since it is widely believed that short time scale changes in the UV may be the dominant cause for low amplitude solar irradiance changes, the comparison of the "plage" ara in these UV images to those in conventional visible images should prove instructive.

  20. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  1. Predictors of Daily Relationship Quality in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Lisa; Willis, Kelcie D.; Pruitt, Megan M.; Ekas, Naomi V.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 70) completed online measures of global constructs (i.e., stable individual characteristics measured at time 1), which included resilience, depressive symptoms, and family functioning, followed by 14 daily questionnaires assessing relationship quality and affect on a given day. The global…

  2. Global canopy interception from satellite observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

  3. Globalization and the Experiences of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Christine L.

    2005-01-01

    Globalization is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. Globalized markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of daily life. The…

  4. Solar Irradiance Data Products at the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware Dewolfe, A.; Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Snow, M. A.; Woods, T. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) has developed the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD) to provide access to a comprehensive set of solar irradiance measurements. LISIRD has recently been updated to serve many new datasets and models, including data from SORCE, UARS-SOLSTICE, SME, and TIMED-SEE, and model data from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM). The user interface emphasizes web-based interactive visualizations, allowing users to explore and compare this data before downloading it for analysis. The data provided covers a wavelength range from soft X-ray (XUV) at 0.1 nm up to the near infrared (NIR) at 2400 nm, as well as wavelength-independent Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). Combined data from the SORCE, TIMED-SEE, UARS-SOLSTICE, and SME instruments provide continuous coverage from 1981 to the present, while Lyman-alpha measurements, FISM daily data, and TSI models date from the 1940s to the present. LISIRD will also host Glory TSI data as part of the SORCE data system. This poster provides an overview of the LISIRD system, summarizes the data sets currently available, describes future plans and capabilities, and provides details on how to access solar irradiance data through LISIRD’s interfaces.

  5. Plant responses to UV-B irradiation are modified by UV-A irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. Univ. of Maryland, College Park )

    1993-06-01

    The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B irradiation studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B irradiances were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective daily UV-B irradiances (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A irradiances were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B irradiated plants.

  6. Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause

  7. Seasonal Variation in Daily Temperature Ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruschy, David L.; Baker, Donald G.; Skaggs, Richard H.

    1991-12-01

    Abrupt spring and autumnal changes in the daily temperature range, from low winter values to higher nonwinter values, were noted in the Minneapolis-St. Paul temperature record. Since this feature was even more evident in five rural and small town Minnesota stations, it can be accepted as real.The inverse relationship found between surface albedo and the daily temperature range indicated that the reduced winter temperature range is associated with snow cover. A second factor controlling the temperature range is cloud cover. This led to the conclusion that variation in net solar radiation is the primary factor.A strong statistical relationship between daily temperature range and the three variables considered (solar radiation, albedo, and cloud cover) was limited to the spring and fall. In March-April the statistically significant factors were solar radiation and albedo, while in October-November they were solar radiation and cloud cover. For the October-December period albedo was also statistically important.

  8. New daily persistent headache: an update.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Todd D

    2014-07-01

    New daily persistent headache is a primary headache disorder marked by a unique temporal profile which is daily from onset. For many sufferers this is their first ever headache. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of this condition. It might be a disorder of abnormal glial activation with persistent central nervous system inflammation and it may be a syndrome that occurs in individuals who have a history of cervical hypermobility. At present there is no known specific treatment and many patients go for years to decades without any improvement in their condition despite aggressive therapy. This article will present an up-to-date overview of new daily persistent headache on the topics of clinical presentation, treatment, diagnostic criteria, and presumed pathogenesis. It will also provide some of the authors own treatment suggestions based on recognized triggering events and some suggestions for future clinical trials. PMID:24820732

  9. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Perceived Family Well-Being, and Daily Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly D.; Goodman, W. Benjamin; Pirretti, Amy E.; Almeida, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Data from two studies assessed the effects of nonstandard work schedules on perceived family well-being and daily stressors. Study 1, using a sample of employed, married adults aged 25 – 74 (n = 1,166) from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States, showed that night work was associated with perceptions of greater marital instability, negative family-work, and work-family spillover than weekend or daytime work. In Study 2, with a subsample of adults (n = 458) who participated in the National Study of Daily Experiences, weekend workers reported more daily work stressors than weekday workers. Several sociodemographic variables were tested as moderators. Both studies demonstrated that nonstandard work schedules place a strain on working, married adults at the global and daily level. PMID:19194531

  10. Daily estimates of soil ingestion in children.

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, E J; Calabrese, E J

    1995-01-01

    Soil ingestion estimates play an important role in risk assessment of contaminated sites, and estimates of soil ingestion in children are of special interest. Current estimates of soil ingestion are trace-element specific and vary widely among elements. Although expressed as daily estimates, the actual estimates have been constructed by averaging soil ingestion over a study period of several days. The wide variability has resulted in uncertainty as to which method of estimation of soil ingestion is best. We developed a methodology for calculating a single estimate of soil ingestion for each subject for each day. Because the daily soil ingestion estimate represents the median estimate of eligible daily trace-element-specific soil ingestion estimates for each child, this median estimate is not trace-element specific. Summary estimates for individuals and weeks are calculated using these daily estimates. Using this methodology, the median daily soil ingestion estimate for 64 children participating in the 1989 Amherst soil ingestion study is 13 mg/day or less for 50% of the children and 138 mg/day or less for 95% of the children. Mean soil ingestion estimates (for up to an 8-day period) were 45 mg/day or less for 50% of the children, whereas 95% of the children reported a mean soil ingestion of 208 mg/day or less. Daily soil ingestion estimates were used subsequently to estimate the mean and variance in soil ingestion for each child and to extrapolate a soil ingestion distribution over a year, assuming that soil ingestion followed a log-normal distribution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7768230

  11. Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily…

  12. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  13. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  14. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  15. Test reactor irradiation coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Heartherly, D.W.; Siman Tov, I.I.; Sparks, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    This task was established to supply and coordinate irradiation services needed by NRC contractors other than ORNL. These services include the design and assembly of irradiation capsules as well as arranging for their exposure, disassembly, and return of specimens. During this period, the final design of the facility and specimen baskets was determined through an iterative process involving the designers and thermal analysts. The resulting design should permit the irradiation of all test specimens to within 5{degrees}C of their desired temperature. Detailing of all parts is ongoing and should be completed during the next reporting period. Procurement of the facility will also be initiated during the next review period.

  16. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  17. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  18. REL3.0 LPLA DAILY NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Longwave Model daily Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  LPLA ... Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) Spatial Resolution:  ...

  19. REL3.0 LPSA DAILY NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Shortwave Model Daily Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  LPSA ... Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) Spatial Resolution:  ...

  20. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  2. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  3. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  4. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...

  5. The Case for Daily Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to a recent study, only 56 percent of high school students participate in physical education, and the percentage of schools requiring physical education has progressively dropped. The goal of providing daily physical education to all K-12 students in the United States presents challenges such as budgetary issues, less time for other…

  6. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  7. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  8. Evaluation of CERES surface irradiance products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Doelling, D.; Radkevich, A.; Ham, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the surface radiation budget is important for several reasons. At the global and large temporal scales, it should balance with the sum of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and ocean heating. At regional scales, it is an indispensable boundary condition for ocean or snow models or any other models that need energy input to the surface. NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project provides surface irradiance data products for a range of temporal and spatial scales computed using a radiative transfer model initialized using satellite-derived cloud and aerosol properties. Other inputs to the radiative transfer model include temperature and humidity profiles from NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office's (GMAO) reanalysis. The CERES team uses more than 80 surface observation sites located over land and ocean to evaluate computed irradiances. When computed monthly 1° by 1° gridded mean downward irradiances are compared with 10 years of observed irradiances, the bias averaged over all land and ocean sites are, respectively, -1.7 Wm-2 and 4.7 Wm-2 for shortwave and -1.0 Wm-2 and -2.0 Wm-2 for longwave. The shortwave agreement is significantly better than other satellite-based surface irradiance products. One of reasons for the better agreement is careful treatment of diurnal cycle of clouds by merging 3-hourly geostationary satellite-derived cloud properties. In addition, computed surface irradiance variability shows a remarkable agreement with observed variability. However, these data sets have their shortcomings. The uncertainty in nighttime surface longwave irradiance over polar regions is larger than that of other regions primarily due to the difficulty of cloud detection and large uncertainties in skin temperature and near-surface temperature and humidity. The large uncertainty in polar region surface irradiances hampers, for example, investigation of surface radiation budget changes in response to changes in sea ice

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  10. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  11. Diagnostic statistics of daily rainfall variability in an evolving climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, D.; Bárdossy, A.; Lourmas, G.

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the character of daily rainfall variability under present and future climate described via global warming a suite of diagnostic statistics was used. The rainfall was modeled as a stochastic process coupled with atmospheric circulation. In this study we used an automated objective classification of daily patterns based on optimized fuzzy rules. This kind of classification method provided circulation patterns suitable for downscaling of General Circulation Model (GCM)-generated precipitation. The precipitation diagnostics included first and second order moments, wet and dry-day renewal process probabilities and spell lengths as well as low-frequency variability via the standard deviation of monthly totals. These descriptors were applied to nine elevation zones and entire area of the Mesochora mountainous catchment in Central Greece for observed, 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 downscaled precipitation. The statistics' comparison revealed significant differences in the most of the daily diagnostics (e.g. mean wet-day amount, 95th percentile of wet-day amount, dry to wet probability), spell statistics (e.g. mean wet/dry spell length), and low-frequency diagnostic (standard deviation of monthly precipitation total) between warm (2×CO2) and observed scenario in a progressive rate from lower to upper zone. The differences were very greater for the catchment area. In the light of these results, an increase in rainfall occurrence with diminished rainfall amount and a sequence of less consecutive dry days could describe the behaviour of a possible future climate on the examined catchment.

  12. Examining the spring discontinuity in daily temperature ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.D.

    1996-04-01

    The atmosphere and biosphere both change rapidly throughout midlatitude spring. Many weather variables are modified during this season, including the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The mean DTR trend displays a discontinuity at the onset of spring characterized by a rapid increase for several weeks, followed by an abrupt leveling off. The trend then remains essentially flat throughout the remainder of the warm season. These DTR changes reflect the interactive role many weather variables play with surface-layer processes. Thus, diagnosing the causes of these variations may provide background information for numerous global change analyses, as daily temperature data become increasingly available worldwide. The results of this study suggest that several factors (snow cover loss, more frequent southerly winds, and increased ceiling heights) are responsible for the initial rapid increase in the DTR. The second half of the discontinuity (subsequent leveling off) is connected with increased atmospheric moisture and coincides with the onset of plant transpiration. 14 refs., 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Identification of proteins secreted into the medium by human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with or without adaptive environments.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Lai, Xianyin; Honikel, Louise; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Witzmann, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis of adaptive response, a phenomenon in which protection arises from a low-dose radiation (<0.1 Gy) against damage induced by subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying such protection are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize global protein expression profiles in the medium collected from human lymphocyte cultures given sham irradiation (0 Gy) or a priming low dose of 0.03 Gy 137Cs γ rays 4 h prior to a challenging dose of 1 Gy 137Cs γ rays. Adaptive response was determined by decreased micronucleus frequencies in lymphocytes receiving low dose irradiation prior to high dose irradiation compared to those receiving only high dose irradiation. Adaptive response was found in these experiments. Proteomic analysis of media revealed: (a) 55 proteins with similar abundance in both groups; (b) 23 proteins in both groups, but 7 of them were high abundance in medium with adaptive environment, while 16 high abundance proteins were in medium without adaptive environment; (c) 17 proteins in medium with adaptive environment only; and (d) 8 proteins in medium without adaptive environment only. The results provide a foundation for improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of low dose radiation that, in turn, will have an important impact on radiation risk estimation. Hence, these studies are highly relevant to radiation protection due to an increased use of low dose radiation in daily life (e.g., medical diagnosis or airport safety) or an unavoidable exposure to low level background radiation. PMID:22134077

  14. Forecasting daily streamflow using online sequential extreme learning machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Aranildo R.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hsieh, William W.

    2016-06-01

    While nonlinear machine methods have been widely used in environmental forecasting, in situations where new data arrive continually, the need to make frequent model updates can become cumbersome and computationally costly. To alleviate this problem, an online sequential learning algorithm for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks - the online sequential extreme learning machine (OSELM) - is automatically updated inexpensively as new data arrive (and the new data can then be discarded). OSELM was applied to forecast daily streamflow at two small watersheds in British Columbia, Canada, at lead times of 1-3 days. Predictors used were weather forecast data generated by the NOAA Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFS), and local hydro-meteorological observations. OSELM forecasts were tested with daily, monthly or yearly model updates. More frequent updating gave smaller forecast errors, including errors for data above the 90th percentile. Larger datasets used in the initial training of OSELM helped to find better parameters (number of hidden nodes) for the model, yielding better predictions. With the online sequential multiple linear regression (OSMLR) as benchmark, we concluded that OSELM is an attractive approach as it easily outperformed OSMLR in forecast accuracy.

  15. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  16. Economics of food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed.

  17. Photometric measurements of solar irradiance variations due to sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Herzog, A. D.; Laico, D. E.; Lawrence, J. K.; Templer, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a daily basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and irradiance deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial irradiance contribution from faculae and active region plage.

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  19. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  20. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  1. Biological Heating in a Global Operational Ocean Forecast System: Using VIIRS Products and a Two-band Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. C.; Mehra, A.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Nadiga, S.; Bayler, E. J.; Behringer, D.

    2015-12-01

    A key long-term goal for the NWS/NCEP Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) is integrating biogeochemical variables within NOAA's Global Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS-Global), implementing, as appropriate, the assimilation of relevant observations for an enhanced spectrum and accuracy of forecasts. In this initial effort, we combined VIIRS products with a recent algorithm (Lee et al., 2005) that can resolve vertical distribution of downwelling solar irradiance at two separate bands (EVIS: 400-700 nm and EIR: 700-2000 nm), and examined the heat transfer and its effects on the upper oceanic thermal structure in the operational RTOFS-Global. Our near-term future goals include: coupling of a global ocean biogeochemical model (Gregg, 2008) to the operational RTOFS-Global; and validation of free runs with VIIRS-derived ocean color products. This will eventually lead to the end-point goal, building data assimilative lower trophic ecosystem components in the context of "setting/updating baselines of daily marine ecosystem processes." Assimilation of VIIRS data will provide a unique and timely opportunity to establish a path toward ecological forecasting through biogeochemical analyses and forecasts. This proposed effort fully aligns with NOAA's ecological forecasting roadmap's objectives to: establish the infrastructure capability for operational biogeochemical modeling; quantify forecast accuracy and utility; identify gaps; and prioritize improvements in ecological products and services.

  2. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  3. Daily rhythms in plasma levels of homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz

    2004-01-01

    Background There is accumulated evidence that plasma concentration of the sulfur-containing amino-acid homocysteine (Hcy) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Both fasting levels of Hcy and post methionine loading levels are used as prognostic markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm in plasma Hcy under strictly controlled nutritional and sleep-wake conditions. We also investigated if the time during which methionine loading is performed, i.e., morning or evening, had a different effect on the resultant plasma Hcy concentration. Methods Six healthy men aged 23–26 years participated in 4 experiments. In the first and second experiments, the daily rhythm in Hcy as well as in other amino acids was investigated under a normal or an inverse sleep-wake cycle. In the third and fourth, Hcy concentrations were investigated after a morning and evening methionine loading. To standardize food consumption in the first two experiments, subjects received every 3 hours 150 ml of specially designed low-protein liquid food (Ensure® formula). Results In both the first and second experiments there was a significant daily rhythm in Hcy concentrations with a mid-day nadir and a nocturnal peak. Strikingly different 24-h patterns were observed in methionine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine. In all, the 24-h curves revealed a strong influence of both the sleep-wake cycle and the feeding schedule. Methionine loading resulted in increased plasma Hcy levels during both morning and evening experiments, which were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions There is a daily rhythm in plasma concentration of the amino acid Hcy, and this rhythm is independent of sleep-wake and food consumption. In view of the fact that increased Hcy concentrations may be associated with increased cardiovascular risks, these findings may have clinical implications for the health of rotating shift workers. PMID:15347422

  4. The Sub-Daily Distribution of Snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle in many mountainous headwaters around the world have snowmelt dominated hydrographs. In addition to water resources for communities and ecosystems, high rates of snowmelt can cause flooding that results in damages to infrastructure. The standard in the United States flood forecasting looks primarily at rainfall estimates but lacks estimates for high rates of snowmelt in regions such as the Southern Rocky Mountains. Recent studies have shown that events such as a 10 year 24 hour snowmelt event is as much as 45% greater than the same recurrence interval rain event. Additionally, this 24 hour snowmelt likely occurs over a much shorter time period due to snowmelt being primarily driven by solar radiation. This study presents and tests a sub-daily temporal distribution of snowmelt. The snowmelt distribution presented herein is tested against hourly data for known daily melt rates from snow telemetry (SNOTEL) stations, and then for conditions when weekly or bi-weekly snow loss is known. It is additionally utilized for modeling a one-dimensional soil profile for infiltration across the soil-snow interface. The intent of this study is to create a less computationally intensive method than the mass energy approach and improve upon the simple degree-day method for the representation of snowmelt at sub-daily time steps. This can be used for streamflow, groundwater recharge, soil moisture distribution, and other land surface modeling efforts. Results of the study display strong agreement with hourly SNOTEL data from Colorado Front Range stations for an assumed 8-hour melt period. Peak flow estimates from snowmelt driven floods could be estimated from long-term datasets to calculate frequency of these flood events. Further application of this sub-daily distribution of snowmelt could be for partially or fully glaciated watersheds with modifications for differences in latitude and/or elevation causing longer or shorter periods of melt per day.

  5. The Probability Distribution of Daily Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, A.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Flow duration curves (FDCs) are a graphical illustration of the cumulative distribution of streamflow. Daily streamflows often range over many orders of magnitude, making it extremely challenging to find a probability distribution function (pdf) which can mimic the steady state or period of record FDC (POR-FDC). Median annual FDCs (MA-FDCs) describe the pdf of daily streamflow in a typical year. For POR- and MA-FDCs, Lmoment diagrams, visual assessments of FDCs and Quantile-Quantile probability plot correlation coefficients are used to evaluate goodness of fit (GOF) of candidate probability distributions. FDCs reveal that both four-parameter kappa (KAP) and three-parameter generalized Pareto (GP3) models result in very high GOF for the MA-FDC and a relatively lower GOF for POR-FDCs at over 500 rivers across the coterminous U.S. Physical basin characteristics, such as baseflow index as well as hydroclimatic indices such as the aridity index and the runoff ratio are found to be correlated with one of the shape parameters (kappa) of the KAP and GP3 pdfs. Our work also reveals several important areas for future research including improved parameter estimators for the KAP pdf, as well as increasing our understanding of the conditions which give rise to improved GOF of analytical pdfs to large samples of daily streamflows.

  6. Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  7. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth. PMID:27098210

  8. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  9. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

  10. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  11. Irradiation and food processing.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  12. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330... INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a) Definition. An employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her straight-time rate of pay, including any...

  13. Variability of UV irradiance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Seckmeyer, Gunther; Pissulla, Darius; Glandorf, Merle; Henriques, Diamantino; Johnsen, Bjorn; Webb, Ann; Siani, Anna-Maria; Bais, Alkis; Kjeldstad, Berit; Brogniez, Colette; Lenoble, Jacqueline; Gardiner, Brian; Kirsch, Peter; Koskela, Tapani; Kaurola, Jussi; Uhlmann, Beate; Slaper, Harry; den Outer, Peter; Janouch, Michal; Werle, Peter; Gröbner, Julian; Mayer, Bernhard; de la Casiniere, Alain; Simic, Stana; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    The diurnal and annual variability of solar UV radiation in Europe is described for different latitudes, seasons and different biologic weighting functions. For the description of this variability under cloudless skies the widely used one-dimensional version of the radiative transfer model UVSPEC is used. We reconfirm that the major factor influencing the diurnal and annual variability of UV irradiance is solar elevation. While ozone is a strong absorber of UV radiation its effect is relatively constant when compared with the temporal variability of clouds. We show the significant role that clouds play in modifying the UV climate by analyzing erythemal irradiance measurements from 28 stations in Europe in summer. On average, the daily erythemal dose under cloudless skies varies between 2.2 kJ m(-2) at 70 degrees N and 5.2 kJ m(-2) at 35 degrees N, whereas these values are reduced to 1.5-4.5 kJ m(-2) if clouds are included. Thus clouds significantly reduce the monthly UV irradiation, with the smallest reductions, on average, at lower latitudes, which corresponds to the fact that it is often cloudless in the Mediterranean area in summer.

  14. Difference in nephrotoxicity of vancomycin administered once daily and twice daily in rats.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hiroki; Morita, Yukiko; Mizumura, Miyo; Iga, Ikumi; Nagai, Katsuhito

    2013-10-01

    We compared the degree of nephrotoxicity of vancomycin (VCM) administered once daily and twice daily in rats. VCM was intraperitoneally administered once daily to rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg (VCM-1-treated) or administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice daily at 12-hour intervals (VCM-2-treated) for 7 consecutive days. Creatinine clearance was decreased more markedly in VCM-1 rats relative to VCM-2 rats, although there was no significant difference in renal accumulation of VCM between the two groups. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was lower in VCM-1 rats than that in VCM-2 rats. The magnitude of histological change in kidney tissue was in agreement with the degree of alterations in the abovementioned biochemical values. These results suggest that the nephrotoxic effect of once-daily VCM administration is more pronounced than that of the twice-daily treatment. Our findings provide fundamental evidence for the advantage in choosing a divided VCM administration to attenuate nephrotoxicity.

  15. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  16. Daily lsa-saf evapotranspiration product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda Rodallega, Alirio; Ghilain, Nicolas; Meulenberghs, Francoise

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), some models have been implemented in view to characterize continental surfaces by using information obtained from MSG and EPS satellites. In this context a method has been developed in order to monitor the flux of water (Evapotranspiration) between the land surface and the atmosphere. The method is based on a physical approach in which radiative data derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites together with land-cover information are used to constrain a physical model of energy exchange between the soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere. The implemented algorithm provides instantaneous ET estimates over four regions defined in the MSG FOV (the defined regions cover Europe, Africa and the west of south America), with MSG spatial resolution (3km at sub satellite point) and a temporal time step of 30 minutes. The scope of the method is limited to evaporation from terrestrial surfaces rather than from lakes or oceans. The instantaneous product has been validated over different vegetation cover and climatic conditions, providing evidence that the algorithm is able to reproduce ET estimates with accuracy equivalent to the accuracy of ET obtained from observations. In 2009 the instantaneous ET product has been declared pre-operational by EUMETSAT, allowing the product to be disseminated to a larger community of users (http://landsaf.meteo.pt). In some areas like agriculture, hydrology, water management, ecology and climate studies the main concern is not instantaneous but accumulated values over days, months or longer periods. To encompass the need for these community of users, a daily ET product in which daily evapotranspiration is obtained as temporal integration of instantaneous values has been developed. In this contribution we will present the methodology used to obtain instantaneous ET estimates and the procedure applied to derive daily

  17. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  18. Economics of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

    1993-07-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

  19. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  20. Detection of daily clouds on Titan.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C A; Hall, J L; Geballe, T R

    2000-10-20

    We have discovered frequent variations in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which are indicative of the daily presence of sparse clouds covering less than 1% of the area of the satellite. The thermodynamics of Titan's atmosphere and the clouds' altitudes suggest that convection governs their evolutions. Their short lives point to the presence of rain. We propose that Titan's atmosphere resembles Earth's, with clouds, rain, and an active weather cycle, driven by latent heat release from the primary condensible species.

  1. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  2. The Gambro system for home daily dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ledebo, Ingrid; Fredin, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Safety and reliability have been the main emphasis when developing our system for home daily dialysis. The AK 95 is part of a comprehensive system of appropriate products consisting additionally of a silent water treatment module, an ultrafilter, and a range of dry disposables for dialysis fluid preparation and disinfection. The dialyzer can be selected from a family of synthetic, biocompatible filters, both low and high flux. To complete the system, a modern data management tool for online or off-line surveillance and multilingual training manuals in both conventional format as well as animated software are available.

  3. Influence of daily versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Niño droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into global models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to daily and sub-daily scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and daily Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of global models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to daily can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: daily resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.

  4. Chronic daily headache in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-12-01

    Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.

  5. Daily Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication

    PubMed Central

    Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215

  6. Models of Solar Irradiance Variability and the Instrumental Temperature Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Ide, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of decade-to-century (Dec-Cen) variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on global mean surface temperature Ts during the pre-Pinatubo instrumental era (1854-1991) are studied by using two different proxies for TSI and a simplified version of the IPCC climate model.

  7. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden.

  8. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  9. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  10. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  11. Personality, self-perceptions, and daily variability in perceived usefulness among older adults.

    PubMed

    Allen, Pamela M; Mejía, Shannon T; Hooker, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Age-based self-stereotyping is associated with a variety of long-term physical health and psychological well-being outcomes for older people. However, little is known about how older individuals' day-to-day experiences of functional limitations may be related to concurrent self-appraisals on dimensions representing negative age stereotypes. We examined how distal personality traits and global self-perceptions of aging at baseline affect processing of daily experiences relevant to age-based self-stereotyping over time. Data from the 100-day Internet-based Personal Understanding of Life and Social Experiences (PULSE) study (N = 98, age = 52 - 88) were used to examine the link between personality and self-perceptions of aging to differences in 2 age stereotype-relevant daily experiences: cognitive limitations and variation in usefulness. Multilevel random coefficient models suggested that personality and self-perceptions of aging were associated with the level of usefulness and the frequency of reporting trouble concentrating during the study period. Daily experiences of trouble concentrating were significantly associated with lower perceived usefulness on that day, and conscientiousness moderated this relationship. By linking personality and global self-perceptions to daily experiences, our findings contribute toward understanding self-stereotyping processes by which personality and perceptions may affect long-term outcomes. PMID:26121284

  12. Impacts of Irrigation on Daily Extremes in the Coupled Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Krakauer, Nir; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenka, Larissa; Kelly, Maxwell; Wada, Yoshihide

    2014-01-01

    Widespread irrigation alters regional climate through changes to the energy and water budgets of the land surface. Within general circulation models, simulation studies have revealed significant changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. Here we investigate the feedbacks of irrigation with a focus on daily extremes at the global scale. We simulate global climate for the year 2000 with and without irrigation to understand irrigation-induced changes. Our simulations reveal shifts in key climate-extreme metrics. These findings indicate that land cover and land use change may be an important contributor to climate extremes both locally and in remote regions including the low-latitudes.

  13. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...

  14. Global Albedo

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... estimation of crop yields and disease outbreaks) and land management. Global MISR DHR maps are also available for all other parts of the ... of Directional Hemispherical Reflectance. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  15. Validation of Meteornom solar irradiation data for three regions in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Teixeira, V. A.; Martins, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    This work is a part of a study to identify available and reliable sources of solar irradiation data in Brazil - with a strong focus on their relevance for PV and CSP applications. One of these sources is the Meteonorm . Meteonorm is a comprehensive meteorological reference. It gives access to a catalogue of solar radiation data and meteorological data for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. The current report provides an evaluation of the solar irradiation data derived from version 7.0 of the Meteonorm software for Brazil. This evaluation was made by using the observation data of horizontal global solar irradiation from the SONDA/BSRN network for Petrolina (PTR), Brasilia (BRB), and São Martinho do Serra (SMS). These sites were chosen based on a careful data quality control, absence of daily gaps, and less than 60% of missing data per month. The Meteonorm data were generated with real input monthly average for each selected validation sites for the years 2011, 2013, and 2014. The analysis was performed by relative and cumulative frequency of annual and seasonal solar irradiance, based on the methodology proposed by Pierre Inechen, 2006. The results showed little interannual variability for the validation sites and presented a recurrent occurrence of the value of 1000W.m-2 for stations PTR and BRB. The Meteonorm was able to represent the high frequencies in these locations, however, presented an interannual variation greater than observed, and an overestimation of values. As for the seasonal analysis, it was possible to verify that the quarters which varied the most from one year to the next were the Dec-Jan-Feb and Sep-Oct-Nov in BRB station; Dec-Jan-Feb and Mar-Apr-May in the PTR station; and Dec-Jan-Feb in the SMS station. The Meteornorm was able identify the months of highest and lowest variability in the BRB and SMS stations, except PTR station which yielded a large

  16. Modelling sub-daily evaporation from a small reservoir.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Burn, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and is also required as input in some regional hydrological and meteorological models. Global estimates of the number of small storages or lakes (< 0.1 kilometers) are estimated to be in the order of 300 million (Downing et al., 2006). However, direct evaporation measurements at small reservoirs using the eddy covariance or scintillometry techniques have been limited due to their expensive and complex nature. To correctly represent the effect that small water bodies have on the regional hydrometeorology, reliable estimates of sub-daily evaporation are necessary. However, evaporation modelling studies at small reservoirs have so far been limited to quantifying daily estimates. In order to ascertain suitable methods for accurately modelling hourly evaporation from a small reservoir, this study compares evaporation results measured by the eddy covariance method at a small reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia, to results from several modelling approaches using both over-water and land-based meteorological measurements. Accurate predictions of hourly evaporation were obtained by a simple theoretical mass transfer model requiring only over-water measurements of wind speed, humidity and water surface temperature. An evaporation model that was recently developed for use in small reservoir environments by Granger and Hedstrom (2011), appeared to overestimate the impact stability had on evaporation. While evaporation predictions made by the 1-dimensional hydrodynamics model, DYRESM (Dynamic Reservoir Simulation Model) (Imberger and Patterson, 1981), showed reasonable agreement with measured values. DYRESM did not show any substantial improvement in evaporation prediction when inflows and out flows were included and only a slighter better correlation was shown when over-water meteorological measurements were used in place of land-based measurements. Downing, J. A., Y. T

  17. Plaque growth and removal with daily toothbrushing.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M; Zacarias Guerra, J; Johnston, D A; Radike, A W

    1979-12-01

    Dental plaque growth was observed among 180 teenage boys during a 28-day period following prophylaxis. During this period, subjects brushed their teeth under supervision for 2 minutes daily. Plaque levels were measured immediately after brushing and 24 hours after brushing. Both levels increased rapidly during the first 14 days and appeared to be leveled off at 28 days. Less than half of the plaque was removed with one brushing per day leaving about 60% after brushing to promote rapid regrowth. Regrowth rate after brushing on the 28th day was 0.032 plaque units per hour over a 24-hour period. The regrowth rate for the group brushing with dentifrice was 27% lower than for the group brushing without a dentifrice.

  18. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  19. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  20. Thermoluminescence sensitivity of daily-use materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Rivera, T.

    The thermoluminescence (TL) response of silicon-rich daily-use materials, namely charoite (silicate gemstone), Spanish dental crown, phone chip and Spanish glass has been investigated. All the samples previously characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersion and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence exhibit a reasonable sensitivity to ionising radiation. The preliminary results, based on their TL properties, allow us to speculate that these materials could be potentially of interest in situations where conventional dosimetric systems are not available. The dose dependence of the 400 nm TL emission of the studied samples displays a very good linearity in the range of 0.1-10 Gy.

  1. Estimation of daily micronutrient intake of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Natera, Erlinda; Trinidad, Trinidad; Valdez, Divina; Kawamura, Hisao; Palad, Lorna; Shiraishi, Kunio

    2002-09-01

    The Fourth National Nutrition Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute conducted in 1993 showed an increasing prevalence of micronutrient-related diseases in various age groups. Hence, the daily diet consumed by the average Filipino was examined for its nutrient content. A total of 19 regional diet samples were collected and analyzed for phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, calcium, potassium, and sodium by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Iodine was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Benchmark data for the abovementioned micronutrients showed decreased intake values as compared to the recommended dietary allowance established in 1989. The information will be useful in assessing the existing nutritional status so that appropriate nutrient interventions can possibly be put in place. PMID:12362801

  2. Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.

    2011-05-01

    Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against globally distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN global irradiances is -4 W m-2 (-1 %) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20 %). The mean difference between the globally monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2 %) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12 %). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN global irradiances and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar irradiances derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.

  3. Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.

    2011-02-01

    Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against the globally distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with the ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN global irradiances is -4 W m-2(-1%) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20%). The mean difference between the globally monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2%) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12%). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN global irradiances and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar irradiances derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.

  4. Ozone and daily mortality in Shanghai, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Huang, W.; London, S.J.; Song, G.X.; Chen, G.H.; Jiang, L.L.; Zhao, N.Q.; Chen, B.H.; Kan, H.D.

    2006-08-15

    Given the changes in types of air pollution from conventional coal combustion to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emissions in China's large cities, it is worthwhile to investigate the acute effect of O{sub 3} on mortality outcomes in the country. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the relation between O{sub 3} and daily mortality in Shanghai using 4 years of daily data (2001-2004). O{sub 3} was found to be significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in the cold season but not in the warm season. In the whole-year analysis, an increase of 10 pg/m{sup 3} of 2-day average O{sub 3} corresponds to 0.45% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.73%), 0.53% (95% CI, 0.10-0.96%), and 0.35% (95% CI, -0.40 to 1.09%) increase of total nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In the cold season, the estimates increased to 1.38% (95% CI , 0.68-2.07%), 1.53% (95% CI, 0.54-2.52%), and 0.95% (95% CI, -0.71 to 2.60%), respectively. In the warm season, we did not observe significant associations for both total and causespecific mortality. The results were generally insensitive to model specifications such as lag structure of O{sub 3} concentrations and degree of freedom for time trend. Multipoflutant models indicate that the effect of O{sub 3} was not confounded by particulate matter {<=} 10 {mu} m in diameter (PM10) or by sulfur dioxide; however, after adding nitrogen dioxide into the model, the association of O{sub 3} with total and cardiovascular mortality became statistically insignificant.

  5. Allergists: Daily Bath OK for Kids with Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159633.html Allergists: Daily Bath OK for Kids With Eczema The key is ... Although some doctors advise against giving a daily bath to kids with the skin condition eczema, a ...

  6. Dapagliflozin twice daily or once daily: effect on pharmacokinetics and urinary glucose excretion in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Reele, S; Hamer-Maansson, J E; Parikh, S; de Bruin, T W A

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this single-centre, open-label crossover study (NCT01072578) was to assess the effect of dapagliflozin on the amount of glucose in the blood and urine in healthy volunteers when dapagliflozin was administered once a day (10 mg) versus twice a day (5 mg every 12 h) after 5 days of dosing. At steady state, the AUC(ss)₀₋₂₄ (area under the dapagliflozin curve (0-24 hours) at steady state), C(ss,av) (average concentration at steady state) between dapagliflozin 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg once daily were similar AUC(ss)₀₋₂₄ [5 mg bid, (458.0 (28.7)) and 10 mg qd, (470.0 (28.5))] and C(ss,av) [5 mg bid 18.8 (28.9)) and 10 mg qd, (19.6(28.5))], but minimum and maximum plasma levels of dapagliflozin differed significantly. Percent inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption (%IRGRA) and total urinary glucose excretion over 24 h were similar for both doses. The relationship between the mean dapagliflozin concentration and %IRGRA and the total urinary glucose excreted was well described by a maximum effect model. The results indicate that dapagliflozin may be used for either once daily or twice daily administration.

  7. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  8. Ruminative self-focus in daily life: associations with daily activities and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the situations and conditions in which ruminative self-focus is less likely to occur in daily life. Previous researchers have described a mood-brightening effect of depression, where depressed individuals exhibit greater positive emotional reactivity to positive daily events than do nondepressed individuals. To better understand this paradoxical effect, we investigated the moderating role of depression in the relationship between daily activities and ruminative thinking. Forty-one Japanese undergraduates (9 women and 32 men) recorded their thought contents and the type and subjective appraisals of activities that they engaged in 8 times a day for a week at semirandom intervals. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that subjectively pleasant activities were associated with improved mood states and reduced ruminative thinking. However, some of these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher levels of depression showed a greater reduction of ruminative thinking during pleasant activities. These results imply that daily activities are important for reducing rumination, particularly for individuals with higher levels of depression, and that the brightening effect of depression is evident for cognitive as well as emotional activities. The cognitive basis of this paradoxical effect is discussed. PMID:23527502

  9. Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger

  10. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-09-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between daily life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  11. Linaclotide: first global approval.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Vanessa; Whiteside, Glenn; McKeage, Kate

    2012-11-12

    Linaclotide is a once-daily, orally administered, first-in-class agonist of guanylate cyclase-C that is minimally absorbed. It is being developed to treat gastrointestinal disorders by Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and its partners, Forest Laboratories (North America), Almirall (Europe) and Astellas Pharma (Asia-Pacific). Linaclotide has received its first global approval in the US for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), and a marketing submission has been filed in the EU for IBS-C. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of linaclotide leading to this first approval for IBS-C and CIC. This profile has been extracted and modified from the Adis R&D Insight drug pipeline database. Adis R&D Insight tracks drug development worldwide through the entire development process, from discovery, through pre-clinical and clinical studies to market launch. PMID:23083112

  12. Linaclotide: first global approval.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Vanessa; Whiteside, Glenn; McKeage, Kate

    2012-11-12

    Linaclotide is a once-daily, orally administered, first-in-class agonist of guanylate cyclase-C that is minimally absorbed. It is being developed to treat gastrointestinal disorders by Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and its partners, Forest Laboratories (North America), Almirall (Europe) and Astellas Pharma (Asia-Pacific). Linaclotide has received its first global approval in the US for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), and a marketing submission has been filed in the EU for IBS-C. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of linaclotide leading to this first approval for IBS-C and CIC. This profile has been extracted and modified from the Adis R&D Insight drug pipeline database. Adis R&D Insight tracks drug development worldwide through the entire development process, from discovery, through pre-clinical and clinical studies to market launch.

  13. Olodaterol: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Andrew; Yang, Lily P H

    2013-11-01

    Olodaterol (Striverdi(®) Respimat(®)) is a novel, long-acting, β2-adrenergic receptor agonist developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The drug is delivered via the Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ inhaler. Olodaterol received its first global approval for the once-daily maintenance treatment of COPD in Canada and Russia, and submissions for regulatory approval have also been made in the USA, the EU and elsewhere. Phase II trials have been conducted in patients with asthma. The company is also developing a fixed-dose combination of olodaterol with tiotropium bromide, a long-acting anti-muscarinic agent, for the treatment of COPD. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of olodaterol leading to this first approval for COPD.

  14. Olodaterol: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Andrew; Yang, Lily P H

    2013-11-01

    Olodaterol (Striverdi(®) Respimat(®)) is a novel, long-acting, β2-adrenergic receptor agonist developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The drug is delivered via the Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ inhaler. Olodaterol received its first global approval for the once-daily maintenance treatment of COPD in Canada and Russia, and submissions for regulatory approval have also been made in the USA, the EU and elsewhere. Phase II trials have been conducted in patients with asthma. The company is also developing a fixed-dose combination of olodaterol with tiotropium bromide, a long-acting anti-muscarinic agent, for the treatment of COPD. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of olodaterol leading to this first approval for COPD. PMID:24158691

  15. 27 CFR 19.740 - Daily storage records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily storage records. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Account § 19.740 Daily storage records. (a) General. Proprietors shall maintain daily records in the storage...

  16. 27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily production records..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Account § 19.736 Daily production records. (a) Spirits production. Each proprietor shall maintain daily...

  17. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate. The daily buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified daily rate. 159.35 Section...

  18. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  19. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  20. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  1. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  2. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  3. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  4. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  5. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  6. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  7. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  8. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  9. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  10. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  11. Development, Production and Validation of the NOAA Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, O.; Lean, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    A new climate data record of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI), including source code and supporting documentation is now publicly available as part of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Climate Data Record (CDR) Program. Daily and monthly averaged values of TSI and SSI, with associated time and wavelength dependent uncertainties, are estimated from 1882 to the present with yearly averaged values since 1610, updated quarterly for the foreseeable future. The new Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record, jointly developed by the University of Colorado at Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is constructed from solar irradiance models that determine the changes from quiet Sun conditions when bright faculae and dark sunspots are present on the solar disk. The magnitudes of the irradiance changes that these features produce are determined from linear regression of the proxy Mg II index and sunspot area indices against the approximately decade-long solar irradiance measurements made by instruments on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft. We describe the model formulation, uncertainty estimates, operational implementation and validation approach. Future efforts to improve the uncertainty estimates of the Solar Irradiance CDR arising from model assumptions, and augmentation of the solar irradiance reconstructions with direct measurements from the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS: launch date, July 2017) are also discussed.

  12. Daily magnesium fluxes regulate cellular timekeeping and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kevin A; Hansen, Louise L; Putker, Marrit; Olivares-Yañez, Consuelo; Day, Jason; Eades, Lorna J; Larrondo, Luis F; Hoyle, Nathaniel P; O'Neill, John S; van Ooijen, Gerben

    2016-04-21

    Circadian clocks are fundamental to the biology of most eukaryotes, coordinating behaviour and physiology to resonate with the environmental cycle of day and night through complex networks of clock-controlled genes. A fundamental knowledge gap exists, however, between circadian gene expression cycles and the biochemical mechanisms that ultimately facilitate circadian regulation of cell biology. Here we report circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions, [Mg(2+)]i, which act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga that diverged from each other more than 1 billion years ago. Given the essential role of Mg(2+) as a cofactor for ATP, a functional consequence of [Mg(2+)]i oscillations is dynamic regulation of cellular energy expenditure over the daily cycle. Mechanistically, we find that these rhythms provide bilateral feedback linking rhythmic metabolism to clock-controlled gene expression. The global regulation of nucleotide triphosphate turnover by intracellular Mg(2+) availability has potential to impact upon many of the cell's more than 600 MgATP-dependent enzymes and every cellular system where MgNTP hydrolysis becomes rate limiting. Indeed, we find that circadian control of translation by mTOR is regulated through [Mg(2+)]i oscillations. It will now be important to identify which additional biological processes are subject to this form of regulation in tissues of multicellular organisms such as plants and humans, in the context of health and disease.

  13. Daily magnesium fluxes regulate cellular timekeeping and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kevin A; Hansen, Louise L; Putker, Marrit; Olivares-Yañez, Consuelo; Day, Jason; Eades, Lorna J; Larrondo, Luis F; Hoyle, Nathaniel P; O'Neill, John S; van Ooijen, Gerben

    2016-04-21

    Circadian clocks are fundamental to the biology of most eukaryotes, coordinating behaviour and physiology to resonate with the environmental cycle of day and night through complex networks of clock-controlled genes. A fundamental knowledge gap exists, however, between circadian gene expression cycles and the biochemical mechanisms that ultimately facilitate circadian regulation of cell biology. Here we report circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions, [Mg(2+)]i, which act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga that diverged from each other more than 1 billion years ago. Given the essential role of Mg(2+) as a cofactor for ATP, a functional consequence of [Mg(2+)]i oscillations is dynamic regulation of cellular energy expenditure over the daily cycle. Mechanistically, we find that these rhythms provide bilateral feedback linking rhythmic metabolism to clock-controlled gene expression. The global regulation of nucleotide triphosphate turnover by intracellular Mg(2+) availability has potential to impact upon many of the cell's more than 600 MgATP-dependent enzymes and every cellular system where MgNTP hydrolysis becomes rate limiting. Indeed, we find that circadian control of translation by mTOR is regulated through [Mg(2+)]i oscillations. It will now be important to identify which additional biological processes are subject to this form of regulation in tissues of multicellular organisms such as plants and humans, in the context of health and disease. PMID:27074515

  14. Photophysiology and daily primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although global warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the daily acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems.

  15. Photophysiology and daily primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Pagès, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although global warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the daily acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems. PMID:25255987

  16. Hyperparathyroidism after neck irradiation.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Noble, J G; Milroy, E J; Cowie, A G

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective review of 1550 cases of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) treated surgically over a 30-year period reveals a past history of exposure to neck irradiation in 10 cases (0.7 per cent). The indication for radiotherapy was benign disease in nine and papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. The mean interval between radiation exposure and the detection of HPT was 32 years (range 3-63 years). Patients treated with radioactive iodine alone developed HPT after a mean of 5 years while the interval for those treated with external beam therapy alone was a mean of 44 years. The parathyroid histology was adenoma in six cases, carcinoma in three cases and nodular hyperplasia in one case. All patients had coincident benign thyroid disease apart from one that had previously had papillary carcinoma and another with follicular carcinoma. Neck irradiation has been shown to confer an increased risk of HPT due to parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Radiotherapy for benign disease has generally been abandoned and these cases demonstrate a further contra-indication for the use of neck irradiation.

  17. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

    2014-02-01

    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  18. A general model to predict individual exposure to solar UV by using ambient irradiance data.

    PubMed

    Vernez, David; Milon, Antoine; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Koechlin, Alice; Boniol, Mathieu; Doré, Jean F

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) is the main cause of skin cancer. Specific prevention should be further developed to target overexposed or highly vulnerable populations. A better characterisation of anatomical UV exposure patterns is however needed for specific prevention. To develop a regression model for predicting the UV exposure ratio (ER, ratio between the anatomical dose and the corresponding ground level dose) for each body site without requiring individual measurements. A 3D numeric model (SimUVEx) was used to compute ER for various body sites and postures. A multiple fractional polynomial regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of ER. The regression model used simulation data and its performance was tested on an independent data set. Two input variables were sufficient to explain ER: the cosine of the maximal daily solar zenith angle and the fraction of the sky visible from the body site. The regression model was in good agreement with the simulated data ER (R(2)=0.988). Relative errors up to +20% and -10% were found in daily doses predictions, whereas an average relative error of only 2.4% (-0.03% to 5.4%) was found in yearly dose predictions. The regression model predicts accurately ER and UV doses on the basis of readily available data such as global UV erythemal irradiance measured at ground surface stations or inferred from satellite information. It renders the development of exposure data on a wide temporal and geographical scale possible and opens broad perspectives for epidemiological studies and skin cancer prevention.

  19. An efficient physically based parameterization to derive surface solar irradiance based on satellite atmospheric products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Yang, Kun; Lu, Ning; Niu, Xiaolei; Liang, Shunlin

    2015-05-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is required in a wide range of scientific researches and practical applications. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since SSI is directly measured at a very limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are still sparse, especially in remote areas. Remote sensing can be used to map spatiotemporally continuous SSI. Considering the huge amount of satellite data, coarse-resolution SSI has been estimated for reducing the computational burden when the estimation is based on a complex radiative transfer model. On the other hand, many empirical relationships are used to enhance the retrieval efficiency, but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed out of regions where they are locally calibrated. In this study, an efficient physically based parameterization is proposed to balance computational efficiency and retrieval accuracy for SSI estimation. In this parameterization, the transmittances for gases, aerosols, and clouds are all handled in full band form and the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and surface are explicitly taken into account. The newly proposed parameterization is applied to estimate SSI with both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric and land products as inputs. These retrievals are validated against in situ measurements at the Surface Radiation Budget Network and at the North China Plain on an instantaneous basis, and moreover, they are validated and compared with Global Energy and Water Exchanges-Surface Radiation Budget and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-flux data SSI estimates at radiation stations of China Meteorological Administration on a daily mean basis. The estimation results indicates that the newly proposed SSI estimation scheme can effectively retrieve SSI based on MODIS products with mean root-mean-square errors of about 100 Wm- 1 and 35 Wm- 1 on an instantaneous and daily

  20. Sub-Daily Runoff Simulations with Parameters Inferred at the Daily Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. E.; Xu, C. Y.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Concentration times in small and medium-sized watersheds (~100-1000 km2) are commonly less than 24 hours. Flood-forecasting models then require data at sub-daily time scales, but time-series of input and runoff data with sufficient lengths are often only available at the daily time scale, especially in developing countries. This has led to a search for time-scale relationships to infer parameter values at the time scales where they are needed from the time scales where they are available. In this study, time-scale dependencies in the HBV-light conceptual hydrological model were assessed within the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) approach. It was hypothesised that the existence of such dependencies is a result of the numerical method or time-stepping scheme used in the models rather than a real time-scale-data dependence. Parameter values inferred showed a clear dependence on time scale when the explicit Euler method was used for modelling at the same time steps as the time scale of the input data (1 to 24 h). However, the dependence almost fully disappeared when the explicit Euler method was used for modelling in 1-hour time steps internally irrespectively of the time scale of the input data. In other words, it was found that when an adequate time-stepping scheme was implemented, parameter sets inferred at one time scale (e.g., daily) could be used directly for runoff simulations at other time scales (e.g., 3 h or 6 h) without any time scaling and this approach only resulted in a small (if any) model performance decrease, in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe and volume-error efficiencies. The overall results of this study indicated that as soon as sub-daily driving data can be secured, flood forecasting in watersheds with sub-daily concentration times is possible with model parameter values inferred from long time series of daily data, as long as an appropriate numerical method is used.

  1. Trends and variability of daily temperature extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variability of temperature extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on daily minimum and maximum temperature observed by the China Meteorological Administ...

  2. Spectral solar irradiance before and during a Harmattan dust spell

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyefa, Z.D.; Holmgren, B.

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the ground-level spectral distributions of the direct, diffuse and global solar irradiance between 300 and 1100 nm were made at Akure (7.15{degree}N, 5.5{degree}E), Nigeria, in December 1991 before and during a Harmattan dust spell employing a spectroradiometer (LICOR LI-1800) with 6 nm resolution. The direct spectral solar irradiance which was initially reduced before the dust storm was further attenuated by about 50% after the spell. Estimated values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} indicated an increase of about 146% of this parameter while the Angstrom wavelength-exponent {alpha} decreased by about 65% within the 2-day study period. The spectral diffuse-to-direct and diffuse-to-global ratios suggest that the main cause of the significant reduction in solar irradiance at the surface was the scattering by the aerosol which led to an increase in the diffuse component. The global irradiance though reduced, was less sensitive to changing Harmattan conditions. It is recommended that solar energy devices that use radiation from Sun and sky be used under fluctuating Harmattan conditions. There are some deviations from the Angstrom formula under very turbid Harmattan conditions which could be explained by the relative increase of the particle sizes. 31 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The effect of personality on daily life emotional processes.

    PubMed

    Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life.

  4. Daily body energy balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Magnen, J; Devos, M

    1982-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the balance between caloric intake and expenditures in successive 12 and 24 hour periods, for several consecutive days in rats. The simultaneous and continuous measurements of respiratory exchanges and of the spontaneous feeding pattern were performed in 6 rats during 38 days, in periods of 2 to 4 successive days. At night, caloric intake exceeded caloric expenditures by 32% on the average. In individual rats, the excess was positively correlated to meal size but not to meal number. During the daytime, caloric intake was 24% lower on the average than the concomitant energy expenditures. In individual subjects, these deficits were correlated to meal number but not to meal size. A nocturnal excess and the subsequent daytime deficit, and the diurnal deficit and the excess during the subsequent night were highly positively correlated. In fact, the 24 hour energy balance was either slightly positive (12% excess) or negative (4% deficit). The daily weight gain or loss was highly correlated to the residual excess and/or deficit with a mean caloric cost of 4.8 kcal per g of body weight. The absence of correlation between balances on successive days indicates that the body energy balance is regulated within 24 hr through 12/12 hr compensations and that no compensatory mechanisms are involved beyond 24 hr.

  5. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  6. Egocentric daily activity recognition via multitask clustering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-10-01

    Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of daily living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods. PMID:26067371

  7. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  8. Kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma; Gammon, Cheryl S; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Kruger, Rozanne

    2013-06-01

    Kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. Research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' (green kiwifruit) and Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', ZESPRI(®) (gold kiwifruit). Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure. Consuming gold kiwifruit with iron-rich meals improves poor iron status, and green kiwifruit aids digestion and laxation. As a rich source of antioxidants, they may protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage. Kiwifruit may support immune function and reduce the incidence and severity of cold or flu-like illness in at-risk groups such as older adults and children. However, kiwifruit are allergenic, and although symptoms in most susceptible individuals are mild, severe reactions have been reported. While many research gaps remain, kiwifruit with their multiple health benefits have the potential to become part of our "daily prescription for health."

  9. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  10. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  11. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  12. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  13. LISIRD: Where to go for Solar Irradiance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Pankratz, C. K.; Lindholm, D. M.; Snow, M.; Knapp, B.; Woodraska, D.; Templeman, B.; Woods, T.; Eparvier, F.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J.; Bill, M.

    2008-12-01

    LASP, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, has been providing web access to solar irradiance measurements, reference spectra, composites and model data covering the solar spectrum from .1 to 2400 nm through LISIRD, the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter. No single instrument can measure the solar spectral irradiance from X-rays to the IR, but the ensemble of LASP instruments can. LISIRD uses a single interface to provide easy, logical access to a variety of mission data, merged in time and wavelength. Daily space weather measurements are available, including total solar irradiance (TSI), Lyman Alpha (121 nm), Magnesium II Index (280 nm), He II (30.4 nm), FE XVI (33.5 nm), and the FUV continuum (145 to 165 nm). More recently, LISIRD has recently added the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) Solar Irradiance time series, which provides a quiet sun reference spectra for the period of April 10-16 of 2008. LISIRD also recently added a composite solar spectral irradiance product over the range of 120 to 400 nm for the time period from November 8, 1978 to August 1, 2005. This product, created by Mathew Deland at SSAI, merges data from six different satellites into a single SSI product. And, we are currently adding a time series for daily solar spectral irradiance from 1950 to 2006, created by Judith Lean of the Naval Research Lab. This product adjusts observed irradiance for a given wavelength with parameters that represent known sources of variability at that wavelength. LISIRD remains committed to improving data access in a variety of ways. We are planning and developing a means for the broader community of scientists to easily determine data availability for a particular date range without having to know mission or instrument details. Improved data subsetting will allow users to request only the time range or spectra that users need, making data management generally easier. We expect to continue to enhance our data offerings. Future vision for

  14. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  15. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  16. Post-irradiation effects in polyethylenes irradiated under various atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suljovrujic, E.

    2013-08-01

    If a large amount of polymer free radicals remain trapped after irradiation of polymers, the post-irradiation effects may result in a significant alteration of physical properties during long-term shelf storage and use. In the case of polyethylenes (PEs) some failures are attributed to the post-irradiation oxidative degradation initiated by the reaction of residual free radicals (mainly trapped in crystal phase) with oxygen. Oxidation products such as carbonyl groups act as deep traps and introduce changes in carrier mobility and significant deterioration in the PEs electrical insulating properties. The post-irradiation behaviour of three different PEs, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied; previously, the post-irradiation behaviour of the PEs was investigated after the irradiation in air (Suljovrujic, 2010). In this paper, in order to investigate the influence of different irradiation media on the post-irradiation behaviour, the samples were irradiated in air and nitrogen gas, to an absorbed dose of 300 kGy. The annealing treatment of irradiated PEs, which can substantially reduce the concentration of free radicals, is used in this study, too. Dielectric relaxation behaviour is related to the difference in the initial structure of PEs (such as branching, crystallinity etc.), to the changes induced by irradiation in different media and to the post-irradiation changes induced by storage of the samples in air. Electron spin resonance (ESR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and gel measurements were used to determine the changes in the free radical concentration, crystal fraction, oxidation and degree of network formation, respectively.

  17. Effects of converting tacrolimus formulation from twice-daily to once-daily in liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Ashok; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice daily. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-daily formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-daily formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-daily to once-daily formulation on a 1 mg to 1 mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3%) were withdrawn from the once-daily formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-daily formulation was lower than that of the twice-daily formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4%) had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4%) experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2%) experienced the convenience of once-daily formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-daily to the once-daily formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored.

  18. Twice-daily and once-daily nedocromil sodium 2% ophthalmic solution for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michael; Allegro, Stacey; Hicks, Angela

    2002-01-01

    In this 8-week open-label, prospective study, 30 patients with grass pollen allergy and ocular itching instilled nedocromil sodium 2% ophthalmic solution twice daily for a 5-day baseline period, followed by once-daily dosing thereafter. Physicians assessed clinical signs after the twice-daily period and after weeks 1 and 3 of the once-daily period; patients rated ocular symptoms daily. Use of specified rescue medication was permitted. Symptom scores for ocular itching, stinging, redness, swelling, burning, tearing, and light sensitivity did not differ significantly between the dosage periods. Scores for erythema, edema, conjunctival injection, and the entire conjunctiva decreased slightly during once-daily administration; discharge scores were unchanged. Of the 20 patients who used rescue medication, only 5 increased their usage by more than two doses per week during the once-daily period. Eighty-three percent of patients were willing to continue the once-daily regimen during the next allergy season. Physicians rated overall control of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis with once-daily administration as "good" or "moderate" in 100% of the patients; 93% of patients applied those ratings themselves. Nedocromil sodium 2% ophthalmic solution instilled once daily maintains control of symptoms in patients who are established on a twice-daily regimen. PMID:12008862

  19. Solar influences on global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  20. Global healthy backpack initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Kapila; Jacobs, Karen; Fernando, Dulitha

    2012-01-01

    Schoolbag use by children is a global common concern.. Children carry school books and other amenities in their school bags. Global evidence indicates that daily load carried by school children may have negative health implications. Backpack as a school bag model, is the healthiest way of load carriage for school children. Several initiatives have been launched world over to minimize unhealthy consequences resulting from schoolbags. Based on a situation analysis, Sri Lanka implemented a national healthy schoolbag campaign by joint efforts of Ministries of Health and Education. Actions were contemplated on; strategies for bag weight reduction, introduction of an ergonomically modeled schoolbag and bag behaviour change. New strategies were introduced with awareness campaigns to policy makers, bag manufacturers, parents, teachers and children. Four million schoolchildren benefitted. In 2000, the backpack strategy of "Pack it Light, Wear it Right" was started as a public health initiative in the United States by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Over the last eleven years, thousands of occupational therapy practitioners and students participated in educational programs and outreach activities. In 2004, modeled after the success AOTA initiative, the Icelandic Occupational Therapy Association launched a national backpack awareness initiative. This article shares examples of practices that could be implemented in any context to the promote health of children.

  1. Total solar irradiance reconstruction using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebabal Yirdaw, Ambelu; Damtie, Baylie; Nigussie, Melessew; Bires, Abiyot; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2015-08-01

    A feed-forward neural network which can account for nonlinear relationships was used to reconstruct total solar irradiance (TSI). A single layer feed forward neural network with back-propagation algorithm have been implemented for reconstructing daily total solar irradiance from daily photometric sunspot index, and core to wing ratio of Mg II index data. The data year from 1978 to 2013 was used for the training, validation and testing purpose. In order to obtain the optimum neural network for TSI reconstruction, the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and regression coefficient have been taken into account. We have carried out the analysis is made by comparing the reconstructed TSI from neural networks (NNs ) and TSI measurement from satellite. We have found out that the reconstructed TSI and the PMOD composite have the correlation coefficient of about R=0.9307 over the span of the recorded, 1978 to 2013. The NNs model output indicates that reconstructed TSI from solar proxies (photometric index and MgII ) can explain 86.6% of the variance of TSI. Neural network is able to recreate TSI observations on a time scale of a day. This reconstructed TSI using NNs further strengthens the view that surface magnetism indeed plays a dominant role in modulating solar irradiance.

  2. Medication-Overuse Headache: Differences between Daily and Near-Daily Headache Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krymchantowski, Abouch V.; Tepper, Stewart J.; Jevoux, Carla; Valença, Marcelo M.

    2016-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a challenging neurological disease, which brings frustration for sufferers and treating physicians. The patient’s lack of adherence and limited treatment evidence are frequent. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome and treatment strategies between consecutive MOH patients with daily and near-daily headache from a tertiary center. Methods: Every consecutive patient seen between January and December 2014 with the diagnosis of MOH was included. Psychiatric comorbidities, inability to inform baseline headache frequency, current or previous two-month use of preventive medications, and refusal to sign informed consent were exclusion criteria. The patients were evaluated in thorough initial consultations and divided in two groups based on their baseline headache frequency. The diagnosis and treatment strategies were clearly explained. The filling out of a detailed headache diary was requested from all patients. Endpoints compared headache frequency and adherence after two, four, and eight months between the two study groups. Results: One-hundred sixty-eight patients (31 male, 137 female) met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients (11.3%) were excluded. All patients had migraine or chronic migraine as primary headaches. Eighty had daily (DH), and 69 near-daily headache (NDH), at baseline consultation. Mean baseline frequency was 24.8 headache days/month (18.9 days/month for the near-daily group), average headache history was 20.6 years and mean time with >15 headache days/month was 4.8 years. Outpatient withdrawal, starting prevention, and enforcing the correct use of rescue therapy was carried out with all patients. After two months, 88% of the DH and 71% of the NDH groups adhered to treatment (p = 0.0002). The HF decreased to 12 and 9 headache days/month, respectively in DH and NDH groups (p > 0.05, non-significant) (Intention-to-treat (ITT) 14 DH; 12 NDH; p > 0.05). After four and eight months, 86.3% and 83.7% of the

  3. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.

    2015-01-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808

  4. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…

  5. Children as Global Citizens: A Socratic Approach to Teaching Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helterbran, Valeri R.; Strahler, Brianna R.

    2013-01-01

    Educators around the world are being challenged to promote positive global citizenship skills in the face of daily news concerning widespread discord, dissonance, injustice, and corruption. This article describes a Socratic approach to developing global citizenship. Recognizing the central role of teachers in educating future generations of a…

  6. Globalization and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of globalization in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their daily lives due to globalization and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…

  7. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  8. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana; Virag, Vasile; Avram, Calin N.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  9. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of

  10. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  11. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  12. Global Arrays

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  13. Daily Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849

  14. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  15. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  16. Quantifying the relevance of local blockings for temperature extremes on sub-daily to daily time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfahl, S.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric blockings can influence near-surface temperature, on the one hand by inducing circulation anomalies, on the other hand since they are associated with clear-sky conditions, which can lead to anomalies in the surface radiation budget. The latter is due to subsiding motions and the deflection of low pressure systems. In this study, it is quantified how relevant these effects are locally (at the location of the blocking) for the occurrence of sub-daily and daily temperature extremes, based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1989-2009. Blockings are identified from the reanalysis dataset as negative anomalies of the vertically integrated potential vorticity (PV) between 150 hPa and 500 hPa with a lifetime longer than 5 days. The threshold for the identification of the PV anomalies is varied between -1.3 PVU and -0.7 PVU in order to distinguish between strong and weaker blocking systems. Temperature extremes are identified at each grid point if the six-hourly maximum (minimum) temperature exceeds (falls below) its local 99% (1%) percentile. For investigating extremes on longer time scales, the temperature time series are smoothed with a 1- or 3-day running mean before identifying the extremes. Finally, a blocking is assumed to be locally related to a temperature extreme if both occur simultaneously at the same grid point. The percentage of temperature extremes coinciding with a blocking is then quantified at every grid point. The percentage of hot temperature extremes associated with a strong blocking reaches maxima of more than 50% over southern Greenland and Quebec and around 30% over Northern Europe and Asia, exceeding the climatological blocking frequency by about a factor of 5. The spatial patterns of this percentage are similar if the smoothed time series are used, but the maxima are increased up to 70%. If also weaker blockings are considered, in the order of 80% of the six-hourly hot extremes coincide with such

  17. Patterns and Variability in Global Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in global ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.

  18. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-11-01

    Pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90-850 °C to 0.03-2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relatively modest dose (>0.6 dpa). The precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.

  19. Reflective optics for cosine-corrected irradiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppitz, Carsten; Heering, Wolfgang

    1998-10-01

    Most of the detectors commonly used for radiometric measurements have a more or less poor cosine response. By means of a reflective entrance optics in front of the detection system, we have reduced relative cosine errors below 5% up to zenith angles of 75°. Cosine correction is performed by a roughened polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) plate which diffusely reflects parts of the incident radiation into a light guide with the detector at its end. It provides for a neglectible wavelength cosine error dependence and a significantly better radiant efficiency. Originally designed for irradiance measurements of solar global radiation and its photobiological effective irradiance, the entrance optics may also be used for determination of radiant flux from lamps by integrating the lamp irradiance over an enveloping surface as it is done in spectrogoniometric measurements.

  20. A semiparametric spatio-temporal model for solar irradiance data

    DOE PAGES

    Patrick, Joshua D.; Harvill, Jane L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we evaluate semiparametric spatio-temporal models for global horizontal irradiance at high spatial and temporal resolution. These models represent the spatial domain as a lattice and are capable of predicting irradiance at lattice points, given data measured at other lattice points. Using data from a 1.2 MW PV plant located in Lanai, Hawaii, we show that a semiparametric model can be more accurate than simple interpolation between sensor locations. We investigate spatio-temporal models with separable and nonseparable covariance structures and find no evidence to support assuming a separable covariance structure. These results indicate a promising approach for modeling irradiance atmore » high spatial resolution consistent with available ground-based measurements. Moreover, this kind of modeling may find application in design, valuation, and operation of fleets of utility-scale photovoltaic power systems.« less

  1. Copernicus - Practice of Daily Life in a National Mapping Agency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiatr, T.; Suresh, G.; Gehrke, R.; Hovenbitzer, M.

    2016-06-01

    Copernicus is an European system created for Earth observation and monitoring. It consists of a set of Earth observation satellites and in-situ sensors that provide geo-information that are used, through a set of Copernicus services, for applications related to the environment and global security. The main services of the Copernicus programme address six thematic areas: land, marine, atmosphere, climate change, emergency management and security. In Germany, there is a national service team of Copernicus service coordinators, who are responsible for the national development of the Copernicus services and for providing user-specific information about the Copernicus processes. These coordinators represent the contact points for all the programmes and services concerning their respective Copernicus theme. To publish information about Copernicus, national conferences and workshops are organised. Many people are involved in planning the continuous process of bringing the information to public authorities, research institutes and commercial companies. The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, BKG) is one such organisation, and is mainly responsible for the national land monitoring service of Copernicus. To make use of the freely available data from the Copernicus programme, the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy is currently developing new applications and projects in the field of remote sensing and land monitoring. These projects can be used by other public authorities as examples on how to use the Copernicus data and services for their individual demands and requirements. Copernicus data and services are currently not very commonly used in the daily routine of the national mapping agencies, but they will soon be.

  2. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Surface Irradiance in the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are complex. Research indicates extreme local variability in glacier fluctuations and the presence of regional trends. The glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya depart from world trends of glacier recession, as many are advancing or surging. Nevertheless, glacier sensitivity to climate change has yet to be quantitatively assessed given numerous controlling factors. We attempt to address part of the problem by evaluating the role of topography in explaining variations in surface irradiance. Specifically, we developed a spectral-based topographic solar radiation model that accounts for multi-scale topographic effects. We evaluate surface irradiance simulations over a multitude of glaciers across the Karakoram and Nepalese Himalaya and examine spatio-temporal patterns to determine which alpine glaciers are more susceptible to radiation forcing. Simulation results reveal that many Nepalese glaciers characterized by rapid downwasting, retreat and expanding proglacial lakes, exhibit relatively high-magnitude daily irradiance patterns spatially focused over the terminus region, while other glacier surface areas received less short-wave irradiance. These results were found to be associated with basin-scale relief conditions and topographic shielding. Altitudinal variation in glacier surface irradiance was found to increase during the later portion of the ablation season, as changes in solar geometry produce more cast shadows that protect glaciers given extreme relief. Topographic effects on surface irradiance vary significantly from glacier to glacier, demonstrating the important role of glacier and mountain geodynamics on glacier sensitivity to climate change. Spatial and altitudinal patterns, coupled with information regarding supraglacial debris distribution, depth and ice-flow velocities, may potentially explain glacier sensitivity to climate change and the local variability of glacier fluctuations in the Himalaya.

  4. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  5. Phytosanitary irradiation in south Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation has the potential to solve phytosanitary problems related to trade in south Asia. In general, it is the phytosanitary treatment most tolerated by fresh agricultural commodities. Irradiation technology is available in some countries of the region but is only used for phytosanitary purpos...

  6. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

  7. Measurement and Analysis of Ultraviolet Solar Irradiation in Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Tena, F.; Utrillas, M. P.

    1996-08-01

    Experimental data concerning the integrated total ultraviolet radiation (290-385 nm band) on a horizontal surface measured at Valencia (Spain) during the period March 1991 to December 1994 have been analysed. A study of the most representative statistical indexes: arithmetic mean (M), median (Md), standard deviation (SD), maximum (Mx), minimum (Mn), first (Q1) and third (Q3) quartiles, percentiles 5 (P5) and 95 (P95), interquartile range (Q3 -Q1) and coefficient of quartile variation (V), of the UV radiation for this period has been carried out. The study has focused on both the hourly and the daily values of irradiance. The UV irradiance measured shows quite stable values within the period analysed, especially during July and August.

  8. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  9. The Effect of Personality on Daily Life Emotional Processes

    PubMed Central

    Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life. PMID:25343494

  10. 23rd Solar Cycle in global response in composition of the atmosphere between the ground and 90 km : 3D simulations with CHARM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, Alexei A.

    The response in ozone and other chemical species of the Earth’s atmosphere have been simulated with new version of three-dimentional photochemical global transport model CHARM (CHemical Atmospheric Research Model), developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics of Central Aerological Observatory. Model describes the interaction between 40 chemical species involved in 140 photochemical reactions. “Family” technique is used for solving kinetic part of the model equations and Prather’s scheme used to describe advection. 3D global wind components and temperature field (daily averaged) calculated by GCM ARM (Atmospheric Research Model) were used in simulations. Solar cycle signal in UV solar irradiance variations measured from space (SIM and other instruments) has been introduced in the model. External forcing used in numerical scenario described unusual features of 23rd solar cycle: long and deep its minima. So that, the amplitude of external signal (max-min) was really more than in previous cycles. The results of simulations showed global structure of ozone response, which is mostly positive. At the same time the regions of negative ozone changes at high latitudes exist. The response of tropospheric ozone was also found around the equator. NOy global changes responsible for negative ozone response is also presented. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation for Basic Research (grant N 13-05-0105213).

  11. Irradiated mandibular autografts

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaker, R.C.; Singer, M.I.; Shockley, W.W.; Pugh, N.; Shidnia, H.

    1983-09-15

    The cosmetic and functional disability associated with mandibular resection has been a major problem to the patient with direct invasion of the mandible by oral cancer. Marginal resections with combined postoperative radiation therapy have frequently been substituted for the more preferred segmental resections and resultant deformities. Presented are 15 cases of oral cavity cancer involving resection of the mandible, immediate radiation to 10,000 rad, and primary reconstruction as irradiated mandibular autografts. The longest following is 4 years and 3 months, with a success rate of 66%. Morbidity is minimal as compared to autogenous bone grafting. Tumor size, previous radiation, or use of regional flaps have not been a factor in the success of this method in reconstruction of the mandible primarily.

  12. The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland.

    PubMed

    Alicelebić, Selma; Mornjaković, Zakira; Susko, Irfan; Cosović, Esad; Beganović-Petrović, Amira

    2006-11-01

    Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group) or shampinealectomy (control group), adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatonin intraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th) post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  13. Memantine extended release (28 mg once daily): a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L

    2015-05-01

    Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is a well-established treatment option for moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer's type, either alone or in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors. The immediate-release (IR) formulations of memantine (tablets and oral solution) have been available in numerous countries, including the USA, for more than a decade and are administered orally twice daily at a maximum recommended total daily dosage of 20 mg/day. The memantine extended-release (ER) (Namenda XR(®)) 28 mg once-daily capsule formulation was approved in the USA in 2010 and became available more recently. The potential advantages of memantine ER over the IR formulation include a more convenient dosage regimen and lower pill burden that may improve adherence to therapy; also, memantine ER capsules may be opened and the contents sprinkled on applesauce for patients who have difficulty swallowing. Memantine ER provides a higher total daily dosage than the recommended memantine IR regimen and pharmacokinetic data indicate greater exposure with the ER formulation, but the clinical implications of this are unclear, as the two formulations have not been assessed in a comparative clinical trial. The efficacy of memantine ER 28 mg once daily was demonstrated in a large, multinational, phase III trial, which showed that the addition of memantine ER to ongoing oral cholinesterase inhibitors improved key outcomes compared with cholinesterase inhibitor monotherapy, including measures of cognition and global status, which were the co-primary endpoints of the study. The most common adverse events were headache, diarrhoea and dizziness.

  14. Impact of intra-daily SST variability on ENSO characteristics in a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Sébastien; Terray, Pascal; Madec, Gurvan; Luo, Jing-Jia; Yamagata, Toshio; Takahashi, Keiko

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores the impact of intra-daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability on the tropical large-scale climate variability and differentiates it from the response of the system to the forcing of the solar diurnal cycle. Our methodology is based on a set of numerical experiments based on a fully global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation in which we alter (1) the frequency at which the atmosphere sees the SST variations and (2) the amplitude of the SST diurnal cycle. Our results highlight the complexity of the scale interactions existing between the intra-daily and inter-annual variability of the tropical climate system. Neglecting the SST intra-daily variability results, in our CGCM, to a systematic decrease of 15% of El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude. Furthermore, ENSO frequency and skewness are also significantly modified and are in better agreement with observations when SST intra-daily variability is directly taken into account in the coupling interface of our CGCM. These significant modifications of the SST interannual variability are not associated with any remarkable changes in the mean state or the seasonal variability. They can therefore not be explained by a rectification of the mean state as usually advocated in recent studies focusing on the diurnal cycle and its impact. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SST high frequency coupling is systematically associated with a strengthening of the air-sea feedbacks involved in ENSO physics: SST/sea level pressure (or Bjerknes) feedback, zonal wind/heat content (or Wyrtki) feedback, but also negative surface heat flux feedbacks. In our model, nearly all these results (excepted for SST skewness) are independent of the amplitude of the SST diurnal cycle suggesting that the systematic deterioration of the air-sea coupling by a daily exchange of SST information is cascading toward the major mode of tropical variability, i.e. ENSO.

  15. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 GEWEX Shortwave Daily Local Time Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format   News:  GEWEX ... Temporal Resolution:  Daily from 3-hourly Local Sun time values File Format:  NETCDF Tools:  ...

  16. 20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employment not covered by the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act are not considered in computing his or her... Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.2 Computation of daily benefit rate. (a)...

  17. The Daily Curriculum Guide, Year II, Weeks 1-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Spanning two years, the program set forth in the Daily Curriculum Guide for preschool Spanish-speaking children is essentially a language maintenance model in which Spanish is used as a means to develop basic concepts, skills and attitudes. This guide gives daily lesson plans for the first ten weeks of the second year. Each lesson, written in…

  18. The Determinants of Daily Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from…

  19. 40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....

  20. News Values and Country Non-Daily Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vines, Josie

    2001-01-01

    Suggests Australia's country, non-daily newspapers present journalism graduates with excellent opportunities to experience a wide range of journalistic responsibilities and compile an impressive portfolio. Argues the need for the news values of these newspapers to be integrated into pedagogical models. Documents the country non-daily's news…

  1. The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth A.

    For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was just emerging,…

  2. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  3. Which metric of ambient ozone to predict daily mortality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with daily cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the daily variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on daily deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between daily hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and daily mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (daily mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in daily ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than daily average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.

  4. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified daily rate. 159.35 Section...

  5. Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.; And Others

    Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

  6. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  11. Experiential avoidance and well-being: a daily diary analysis.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is a regulatory strategy characterised by efforts to control or avoid unpleasant thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations. Most studies of EA have used trait measures without considering the effects of EA on psychological functioning in naturalistic settings. To address this gap, we used daily diary methodology to examine the influence of EA of anxiety on everyday well-being. For two weeks, 89 participants provided daily reports of EA, positive and negative affect, enjoyment of daily events and meaning in life (MIL). Daily EA predicted higher negative affect, lower positive affect, less enjoyment of daily events (exercising, eating food and listening to music) and less MIL. The effect of EA on positive affect was not accounted for by the amount of negative affect experienced. Our daily measure of EA was a stronger predictor of daily well-being than a traditional trait measure (The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire). Taken together, results offer insights into the adverse effects of EA on daily well-being and suggest that EA is a context-specific regulatory strategy that might be best captured using a state-dependent measure. PMID:24800802

  12. Circulation Practices and Pricing in Mid-Sized Dailies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Robert G.

    A study analyzed circulation practices and pricing of mid-sized daily newspapers, seeking to draw together a comprehensive description of the circulation situation for those papers. Seventy-five circulation directors, randomly selected from newspapers with daily circulation between 25,000 and 100,000, completed mailed questionnaires requesting…

  13. Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in mice by total lymphoid irradiation combined with total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, K.K.; Waer, M.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1983-07-01

    Different groups of C57BL/Ka mice received daily fractions of 2 Gy total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in a total dose of 34, 24, or 14 Gy. On the day after the last irradiation, 30 X 10(6) allogeneic (BALB/c) nucleated bone marrow cells were infused into the irradiated animals. When the last one or two fractions of the radiation schedule were given to the whole body (combined total lymphoid-total-body irradiation, TLBI): (1) stable bone marrow chimerism with a higher number of donor-type cells in the peripheral blood was induced in a higher percentage of mice that had received 34 Gy TLBI compared with mice that received 34 Gy TLI. (2) bone marrow chimerism could also be induced after 24 Gy or 14 Gy TLBI, whereas 24 and 14 Gy TLI alone were ineffective. The tolerance to the TLBI schedules was excellent and no clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease were noticed. It is concluded that the addition of TBI can facilitate bone marrow engraftment after TLI and drastically reduce the number of radiation fractions needed to obtain successful chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.

  14. Global teaching of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  15. Extending the Precipitation Map Offshore Using Daily and 3-Hourly Combined Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the difficulties in studying landfalling extratropical cyclones along the Pacific Coast is the lack of antecedent data over the ocean, including precipitation. Recent research on combining various satellite-based precipitation estimates opens the possibility of realistic precipitation estimates on a global 1 deg. x 1 deg. latitude-longitude grid at the daily or even 3-hourly interval. The goal in this work is to provide quantitative precipitation estimates that correctly represent the precipitation- related variables in the hydrological cycle: surface accumulations (fresh-water flux into oceans), frequency and duration statistics, net latent heating, etc.

  16. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  17. The Association of Daily Physical Symptoms with Future Health

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Ayanian, John Z.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Daily physical symptoms play a critical role in health and illness experiences. Despite their daily prevalence, the ability of these symptoms to predict future health status is debated. Objective The current study examined whether physical symptom reports predict future health outcomes independent of trait measures of emotion. Methods Participants (N = 1189) who completed both Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Surveys I and II as well as the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) reported their daily physical symptoms at baseline and number of reported chronic conditions and functional disability nearly 10 years later. Results Physical symptoms at baseline significantly predicted the occurrence of chronic conditions and functional impairment at long-term follow-up, even after adjusting for self-reported affect, self-reported health, and previous health status. Conclusion Findings suggest that daily physical symptoms are unique indicators of future health status. PMID:26364011

  18. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Daniel J.; Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha; Goddu, S. Murty; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  19. Global Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  20. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of boosted once-daily darunavir.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Thomas N; Brochot, Anne; Tomaka, Frank L; Vangeneugden, Tony; Van De Casteele, Tom; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

    2014-10-01

    The ability to dose antiretroviral agents once daily simplifies the often complex therapeutic regimens required for the successful treatment of HIV infection. Thus, once-daily dosing can lead to improved patient adherence to medication and, consequently, sustained virological suppression and reduction in the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Several trials have evaluated once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARTEMIS and ODIN trials) or as monotherapy (MONET, MONOI and PROTEA trials) in HIV-1-infected adults. Data from ARTEMIS and ODIN demonstrate non-inferiority of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir against a comparator and, together with pharmacokinetic data, have established the suitability of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. The findings of ARTEMIS and ODIN have led to recent updates to treatment guidelines, whereby once-daily darunavir/ritonavir, given with other antiretrovirals, is now a preferred treatment option for antiretroviral-naive adult patients and a simplified treatment option for antiretroviral-experienced adults who have no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing with darunavir/ritonavir is an option for treatment-naive and for treatment-experienced paediatric patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations based on the findings of the DIONE trial and ARIEL substudy. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-daily boosted darunavir. The feasibility of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a treatment approach for some patients is also discussed. Finally, data on a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily are presented, showing comparable darunavir bioavailability to that obtained with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily. PMID:24951533

  2. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  3. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  4. Entrainment of daily serum gonadotropin cycles in the goldfish to photoperiod, feeding, and daily thermocycles.

    PubMed

    Hontela, A; Peter, R E

    1983-10-01

    Female fish were kept under 16L:8D/20 degrees C in November and April and the onset of light and/or feeding times were shifted by several hours in the experimental groups. Photoperiod and feeding entrained significant fluctuations in serum gonadotropin hormone (GTH) levels when the onset of light and the first daily feeding were 4 hr apart, but not when they were 10 hr apart. Fish were subjected to 16L:8D for 14-16 days in February, and to either a constant warm (20 degrees C) or a diurnal sinusoidal (12-20 degrees C) temperature regime, the warmth being imposed during photophase or scotophase. While relatively high, uniform serum GTH levels were found throughout the 24-hr period in fish subjected to constant warmth, warm temperature during the day promoted fluctuations in serum GTH levels, and warmth during night resulted in relatively low, uniform serum GTH levels.

  5. Using Daily GCM Rainfall for Crop Yield Predictions: Advances and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A. M.; Hansen, J. W.; Robertson, A. W.; Baethgen, W.; Sun, L.; Indeje, M.

    2010-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) are promising for crop yield predictions not only because of their ability to simulate seasonal climate in advance of the growing season but also of their ability to simulate long-term climate changes. Despite this potential, a lot of challenges exist in using directly raw GCM data to crop models. First, because of the spatial scale mismatch between GCMs and crop models (10^2 km vs. 10^1 m), and second, due to biases and temporal structure mismatches in daily GCM rainfall relative to station observations. Crop growth is very sensitive to daily variations of rainfall thus any mismatch in daily rainfall statistics could adversely impact simulation of crop yields. In view of this, a lot of efforts have been made to correct biases in daily GCM rainfall relative to the climatology of a station or set of stations, and recently on some attempts to correct time structure in climate model rainfall. Here, we will present some advances in tailoring daily GCM rainfall for crop yield predictions and discuss some challenges underlying those methods. Specifically, we will present an improved nested GCM bias correction-stochastic disaggregation (BC-DisAg) method for improving the use of daily GCM rainfall for crop simulations and show some testing and evaluation results in different regions (Northeastern Kenya, Uruguay, Southern and Northeast Brazil). We also examined several ways of weighting GCM grid cells to better summarize their information contents for the nested approach, including inverse-distance weighting, arithmetic averaging, multiple linear regression and genetic algorithms. Finally, we will show a comparison between the GCM bias correction and Model Output Statistics (MOS)-correction downscaling in one of the selected sites at Katumani, Kenya. Our results showed that there is a significant improvement in the simulation of yields if the GCM bias correction (BC) is nested with stochastic disaggregation than just BC alone because of the

  6. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for global climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a daily basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, daily fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare daily temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional

  7. Adaptation to Daily Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Daily Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a daily diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of daily positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results…

  8. Usability of a Fourier transform spectroradiometer for absolute surface spectral solar UV irradiance measurements.

    PubMed

    Meindl, Peter; Wähmer, Martin; Monte, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The suitability of a commercially available Fourier transform spectrometer equipped with a fiber-coupled global entrance optic as a reference spectroradiometer for the measurement of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance at ground level has been investigated. The instrument has been characterized with respect to the wavelength uncertainty, and a calibration of the spectral irradiance responsivity has been performed by using the calculable irradiance of a high temperature black-body radiator and by using a secondary irradiance standard lamp. The relative standard uncertainty of solar irradiance measurements in the wavelength range from 310 nm to 400 nm with this spectroradiometer, based on the described methodology, is 1.6% for solar zenith angles of less than 60°.

  9. Usability of a Fourier transform spectroradiometer for absolute surface spectral solar UV irradiance measurements.

    PubMed

    Meindl, Peter; Wähmer, Martin; Monte, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The suitability of a commercially available Fourier transform spectrometer equipped with a fiber-coupled global entrance optic as a reference spectroradiometer for the measurement of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance at ground level has been investigated. The instrument has been characterized with respect to the wavelength uncertainty, and a calibration of the spectral irradiance responsivity has been performed by using the calculable irradiance of a high temperature black-body radiator and by using a secondary irradiance standard lamp. The relative standard uncertainty of solar irradiance measurements in the wavelength range from 310 nm to 400 nm with this spectroradiometer, based on the described methodology, is 1.6% for solar zenith angles of less than 60°. PMID:25401540

  10. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  11. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  12. AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  13. AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  14. The tolerance of primate spinal cord to re-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, K.K.; Jiang, G.L.; Feng, Y.; Peters, L.J.; Price, R.E.; Stephens, L.C.; Schultheiss, T.E. )

    1993-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the tolerance of the cervical spinal cord of rhesus monkeys to re-irradiation. This information is essential for treatment recommendations in previously irradiated patients. Control animals received a single course of treatment to total doses of 70.4 Gy, 77.0 Gy, or 83.6 Gy in daily fractions of 2.2 Gy. Twelve asymptomatic animals that received 70.4 Gy were re-irradiated two years later to cumulative doses of 83.6, 92.4, or 101.2 Gy. Another group of 15 animals received 44 Gy and two years later were re-irradiated to cumulative doses of 83.6, 92.4, 101.2 or 110 Gy. The clinical endpoint was myeloparesis. A complete necropsy was performed in all animals when myeloparesis manifested or at the end of the observation period. Only two of the 12 asymptomatic animals of the 70.4 dose-response study group and two of the 15 animals that had received 44 Gy initially developed myelopathy within two years of re-irradiation. The ED[sub 50] value of the single-course irradiation was 76.1 [+-] 1.9 Gy, while the extrapolated ED[sub 50] for retreatment after 44 Gy was [>=] 110 Gy. The lesions of the two symptomatic animals that received 70.4 Gy initially were mixtures of white matter and vascular lesions similar to those observed after single course irradiation. However, both symptomatic animals given 44 Gy initially had hemorrhagic infarcts in the white matter. The results of this study indicate that substantial recovery of occult injuries induced by the initial 44 Gy had occurred within two years. The difference between the types of lesions observed after a single course and re-irradiation suggests that vascular injury may recover less efficiently or at a slower rate than white matter damage. The dependence of the extent of recovery on the initial dose and the time course of such recovery in primates are being investigated. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  16. Central nervous system transplantation benefited by low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochkind, S.; Lubart, Rachel; Wollman, Yoram; Simantov, Rabi; Nissan, Moshe; Barr-Nea, Lilian

    1990-06-01

    Effect of low-level laser irradiation on the central nervous system transplantation is reported. Ernbryonal brain allografts were transplanted into the brain of 20 adult rats and peripheral nerve graft transplanted into the severely injured spinal cord of 16 dogs. The operated wound of 10 rats and 8 dogs were exposed daily for 21 days to lowpower laser irradiation CW HeNe laser (35 mW, 632.8 run, energy density of 30 J/cm2 at each point for rats and 70 J/cm2 at each point for dogs). This study shows that (i) the low-level laser irradiation prevents extensive glial scar formation (a limiting factor in CNS regeneration) between embryonal transplants and host brain; (ii) Dogs made paraplegic by spinal cord injury were able to walk 3-6 months later. Recovery of these dogs was effected by the implantation of a fragment of autologous sciatic nerve at the site of injury and subsequently exposing the dogs to low-level laser irradiation. The effect of laser irradiation on the embryonal nerve cells grown in tissue culture was also observed. We found that low-level laser irradiation induced intensive migration of neurites outward of the aggregates 15-22 The results of the present study and our previous investigations suggest that low-level laser irradiation is a novel tool for treatment of peripheral and central nervous system injuries.

  17. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model.

  18. A statistical analysis of the daily streamflow hydrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Delleur, J. W.

    1984-03-01

    In this study a periodic statistical analysis of daily streamflow data in Indiana, U.S.A., was performed to gain some new insight into the stochastic structure which describes the daily streamflow process. This analysis was performed by the periodic mean and covariance functions of the daily streamflows, by the time and peak discharge -dependent recession limb of the daily streamflow hydrograph, by the time and discharge exceedance level (DEL) -dependent probability distribution of the hydrograph peak interarrival time, and by the time-dependent probability distribution of the time to peak discharge. Some new statistical estimators were developed and used in this study. In general features, this study has shown that: (a) the persistence properties of daily flows depend on the storage state of the basin at the specified time origin of the flow process; (b) the daily streamflow process is time irreversible; (c) the probability distribution of the daily hydrograph peak interarrival time depends both on the occurrence time of the peak from which the inter-arrival time originates and on the discharge exceedance level; and (d) if the daily streamflow process is modeled as the release from a linear watershed storage, this release should depend on the state of the storage and on the time of the release as the persistence properties and the recession limb decay rates were observed to change with the state of the watershed storage and time. Therefore, a time-varying reservoir system needs to be considered if the daily streamflow process is to be modeled as the release from a linear watershed storage.

  19. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  20. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  1. Macitentan: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trina; McKeage, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Macitentan (Opsumit®) is a novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) with sustained receptor binding properties developed by Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. In October 2013, oral macitentan 10 mg once daily received its first global approval in the US, followed closely by Canada, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The drug has also received a positive opinion in the EU from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use for the treatment of PAH, and is under regulatory review in several other countries for the same indication. Endothelin (ET)-1 influences pathological changes via two ET receptor subtypes (ETA and ETB), to which it binds with high affinity. ET-1 is implicated in several forms of vascular disease making it a valid target for the treatment of pulmonary vascular diseases such as PAH. Clinical development is underway for other indications, including Eisenmenger syndrome, ischaemic digital ulcers secondary to systemic sclerosis, and glioblastoma. Macitentan was also evaluated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; however, a phase 2 trial did not meet its primary endpoint and further investigation in this indication was discontinued. Macitentan was developed by modifying the structure of bosentan in the search for an optimal dual ERA with improved efficacy and tolerability compared with other ERAs. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of macitentan leading to this first approval for PAH.

  2. Vortioxetine: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Andrew; Deeks, Emma D

    2014-01-01

    Vortioxetine is an orally administered small molecule developed by Lundbeck A/S for the once-daily treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Vortioxetine received its first global approval for MDD in the USA in September 2013 and regulatory approval for its use in this indication in the EU (where it has received a positive opinion) and Canada is awaited. The drug is a bis-aryl-sulphanyl amine compound that combines serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibition with other characteristics, including receptor activity modulation. In vitro studies indicate that vortioxetine is an inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter and is a 5-HT(1D), 5-HT₃ and 5-HT₇ receptor antagonist, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and a 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that several neurotransmitter systems may be impacted by vortioxetine, with the drug enhancing levels of 5-HT, noradrenaline, dopamine, acetylcholine and histamine in certain areas of the brain, as well as modulating γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate neurotransmission. Phase III trials of vortioxetine in both MDD and GAD have been conducted worldwide. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of vortioxetine leading to this first approval for MDD.

  3. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  4. Ship-borne measurements of erythemal UV irradiance and ozone content in various climate zones.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Sigrid; El Naggar, Saad; Bluszcz, Thaddäus; Schrems, Otto

    2007-10-01

    Ship-borne measurements of spectral as well as biologically effective UV irradiance have been performed on the German research vessel Polarstern during the Atlantic transect from Bremerhaven, Germany (53.5 degrees N, 8.5 degrees E), to Cape Town, South Africa (33.6 degrees S, 18.3 degrees E), from 13 October to 17 November 2005. Such measurements are required to study UV effects on marine organisms. They are also necessary to validate satellite-derived surface UV irradiance. Cloud free radiative transfer calculations support the investigation of this latitudinal dependence. Input parameters, such as total ozone column and aerosol optical depth have been measured on board as well. Using these measured parameters, the modelled cloudless noontime UVA irradiance (320-400 nm) shows the expected dependence on varying minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) at different latitudes. The modelled cloudless noontime UVB irradiance (290-320 nm) does not show this clear dependence on SZA due to the strong influence of ozone absorption in this spectral range. The maximum daily dose of erythemal irradiance of 5420 J m(-1) was observed on 14 November 2005, when the ship was in the tropical Atlantic south of the equator. The expected UV maximum should have been observed with the sun in the zenith during local noon (11 November). Stratiform clouds reduced the dose to 3835 J m(-1). In comparison, the daily erythemal doses in the mid-latitudinal Bay of Biscay only reached values between 410 and 980 J m(-1) depending on cloud conditions. The deviation in daily erythemal dose derived from different instruments is around 5%. The feasibility to perform ship-borne measurements of spectral UV irradiance is demonstrated.

  5. Erythemal ultraviolet irradiation trends in the Iberian Peninsula from 1950 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, R.; Bilbao, J.; de Miguel, A.

    2014-06-01

    Erythemal ultraviolet (UVER) irradiation was reconstructed at nine Spanish locations, with series starting around 1950 in at least five places. Each series was checked by applying homogeneity tests in order to discard non-homogeneous series. Available series were used to create an averaged Iberian Peninsula UVER series. Results indicate that annual UVER irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula increased by 155 J m-2 (6.5%) between 1950 and 2011 due to a decrease observed in atmospheric ozone rather than changes in aerosol and clouds. Annual UVER irradiation increased by 135 J m-2 (5.6%) between 1985 and 2011, mainly due to changes in aerosol and clouds. UVER irradiation over the open human body (UVERob) was calculated by multiplying daily UVER irradiation by the daily open body fraction, a function of air temperature. Annual UVERob increased by 12.5 % between 1950 and 2011 in the Iberian Peninsula, half of the increase being caused by temperature changes, and the other half by ozone changes. Annual UVERob in the Iberian Peninsula increased by a total of 10.1% between 1985 and 2011, with 20.7%, 35.1% and 44.2% of this increase being caused by changes in ozone, aerosol and clouds, and temperature, respectively.

  6. Solar Irradiance from GOES Albedo performance in a Hydrologic Model Simulation of Snowmelt Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumargo, E.; Cayan, D. R.; McGurk, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    In many hydrologic modeling applications, solar radiation has been parameterized using commonly available measures, such as the daily temperature range, due to scarce in situ solar radiation measurement network. However, these parameterized estimates often produce significant biases. Here we test hourly solar irradiance derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) visible albedo product, using several established algorithms. Focusing on the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain in California, we compared the GOES irradiance and that from a traditional temperature-based algorithm with incoming irradiance from pyranometers at 19 stations. The GOES based estimates yielded 21-27% reduction in root-mean-squared error (average over 19 sites). The derived irradiance is then prescribed as an input to Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). We constrain our experiment to the Tuolumne River watershed and focus our attention on the winter and spring of 1996-2014. A root-mean-squared error reduction of 2-6% in daily inflow to Hetch Hetchy at the lower end of the Tuolumne catchment was achieved by incorporating the insolation estimates at only 8 out of 280 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) within the basin. Our ongoing work endeavors to apply satellite-derived irradiance at each individual HRU.

  7. Solar irradiance observed at Summit, Greenland: Possible links to magnetic activity on short timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, John E.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level visible sunlight (400-600 nm) from Summit, Greenland over the period August 2004 through October 2014 define the attenuation provided by cloudiness, including its dependence on solar elevation and season. The long-term mean cloud-attenuation increases with increasing solar zenith angle, consistent with radiative transfer calculations which treat a cloud as a plane parallel layer with a strong bias toward forward scattering and an albedo for diffuse radiation near 0.1. The ratio of measured irradiance to clear-sky irradiance for solar zenith angles greater than 66° has a small, but statistically significant, positive correlation with the previous day's magnetic activity as measured by the daily Ap index, but no clear relationship exists between the irradiance ratio and daily changes in the ground-level neutron flux measured at Thule over the time frame considered. A high value of Ap on one day tends to be followed by a day whose ground-level solar irradiance is slightly greater than would occur otherwise. In an average sense, the visible irradiance following a day with Ap>16 exceeds that following a day with Ap≤16 by 1.2-1.3% with a 95% confidence range of approximately ±1.0%. The results are broadly compatible with small changes in atmospheric scattering following magnetic disturbances.

  8. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  9. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  10. [Daily recovery and well-being: an overview].

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Sanz Vergel, Ana Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a literature review on daily recovery and its effects on well-being. Specifically, we will discuss theories that help us understand the process of recovery and we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Subsequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which recovery can be understood, claiming that daily recovery is an important moderator in the buffering process of the negative effects of job demands. PMID:22269367

  11. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  12. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  13. Global cooling?

    PubMed

    Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

    1976-08-01

    The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes.

  14. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  15. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  16. Variability in solar irradiance observed at two contrasting Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Boyan H.; Láska, Kamil; Vitale, Vito; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Budíková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The features of erythemally weighted (EW) and short-wave downwelling (SWD) solar irradiances, observed during the spring-summer months of 2007-2011 at Johann Gregor Mendel (63°48‧S, 57°53‧W, 7 m a.s.l.) and Dome Concordia (75°06‧S, 123°21‧E, 3233 m a.s.l.) stations, placed at the Antarctic coastal region and on the interior plateau respectively, have been analysed and compared to each other. The EW and SWD spectral components have been presented by the corresponding daily integrated values and were examined taking into account the different geographic positions and different environmental conditions at both sites. The results indicate that at Mendel station the surface solar irradiance is strongly affected by the changes in the cloud cover, aerosols and albedo that cause a decrease in EW between 20% and 35%, and from 0% to 50% in SWD component, which contributions are slightly lower than the seasonal SWD variations evaluated to be about 71%. On the contrary, the changes in the cloud cover features at Concordia station produce only a 5% reduction of the solar irradiance, whilst the seasonal oscillations of 94% turn out to be the predominant mode. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the variations in the ozone column cause an average decrease of about 46% in EW irradiance with respect to the value found in the case of minimum ozone content at each of the stations. In addition, the ratio between EW and SWD spectral components can be used to achieve a realistic assessment of the radiation amplification factor that quantifies the relationship between the atmospheric ozone and the surface UV irradiance.

  17. Sequential estimation of surface water mass changes from daily satellite gravimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Frappart, F.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a recursive Kalman filtering approach to map regional spatio-temporal variations of terrestrial water mass over large continental areas, such as South America. Instead of correcting hydrology model outputs by the GRACE observations using a Kalman filter estimation strategy, regional 2-by-2 degree water mass solutions are constructed by integration of daily potential differences deduced from GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) measurements. Recovery of regional water mass anomaly averages obtained by accumulation of information of daily noise-free simulated GRACE data shows that convergence is relatively fast and yields accurate solutions. In the case of cumulating real GRACE KBRR data contaminated by observational noise, the sequential method of step-by-step integration provides estimates of water mass variation for the period 2004-2011 by considering a set of suitable a priori error uncertainty parameters to stabilize the inversion. Spatial and temporal averages of the Kalman filter solutions over river basin surfaces are consistent with the ones computed using global monthly/10-day GRACE solutions from official providers CSR, GFZ and JPL. They are also highly correlated to in situ records of river discharges (70-95 %), especially for the Obidos station where the total outflow of the Amazon River is measured. The sparse daily coverage of the GRACE satellite tracks limits the time resolution of the regional Kalman filter solutions, and thus the detection of short-term hydrological events.

  18. Examining daily variability in willingness to drink in relation to underage young adult alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa; King, Kevin; Litt, Dana; Swanson, Alex; Lee, Christine

    2016-10-01

    A key component of the Prototype Willingness Model is willingness, which reflects an openness to opportunity to perform a behavior in situations that are conducive to that behavior. Willingness has traditionally been tested using global, hypothetical assessments, and has not been examined at the daily level. We expected to find within-person variability in willingness to drink, such that on days with greater willingness, individuals would report greater drinking. A national sample (N=288) of young adults aged 18 to 20 (31.60% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior, including the Timeline Follow-Back (Sobell & Sobell, 1992). Findings show daily variability in willingness to drink (ICC=0.54), which suggests that there are substantial differences from day-to-day in this drinking-related cognition. Participants drank more on days when individuals also reported feeling more willing to drink than their own average level across the two weeks. Daily process level mechanisms allow greater insight into factors contributing to increased risk in-the-moment, which may point to targets for interventions aimed at improving adolescents' and young adults' abilities to make healthier choices in moments when they may be at greater risk for engaging in risky behaviors.

  19. Nedocromil sodium ophthalmic solution 2% twice daily in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    In a multicenter, open-label evaluation, 1098 patients with ocular itching and a history of perennial or seasonal allergic conjunctivitis instilled one drop of nedocromil sodium 2% twice daily in each eye. Ocular symptoms, signs, and global improvement were assessed at baseline and 1 month; satisfaction scores, quality-of-life variables, and adverse events were also recorded. Significant improvements from baseline (P<.012) occurred in mean severity scores for itching, burning, stinging, watering, swelling, tired eyes, dryness, gritty sensation, eye pain, foreign-body sensation, and light sensitivity. Physicians reported significant reductions (P<.0001) in bulbar conjunctival redness and swelling. Two thirds of patients (634/954) and three fourths of physicians (710/954) reported at least 75% improvement in overall condition after 1 month. The most common adverse events were burning (2.7%) and unpleasant taste (1.4%); headache (1.2%) and adverse events leading to discontinuation (1.3%) were rare. Patients reported significant improvement (P<.001) in their ability to perform daily activities; 65% were more satisfied with nedocromil than with their typical medication. Physicians would prescribe nedocromil again to 80% of the patients. Nedocromil sodium 2% twice daily was effective and safe for the treatment of symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, significantly improving quality of life and producing high rates of user and physician satisfaction.

  20. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear. PMID:26629120

  1. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiu-Min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear.

  2. Irradiation Induced Creep of Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Murty, Prof K.L.; Eapen, Dr. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The current status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and the major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need for improved creep models across multi-scales is highlighted.

  3. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  4. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, S.

    1994-12-31

    Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear. Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.

  5. Exogenous model of global tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, Ivo; Kopf, Tomáš; Frydrýšek, Karel; Neumann, Libor; Procházka, Václav; Ostřihanský, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    We present a new model of lithosphere-plates movement based on three pillars: 1) The thermoelastic wave, which was described first of all by Berger (1975), 2) The ratcheting mechanism, which was described for asphalt buckling and/or lithosphere evolution by J. Croll (2006, 2007), and 3) the solar irradiance energy, as quantified by IPCC (2007). The thermal wave, which is generated by solar irradiance on the surface, penetrates into depth, and subsurface rocks are expanded. The deformation spreads to the surrounding of expanded rocks and to the depths. Such elastic wave is called thermoelastic wave and has dominant periods of one day, one year, (short) climate periods (AMO, PDO and other oscillations), Milankovich periods (14000 - 120000 years) and longer climate periods. This deformation concerns prevalently the continental lithosphere and not lithosphere covered by ocean or thick layers of unconsolidated sediments. This non-uniform deformation of continental and/or oceanic plates leads to opening of the cracks, faults and/or rifts during the period of continental contraction. The ratchets can fulfil such free spaces and openings. During the next period of continental expansion, such faults, cracks or rifts cannot reach the same positions as before, which leads to increasing stress, which accumulates on the discontinuities especially between continental and oceanic crust (Kalenda et al. 2012). Such process can accumulate a portion of the solar energy reaching the solid surface rocks. Then we can explain the whole energy budget of seismic and volcanic activity (1022 J/year) only by solar irradiance. Only 4 % of total solar irradiance of the Earth's surface (1024 J/year) is enough to cover all budget of lithosphere plate movement. No other resources are necessary. Because this new model of the lithosphere plate movement is not accepted at that moment by the mainstream, it is necessary to publish it in the section Geoethics, as a one of the examples of the behaviour

  6. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  7. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  8. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  9. Calculating Irradiance For Photosynthesis In The Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Booth, C. Rockwell; Kiefer, Dale A.; Stallings, Casson

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical model predicts available and usable irradiances. Yields estimates of irradiance available for photosynthesis (Epar) and irradiance usable for photosynthesis (Epur) as functions of depth in ocean. Describes Epur and Epar in terms of spectral parameters measured remotely (from satellites or airplanes). These irradiances useful in studies of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton in euphotic layer.

  10. Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.

  11. Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335

  12. Specific Dimensions of Impulsivity Are Differentially Associated with Daily and Non-Daily Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dustin C.; Peters, Jessica R.; Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P(Negative and Positive Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, Sensation Seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335

  13. Technique to produce daily estimates of the migrating diurnal tide using TIMED/SABER and EOS Aura/MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu; Palo, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    A technique to explicitly compute the day-to-day variability of the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) between 20 km and 80 km on a global scale is presented and analyzed. Our method employs temperature data from two satellite instruments: the MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument on the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura spacecraft and the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. By taking advantage of the four daily solar local time measurements from the two instruments, a least squares fit representing the DW1 is constructed. Consequently, the daily zonal mean, DW1 amplitude and phase are all estimated on a daily basis. Before the implementation of our technique, a comparative analysis between the instrument data sets is conducted. The analysis reveals temperature biases of up to 10 K, which are removed to improve our estimates. To evaluate performance, our method is applied to a model atmosphere constructed from tidal fields obtained from the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM). Performance results indicate that the DW1 is most effectively extracted from the background atmosphere and other tidal components when each latitude circle is well sampled and the local time sampling is evenly spaced. A comparison of our results to the GSWM and past observations support the conclusion that our method produces daily estimates of the DW1 that can be utilized for scientifically useful investigations of short term tidal variability.

  14. A New Method to estimate Daily Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from the GHCND Rain Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Quiring, S. M.; Guikema, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical Cyclone Precipitation (TCP) contributes a large portion of very extreme hydrological events. An accurate estimation of a long term TCP climatology is an essential to understand how it varies in the past and will change in the future. The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCND) provides a global coverage of territorial surface daily weather observations with a reasonable spatial density. In this study, we will develop a new method to estimate the TCP from the GHCND daily rain observations and other TC Track information. We will focus on all historical storms impacted the North America Continent (from both the Atlantic and the Pacific Sides) in this study. The new method will consider major factors that influence the estimation accuracy, including the variations in spatial density of rain gauges, sizes and the forward speed of storms, and high wind speeds causing the underestimate of precipitation by the rain bucket. We will provide both the point estimation at the rain gauge and gridded product at 0.25 degree. The gridded product will be finally validated by the precipitation estimation from TRMM. We will make tests and tune this method to optimally fit the available historical observations, so it can be applied for other regions in the world in the future. Key Words: Tropical Cyclone, Precipitation, New Estimation Method

  15. Complex dynamical behaviors of daily data series in stock exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchun; Chen, Guanrong; Lü, Jinhu

    2004-12-01

    It is well known that many economic data series show chaotic behaviors. In this Letter, we further investigate the complex dynamical behaviors of the daily data series, including opening quotation, closing quotation, maximum price, minimum price, and total exchange quantum, in Shenzhen stock exchange and Shanghai stock exchange, which are two representative stock exchanges in mainland China. The maximum Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimensions, and frequency spectra are calculated for these time series. Our results indicate that some daily data series of stock exchanges display low-dimensional chaotic behaviors, and some other daily data series do not show any chaotic behavior. Moreover, we introduce a weighted one-rank local-region approach for predicting short-term daily data series of stock exchange.

  16. Daily Newspaper Photojournalism in the Rocky Mountain West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternack, Steve; Martin, Don R.

    1985-01-01

    Explores several aspects of photojournalism at daily newspapers in the Rocky Mountain states and provides photojournalism educators with insights into what characteristics photo editors look for in photographers. (FL)

  17. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions.

  18. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Introduction of Post-Processing to Correct the Direct Normal Irradiance from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Clarkson, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Solar electricity production is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions. This study focuses on comparing model forecasts with observations for the period of May-December, 2011. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was run for two nested domains centered on Arizona in order to better capture the complex terrain driven dynamics of the region. The modeling performance from the simulation with the Global Forecast System model output as initial and boundary condition was better, with respect to both direct normal irradiance and global horizontal irradiance, than that with the North American Mesoscale model output. The observed aerosol optical depth is correlated with the water vapor, soil moisture and wind-blown dust and therefore, the aerosol optical depth is parameterized by the modeling outputs for these variables. The aerosol correction factor reduces the relative root mean square error from 12 to 6 %. In cases where dust was transported at high altitude, our algorithm did not correct the bias of direct normal irradiance.

  19. A nested multisite daily rainfall stochastic generation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanthan, Ratnasingham; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryThis paper describes a nested multisite daily rainfall generation model which preserves the statistics at daily, monthly and annual levels of aggregation. A multisite two-part daily model is nested in multisite monthly, then annual models. A multivariate set of fourth order Markov chains is used to model the daily occurrence of rainfall; the daily spatial correlation in the occurrence process is handled by using suitably correlated uniformly distributed variates via a Normal Scores Transform (NST) obtained from a set of matched multinormal pseudo-random variates, following Wilks [Wilks, D.S., 1998. Multisite generalisation of a daily stochastic precipitation generation model. Journal of Hydrology 210, 178-191]; we call it a hidden covariance model. A spatially correlated two parameter gamma distribution is used to obtain the rainfall depths; these values are also correlated via a specially matched hidden multinormal process. For nesting, the generated daily rainfall sequences at all the sites are aggregated to monthly rainfall values and these values are modified by a set of lag-1 autoregressive multisite monthly rainfall models. The modified monthly rainfall values are aggregated to annual rainfall and these are then modified by a lag-1 autoregressive multisite annual model. This nesting process ensures that the daily, monthly and annual means and covariances are preserved. The model was applied to a region with 30 rainfall sites, one of the five sets reported by Srikanthan [Srikanthan, R., 2005. Stochastic Generation of Daily Rainfall Data at a Number of Sites. Technical Report 05/7, CRC for Catchment Hydrology. Monash University, 66p]. A comparison of the historical and generated statistics shows that the model preserves all the important characteristics of rainfall at the daily, monthly and annual time scales, including the spatial structure. There are some outstanding features that need to be improved: depths of rainfall on isolated wet days and

  20. Cancer following medical irradiation.

    PubMed

    Boice, J D

    1981-03-01

    Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: 1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later: 2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is not unique radiogenic cancer; 3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; 4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; 5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; 6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; 7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; 8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancer of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low "relative risks" and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high "relative risks;" 9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for "two ionizing events" for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of "wasted" dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease.