Science.gov

Sample records for global environment shinrin

  1. Natural environments, nature relatedness and the ecological theater: connecting satellites and sequencing to shinrin-yoku.

    PubMed

    Craig, Jeffrey M; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-13

    Recent advances in research concerning the public health value of natural environments have been remarkable. The growing interest in this topic (often housed under terms such as green and/or blue space) has been occurring in parallel with the microbiome revolution and an increased use of remote sensing technology in public health. In the context of biodiversity loss, rapid urbanization, and alarming rates of global non-communicable diseases (many associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation), discussions of natural vis-a-vis built environments are not merely fodder for intellectual curiosity. Here, we argue for increased interdisciplinary collaboration with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms-including aerobiological and epigenetic-that might help explain some of the noted positive health outcomes. It is our contention that some of these mechanisms are related to ecodiversity (i.e., the sum of biodiversity and geodiversity, including biotic and abiotic constituents). We also encourage researchers to more closely examine individual nature relatedness and how it might influence many outcomes that are at the interface of lifestyle habits and contact with ecodiversity.

  2. Natural environments, nature relatedness and the ecological theater: connecting satellites and sequencing to shinrin-yoku.

    PubMed

    Craig, Jeffrey M; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in research concerning the public health value of natural environments have been remarkable. The growing interest in this topic (often housed under terms such as green and/or blue space) has been occurring in parallel with the microbiome revolution and an increased use of remote sensing technology in public health. In the context of biodiversity loss, rapid urbanization, and alarming rates of global non-communicable diseases (many associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation), discussions of natural vis-a-vis built environments are not merely fodder for intellectual curiosity. Here, we argue for increased interdisciplinary collaboration with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms-including aerobiological and epigenetic-that might help explain some of the noted positive health outcomes. It is our contention that some of these mechanisms are related to ecodiversity (i.e., the sum of biodiversity and geodiversity, including biotic and abiotic constituents). We also encourage researchers to more closely examine individual nature relatedness and how it might influence many outcomes that are at the interface of lifestyle habits and contact with ecodiversity. PMID:26763049

  3. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  4. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  5. The Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2003-10-01

    What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

  6. Comparative endocrinology, environment and global change.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, John C

    2008-07-01

    All organisms respond to environmental cues that allow them to organize the timing and duration of life history stages that make up their life cycles. Superimposed on this predictable life cycle are unpredictable events that have the potential to be stressful. Environmental and social stresses have deleterious effects on life history stages such as migration, reproductive function and molt in vertebrates. Global climate change, human disturbance and endocrine disruption from pollutants are increasingly likely to pose additional stresses that could have a major impact on organisms. Such impacts have great relevance to conservation as well as basic biology. Although some populations of vertebrates temporarily resist environmental and social stresses, and breed successfully, many show varying decrees of failure sometimes resulting in marked population decline. Alternatively, many aspects of global change may not be overtly stressful but timing of life history events becomes out of step with phenology because pertinent environmental signals normally used have been changed. There is much we do not know about how organisms respond to their natural environment, particularly how salient signals are perceived and then transduced into neuroendocrine and endocrine secretions. Comparative endocrinology has a key role to play in resolving mechanisms underlying responses to the environment. In the face of increasing human disturbance and global climate change there is an urgent need for more integration of ecological, evolutionary and mechanistic studies on stress biology of organisms in their natural world. PMID:18558405

  7. Population and environment: a global report.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1989-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the

  8. Population and environment: a global report.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1989-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the

  9. The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource…

  10. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

  11. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  12. The global forum on environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The first Global Conference of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival was held in Oxford, England not to discuss world issues, but to test the ability of 100 spiritual leaders and 100 parliamentarians to work together in a world which has preferred to separate church and state. This conference, held in Moscow, attracted more than 1,000 people. The main purpose was to find common solutions to environmental quality, economic development, and human survival as citizens of planet Earth. Notable addresses were heard from Javier Perez de Cuellar, Senator Albert Gore, Carl Sagan, Lester Brown, Nafis Sadik, Evguenij Velikhov, and Mikhail Gorbachev who advocated an International Green Cross.

  13. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass.

  14. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass. PMID:24874505

  15. Human population and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Holdren, J P; Ehrlich, P R

    1974-01-01

    A stable ecosystem resists large, rapid changes in the sizes of its constituent populations which upset the orderly flow of energy and nutrients. An early example of such alteration was the conversion to desert of the rich Tigris and Euphrates valleys through erosion and salt accumulation resulting from faulty irrigation practices that caused the downfall of the great Mesopotamian civilization. Overgrazing and poor cultivation practices have contributed over the millennia to the expansion of the Sahara Desert. Attempts to cultivate too intensively the fragile soil of tropical rainforest areas are suspected of being in part responsible for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. The 19th century Irish potato famine because of heavy reliance of the Irish population on a single, highly productive crop led to 1.5 million deaths when the potato monoculture, a simple agricultural ecosystem, fell victim to a fungus. Modern agriculture's desire to maximize yields per acre are worrisome ecologically (increases in the use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers). The liabilities include that as larger land areas are farmed the tracts available for reservoirs of species diversity and for natural ecosystems become smaller. Pressure to expand agriculture to steep hillsides unsuitable for cultivation has led to serious erosion in Indonesia, and increasing slash-and-burn practices are destroying tropical forests in the Philippines. The enormous expansion of wheat or rice monoculture has increased the probability of epidemic crop failure from insects or disease. 37% of the world's population is under 15 years of age which means that population will grow for 50-70 years more before leveling off. Despite a declining growth rate population would still increase 30% or more during the transition to stability. Zero global population growth is required for a prosperous and environmentally sustainable civilization.

  16. Human population and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Holdren, J P; Ehrlich, P R

    1974-01-01

    A stable ecosystem resists large, rapid changes in the sizes of its constituent populations which upset the orderly flow of energy and nutrients. An early example of such alteration was the conversion to desert of the rich Tigris and Euphrates valleys through erosion and salt accumulation resulting from faulty irrigation practices that caused the downfall of the great Mesopotamian civilization. Overgrazing and poor cultivation practices have contributed over the millennia to the expansion of the Sahara Desert. Attempts to cultivate too intensively the fragile soil of tropical rainforest areas are suspected of being in part responsible for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. The 19th century Irish potato famine because of heavy reliance of the Irish population on a single, highly productive crop led to 1.5 million deaths when the potato monoculture, a simple agricultural ecosystem, fell victim to a fungus. Modern agriculture's desire to maximize yields per acre are worrisome ecologically (increases in the use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers). The liabilities include that as larger land areas are farmed the tracts available for reservoirs of species diversity and for natural ecosystems become smaller. Pressure to expand agriculture to steep hillsides unsuitable for cultivation has led to serious erosion in Indonesia, and increasing slash-and-burn practices are destroying tropical forests in the Philippines. The enormous expansion of wheat or rice monoculture has increased the probability of epidemic crop failure from insects or disease. 37% of the world's population is under 15 years of age which means that population will grow for 50-70 years more before leveling off. Despite a declining growth rate population would still increase 30% or more during the transition to stability. Zero global population growth is required for a prosperous and environmentally sustainable civilization. PMID:4832978

  17. Towards Real-Time Global Localization in Dynamic Unstructured Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kanji; Kondo, Eiji

    Global localization is the problem in which a mobile robot has to estimate the self-position with respect to an a priori given map as it navigates without using any a priori knowledge of the initial self-position. Previous studies on global localization mainly focused on static environments, where the a priori map is almost correct. On the other hand, in dynamic environments, there are several sources of computational complexity. For example, not only the self-position but also the map should be estimated due to the map errors. The main contribution of this paper is to address such computational complexity by decomposing our global localization problem into two smaller subproblems, and solving the subproblems in a practical computation time. Also, we demonstrate the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed method in various large and complex environments.

  18. Trusting in a better future: the global environment facility.

    PubMed

    Holton, W C

    2000-07-01

    Individual countries acting alone cannot solve environmental problems that span national borders. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in 1991 to serve as a mechanism for international cooperation in the funding of grants to address concerns in four areas of the global environment: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion. To date, more than 500 projects have been funded with over $2 billion of GEF funds and another $5 billion leveraged from public and private sources, including $2 billion in matching funds from developing countries.

  19. International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Darryl G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…

  20. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

  1. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage. PMID:19640500

  2. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage.

  3. The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; van Joije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Muller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, J; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

    2005-12-07

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using twenty-five state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, whilst the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models, and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition and NO{sub 2} satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations, and high depositions of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 {+-} 1.2 ppbv (CLE), and 4.3 {+-} 2.2 ppbv (A2). Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone by -2.3 {+-} 1.1 ppbv. The CLE and A2 scenarios project further increases in nitrogen critical loads, with particularly large impacts in Asia where nitrogen emissions and deposition are forecast to increase by a factor of 1.4 (CLE) to 2 (A2). Climate change may modify surface ozone by -0.8 {+-} 0.6 ppbv, with larger decreases over sea than over land. This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation, and the major benefits of going further. Non-attainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.

  4. Special article: general anesthetic gases and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 million patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists' offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have potential significant impact on global warming. The widely used anesthetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metabolized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous oxide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. The primary goal of this article is to critically review the current data on the potential effects of general anesthetics on the global environment and to describe possible alternatives and new technologies that may prevent these gases from being discharged into the atmosphere.

  5. Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Yuheng, Gao

    1996-12-31

    The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

  6. The global atmospheric environment for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; Van Noije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I S A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Müller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, I; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

    2006-06-01

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using 26 state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, while the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition, and NO2 satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations and high deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 +/- 1.2 ppb (CLE) and 4.3 +/- 2.2 ppb (A2), using the ensemble mean model results and associated +/-1 sigma standard deviations. Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone, by -2.3 +/- 1.1 ppb. Climate change is expected to modify surface ozone by -0.8 +/- 0.6 ppb, with larger decreases over sea than over land. Radiative forcing by ozone increases by 63 +/- 15 and 155 +/- 37 mW m(-2) for CLE and A2, respectively, and decreases by -45 +/- 15 mW m(-2) for MFR. We compute that at present 10.1% of the global natural terrestrial ecosystems are exposed to nitrogen deposition above a critical load of 1 g N m(-2) yr(-1). These percentages increase by 2030 to 15.8% (CLE), 10.5% (MFR), and 25% (A2). This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation and the major benefits of going further. Nonattainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment. PMID:16786698

  7. Pharmaceuticals in the environment--Global occurrences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    aus der Beek, Tim; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Hickmann, Silke; Ebert, Ina; Hein, Arne; Küster, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to occur widely in the environment of industrialized countries. In developing countries, more monitoring results have recently become available, but a concise picture of measured environmental concentrations (MECs) is still elusive. Through a comprehensive literature review of 1016 original publications and 150 review articles, the authors collected MECs for human and veterinary pharmaceutical substances reported worldwide in surface water, groundwater, tap/drinking water, manure, soil, and other environmental matrices in a comprehensive database. Due to the heterogeneity of the data sources, a simplified data quality assessment was conducted. The database reveals that pharmaceuticals or their transformation products have been detected in the environment of 71 countries covering all continents. These countries were then grouped into the 5 regions recognized by the United Nations (UN). In total, 631 different pharmaceutical substances were found at MECs above the detection limit of the respective analytical methods employed, revealing distinct regional patterns. Sixteen substances were detected in each of the 5 UN regions. For example, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has been detected in environmental matrices in 50 countries, and concentrations found in several locations exceeded predicted no-effect concentrations. Urban wastewater seems to be the dominant emission pathway for pharmaceuticals globally, although emissions from industrial production, hospitals, agriculture, and aquaculture are important locally. The authors conclude that pharmaceuticals are a global challenge calling for multistakeholder approaches to prevent, reduce, and manage their entry into and presence in the environment, such as those being discussed under the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management, a UN Environment Program.

  8. Pharmaceuticals in the environment--Global occurrences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    aus der Beek, Tim; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Hickmann, Silke; Ebert, Ina; Hein, Arne; Küster, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to occur widely in the environment of industrialized countries. In developing countries, more monitoring results have recently become available, but a concise picture of measured environmental concentrations (MECs) is still elusive. Through a comprehensive literature review of 1016 original publications and 150 review articles, the authors collected MECs for human and veterinary pharmaceutical substances reported worldwide in surface water, groundwater, tap/drinking water, manure, soil, and other environmental matrices in a comprehensive database. Due to the heterogeneity of the data sources, a simplified data quality assessment was conducted. The database reveals that pharmaceuticals or their transformation products have been detected in the environment of 71 countries covering all continents. These countries were then grouped into the 5 regions recognized by the United Nations (UN). In total, 631 different pharmaceutical substances were found at MECs above the detection limit of the respective analytical methods employed, revealing distinct regional patterns. Sixteen substances were detected in each of the 5 UN regions. For example, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has been detected in environmental matrices in 50 countries, and concentrations found in several locations exceeded predicted no-effect concentrations. Urban wastewater seems to be the dominant emission pathway for pharmaceuticals globally, although emissions from industrial production, hospitals, agriculture, and aquaculture are important locally. The authors conclude that pharmaceuticals are a global challenge calling for multistakeholder approaches to prevent, reduce, and manage their entry into and presence in the environment, such as those being discussed under the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management, a UN Environment Program. PMID:26666847

  9. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  10. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  11. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research. PMID:24769018

  12. Nitrous oxide fluxes in estuarine environments: response to global change.

    PubMed

    Murray, Rachel H; Erler, Dirk V; Eyre, Bradley D

    2015-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful, long-lived greenhouse gas, but we know little about the role of estuarine areas in the global N2 O budget. This review summarizes 56 studies of N2 O fluxes and associated biogeochemical controlling factors in estuarine open waters, salt marshes, mangroves, and intertidal sediments. The majority of in situ N2 O production occurs as a result of sediment denitrification, although the water column contributes N2 O through nitrification in suspended particles. The most important factors controlling N2 O fluxes seem to be dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and oxygen availability, which in turn are affected by tidal cycles, groundwater inputs, and macrophyte density. The heterogeneity of coastal environments leads to a high variability in observations, but on average estuarine open water, intertidal and vegetated environments are sites of a small positive N2 O flux to the atmosphere (range 0.15-0.91; median 0.31; Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) ). Global changes in macrophyte distribution and anthropogenic nitrogen loading are expected to increase N2 O emissions from estuaries. We estimate that a doubling of current median NO3 (-) concentrations would increase the global estuary water-air N2 O flux by about 0.45 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) or about 190%. A loss of 50% of mangrove habitat, being converted to unvegetated intertidal area, would result in a net decrease in N2 O emissions of 0.002 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . In contrast, conversion of 50% of salt marsh to unvegetated area would result in a net increase of 0.001 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . Decreased oxygen concentrations may inhibit production of N2 O by nitrification; however, sediment denitrification and the associated ratio of N2 O:N2 is expected to increase. PMID:25752934

  13. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-07-27

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  14. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-07-27

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  15. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  16. Resources, environment and population. The Global Tomorrow Coalition Conference.

    PubMed

    Olson, R K

    1983-01-01

    The challenge for environmental action has been direct and powerful for the Global Tomorrow Coalition. In June 1983 a major international conference was held by the Coalition in Washington, D.C., the Conference examined the issues of acid rain, biological diversity, foresight capability, hazardous exports, water resources, the oceans, sustainable development, population, and nuclear issues. The Conference presented a unique portrait of the US environmental movement, its problems and the possibilities for US leadership at the international level. The Coalition issued an indictment of the Reagan Administration, charging that it had reversed American domestic and international policies and was threatening the foundation on international cooperation which the US had worked hard to establish. Specifically, the Administration did the following: prevented cooperative international action on acid rain; destroyed the effectiveness of the Council on Environmental Quality by cutting its budget by 2/3 and replacing the entire professional staff with new personnel lacking environmental expertise; withdrew US participation from the Law of the Sea Conference; discouraged initiatives and programs on environment and resource trends by OECD; obstructed OECD's efforts to harmonize testing for new chemicals; sought more than a 25% reduction in US fiscal 1984 support for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); opposed UN efforts to control hazardous exports and removed US governmental restraints on this trade; withdrew support for the Internatioanl Man and the Biopshere program; proposed cutting the US voluntary contribution to the UN Environment Program by 2/3; proposed weakening the rules under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and withdrew support for the World Heritage Convention and the Convention for the Protection of Nature and Preservation of Wildlife in the Western hemisphere; and withdrew funding for participation in US and international

  17. Virtual global positioning system for distributed interactive simulation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary; Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    1997-07-01

    A major shortfall in the fidelity of current military distributed virtual environments (DVEs) is the lack of virtual global positioning system (GPS) timing and position signals for entities within the environment. The DVE's usefulness is reduced because positional errors and positional accuracy that would be available in the real world are not present in the DVE. This, in turn, affects the validity of the results of training, analysis, and evaluations involving systems that rely on GPS. The magnitude of the affect depends on the degree that the systems involved in the DVE rely on GPS in the real world. The project reported in this paper addresses this deficit in current military DVEs. The capability we developed to provide a virtual GPS-based navigation capability within a DVE is based upon three components. These components are a complete virtual GPS satellite constellation, a means for broadcasting GPS signals using the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) simulation protocols, and a software system, the Virtual GPS Receiver (VGPSR), to calculate simulation entity position using the virtual GPS time and position signals. The virtual GPS satellites are propagated in their orbits using the solar system modeler (SM). The SM also performs the simulated GPS signal broadcast by transmitting a DIS protocol data unit (PDU) with the data that would appear within a real world GPS satellite broadcast. The VGPSR is a plug-in module available for simulation applications that require virtual GPS navigation. To demonstrate the capability of this system, we used the VGPSR in conjunction with the virtual cockpit to simulate virtual weapons deployment. We present the design of the VGPSR and the design of the modules added to the SM for GPS broadcast. We describe the calculations the system performs to calculate position in the virtual environment and we describe the accuracy and performance the system achieves when calculating virtual environment position using our system. We

  18. Experiences with systematic triangulation at the Global Environment Facility.

    PubMed

    Carugi, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Systematic triangulation may address common challenges in evaluation, such as the scarcity or unreliability of data, or the complexities of comparing and cross-checking evidence from diverse disciplines. Used to identify key evaluation findings, its application has proven to be effective in addressing the limitations encountered in country-level evaluation analysis conducted by the Independent Evaluation Office of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). These include the scarcity or unreliability of national statistics on environmental indicators and data series, especially in Least Developed Countries; challenges in evaluating the impacts of GEF projects; and inherent difficulties in defining the GEF portfolio of projects prior to the undertaking of the evaluation. In addition to responding to the need for further developing triangulation protocols, procedures and/or methodologies advocated by some authors, the approach offers a contribution to evaluation practice. This applies particularly to those evaluation units tasked with country-level evaluations in international organizations, facing similar constraints.

  19. Remote sensing of the global environment with satellite scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of satellite scatterometry for remote sensing of the global environment from the tropics to polar regions. Results were derived from microwave backscatter data acquired by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite. QSCAT observed two successive super cyclones that hit the Orissa coastal region of India, affecting 15 million people in 1999. The extent of soil moisture change was delineated after Cyclone Nargis made landfall in Myanmar in May 2008. QSCAT detected excessive rainwater followed by a severe drought leading to widespread wildfires in California, U.S., in 2007. QSCAT tracked vegetation change in an extreme drought in Nairobi, Kenya, affecting 3 million people in 2000. QSCAT monitored snowmelt patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, which showed poleward oscillations of melt bands. QSCAT revealed a record reduction in Arctic perennial sea ice in this decade and a further drastic decline of perennial ice in 2008. At 1-km posting, QSCAT identified urban and suburban areas where backscatter was shown to correlate with population density. QSCAT delineated wind shadow areas near small islands in the Asia-Pacific region. These results demonstrate that satellite scatterometer can provide numerous crucial data products to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.

  20. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  1. NOAA's Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. R.

    2007-12-01

    The international Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and the U.S. coordination group, USGEO, have identified nine societal benefit areas that require environmental data of a wide range of types and from many diverse sources. GEO has called on the nations of the world to ensure that the relevant data that they hold is made accessible and useful to these applications. In response, nations and their environmental agencies are addressing the challenges associated with data integration of these distributed and diverse data types. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) holds extremely large collections of data describing the physical and biological properties of the Earth's environment. To date, the data collections and the systems that support them have been acquired by individually funded and managed programs with differing requirements, standards, interfaces and conventions, mirroring the data integration issues faced at the national and international level. The Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) has been initiated by NOAA to address these issues for its own interdisciplinary applications as well as those of the the broader national and international iniatives. The concept and initial plans for GEO-IDE have been developed by the Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), a group of data management professionals representing all NOAA's Line Offices, Goal Teams and the office of the CIO. The goal of GEO-IDE is to define an architecture and the associated processes necessary to establish the required standards and guidelines that allow NOAA's data providers to make their products available as a set of interoperable services. GEO-IDE is addressing the integration of existing data services while at the same time providing guidance to future data system development activities. It is intended to meet an important NOAA need while also supporting NOAA's contribution to USGEO and GEO.

  2. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Hancock, James F

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  3. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  4. Designing Training for Global Environments: Knowing What Questions To Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane M.; Sanchirico, Christine; Anderson, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for identifying important issues for instructional design and delivery in global settings. Highlights include cultural factors in global training; an instructional design model; corporate globalization strategy; communication and training norms; language barriers; implicit value differences; and technical and legal…

  5. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions.

  6. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. PMID:25035492

  7. The GlobalEd Project: Gender Differences in a Problem-Based Learning Environment of International Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott W.; Boyer, Mark A.; Mayall, Hayley J.; Johnson, Paula R.; Meng, Lin; Butler, Michael J.; Weir, Kimberly; Florea, Natalie; Hernandez, Magnolia; Reis, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Describes the GlobalEd project, which employs a technology-rich environment for high school students to participate in a simulation of international relations and negotiation via the Internet. Reports participants' changes in academic and technology self-efficacy skills and the use of educational technology and discusses results in terms of…

  8. Influence of global climatic processes on environment The Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmyansky, Mikhael; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kartashov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    One of the most actual problems of the present is changes of environment of Arctic regions under the influence of global climatic processes. Authors as a result of the works executed by them in different areas of the Russian Arctic regions, have received the materials characterising intensity of these processes. Complex researches are carried out on water area and in a coastal zone the White, the Barents, the Kara and the East-Siberian seas, on lake water areas of subarctic region since 1972 on the present. Into structure of researches enter: hydrophysical, cryological observations, direct measurements of temperatures, the analysis of the drill data, electrometric definitions of the parametres of a frozen zone, lithodynamic and geochemical definitions, geophysical investigations of boreholes, studying of glaciers on the basis of visual observations and the analysis of photographs. The obtained data allows to estimate change of temperature of a water layer, deposits and benthonic horizon of atmosphere for last 25 years. On the average they make 0,38⁰C for sea waters, 0,23⁰C for friable deposits and 0,72⁰C for atmosphere. Under the influence of temperature changes in hydrosphere and lithosphere of a shelf cryolithic zone changes the characteristics. It is possible to note depth increase of roof position of the cryolithic zone on the most part of the studied water area. Modern fast rise in temperature high-ice rocks composing coast, has led to avalanche process thermo - denudation and to receipt in the sea of quantity of a material of 1978 three times exceeding level Rise in temperature involves appreciable deviation borders of the Arctic glacial covers. On our monitoring measurements change of the maintenance of oxygen in benthonic area towards increase that is connected with reduction of the general salinity of waters at the expense of fresh water arriving at ice thawing is noticed. It, in turn, leads to change of a biogene part of ecosystem. The executed

  9. Review of the global environment 10 years after Stockholm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    International Environmental Policy has three major areas of focus: establish a scorecard of the major accomplishments and failures since Stockholm, assess where we stand today in relation to global environmental problems, and explore the global environmental agenda for the 1980's.

  10. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  11. Global 2000: The Presidential Task Force on Resources and the Environment--A Series of Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; And Others

    A series of responses to "The Global 2000 Report to the President" is presented. The Global 2000 Report examines the issues and interdependencies of population, resources, and environment in the long term global perspective (ED 188 935). According to the above report, if present trends continue, serious stresses of overcrowding, pollution,…

  12. University Leaders' Strategies in the Global Environment: A Comparative Study of Universitas Indonesia and the Australian National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2006-01-01

    In a global environment in which global, national and local nodes relate freely within common networks, all research universities must pursue strategies for building global capacity and facilitating cross-border staff and student movement and research collaboration. The study compares readings of the global environment, global and international…

  13. A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

  14. Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Regina M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

  15. The Power of Leadership in a Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Richard A.; Terehoff, Irina I.

    2000-01-01

    Effective principals must deal with challenges (such as local, national, and international school comparisons) arising from global changes in economics, politics, and demography. Comparative NASSP-sponsored international programs in Russia, China, Ireland, and other countries provide advantages for practicing principals and insights for aspiring…

  16. Establishing Sustainable Higher Education Partnerships in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigisheva, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The paper written in the form of literature review is devoted to the analysis of the latest educational manuscripts by Laura M. Portnoi et al and Robin Sakamoto et al and provides a critical overview of possible partnership interactions in the actively globalizing sphere of world higher education. [For complete volume, see ED567118.

  17. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  18. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A.; Steele, W. Baylor; Yates, Brian S.; Breed, Christopher S.; Williams, E. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  19. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  20. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and…

  1. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  2. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. GLOBE supports students, teachers, and scientists in collaborations using inquiry-based investigations of the environment and the earth system. GLOBE currently works in close…

  3. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  4. Global Future: Time to Act. Report to the President on Global Resources, Environment and Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Katherine, Ed.; And Others

    This report presents recommendations and ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a vigorous response to urgent global problems. The goal of the report is to further public discussion of these important issues and to offer ideas to government leaders who will be developing U.S. policy in the years ahead. A…

  5. Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients: Advancement of Global Environment Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaar, H. J.

    2002-12-01

    The concept of a single factor limiting plankton blooms, is presently giving way to co-limitation by light, and the nutrients N, P, Si and Fe. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the 'biological pump' in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Models (OBCM's). Thus far OBCM's assume just one limiting nutrient (P) and one universal phytoplankton species, for C budgets and CO2 exchange. New realistic OBCM's are being developed for budgeting and exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, implementing (i) co-limitation by 4 nutrients of 5 major taxonomic classes of phytoplankton, (ii) DMS(P) pathways, (iii) global iron cycling, (iv) chemical forms of iron and (v) iron supply into surface waters. The new OBCM's will predict realistic climate scenario's, notably climatic feedbacks on oceanic biogeochemistry. IRONAGES is a European consortium of twelve institutes and is coordinated by Royal NIOZ. Input from below of iron from anoxic sediments of coastal margins has been assessed (March 2002) along a 2-D vertical section from Europe into the centre of the north Atlantic. Input from above of Fe(II) dissolved in rainwater from Sahara dust blown over the central Atlantic will be quantified at sea (October 2002), and related to observed plankton production. Different chemical forms of iron are being assessed and a certification excercise for Fe in seawater also under aegis of SCOR Working Group 109 is being completed (December 2002). For two major DMS-producing algal groups Phaeocystis sp. and Emiliania huxleyi the life cycle, Fe limitation, export production, CO2 uptake and DMS emissions have been synthesized from existing literature and laboratory experiments. This is being fed into ecosystem modeling, as well as into DMS(P) pathway modeling. Also know-how has been synthesized for three other major classes (diatoms, N2-fixing Trichodesmium and nano-pico-plankton) and fed into the ecosystem modeling. Pathways of DMS(P) in blooms are being

  6. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  7. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-18

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  8. Laboratory and software applications for clinical trials: the global laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Chad

    2011-11-01

    The Applied Pharmaceutical Software Meeting is held annually. It is sponsored by The Boston Society, a not-for-profit organization that coordinates a series of meetings within the global pharmaceutical industry. The meeting generally focuses on laboratory applications, but in recent years has expanded to include some software applications for clinical trials. The 2011 meeting emphasized the global laboratory environment. Global clinical trials generate massive amounts of data in many locations that must be centralized and processed for efficient analysis. Thus, the meeting had a strong focus on establishing networks and systems for dealing with the computer infrastructure to support such environments. In addition to the globally installed laboratory information management system, electronic laboratory notebook and other traditional laboratory applications, cloud computing is quickly becoming the answer to provide efficient, inexpensive options for managing the large volumes of data and computing power, and thus it served as a central theme for the meeting.

  9. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport.

  10. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport. PMID:24654605

  11. Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inger, Robert F.; And Others

    The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

  12. Universal Service in a Global Networked Environment: Selected Issues and Possible Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Owens, Kimberly A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents selected issues related to the development of universal service to networked information resources and services in a global networked environment. Defines universal service as a set of telecommunications services to which users should have access, including appropriate funding and interconnected public telecommunications infrastructure…

  13. Relationship between urban eco-environment and competitiveness with the background of globalization: statistical explanation based on industry type newly classified with environment demand and environment pressure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiao-guang; Ma, Qing-Bin

    2005-01-01

    Within the global urban system, the statistical relationship between urban eco-environment (UE) and urban competitiveness (UC) (RUEC) is researched. Data showed that there is a statistically inverted-U relationship between UE and UC. Eco-environmental factor is put into the classification of industries, and gets six industrial types by two indexes viz. industries' eco-environmental demand and pressure. The statistical results showed that there is a strong relationship, for new industrial classification, between the changes of industrial structure and evolvement of UE. The drive mechanism of the evolvement of urban eco-environment, with human demand and global work division was analyzed. The conclusion is that the development stratege, industrial policies of cities, and environmental policies fo cities must be fit with their ranks among the global urban system. At the era of globalization, so far as the environmental policies, their rationality could not be assessed with the level of strictness, but it can enhance cities' competitiveness when they are fit with cities' capabilities to attract and control some sections of the industry's value-chain. None but these kinds of environmental policies can probably enhance the UC.

  14. Global cytosine methylation in Daphnia magna depends on genotype, environment, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Jansen, Mieke; Decaestecker, Ellen; De Meester, Luc; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-05-01

    The authors characterized global cytosine methylation levels in 2 different genotypes of the ecotoxicological model organism Daphnia magna after exposure to a wide array of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors. The present study aimed to improve the authors' understanding of the role of cytosine methylation in the organism's response to environmental conditions. The authors observed a significant genotype effect, an environment effect, and a genotype × environment effect. In particular, global cytosine methylation levels were significantly altered after exposure to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, and sodium chloride compared with control conditions. Significant differences between the 2 genotypes were observed when animals were exposed to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, Cryptomonas, and sodium chloride. Despite the low global methylation rate under control conditions (0.49-0.52%), global cytosine methylation levels upon exposure to Triops demonstrated a 5-fold difference between the genotypes (0.21% vs 1.02%). No effects were found in response to arsenic, cadmium, fish, lead, pH of 5.5, pH of 8, temperature, hypoxia, and white fat cell disease. The authors' results point to the potential role of epigenetic effects under changing environmental conditions such as predation (i.e., Triops), diet (i.e., Cryptomonas and Microcystis), and salinity. The results of the present study indicate that, despite global cytosine methylation levels being low, epigenetic effects may be important in environmental studies on Daphnia.

  15. The debate on population and the environment: Australia in the global context.

    PubMed

    Harding, R

    1995-11-01

    The debate on population and the environment is reviewed, with focus upon the debate in Australia. The population-environment debate is longstanding and controversial, and consists largely of arguments about the capacity to support people at the global, national, and regional levels. The debate continues to rage because it has failed to properly recognize inherent uncertainties in the existing body of knowledge, the paradigms which influence judgements of important parameters, and the political ideology which has permeated the debate ever since Malthus. Recent efforts to place the debate upon a more analytical base are considered. It is essential to have a framework which recognizes the inherent uncertainty in the knowledge of population-environment linkages, while decisions should be guided by the precautionary principle. Australia should create and implement a population policy which strongly recognizes and respects the population-environment linkage, and engages the general population in debate about desirable futures at the national, regional, and local levels.

  16. Hexachlorobenzene in the global environment: emissions, levels, distribution, trends and processes.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jonathan L; Sweetman, Andrew J; van Wijk, Dolf; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-10-15

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is considered here as a 'model persistent organic pollutant.' Data on its sources, emissions, environmental levels and distributions and trends are compiled and used to assess its fate and behaviour in the global environment. Consideration is given as to the extent to which it has undergone repeated air-surface exchange or 'hopping' to become globally dispersed, the balance between primary and secondary sources in maintaining ambient levels, and its ultimate sinks in the environment. Global production exceeded 100,000 tonnes and primary emissions to atmosphere probably peaked in the 1970s. There has been a consistent downward trend in the environment over the past 20 years. Temporal trends of HCB in the environment vary, dependent on time period measured, media studied and study location, but the average half-life from all the studies is approximately 9 years. Estimates are made of the contemporary burden in the environment; these range between 10,000 and 26,000 tonnes and are dominated by the loadings in treated and background soils, sediments and oceans. Estimates of the trends of HCB emissions from treated soils are derived. At its peak, the amount of HCB emitted from soil to air may have been in the hundreds to thousands of tonnes per year, which would have made it a significant source of HCB to the environment. Whilst the amount of HCB being emitted from contemporary soil is much lower, only a small amount of re-emission of HCB from soil to air is required to maintain contemporary air concentrations under the current primary emission scenario.

  17. Terrestrial Feedbacks Incorporated in Global Vegetation Models through Observed Trait-Environment Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodegom, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Most global vegetation models used to evaluate climate change impacts rely on plant functional types to describe vegetation responses to environmental stresses. In a traditional set-up in which vegetation characteristics are considered constant within a vegetation type, the possibility to implement and infer feedback mechanisms are limited as feedback mechanisms will likely involve a changing expression of community trait values. Based on community assembly concepts, we implemented functional trait-environment relationships into a global dynamic vegetation model to quantitatively assess this feature. For the current climate, a different global vegetation distribution was calculated with and without the inclusion of trait variation, emphasizing the importance of feedbacks -in interaction with competitive processes- for the prevailing global patterns. These trait-environmental responses do, however, not necessarily imply adaptive responses of vegetation to changing conditions and may locally lead to a faster turnover in vegetation upon climate change. Indeed, when running climate projections, simulations with trait variation did not yield a more stable or resilient vegetation than those without. Through the different feedback expressions, global and regional carbon and water fluxes were -however- strongly altered. At a global scale, model projections suggest an increased productivity and hence an increased carbon sink in the next decades to come, when including trait variation. However, by the end of the century, a reduced carbon sink is projected. This effect is due to a downregulation of photosynthesis rates, particularly in the tropical regions, even when accounting for CO2-fertilization effects. Altogether, the various global model simulations suggest the critical importance of including vegetation functional responses to changing environmental conditions to grasp terrestrial feedback mechanisms at global scales in the light of climate change.

  18. [Global population growth and the environment: a review of the issues].

    PubMed

    Legrand, T

    1998-01-01

    "This article reviews the hypothesized effects of global population growth on the environment and considers their policy implications." The focus is on the ethical considerations of population growth; the complexity of environmental processes; the concentration of adverse effects of population growth on renewable, rather than nonrenewable, resources; the need for noncoercive efforts to slow population growth; and the impact of difficult-to-resolve political and administrative problems. (EXCERPT)

  19. [Global population growth and the environment: a review of the issues].

    PubMed

    Legrand, T

    1998-01-01

    "This article reviews the hypothesized effects of global population growth on the environment and considers their policy implications." The focus is on the ethical considerations of population growth; the complexity of environmental processes; the concentration of adverse effects of population growth on renewable, rather than nonrenewable, resources; the need for noncoercive efforts to slow population growth; and the impact of difficult-to-resolve political and administrative problems. (EXCERPT) PMID:12295168

  20. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  1. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  2. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  3. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  4. Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on

  5. Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management

  6. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE PAGES

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; et al

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore » and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel

  7. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  8. The possibility of SGLI/GCOM-C for global environment change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Hori, M.; Murakami, H.; Kikuchi, N.

    2006-09-01

    The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that many collectiveobservations gave a aspect of a global warming and other changes in the climate system. It is very important to understand thisprocess accurately, and to construct the model by whom an environmental change is accurately forecast. Future earthobservation using satellite data should monitor global climate change, and should contribute to social benefits. Especially, human activities has given the big impacts to earth environment. This is a very complex affair, and nature itself also impacts the clouds,namely the seasonal variations. JAXA (former NASDA) has the plan of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) formonitoring of global environmental change. SGLI (Second Generation GLI) onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite, which is one of this mission, is an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR. SGLI can provide the various high accuracy products of aerosol, cloud information, various biophysical parameters (Biomass, Land Cover, Albedo, NPP, Water Stressed Vegetation, LST, etc.), coastal information (CDOM, SS, PAR, CHL, SST, etc.), and cryospheric information (Albedo, Snow/Ice Cover, NDII, Sea ice type, Snow Grain Size, NDSI, Snow Surface Temperature, etc.). This paper shows the introduction of the unique aspects and characteristics of the next generation satellite sensor, SGLI/GCOM-C, and shows the preliminary research for this sensor.

  9. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  10. Cycling of DDT in the global environment 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The global distribution and fate of the insecticide DDT was modeled for the first time using a spatially resolved global multicompartment chemistry-transport model comprising a 3D coupled atmosphere and ocean GCM, coupled to 2D vegetation surfaces and top soils. DDT enters the model environment as a pesticide in agriculture only. Final sinks of DDT in the total environment are degradation in air (hydroxyl radical reaction), on vegetation surfaces, in ocean sediments and soils. The process resolution of the ocean compartment, i.e., either a fixed or variable size and sinking velocity of suspended particles, has almost no effect on the large-scale cycling and fate of DDT. The residence times in various ocean basins were declining but varied regionally. The global ocean absorbed until 1977 and since then has been losing DDT, while large sea areas are still accumulating the pollutant. The main sink is volatilization to the atmosphere. In 1990, the year when emissions ceased, 292 kt of DDT were deposited to the global ocean, 301 kt were volatilized, and 41 kt were exported from the surface layer to the deeper levels. The sea region that has been representing the most significant (secondary) DDT source is the western N Atlantic (Gulf stream and N Atlantic Drift regions). It has been a source since approximately 1970. Also large parts of the tropical ocean and the southern mid-latitude ocean have turned net volatilizational (i.e., volatilization flux > deposition flux) during the 1980s. Despite the emissions migrating southward as a consequence of substance ban in mid latitudes, the geographic distribution of the contaminant (and, hence, environmental exposure) has been migrating steadily northward since the 1960s.

  11. Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career

  12. World Resources: A guide to the Global Environment, 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This book, produced in collaboration with the U.N., is a basic information source on the impact humans have had on the earth's environment, with a theme of sustainable development. Part I is an essay on sustainable development, examined in the contest of industrial, industrializing, and non-industrial countries. Part II is a description of the environmental devastation in central Europe. Part III examines global environmental conditions and trends, and part IV consists of tables, each with an interductory text and citations, including such topics as population, development, land cover, food, forests, wildlife, habitats, energy, water, atmosphere, and climate.

  13. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  14. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  15. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanaka, Takashi

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  16. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  17. A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

  18. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a

  19. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have

  20. What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

  1. Global warming in the palliative care research environment: adapting to change.

    PubMed

    Fainsinger, R L

    2008-06-01

    Advocates of palliative care research have often described the cold and difficult environment that has constrained the development of research internationally. The development of palliative care research has been slow over the last few decades and has met with resistance and sometimes hostility to the idea of conducting research in 'vulnerable populations'. The seeds of advocacy for research can be found in palliative care literature from the 1980s and early 1990s. Although we have much to do, we need to recognize that palliative care research development has come a long way. Of particular note is the development of well-funded collaboratives that now exist in Europe, Canada, Australia and the USA. The European Association for Palliative Care and the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care has recognized the need to develop and promote global research initiatives, with a special focus on developing countries. Time is needed to develop good research evidence and in a more complex healthcare environment takes increasingly more resources to be productive. The increased support (global warming) evident in the increased funding opportunities available to palliative care researchers in a number of countries brings both benefits and challenges. There is evidence that the advocacy of individuals such as Kathleen Foley, Neil MacDonald, Balfour Mount, Vittorio Ventafridda, Robert Twycross and Geoff Hanks is now providing fertile ground and a much friendlier environment for a new generation of interdisciplinary palliative care research. We have achieved many of the goals necessary to avoid failure of the 'palliative care experiment', and need to accept the challenge of our present climate and adapt and take advantage of the change.

  2. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

  3. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  4. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities.

  5. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. PMID:24315062

  6. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  7. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

  8. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

  9. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  10. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  11. Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies

  12. Designing for the global environment: A US manufacturer`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, H.

    1995-12-31

    Georgia Tech is one of only two Centers of Excellence in Photovoltaic Research and Education designated by the Department of Energy. Solarex has a long relationship with Georgia Tech in cooperative research in photovoltaics and recently has had the pleasure to return some of the fruits of that research to Georgia Tech in the form of almost 3000 large area PV modules to be installed on the roof of the new Aquatic Center. This system, located on a highly visible facility that will be the site of the 1996 Olympic swimming and diving events, is a showcase for the PV technology steadfastly developed by US industry with the support of DOE over the last 20 years. It is hoped that this system will serve as a model for sustainable energy to the nations of the world present at the Olympics and viewing it on their TV screens. This paper goes on to discuss the global implications and opportunities of photovoltaics and how this energy system fits into concerns about the environment.

  13. Teaching about the Global Environment at a Jesuit Liberal Arts University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about global environmental issues is often reserved to courses in environmental and/or geoscience departments. Universities that do not have departments that fall into these categories may be missing out on educating both science and non-science students about these important and timely issues. Loyola University Maryland is a private Jesuit liberal arts University with no environmental or geoscience department and prior to 2008 had no courses that focused on the science of global environmental issues. Global Environment in a course offered by the Chemistry Department that fills this niche. The course is designed for a general non-science audience, though the course content is also appropriate for science students. The primary goal of the course is for students to learn the basics about how the Earth system works and how our changing climate is related to biodiversity, pollution, water availability and society. The course is designated a diversity course which is a course that fulfills the University's call "to prepare students … to pursue justice by making an action-oriented response to the needs of the world." All students at Loyola University Maryland are required to take one diversity course. For this class, the diversity focus is environmental justice which is brought into the course through lectures, discussions and student projects. By bringing societal impacts into a science course the students can better understand why the environment is important and our actions affect both ourselves and others. The course has also evolved over four iterations into a course that maximizes student involvement while minimizing student angst. One way that this is accomplished is by eliminating tests and substituting daily quizzes using a student response system (clickers). Clickers are also used to poll students and to review what information the students are retaining. Students are able to self-guide their own learning in the course by creating a portfolio

  14. Natural hazards education in global environment leaders education programme for designing a low-carbon society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2010-05-01

    Global environmental leader (GEL) education programme at graduate school for international development and cooperation (IDEC) in Hiroshima University is an education and training programme for graduate students especially from developing countries in Asian region to build and enhance their ability to become international environmental leaders. Through this programme, they will participate in regular course works and other activities to learn how to cope with the various environment and resource management issues from global to regional scales toward a low-carbon society via multi-disciplinary approaches considering sustainable development and climate change. Under this GEL programme, there are five different research sub-groups as follows assuming a cause-effect relationship among interacting components of social, economic, and environmental systems; 1) urban system design to prevent global warming, 2) wise use of biomass resources, 3) environmental impact assessment, 4) policy and institutional design, and 5) development of environmental education programs. Candidate students of GEL programme belong to one of the five research sub-groups, perform their researches and participate in many activities under the cross-supervisions from faculty members of different sub-groups. Under the third research group for environmental impact assessment, we use numerical models named as regional environment simulator (RES) as a tool for research and education for assessing the environmental impacts due to natural hazards. Developed at IDEC, Hiroshima University, RES is a meso-scale numerical model system that can be used for regional simulation of natural disasters and environmental problems caused by water and heat circulation in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. RES has three components: i) atmosphere-surface waves-ocean part, ii) atmosphere-land surface process-hydrologic part, and iii) coastal and estuarine part. Each part is constructed with state-of-the-art public

  15. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  16. "What Price Respect"--Exploring the Notion of Respect in a 21st Century Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Doirean

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the meaning of respect in a 21st century global learning environment, with a view to exploring the implications for promoting harmonious working relationships among students of culturally diverse ethnic backgrounds in the classroom. Research conducted since 2005 that investigates the understanding, meaning and experience of…

  17. Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Martine Courant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

  18. Promoting Positive Academic Dispositions Using a Web-Based PBL Environment: The GlobalEd 2 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Boyer, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional design approach for promoting student learning, understanding and knowledge development in context rich settings. Previous PBL research has primarily focused on face-to-face learning environments, but current technologies afford PBL designers the opportunities to create online, virtual, PBL…

  19. Functional traits determine plant co-occurrence more than environment or evolutionary relatedness in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Torices, Rubén; Quero, José L.; García-Gómez, Miguel; Cabrera, Omar; Cea, Alex; Coaguila, Daniel; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Hemmings, Frank; Monerris, Jorge J.; Tighe, Matthew; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria; Blones, Julio; Derak, Mchich; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Noumi, Zouhaier

    2015-01-01

    Plant-plant interactions are driven by environmental conditions, evolutionary relationships (ER) and the functional traits of the plants involved. However, studies addressing the relative importance of these drivers are rare, but crucial to improve our predictions of the effects of plant-plant interactions on plant communities and of how they respond to differing environmental conditions. To analyze the relative importance of –and interrelationships among– these factors as drivers of plant-plant interactions, we analyzed perennial plant co-occurrence at 106 dryland plant communities established across rainfall gradients in nine countries. We used structural equation modeling to disentangle the relationships between environmental conditions (aridity and soil fertility), functional traits extracted from the literature, and ER, and to assess their relative importance as drivers of the 929 pairwise plant-plant co-occurrence levels measured. Functional traits, specifically facilitated plants’ height and nurse growth form, were of primary importance, and modulated the effect of the environment and ER on plant-plant interactions. Environmental conditions and ER were important mainly for those interactions involving woody and graminoid nurses, respectively. The relative importance of different plant-plant interaction drivers (ER, functional traits, and the environment) varied depending on the region considered, illustrating the difficulty of predicting the outcome of plant-plant interactions at broader spatial scales. In our global-scale study on drylands, plant-plant interactions were more strongly related to functional traits of the species involved than to the environmental variables considered. Thus, moving to a trait-based facilitation/competition approach help to predict that: 1) positive plant-plant interactions are more likely to occur for taller facilitated species in drylands, and 2) plant-plant interactions within woody-dominated ecosystems might be more

  20. Think Locally, Act Globally! Linking Local and Global Communities through Democracy and Environment. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Lorraine

    Designed so that it can be adapted to a wide range of student abilities and institutional settings, this learning module on the human dimensions of global change seeks to: actively engage students in problem solving, challenge them to think critically, invite them to participate in the process of scientific inquiry, and involve them in cooperative…

  1. U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following…

  2. Why Some Distance Education Programs Fail while Others Succeed in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Downey, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many universities increase their recruiting efforts to reach a larger and more diverse audience. Some universities also extend their reach with cross-border initiatives and seek international students in order to promote enrollment growth and global learning. The economic potential of distance education and academic globalization has attracted…

  3. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING THE RISKS TO HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT FROM GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE: A SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global atmosphere is changing. Anthropogenic activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases and releasing synthetic compounds that deplete stratospheric ozone and increase UV-B radiation. Changes of temperature in the Northern Hemisphere during the past cent...

  4. The interaction of a dipolar thunderstorm with its global electrical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the thundercloud in the global electric circuit has been considered by many researchers. Thus, Holzer and Saxon (1952) have constructed a simple model of a bipolar thunderstorm. The global models considered provide insight into the atmospheric electric circuit but are restricted, both by various analytical mathematical representations and by computer size, to a grid of about five degrees in latitude and longitude. A need exists, therefore, for the development of a numerical regional model capable of resolving small-scale phenomena so that their coupling into the global-scale circuit can be examined. The construction of a two-dimensional quasi-static numerical model of atmospheric electricity is discussed. The model provides a basis for the calculation of the global electric field and current distribution produced by a single thunderstorm generator. In connection with the calculations, the thunderstorm was defined by a quasi-static current source function which generates a dipole charge configuration.

  5. Environment, Complexity and Professional Training in Agriculture. "Turning Local Learning into Global Knowledge."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevost, P.

    1994-01-01

    Training farmers to care for the environment must address the complex relationship between farming and the environment. The example of maize weeding in France demonstrates the process of decision making on a farm and the need for teaching about complexity and adopting a pragmatic approach to training. (SK)

  6. On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, V.; Kallio, E.

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new stand-alone fully kinetic model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three-dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this brief report we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. The analysis shows that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis also suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  7. Once upon a Future Time: Thoughts on the Global Environment and LRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Argues that law-related education should prepare students to be able to debate global environmental issues. Discusses overpopulation, water quality, and species extinction. Concludes that law-related education's critical contribution may be to prepare citizens to balance competing interests and make decisions that promote the common good. (CFR)

  8. It Is a Small World after All: Teaching Business Ethics in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, managers and employees are facing ethical issues when conducting business in the global marketplace. Business educators attempting to teach appropriate ethical behavior and develop skills for dealing with complex ethical situations need to incorporate realistic case scenarios to challenge students. Such cases should appropriately…

  9. From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

  10. Internationalization as a Response to Globalization: Radical Shifts in University Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2007-01-01

    This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic…

  11. Local and global epidemic outbreaks in populations moving in inhomogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Rizzo, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    We study disease spreading in a system of agents moving in a space where the force of infection is not homogeneous. Agents are random walkers that additionally execute long-distance jumps, and the plane in which they move is divided into two regions where the force of infection takes different values. We show the onset of a local epidemic threshold and a global one and explain them in terms of mean-field approximations. We also elucidate the critical role of the agent velocity, jump probability, and density parameters in achieving the conditions for local and global outbreaks. Finally, we show that the results are independent of the specific microscopic rules adopted for agent motion, since a similar behavior is also observed for the distribution of agent velocity based on a truncated power law, which is a model often used to fit real data on motion patterns of animals and humans.

  12. Local and global epidemic outbreaks in populations moving in inhomogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Rizzo, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    We study disease spreading in a system of agents moving in a space where the force of infection is not homogeneous. Agents are random walkers that additionally execute long-distance jumps, and the plane in which they move is divided into two regions where the force of infection takes different values. We show the onset of a local epidemic threshold and a global one and explain them in terms of mean-field approximations. We also elucidate the critical role of the agent velocity, jump probability, and density parameters in achieving the conditions for local and global outbreaks. Finally, we show that the results are independent of the specific microscopic rules adopted for agent motion, since a similar behavior is also observed for the distribution of agent velocity based on a truncated power law, which is a model often used to fit real data on motion patterns of animals and humans.

  13. The health promoting school and social justice in a global environment.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation is present whether recognised in SARS, global terrorism, finance or youth music. With the growth of the health promoting school movement in this context and the increased numbers of countries and schools involved, eight themes are proposed as critical to how the Health Promotion School move forward. They are concerned with: the diverse origins and alliances of forces in the movement; holistic and ecological approach; its status as a global movement; the tension between and empowerment or compliances model; evidence-based and values-based approches; the radical vision; social capital and social inclusion; and sustainability. Reaching the level of acceptance the Health Promotion School has acheived may lead to settling into comfortable official recognition--and assured funding--and losing its militancy. Can the Health Promotion School challenge health inequalities on a national and international scale and can it be a force for social inclusion? PMID:15828510

  14. The health promoting school and social justice in a global environment.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation is present whether recognised in SARS, global terrorism, finance or youth music. With the growth of the health promoting school movement in this context and the increased numbers of countries and schools involved, eight themes are proposed as critical to how the Health Promotion School move forward. They are concerned with: the diverse origins and alliances of forces in the movement; holistic and ecological approach; its status as a global movement; the tension between and empowerment or compliances model; evidence-based and values-based approches; the radical vision; social capital and social inclusion; and sustainability. Reaching the level of acceptance the Health Promotion School has acheived may lead to settling into comfortable official recognition--and assured funding--and losing its militancy. Can the Health Promotion School challenge health inequalities on a national and international scale and can it be a force for social inclusion?

  15. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their

  16. Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043

  17. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment: Review and Analysis of Its Occurrence and Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A; Steele, W Baylor; Yates, Brian S; Breed, Christopher S; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  18. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

  19. How to Quantify Human-environment Interactions in the Past: A Global Historical Land Use Data Set for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Goldewijk, K.

    2015-12-01

    Land use plays an important role in the climate system. Many ecosystem processes are directly or indirectly climate driven, and together with human driven land use changes, they determine how the land surface will evolve through time. To assess the effects of land cover changes on the climate system, models are required which are capable of simulating interactions between the involved components of the Earth system. Since driving forces for global environmental change differ among regions, a geographically (spatially) explicit modeling approach is called for, so that it can be incorporated in global and regional (climate and/or biophysical) change models in order to enhance our understanding of the underlying processes and thus improving future projections.Some researchers suggest that mankind has shifted from living in the Holocene (~emergence of agriculture) into the Anthropocene (~humans capable of changing the Earth' atmosphere) since the start of the Industrial Revolution. But in the light of the sheer size and magnitude of some historical land use changes (e.g. the Black Plague in the 14th century and the aftermath of the Colombian Exchange in the 16th century), some believe that this point might have occurred earlier in time. There are still many uncertainties and gaps in our knowledge about the importance of land use (change) in the global biogeochemical cycle, and it is crucial that researchers from other disciplines are involved in decreasing the uncertainties.Thus, integrated records of the co-evolving human-environment system over millennia are needed to provide a basis for a deeper understanding of the present and for forecasting the future. This requires the major task of assembling and integrating regional and global historical, archaeological, and paleo-environmental records. Humans cannot predict the future. Here I present a tool for such long term global change studies; it is the latest update (v 3.2) of the History Database of the Global

  20. Home Musical Environment of Children in Singapore: On Globalization, Technology, and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    The home musical environments of a class of 28 first-grade children in Singapore were examined in this ethnographic study. Technology was an integral part of the soundscape in the home. The musical repertoire gathered was closely associated with electronic and pop-influenced music, approaching the styles favored by teens and adults. Particular…

  1. Selenium-global perspectives of impacts on humans, animals and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metalloid selenium (Se) is ubiquitous in the natural environment and its concentration can vary from below 0.1 to 10µg/g or even greater. Its distribution is usually heterogenous and site specific and it commonly exists as selenite, selenate, and as various organic reduced Se compounds. Further ...

  2. Population, Poverty, and Land Degradation. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the complex connections among population growth, economic activity, and changes in the environment. The lesson is divided into five parts and may be completed in one or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Facts about Population, Poverty, and Land…

  3. Two Frameworks for Preparing Teachers for the Shift from Local to Global Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Barbara; Stevens, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The research outlined in this paper is based on the convergence of two conceptual frameworks that guide the transfer of knowledge and skills from traditional teacher education, which focused on teaching in single classrooms, to open networked learning environments that include both inter-institutional teaching and learning and local and global…

  4. The Global Classroom Project: Learning a Second Language in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Brant; Kennedy, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of a pilot project exploring the integration of a collaborative virtual learning environment (Second Life) with the instruction of English courses at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. An educational partnership was developed with two TESOL teacher-training courses at Texas A&M University in the US. The project…

  5. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    PubMed

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V A

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients.

  6. Resolving global versus local/regional Pu sources in the environment using sector ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketterer, M.E.; Hafer, K.M.; Link, C.L.; Kolwaite, D.; Wilson, Jim; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a versatile method for the determination of plutonium activities and isotopic compositions in samples containing this element at fallout levels. Typical detection limits for 239+240Pu are 0.1, 0.02 and 0.002 Bq kg -1Pu for samples sizes of 0.5 g, 3 g, and 50 g of soil, respectively. The application of sector ICP-MS-based Pu determinations is demonstrated in studies in sediment chronology, soil Pu inventory and depth distribution, and the provenance of global fallout versus local or regional Pu sources. A sediment core collected from Sloans Lake (Denver, Colorado, USA) exhibits very similar 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity profiles; 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios indicate possible small influences from the Nevada Test Site and/or the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. An undisturbed soil profile from Lockett Meadow (Flagstaff, Arizona, USA) exhibits an exponential decrease in 239+240Pu activity versus depth; 240Pu/239Pu in the top 3 cm is slightly lower than the global fallout range of 0.180 ?? 0.014 due to possible regional influence of Nevada Test Site fallout. The 239??240Pu inventory at Lockett Meadow is 56 ?? 4 Bq m-2, consistent with Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude fallout. Archived NdF3 sources, prepared from Polish soils, demonstrate that substantial 239+240Pu from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been deposited in north eastern regions of Poland; compared to global fallout, Chernobyl Pu exhibits higher abundances of 240Pu and 241Pu. The ratios 240Pu/239pu and 241Pu/239Pu co-vary and range from 0.186-0.348 and 0.0029-0.0412, respectively, in forest soils (241Pu/239Pu = 0.2407??[240Pu/239Pu] - 0.0413; r2 = 0.9924). ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2004.

  7. Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  8. Remote sensing of the earth's biosphere - A tool for studies of the global atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, David S.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology and its use for global studies of the biospheric processes are described. Special consideration is given to research related to two issues: (1) quantifying the impacts of natural vegetation and its changing patterns of occurrence on the atmospheric CO2 budget and (2) assessing wetlands (such as the swamps and marshes of Florida's Everglades) as sources of atmospheric CH4. The results include the data from NOAA-AVHRR sensors and from experiments in remote detection of plant growth rate.

  9. A global indicator as a tool to follow airborne molecular contamination in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Stéphane; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Pépin, Laurence; Kaluzny, Pascal; Faure, Louis-Paul

    2005-02-01

    The impact of pollutants on production quality in nanotechnology necessitates reduction of contaminant levels in cleanrooms. So, devising a global airborne-pollutant indicator (GAPI) for rapid determination of the level of pollution and its danger to the process is justified. This tool used relative impact weights of the different molecules to quantify the pollution. A calculation of impact weight is proposed in this paper. Impact weights could take into account several characteristics of the molecules (molecular volume, sticking coefficient, ...). They could also be combined to be as close as possible to reality. An example of calculations of the impact of molecular volumes on air quality is given.

  10. Global Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

  11. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsenti, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  12. Global mammal beta diversity shows parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments.

    PubMed

    Penone, Caterina; Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H; Brooks, Thomas M; Rondinini, Carlo; Hedges, S Blair; Davidson, Ana D; Costa, Gabriel C

    2016-08-31

    The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity, but higher trait biodiversity among assemblages that are connected but are in differing environmental conditions. We calculated all pairwise comparisons of approximately 110 × 110 km grid cells across the globe for more than 5000 mammal species (approx. 70 million comparisons). We considered realms as units representing geographical distance and historical isolation and biomes as units with similar environmental conditions. While beta diversity dimensions were generally correlated, we highlight geographical regions of decoupling among beta diversity dimensions. Our analysis shows that assemblages from tropical forests in different realms had low trait dissimilarity while phylogenetic beta diversity was significantly higher than expected, suggesting potential convergent evolution. Low trait beta diversity was surprisingly not found between isolated deserts, despite harsh environmental conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence for parallel assemblage structure of mammal assemblages driven by environmental conditions at a global scale. PMID:27559061

  13. [Global environment and health--with emphasis on world nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1993-12-01

    Forthcoming global environmental changes threaten to endanger human survival through direct and indirect influences. In this paper, the contemporary world food supply situation and resultant nutritional status was first reviewed on by country and region. When compared with the nutritional energy requirement, countries with an inadequate food supply were concentrated in the developing world, in particular in some parts of Africa. The life expectancy at birth is clearly shorter in such countries, and peoples of African countries with an inadequate food supply have shorter life expectancies than other countries with a similar inadequacy. Global warning is likely to decrease food production in some parts of the world. According to the present estimation using various methods, a future crisis of food production may occur in African countries which are at present most vulnerable to food shortages, as well as in countries which are presently food exporters. Thus, a future crisis of human health conditions caused by the imbalance of food production and trade may be least avoidable in the region of present predicament.

  14. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted.

  15. Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ∼500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ∼104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  16. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  17. Archaea in artificial environments: their presence in global spacecraft clean rooms and impact on planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The presence and role of Archaea in artificial, human-controlled environments is still unclear. The search for Archaea has been focused on natural biotopes where they have been found in overwhelming numbers, and with amazing properties. However, they are considered as one of the major group of microorganisms that might be able to survive a space flight, or even to thrive on other planets. Although still concentrating on aerobic, bacterial spores as a proxy for spacecraft cleanliness, space agencies are beginning to consider Archaea as a possible contamination source that could affect future searches for life on other planets. This study reports on the discovery of archaeal 16S rRNA gene signatures not only in US American spacecraft assembly clean rooms but also in facilities in Europe and South America. Molecular methods revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota in all clean rooms sampled, while signatures derived from methanogens and a halophile appeared only sporadically. Although no Archaeon was successfully enriched in our multiassay cultivation approach thus far, samples from a European clean room revealed positive archaeal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals of rod-shaped microorganisms, representing the first visualization of Archaea in clean room environments. The molecular and visual detection of Archaea was supported by the first quantitative PCR studies of clean rooms, estimating the overall quantity of Archaea therein. The significant presence of Archaea in these extreme environments in distinct geographical locations suggests a larger role for these microorganisms not only in natural biotopes, but also in human controlled and rigorously cleaned environments.

  18. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Kraak, Vivica; Rutter, Harry; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lobstein, Tim; Sacks, Gary; Gomes, Fabio; Marsh, Tim; Magnusson, Roger

    2015-06-20

    To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives.

  19. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Kraak, Vivica; Rutter, Harry; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lobstein, Tim; Sacks, Gary; Gomes, Fabio; Marsh, Tim; Magnusson, Roger

    2015-06-20

    To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives. PMID:25703108

  20. Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foisel, Hans-Martin; Hanik, Norbert; Braun, Ralf-Peter; Lehr, Georg; Gladisch, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on the ASTN and Ethernet-MAN configuration, an UMS (Upper Monitoring System) is being developed. Furthermore broadband application were implemented to visualise the network functions. The ASTN backbone consists of four cross connects and an ULH-WDM system with 3x 10Gbit/s channels (OCh) between Berlin and Darmstadt, whereby each OCh is treated as a virtual fibre.

  1. Abundance in Capital: Global Risk Sharing and Insurance in a Changing Financial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Schaper, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Insurance has played a viable role in the hedging of homeowners and commercial risks around the world. Countries that have significant penetration in insurance have in addition performed better after large regional or over-regional catastrophic losses. Insurance has hence increased the resilience of western societies. This is opposed to emerging or developing markets with low insurance penetration which have suffered significant drawbacks in their development after large catastrophic events. Examples include the recent Typhoon(s) in the Philippines and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. This presentation will provide insights into the opportunities, views and risk management features a global reinsurance company must assume in order to hedge and mitigate risk across the world. During the past year, an unprecedented amount of new capital has been entering the insurance market, looking for profitable investments outside the much wider capital market. Catastrophe insurance is seen as a valuable alternative to investing in assets that that have shown low returns and high correlation in the recent financial meltdown. The new capital is mostly deployed - or competing with already deployed capital - in the US where insurance penetration is already high. This is opposed to more than half of the world including all developing and most emerging countries which have low insurance penetration and often lack infrastructure hindering new capital to be deployed effectively. What is needed to overcome this obvious deficiency in capital supply and demand? One reason why it is difficult to deploy capital in developing countries is the lack of available exposure information and catastrophe models. This presentation sheds light on the potential science needs of our market and gives an overview of what is being done at Montpelier, a global reinsurance company, to understand catastrophe risk around the globe.

  2. Development cooperation for health: reviewing a dynamic concept in a complex global aid environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in Busan, South Korea in November 2011 again promised an opportunity for a "new consensus on development cooperation" to emerge. This paper reviews the recent evolution of the concept of coordination for development assistance in health as the basis from which to understand current discourses. The paper reviews peer-reviewed scientific literature and relevant 'grey' literature, revisiting landmark publications and influential authors, examining the transitions in the conceptualisation of coordination, and the related changes in development assistance. Four distinct transitions in the understanding, orientation and application of coordination have been identified: coordination within the sector, involving geographical zoning, sub-sector specialisation, donor consortia, project co-financing, sector aid, harmonisation of procedures, ear-marked budgetary support, donor agency reform and inter-agency intelligence gathering; sector-wide coordination, expressed particularly through the Sector-Wide Approach; coordination across sectors at national level, expressed in the evolution of Poverty Strategy Reduction Papers and the national monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals; and, most recently, global-level coordination, embodied in the Paris Principles, and the emergence of agencies such as the International Health Partnerships Plus. The transitions are largely but not strictly chronological, and each draws on earlier elements, in ways that are redefined in the new context. With the increasing complexity of both the territory of global health and its governance, and increasing stakeholders and networks, current imaginings of coordination are again being challenged. The High Level Forum in Busan may have been successful in recognising a much more complex landscape for development than previously conceived, but the challenges to coordination remain. PMID:22420459

  3. Impacts Of Global/Regional Climate Changes On Environment And Health: Need For Integrated Research And Education Collaboration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuluri, F.

    2013-12-01

    The realization of long term changes in climate in research community has to go beyond the comfort zone through climate literacy in academics. Higher education on climate change is the platform to bring together the otherwise disconnected factors such as effective discovery, decision making, innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, Climate change is a complex process that may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system, or to variations in natural or anthropogenic (human-driven) external forcing. Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for several decades or longer. This includes changes in average weather conditions on Earth, such as a change in average global temperature, as well as changes in how frequently regions experience heat waves, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather. It is important to examine the effects of climate variations on human health and disorders in order to take preventive measures. Similarly, the influence of climate changes on animal management practices, pests and pest management systems, and high value crops such as citrus and vegetables is also equally important for investigation. New genetic agricultural varieties must be explored, and pilot studies should examine biotechnology transfer. Recent climate model improvements have resulted in an enhanced ability to simulate many aspects of climate variability and extremes. However, they are still characterized by systematic errors and limitations in accurately simulating more precisely regional climate conditions. The present situations warrant developing climate literacy on the synergistic impacts of environmental change, and improve development, testing and validation of integrated stress impacts through computer modeling. In the present study we present a detailed study of the current status on the impacts of global/regional climate changes on environment and health with a view

  4. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A C; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  5. Stimulating innovation for global monitoring of agriculture and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need to ensure food supply for a growing global population. To enable a sustainable growth of agricultural production, effective and timely information is required to support decision making and to improve management of agricultural resources. This requires innovative ways and monitoring methods that will not only improve short-term crop production forecasts, but also allow to assess changes in cultivation practices, agricultural areas, agriculture in general and, its impact on the environment. The G20 launched in June 2011 the "GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM), requesting the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) Agricultural Community of Practice to implement GEOGLAM with the main objective to improve crop yield forecasts as an input to the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), in order to foster stabilisation of markets and increase transparency on agricultural production. In response to this need, the European Commission decided in 2013 to fund an international partnership to contribute to GEOGLAM and its research agenda. The resulting SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), a partnership of 23 globally distributed expert organisations, focusses on developing datasets and innovative techniques in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterise cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, will be used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series will be explored to assess crop

  6. Response of the biosphere to the changing global environment: Evidence from historic record of biotic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.A.S.; Tian, H.; Qi, Y. . College of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1993-06-01

    Recently, the observed increase in the amplitude of the winter-summer difference in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations has been used to infer that the terrestrial biota is reacting to CO[sub 2] enrichment. However, previous studies of this phenomenon did not consider seasonal variations in fossil fuel use, oceanic exchange. In this paper, the authors derive a normalized CO[sub 2] curve for yearly biotic metabolism corrected for these additional factors. The authors also developed a simulation model to test the sensitivity of biotic metabolism on fossil fuel release, oceanic exchange and other factors. By analyzing CO[sub 2] data from Mauna Loa Observatory, the authors generated a historic record of global biotic metabolism over the recent past. After correcting for the additional factors the authors found that both photosynthesis and respiration have increased since the early 1970's. Even though photosynthesis and respiration have changed, the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration has not changed significantly. The authors tentatively conclude, therefore, that CO[sub 2] sequestered by photosynthesis is being balanced by the CO[sub 2] released by respiration. The increases of biospheric respiration, perhaps as a result of the same factors that increase photosynthesis.

  7. Heat exchanger technologies for the global environment. PWR-Vol. 25

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This is the Committee`s largest compilation of papers in the fourteen years that ASME has sponsored one or more sessions at the Joint Power Generation Conference. In addition to the twenty-two papers offered at the conference, one session contained a panel discussion during which five industry specialists related their experiences and interpretations. Many of the presentations of the past few years have been made by authors from foreign lands as the conference has expanded to an international forum. This years` theme of global impact is included in the heat exchanger presentations from the USA and abroad. In addition, ASME has encouraged authors to make the subjects of their presentations more apropos to current concerns. New concepts and designs, particularly with PC programs in mind, is one specific area that is addressed. Other topics such as materials selection, coatings to extend performance life, minimizing the effects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, zebra mussel control and new approaches to heat transfer design are some of the subjects covered at the conference and in this volume. Nineteen papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  9. Environment. Development. How Can Societies Develop To Meet Basic Needs and Nurture Economies without Undermining the Natural Resources and Environmental Integrity on Which They Depend? Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachergram, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for the senior secondary level, these activities and articles explore critical issues between the environment and development. Two causes of environmental degradation are wasteful affluence and desperate poverty. The problems with development and the environment addresses Canadian and global situations. An article presents three…

  10. Sustaining global progress in E and P health, safety, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arscott, R.L.; Edwardes, R.J.; Ognedal, M.; Visser, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    The third International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) was held in New Orleans in June 1996. During this meeting, the technical committee members were asked to complete a questionnaire with two questions: (1) What are the three biggest improvements in the industry`s performance in the HSE function over the past 5 years? and (2) What are the three biggest challenges for the next 5 years? The results from 30 replies from industry experts were compared with a similar survey conducted at the 1991 meeting, where the question was, What are the key action items the industry should take to enhance performance over the next decade? This article gives the most frequently occurring comments cited by the 1996 technical committee relating to the 1991 recommendations. This may be considered a mid-decade review of worldwide E and P progress.

  11. Global Adaptation to a Lipid Environment Triggers the Dormancy-Related Phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan G.; Hernández, Adriana C.; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Aguilar Ayala, Diana; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M.; Bustos, Jose R.; Zambrano, María M.; González-y-Merchand, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium’s metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcriptome revealed a shift toward the glyoxylate cycle, the overexpression of main regulators whiB3, dosR, and Rv0081, and the increased expression of several genes related to reductive stress. Our evidence showed that lipid storage seems to be the selected mechanism used by M. tuberculosis to ameliorate the assumed damage of reductive stress and that concomitantly the bacilli acquired a slowed-growth and drug-tolerant phenotype, all characteristics previously associated with the dormant stage. Additionally, intergenic regions were also detected, including the unexpected upregulation of tRNAs that suggest a new role for these molecules in the acquisition of a drug-tolerant phenotype by dormant bacilli. Finally, a set of lipid signature genes for the adaptation process was also identified. This in vitro model represents a suitable condition to illustrate the participation of reductive stress in drugs’ activity against dormant bacilli, an aspect scarcely investigated to date. This approach provides a new perspective to the understanding of latent infection and suggests the participation of previously undetected molecules. PMID:24846381

  12. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Nair, P P

    2000-04-17

    As we enter the new millennium, nearly 800 million of the World's population will remain chronically malnourished. Nearly 200 million children are moderately to severely underweight, while 70 million are severely malnourished. And those who are yet to be born will be faced with the same set of circumstances that predispose them to malnutrition and its consequences. Eradication of nutritional deficiencies among women and children on a global scale are needed to ensure improved quality of life for the next generation of citizens. Primary deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid and trace elements such as zinc are compounded by pollutants caused by human activity. Environmental lead, arsenic, mercury, and other heavy metals that enter the food chain can seriously deplete body stores of iron, vitamin C and other essential nutrients leading to decreased immune defenses, intrauterine growth retardation, impaired psycho-social faculties and other disabilities associated with malnutrition. Increased susceptibilities to communicable diseases, and those provoked by water or insect borne vectors are additional risks encountered by malnourished individuals. Migration of populations from rural to urban centers and the expansion of major metropolitan areas have had a significant and adverse impact on the quality of life of these citizens. In the next 20 years most of the growth in urban populations will be in Asia and Latin America. Urbanization and the resultant burden on limited national resources is a major contributory factor to malnutrition. There are many other lifestyle-associated disabilities such as use of tobacco (cancer) and alcoholism that require active intervention. Within the family unit, socioeconomic factors and the status of women (literacy, economic independence) are major determinants of the quality of life. In the coming century, the World will have to meet these challenges by careful planning and international cooperation. PMID:10813462

  13. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  14. Aerosols and past environments: A global investigation into cave aerosol identification, distribution, and contribution to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.; Mattey, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new sector of interest is developing within cave science regarding the influence of aerosols on the cave environment and the potential speleothem palaeoenvironmental aerosol record which may be preserved. This paper presents the results from a global collaboration project which explored all aspects of aerosols in the cave environment. Cave aerosol identification, introduction and distribution Cave aerosol multivariable environmental monitoring projects were carried out in the UK, Spain, Austria and Australia. Results demonstrate that cave ventilation is the predominant control on the introduction and distribution of aerosols throughout the cave environment (Dredge et al., 2013). Consequently, aerosol transportation processes vary as a result of seasonal ventilation changes and cave morphological features. Cave aerosol contribution to speleothem geochemistry Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry were determined by comparing monitored aerosol deposition to speleothem trace element data. Significant aerosol contribution scenarios were identified as: hiatus events, high aerosol flux situations and secondary microbial concentration processes. Modelling indicates that a >99.9% reduction in drip water flow rates is required to reduce trace element supply quantities to equal that of aerosol supply (Dredge et al., 2013). Aerosol palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental records Aerosol contributions and the ability to utilise aerosol records in speleothem are investigated in samples from Gibraltar and Australia. Long range dust sources and past atmospheric circulation over several glacial cycles is studied through Sr isotope analysis of a Flowstone core from Gibraltar. Results of organic fire proxy analysis from Australian speleothem samples indicate an aerosol deposition forest fire record. In addition to primary fire deposition, secondary biological feedbacks and subsequent bioaccumulation processes in the cave environment are explored by microbial analysis

  15. The fascinating side of dirt: Soil and the global environment course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S.; Krzic, M.; Crowley, C.; Lascu, G.; Rosado, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil has recently been attracting some renewed public attention due to its inextricable link to current environmental challenges such as climate change, food security and water resource protection. It is increasingly acknowledged that the world's future will require a better understanding of soil science. Yet enrolment in soil related programs at universities in North America and around the world has been declining. One of the proposed causes for this drop is the tendency for soil science education to emphasize the agricultural side of soil science, while our increasingly urban and environmentally conscious student population is more interested in environmental sciences. To address this issue, in 2011 we created an on-line, first-year soil science course designed specifically to communicate the significance of soil science to global environmental questions. We propose that this type of course is an effective way to help increase interest in higher level soil courses and reverse the downward trend in enrolments. The course content was centered on prominent environmental issues, which were used to introduce basic concepts of soil science. Course materials emphasized integration with other natural resources disciplines such as ecology, biogeochemistry and hydrology. The online format allowed for a seamless integration of multimedia components and web content into course materials, and is believed to be appealing to technologically savvy new generations of students. Online discussion boards were extensively used to maintain strong student engagement in the course. Discussion topics were based on soil-related news stories that helped demonstrate the relevance of soils to society and illustrate the complex and often controversial nature of environmental issues. Students also made significant use of an online bulletin board to post information about environmental events and share news stories related to the course. This course was offered for the first time in term 1 of

  16. [Comment on "Meeting Ph.D. Graduates' needs in a changing global environment"] Challenges to fostering interdisciplinary graduate education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, Beaudry

    C. Susan Weiler's article ("Meeting Ph.D. graduates' needs in a changing global environment," Eos, 55(13), 149, 151) calling for more care and attention to interdisciplinary graduate education illuminated an important and neglected issue. Weiler makes the excellent point that for society to manage complex natural systems effectively, it is imperative that we establish stronger connections between science and public policy. However, as a nation, the United States lacks the institutional research culture to foster this. Nor are we training sufficient numbers of professionals with the skills to make these connections; and when the small number of truly interdisciplinary scientists emerge annually into the workforce, there are few positions that fit them.I echo Weiler's call for increased interdisciplinary collaboration, and the necessary training to support this increase. However, there are some fundamental obstacles her article does not explore.

  17. A survey of the performance of silicon carbide and phosphate bonded refractories in locally oxydizing, globally reducing environments

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Clark, John A., III; Higgins, Leonard G.

    2003-10-01

    Silicon carbide and phosphate bonded, high chromium refractories have been tested and utilized in an environment which includes locally oxidizing and globally reducing conditions. The regime where the transition between oxidizing and reducing conditions exists is of concern for life expectancy and use characteristics of the refractories. This study compares the performance characteristics of these two types of refractories in a pilot scale operation. The refractories were studied in a side-by-side manner and evaluated for their corresponding life expectancy. Quantitative and qualitative measurements indicate which of these two materials behaves better and under what conditions this is true. The results of this study indicate installation characteristics and life expectancy under extreme conditions. Also included in this study are such issues as thermal cycling and wear during the use of the refractories.

  18. Nonparametric Bayesian Filtering for Location Estimation, Position Tracking, and Global Localization of Mobile Terminals in Outdoor Wireless Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf-Allah, Mohamed

    2007-12-01

    The mobile terminal positioning problem is categorized into three different types according to the availability of (1) initial accurate location information and (2) motion measurement data. Location estimation refers to the mobile positioning problem when both the initial location and motion measurement data are not available. If both are available, the positioning problem is referred to as position tracking. When only motion measurements are available, the problem is known as global localization. These positioning problems were solved within the Bayesian filtering framework. Filter derivation and implementation algorithms are provided with emphasis on the mapping approach. The radio maps of the experimental area have been created by a 3D deterministic radio propagation tool with a grid resolution of 5 m. Real-world experimentation was conducted in a GSM network deployed in a semiurban environment in order to investigate the performance of the different positioning algorithms.

  19. sPlot - the new global vegetation-plot database for addressing trait-environment relationships across the world's biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purschke, Oliver; Dengler, Jürgen; Bruelheide, Helge; Chytrý, Milan; Jansen, Florian; Hennekens, Stephan; Jandt, Ute; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Kattge, Jens; De Patta Pillar, Valério; Sandel, Brody; Winter, Marten

    2015-04-01

    The trait composition of plant communities is determined by abiotic, biotic and historical factors, but the importance of macro-climatic factors in explaining trait-environment relationships at the local scale remains unclear. Such knowledge is crucial for biogeographical and ecological theory but also relevant to devise management measures to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. To address these questions, an iDiv Working Group has established the first global vegetation-plot database (sPlot). sPlot currently contains ~700,000 plots from over 50 countries and all biomes, and is steadily growing. Approx. 70% of the most frequent species are represented by at least one trait in the global trait database TRY and gap-filled data will become available for the most common traits. We will give an overview about the structure and present content of sPlot in terms of spatial distribution, data properties and trait coverage. We will explain next steps and perspectives, present first cross-biome analyses of community-weighted mean traits and trait variability, and highlight some ecological questions that can be addressed with sPlot.

  20. Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China.

  1. Integration of Pre-college Chemistry Education and the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Zapata, R.; López-Garriga, J.

    2000-12-01

    Pre-college chemistry objectives can be strengthened through incorporation of the chemistry activities of the GLOBE program. In this initiative, pre-college teachers and students perform scientific protocols and measurements related to the atmosphere, hydrology, land cover/biology, and soil. These cooperative-learning activities develop skills in chemistry, earth science, mathematics, data analysis, computer communications, and use of the global positioning system and global information system. Chemistry activities involve measuring pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, alkalinity, potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus in water, air, and soil environments. These exercises develop knowledge and skills in qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Our program combines a week-long workshop, follow-up Saturday academies, and visits to the K through 12 schools to ensure that teachers are well prepared to establish and continue the program at their schools. These activities, with the teacher's GLOBE manual, the basic equipment provided to perform measurements in the field, and continuous interaction between teachers and GLOBE training team, resulted in 91 percent of teachers feeling that their preparation to establish the program at their schools was excellent or very good. We conclude that the GLOBE protocols are an effective way to promote environmental chemistry education at the pre-college level.

  2. Modeling wildfire and hydrologic response to global climate change using the Landlab modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. M.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Hutton, E.; Hobley, D. E.; Nudurupati, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change presents new challenges in modeling surface processes across landscapes that are prone to wildfire. Historical recurrence intervals of wildfire and precipitation must be adapted to account for changes in climate. Warming temperatures have already been linked to shorter winters, smaller volumes of snowmelt, and lower soil moisture content, all of which can contribute to more frequent fires. As fire and precipitation distributions change, the magnitude of fluvial erosion in burned landscapes may change dramatically. Fluvial erosion driven by large precipitation events post-fire can threaten property, infrastructure and human life in the short-term, and potentially impact long-term landscape evolution. Understanding post-fire landscape response across multiple time scales can be accomplished through numerical modeling of fire and rainfall events and the resulting stream flow across a landscape. This study uses the Landlab modeling environment to explore possible fire and precipitation scenarios that could lead to significant post-fire landscape change. Landlab is a plug-and-play model that is designed to be highly flexible in order to address a wide range of scientific questions. This study links together a stochastic fire generator, stochastic storm generator, and overland flow module to explore scenarios that may cause significant flow in the one-year period following a high-severity fire. Post-fire landscapes have been observed to be particularly vulnerable to fluvial erosion during this period. The parameters in the fire and rainfall generator are varied to test whether erosion-inducing precipitation events will increase in frequency and severity as climate changes. We analyze potential scenarios in which fire and storm recurrence change with the climate. Three test cases are explored: increasing fire recurrence while holding the parameters of the precipitation distribution constant; increasing the recurrence of precipitation events while holding

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

  4. A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (δ). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated δ using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an

  5. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. PMID:23147420

  6. The Global Regulator CodY in Streptococcus thermophilus Controls the Metabolic Network for Escalating Growth in the Milk Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, W. W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.

    2015-01-01

    CodY is a transcriptional regulator conserved in the low-GC group of Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, we demonstrated the presence in Streptococcus thermophilus ST2017 of a functional member of the CodY family of global regulatory proteins, S. thermophilus CodY (CodYSt). The CodYSt regulon was identified by transcriptome analysis; it consisted predominantly of genes involved in amino acid metabolism but also included genes involved in several other cellular processes, including carbon metabolism, nutrient transport, and stress response. It was revealed that CodYSt repressed the transformation of the central metabolic pathway to amino acid metabolism and improved lactose utilization. Furthermore, the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA), repressed by CodYSt, was suggested to coordinate the interconversion between carbon metabolism and amino acid metabolism and to play an important role on the optimal growth of S. thermophilus ST2017 in milk. A conserved CodYSt box [AA(T/A)(A/T)TTCTGA(A/C)AATT] was indeed required for in vitro binding of CodYSt to the target regions of DNA. These results provided evidence for the function of CodYSt, by which this strain coordinately regulates its various metabolic pathways so as to adapt to the milk environment. PMID:25616791

  7. The global regulator CodY in Streptococcus thermophilus controls the metabolic network for escalating growth in the milk environment.

    PubMed

    Lu, W W; Wang, Y; Wang, T; Kong, J

    2015-04-01

    CodY is a transcriptional regulator conserved in the low-GC group of Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, we demonstrated the presence in Streptococcus thermophilus ST2017 of a functional member of the CodY family of global regulatory proteins, S. thermophilus CodY (CodYSt). The CodYSt regulon was identified by transcriptome analysis; it consisted predominantly of genes involved in amino acid metabolism but also included genes involved in several other cellular processes, including carbon metabolism, nutrient transport, and stress response. It was revealed that CodYSt repressed the transformation of the central metabolic pathway to amino acid metabolism and improved lactose utilization. Furthermore, the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA), repressed by CodYSt, was suggested to coordinate the interconversion between carbon metabolism and amino acid metabolism and to play an important role on the optimal growth of S. thermophilus ST2017 in milk. A conserved CodYSt box [AA(T/A)(A/T)TTCTGA(A/C)AATT] was indeed required for in vitro binding of CodYSt to the target regions of DNA. These results provided evidence for the function of CodYSt, by which this strain coordinately regulates its various metabolic pathways so as to adapt to the milk environment. PMID:25616791

  8. Review of the Applications of Formosat-2 on Rapidly Responding to Global Disasters and Monitoring Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2009-12-01

    Formosat-2 is the first satellite with high-spatial-resolution sensor deployed in a daily-revisit orbit in the world. Together with its agility of pointing ±45 degree both across and along track, we are able to observe each accessible scene from the same angle under the similar illumination conditions. These characteristics make Formosat-2 an ideal satellite for site surveillance. We developed a Formosat-2 automatic image processing system (F-2 AIPS) that can accurately and rapidly process a large amount of Formosat-2 images to produce the higher levels of products, including rigorous band-to-band coregistration, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal image coregistration and radiance normalization, and pan-sharpening. This system has been successfully employed to rapidly respond to many international disaster events in the past five years, including flood caused by Typhoon Mindulle (2004), landslide caused by Typhoon Aere (2004), South Asia earthquake and tsunami (2004), Hurricane Katrina (2005), California wildfire (2007), Sichuan Earthquake (2008), Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008), Typhoon Sinlaku (2008), Mountain Ali wildfire (2009), Victoria bushfire in Australia (2009), Honduras earthquake (2009), Typhoon Morakot (2009). This paper reviews the applications of Formosat-2 on rapidly responding to global disasters and monitoring earth environment.

  9. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes.

  10. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  11. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

  12. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase; Fondo para el medio ambiente mundial: evaluacion independiente de la etapa experimental

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This study responds to a request by participants in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for an independent evaluation of the pilot phase. It profiles the GEF, discusses its policy framework, and reviews project development procedures and the strategies and projects in each of the GEF`s four focal areas. The study concludes that fundamental changes must occur and recommends specific reforms, such as articulating more clearly the GEF`s mandate, objectives, and strategies; addressing deficiencies in meeting its global focus; improving capacities and procedures within implementing agencies for managing the portfolio; and increasing non-government organization (NGO), country and community-level participation.

  13. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  14. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  15. Global patterns and environmental controls of perchlorate and nitrate co-occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, J. K.; Andraski, Brian J.; Fahlquist, Lynne; Bexfield, Laura; Eckardt, Frank D.; Gates, John B.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Rajagopalan, Srinath; Estrada, Nubia; Sturchio, Neil; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Anderson, Todd A.; Orris, Greta; Betancourt, Julio; Stonestrom, David; Latorre, Claudio; Li, Yanhe; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2015-09-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4-) is of increasing interest due to its wide-spread occurrence on Earth and Mars, yet little information exists on the relative abundance of ClO4- compared to other major anions, its stability, or long-term variations in production that may impact the observed distributions. Our objectives were to evaluate the occurrence and fate of ClO4- in groundwater and soils/caliche in arid and semi-arid environments (southwestern United States, southern Africa, United Arab Emirates, China, Antarctica, and Chile) and the relationship of ClO4- to the more well-studied atmospherically deposited anions NO3- and Cl- as a means to understand the prevalent processes that affect the accumulation of these species over various time scales. ClO4- is globally distributed in soil and groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions on Earth at concentrations ranging from 10-1 to 106 μg/kg. Generally, the ClO4- concentration in these regions increases with aridity index, but also depends on the duration of arid conditions. In many arid and semi-arid areas, NO3- and ClO4- co-occur at molar ratios (NO3-/ClO4-) that vary between ∼104 and 105. We hypothesize that atmospheric deposition ratios are largely preserved in hyper-arid areas that support little or no biological activity (e.g. plants or bacteria), but can be altered in areas with more active biological processes including N2 fixation, N mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, and microbial ClO4- reduction, as indicated in part by NO3- isotope data. In contrast, much larger ranges of Cl-/ClO4- and Cl-/NO3- ratios indicate Cl- varies independently from both ClO4- and NO3-. The general lack of correlation between Cl- and ClO4- or NO3- implies that Cl- is not a good indicator of co-deposition and should be used with care when interpreting oxyanion cycling in arid systems. The Atacama Desert appears to be unique compared to all other terrestrial locations having a NO3-/ClO4- molar ratio ∼103. The relative

  16. Use of a Computer Environment To Analyze the Coherence of Argumentation about Policies Proposed To Ameliorate Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephen T.

    In designing computer environments to support the creation of arguments, a central issue concerns evaluating the quality of these arguments. This study uses one such computer environment, Convince ME, that uniquely uses a connectionist model, ECHO, to generate Model Fit values as a kind of measure of an argument's coherence. This study sought to…

  17. From a hybrid model to a fully kinetic model: On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa; Jarvinen, Riku

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propa-gation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform(e.g. ion-neutral collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expan-sion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  18. From a hybrid model to a fully kinetic model: On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  19. Progressive Educational Practices and Environments in Sweden: Preparing Students to Live and Work in the Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordgren, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-site case study of three Swedish schools examined the dimensions of trust, responsibility, shared power (democracy), and global workforce competence as required by a decade-old national education reforms. A key finding was the existence of progressive educational practices including constructivist epistemology, evidenced by the schools'…

  20. Impact of Globalization on Sugarcane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment: A Review of the 2009 Entomology Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7th International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT) Entomology Workshop was held from 20 to 24 April 2009 in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina under the theme: “Impact of Globalization on Sugar Cane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment”. Technical sessions held over three days were g...

  1. Contribution of Spanish-American silver mines (1570-1820) to the present high mercury concentrations in the global environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Julio A

    2002-07-01

    In this review I evaluate the contribution of Spanish-American silver mines during the period 1570-1820 (a Spanish colonial period of 250 years) to the present high mercury concentrations in the global environment. The evaluation is based upon the following bibliographic information: (1) total amount of mercury consumed in Spanish-American silver mines between 1570 and 1820; (2) percentage of the total amount of mercury consumed in Spanish-American silver mines that may have been emitted to the atmosphere; (3) global natural input of mercury to the atmosphere; (4) worldwide anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere; (5) residence time of mercury in the atmosphere; and (6) capacity of mercury to be deposited in the sediments of aquatic systems. From all this information, and owing to the relatively long time that has passed since Spanish-American silver mines were operational, I conclude that most of the mercury lost during the refining of silver via the patio amalgamation process is now sequestered into the sediments of aquatic systems, mainly in marine sediments. The high mercury concentrations now being reported in the global environment essentially are a consequence of the huge pollution caused by human activities during the past 20th century.

  2. The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Effects of Environment on Globular Cluster Global Mass Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; Reid, I. Neill; Piotto, Giampaolo; Aparicio, Antonio; Anderson, Jay; Sarajedini, Ata; Bedin, Luigi R.; Chaboyer, Brian; Dotter, Aaron; Hempel, Maren; Majewski, Steven; Marín-Franch, A.; Milone, Antonino; Rosenberg, Alfred; Siegel, Michael

    2010-02-01

    We have used observations obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to construct global present-day mass functions for 17 globular clusters utilizing multi-mass King models to extrapolate from our observations to the global cluster behavior. The global present-day mass functions for these clusters are well matched by power laws from the turnoff, ≈0.8 M sun, to 0.2-0.3 M sun on the lower main sequence. The slopes of those power-law fits, α, have been correlated with an extensive set of intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties to investigate which parameters may influence the form of the present-day mass function. We do not confirm previous suggestions of correlations between α and either metallicity or Galactic location. However, we do find a strong statistical correlation with the related parameters central surface brightness, μ V , and inferred central density, ρ0. The correlation is such that clusters with denser cores (stronger binding energy) tend to have steeper mass functions (a higher proportion of low-mass stars), suggesting that dynamical evolution due to external interactions may have played a key role in determining α. Thus, the present-day mass function may owe more to nurture than to nature. Detailed modeling of external dynamical effects is therefore a requisite for determining the initial mass function for Galactic globular clusters.

  3. THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER GLOBAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; Reid, I. Neill; Anderson, Jay E-mail: inr@stsci.edu

    2010-02-15

    We have used observations obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to construct global present-day mass functions for 17 globular clusters utilizing multi-mass King models to extrapolate from our observations to the global cluster behavior. The global present-day mass functions for these clusters are well matched by power laws from the turnoff, {approx}0.8 M {sub sun}, to 0.2-0.3 M {sub sun} on the lower main sequence. The slopes of those power-law fits, {alpha}, have been correlated with an extensive set of intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties to investigate which parameters may influence the form of the present-day mass function. We do not confirm previous suggestions of correlations between {alpha} and either metallicity or Galactic location. However, we do find a strong statistical correlation with the related parameters central surface brightness, {mu} {sub V}, and inferred central density, {rho}{sub 0}. The correlation is such that clusters with denser cores (stronger binding energy) tend to have steeper mass functions (a higher proportion of low-mass stars), suggesting that dynamical evolution due to external interactions may have played a key role in determining {alpha}. Thus, the present-day mass function may owe more to nurture than to nature. Detailed modeling of external dynamical effects is therefore a requisite for determining the initial mass function for Galactic globular clusters.

  4. Twenty-First Century Technology and the Global Environment: Developing a Cause/Effect Relationship Perspective Among Proactive Action Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Technology, defined as power to build or to destroy, affects both the natural and social environments. Technological societies are characterized by five elements: green revolution, industry, medicine, biology, and space technology. To demonstrate that individuals and groups perceive the effects of these aspects differently, a summary of nine pro…

  5. Cooperative Writing Response Groups: Revising Global Aspects of Second-Language Writing in a Constrained Educational Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative writing response initiative designed to develop writing skills in foreign/second-language contexts (hereafter L2). The strategy originated from my desire to cater for my learners' need to become better writers in English within a constrained educational environment in Argentina. In this article I describe this…

  6. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B.

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examines processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.

  7. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement.

  8. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement. PMID:26799483

  9. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement. PMID:26799483

  10. Changes in severe thunderstorm environment frequency during the 21st century caused by anthropogenically enhanced global radiative forcing

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Robert J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Brooks, Harold E.; Baldwin, Michael E.; Robinson, Eric D.; Pal, Jeremy S.

    2007-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms comprise an extreme class of deep convective clouds and produce high-impact weather such as destructive surface winds, hail, and tornadoes. This study addresses the question of how severe thunderstorm frequency in the United States might change because of enhanced global radiative forcing associated with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. We use global climate models and a high-resolution regional climate model to examine the larger-scale (or “environmental”) meteorological conditions that foster severe thunderstorm formation. Across this model suite, we find a net increase during the late 21st century in the number of days in which these severe thunderstorm environmental conditions (NDSEV) occur. Attributed primarily to increases in atmospheric water vapor within the planetary boundary layer, the largest increases in NDSEV are shown during the summer season, in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastal regions. For example, this analysis suggests a future increase in NDSEV of 100% or more in locations such as Atlanta, GA, and New York, NY. Any direct application of these results to the frequency of actual storms also must consider the storm initiation.

  11. Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variation Can Shape the Responses of Organisms to Global Change in Both Natural and Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Murdock, Courtney C; Vickers, Mathew; Sears, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    When predicting the response of organisms to global change, models use measures of climate at a coarse resolution from general circulation models or from downscaled regional models. Organisms, however, do not experience climate at such large scales. The climate heterogeneity over a landscape and how much of that landscape an organism can sample will determine ultimately the microclimates experienced by organisms. This past few decades has seen an important increase in the number of studies reporting microclimatic patterns at small scales. This synthesis intends to unify studies reporting microclimatic heterogeneity (mostly temperature) at various spatial scales, to infer any emerging trends, and to discuss the causes and consequences of such heterogeneity for organismal performance and with respect to changing land use patterns and climate. First, we identify the environmental drivers of heterogeneity across the various spatial scales that are pertinent to ectotherms. The thermal heterogeneity at the local and micro-scales is mostly generated by the architecture or the geometrical features of the microhabitat. Then, the thermal heterogeneity experienced by individuals is modulated by behavior. Second, we survey the literature to quantify thermal heterogeneity from the micro-scale up to the scale of a landscape in natural habitats. Despite difficulties in compiling studies that differ much in their design and aims, we found that there is as much thermal heterogeneity across micro-, local and landscape scales, and that the temperature range is large in general (>9 °C on average, and up to 26 °C). Third, we examine the extent to which urban habitats can be used to infer the microclimatic patterns of the future. Urban areas generate globally drier and warmer microclimatic patterns and recent evidence suggest that thermal traits of ectotherms are adapted to them. Fourth, we explore the interplay between microclimate heterogeneity and the behavioral thermoregulatory

  12. Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variation Can Shape the Responses of Organisms to Global Change in Both Natural and Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Murdock, Courtney C; Vickers, Mathew; Sears, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    When predicting the response of organisms to global change, models use measures of climate at a coarse resolution from general circulation models or from downscaled regional models. Organisms, however, do not experience climate at such large scales. The climate heterogeneity over a landscape and how much of that landscape an organism can sample will determine ultimately the microclimates experienced by organisms. This past few decades has seen an important increase in the number of studies reporting microclimatic patterns at small scales. This synthesis intends to unify studies reporting microclimatic heterogeneity (mostly temperature) at various spatial scales, to infer any emerging trends, and to discuss the causes and consequences of such heterogeneity for organismal performance and with respect to changing land use patterns and climate. First, we identify the environmental drivers of heterogeneity across the various spatial scales that are pertinent to ectotherms. The thermal heterogeneity at the local and micro-scales is mostly generated by the architecture or the geometrical features of the microhabitat. Then, the thermal heterogeneity experienced by individuals is modulated by behavior. Second, we survey the literature to quantify thermal heterogeneity from the micro-scale up to the scale of a landscape in natural habitats. Despite difficulties in compiling studies that differ much in their design and aims, we found that there is as much thermal heterogeneity across micro-, local and landscape scales, and that the temperature range is large in general (>9 °C on average, and up to 26 °C). Third, we examine the extent to which urban habitats can be used to infer the microclimatic patterns of the future. Urban areas generate globally drier and warmer microclimatic patterns and recent evidence suggest that thermal traits of ectotherms are adapted to them. Fourth, we explore the interplay between microclimate heterogeneity and the behavioral thermoregulatory

  13. Global anisotropies in TeV cosmic rays related to the Sun's local galactic environment from IBEX.

    PubMed

    Schwadron, N A; Adams, F C; Christian, E R; Desiati, P; Frisch, P; Funsten, H O; Jokipii, J R; McComas, D J; Moebius, E; Zank, G P

    2014-02-28

    Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here, we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high-energy (tera-electron volts, TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asγ, and IceCube). Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the LISM, which is particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.

  14. Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment from IBEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Adams, F. C.; Christian, E. R.; Desiati, P.; Frisch, P.; Funsten, H. O.; Jokipii, J. R.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here, we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high-energy (tera-electron volts, TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asg, and IceCube). Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the LISM, which is particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2012-07-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation, while the reactions included are the redox pathways of organic carbon oxidation, re-oxidation of reduced nitrogen, iron and sulfur compounds, pore water acid-base equilibria, and dissolution of particulate inorganic carbon (calcite, aragonite, and Mg-calcite). The coastal zone is divided into four environmental units with different particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes: reefs, banks and bays, carbonate shelves and non-carbonate shelves. Model results are analyzed separately for each environment and then scaled up to the whole coastal ocean. The model-derived estimate for the present-day global coastal benthic DIC efflux is 126 Tmol yr-1, based on a global coastal reactive POC depositional flux of 117 Tmol yr-1. The POC decomposition leads to a~carbonate dissolution from shallow marine sediments of 7 Tmol yr-1 (on the order of 0.1 Pg C yr-1). Assuming complete re-oxidation of aqueous sulfide released from sediments, the effective net flux of alkalinity to the water column is 29 Teq yr-1, primarily from PIC dissolution (46%) and ammonification (33%). Because our POC depositional flux falls in the high range of global values given in the literature, the reported DIC and alkalinity fluxes should be viewed as upper-bound estimates. Increasing coastal seawater DIC to what might be expected in year 2100 due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 increases PIC dissolution by 2.3 Tmol yr-1 and alkalinity efflux by 4.8 Teq yr-1. Our reactive transport modeling approach not only yields global estimates of benthic DIC, alkalinity and nutrient fluxes under variable scenarios of ocean productivity and chemistry, but also provides insights into the

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; Van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation, while the reactions included are the redox pathways of organic carbon oxidation, re-oxidation of reduced nitrogen, iron and sulfur compounds, pore water acid-base equilibria, and dissolution of particulate inorganic carbon (calcite, aragonite, and Mg-calcite). The coastal zone is divided into four environmental units with different particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes: reefs, banks and bays, carbonate shelves and non-carbonate shelves. Model results are analyzed separately for each environment and then scaled up to the whole coastal ocean. The model-derived estimate for the present-day global coastal benthic DIC efflux is 126 Tmol yr-1, based on a global coastal reactive POC depositional flux of 117 Tmol yr-1. The POC decomposition leads to a carbonate dissolution from shallow marine sediments of 7 Tmol yr-1 (on the order of 0.1 Pg C yr-1. Assuming complete re-oxidation of aqueous sulfide released from sediments, the effective net flux of alkalinity to the water column is 29 Teq. yr-1, primarily from PIC dissolution (46%) and ammonification (33%). Because our POC depositional flux falls in the high range of global values given in the literature, the reported DIC and alkalinity fluxes should be viewed as upper-bound estimates. Increasing coastal seawater DIC to what might be expected in year 2100 due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 increases PIC dissolution by 2.3 Tmol yr-1and alkalinity efflux by 4.8 Teq. yr-1. Our reactive transport modeling approach not only yields global estimates of benthic DIC, alkalinity and nutrient fluxes under variable scenarios of ocean productivity and chemistry, but also provides insights into the

  17. Analyzing the Food-Fuel-Environment Tri-Lemma Facing World Agriculture: Global Land Use in the Coming Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.

    2011-12-01

    The number of people which the world must feed is expected to increase by another 3 billion people by 2100. When coupled with significant nutritional improvements for the 2.1 billion people currently living on less than $2/day, this translates into a very substantial rise in the demand for agricultural production. At the same time, the growing use of biomass for energy generation has introduced an important new source of industrial demand in agricultural markets. To compound matters, water, a key input into agricultural production, is rapidly diminishing in availability in large parts of the world and many soils are degrading. In addition, agriculture and forestry are increasingly envisioned as key sectors for climate change mitigation policy. Any serious attempt to reduce land-based emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on the expansion of farming - particularly in the tropics, where most of the agricultural land conversion has come at the expense of forests, either directly, or indirectly via a cascading of land use requirements with crops moving into pasture and pasture into forest. Finally, agriculture and forestry are likely to be the economic sectors whose productivity is most sharply affected by climate change. In light of these challenges facing the global farm and food system, this paper will review the main sources of supply and demand for the world's cropland, and then provide a quantitative assessment of the impact of these forces on global land use over the coming century. The model incorporates forward looking behavior and examines competition between land used for ecosystem services, forestry, food and fuel. Explicit account is taken of emissions associated with both the intensive and extensive margins of agricultural expansion, as well as carbon sequestration and energy combustion. Key findings include: (a) energy prices and environmental policies will be increasingly important drivers of land use

  18. Io's Plasma Environment During the Galileo Flyby: Global Three-Dimensional MHD Modeling with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, M. R.; Kabin, K.; Gombosi, T. I.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Powell, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    The first results for applying a three-dimensional multimedia ideal MHD model for the mass-loaded flow of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma past Io are presented. The model is able to consider simultaneously physically realistic conditions for ion mass loading, ion-neutral drag, and intrinsic magnetic field in a full global calculation without imposing artificial dissipation. Io is modeled with an extended neutral atmosphere which loads the corotating plasma torus flow with mass, momentum, and energy. The governing equations are solved using adaptive mesh refinement on an unstructured Cartesian grid using an upwind scheme for AHMED. For the work described in this paper we explored a range of models without an intrinsic magnetic field for Io. We compare our results with particle and field measurements made during the December 7, 1995, flyby of to, as published by the Galileo Orbiter experiment teams. For two extreme cases of lower boundary conditions at Io, our model can quantitatively explain the variation of density along the spacecraft trajectory and can reproduce the general appearance of the variations of magnetic field and ion pressure and temperature. The net fresh ion mass-loading rates are in the range of approximately 300-650 kg/s, and equivalent charge exchange mass-loading rates are in the range approximately 540-1150 kg/s in the vicinity of Io.

  19. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  20. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  1. The physical environment and health-enhancing activity during the school commute: global positioning system, geographical information systems and accelerometry.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Aitkenhead, Matt J; Johnston, Derek W; Murtagh, Shemane; Rowe, David A

    2014-05-01

    Active school travel is in decline. An understanding of the potential determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute may help to inform interventions aimed at reversing these trends. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environmental factors associated with health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute. Data were collected in 2009 on 166 children commuting home from school in Scotland. Data on location and physical activity were measured using global positioning systems (GPS) and accelerometers, and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Multi-level logistic regression models accounting for repeated observations within participants were used to test for associations between each land-use category (road/track/path, other man-made, greenspace, other natural) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thirty-nine children provided 2,782 matched data points. Over one third (37.1%) of children's school commute time was spent in MVPA. Children commuted approximately equal amounts of time via natural and man-made land-uses (50.2% and 49.8% respectively). Commuting via road/track/path was associated with increased likelihood of MVPA (Exp(B)=1.23, P <0.05), but this association was not seen for commuting via other manmade land-uses. No association was noted between greenspace use and MVPA, but travelling via other natural land-uses was associated with lower odds of MVPA (Exp(B)=0.32, P <0.05). Children spend equal amounts of time commuting to school via man-made and natural land-uses, yet man-made transportation route infrastructure appears to provide greater opportunities for achieving health-enhancing physical activity levels.

  2. "Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects": Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as "everything is everywhere but the environment selects." While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge. PMID:27190206

  3. [Anesthetic gases, the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. How harmful are the anesthetic emissions for the global environment?].

    PubMed

    Dale, O; Dale, T

    1991-06-30

    During the last decade, world society has acknowledged the harmful effects on the environment of the greenhouse effect and of depletion of the ozone layer, caused by industrial emissions of man-made compounds. Ozone depletion is caused mainly by chlorine compounds or nitrogen oxides released by degradation in the stratosphere. The greenhouse effect is caused by increased trapping of terrestrial heat radiation. Degradation of the anaesthetic vapours halothane, enflurane and isoflurane releases chlorine, and nitrous oxide degradation produces reactive nitrogen oxides. Nitrous oxide in particular, but also the vapours, absorb terrestrial radiation. The total discharge of anaesthetic vapours contributes to less than 0.01% of the total atmospheric chlorine load, and the annual Norwegian release of approximately two tons accounts for 0.2% of the world total. It is estimated that the total amount of nitrous oxide released from anaesthetics accounts for 0.05% of the greenhouse effect, while annual Norwegian emissions of nitrous oxide (less than 160 tons) comprise 0.2-0.4% of world total. Because of their favourable clinical properties and their modest contribution to ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, medical use of inhalational anaesthetic agents should not be banned. However, low flow anaesthetic techniques should be employed, in order to reduce their negative impacts on the atmosphere.

  4. "Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects": Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O

    2016-05-13

    The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as "everything is everywhere but the environment selects." While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge.

  5. Factoring in weather variation to capture the influence of urban design and built environment on globally recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children

    PubMed Central

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In curbing physical inactivity, as behavioural interventions directed at individuals have not produced a population-level change, an ecological perspective called active living research has gained prominence. However, active living research consistently underexplores the role played by a perennial phenomenon encompassing all other environmental exposures—variation in weather. After factoring in weather variation, this study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including urban design and built environment) on the accumulation of globally recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) in children. Design This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. As part of this study, Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Moreover, diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer) to derive MVPA of 331 10–14-year-old children in 25 1-week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample and matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Multilevel modelling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modelling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on the accumulation of recommended MVPA. Results Urban design, including diversity of destinations within neighbourhoods played a significant role in the accumulation of MVPA. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations) were more likely to accumulate

  6. Amelioration of cognitive impairment and changes in microtubule-associated protein 2 after transient global cerebral ischemia are influenced by complex environment experience.

    PubMed

    Briones, Teresita L; Woods, Julie; Wadowska, Magdalena; Rogozinska, Magdalena

    2006-04-01

    In this study we examined whether expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) after transient global cerebral ischemia can be influenced by behavioral experience and if the changes are associated with functional improvement. Rats received either ischemia or sham surgery then assigned to: complex environment housing (EC) or social housing (SC) as controls for 14 days followed by water maze testing. Upregulation of MAP2 was seen in all ischemic animals with a significant overall increase evident in the EC housed rats. Behaviorally, all animals learned to perform the water maze task over time but the ischemia SC rats had the worst performance overall while all the EC housed animals demonstrated the best performance in general. Regression analysis showed that increase MAP2 expression was able to explain some of the variance in the behavioral parameters in the water maze suggesting that this cytoskeletal protein probably played a role in mediating enhanced functional outcomes.

  7. Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: Impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. Dust plumes frequently cover huge areas of the earth; they are one of the most prominent and commonly visible features in satellite imagery. Dust is believed to play a role in many biogeochemical processes, but the importance of dust in these processes is not well understood because of the dearth of information about the global distribution of dust and its physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This paper describes some features of the large-scale distribution of dust and identifies some of the geological characteristics of important source areas. The transport of dust from North Africa is presented as an example of possible long-range dust effects, and the impact of African dust on environmental processes in the western North Atlantic and the southeastern United States is assessed. Dust transported over long distances usually has a mass median diameter <10 μm. Small wind-borne soil particles show signs of extensive weathering; consequently, the physical and chemical properties of the particles will greatly depend on the weathering history in the source region and on the subsequent modifications that occur during transit in the atmosphere (typically a period of a week or more). To fully understand the role of dust in the environment and in human health, mineralogists will have to work closely with scientists in other disciplines to characterize the properties of mineral particles as an ensemble and as individual particles especially with regard to surface characteristics. PMID:10097049

  8. Long-Range Transport of Mineral Dust in the Global Atmosphere: Impact of African Dust on the Environment of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    1999-03-01

    Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. Dust plumes frequently cover huge areas of the earth; they are one of the most prominent and commonly visible features in satellite imagery. Dust is believed to play a role in many biogeochemical processes, but the importance of dust in these processes is not well understood because of the dearth of information about the global distribution of dust and its physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This paper describes some features of the large-scale distribution of dust and identifies some of the geological characteristics of important source areas. The transport of dust from North Africa is presented as an example of possible long-range dust effects, and the impact of African dust on environmental processes in the western North Atlantic and the southeastern United States is assessed. Dust transported over long distances usually has a mass median diameter <10 μ m Small wind-borne soil particles show signs of extensive weathering; consequently, the physical and chemical properties of the particles will greatly depend on the weathering history in the source region and on the subsequent modifications that occur during transit in the atmosphere (typically a period of a week or more). To fully understand the role of dust in the environment and in human health, mineralogists will have to work closely with scientists in other disciplines to characterize the properties of mineral particles as an ensemble and as individual particles especially with regard to surface characteristics.

  9. Paleoclimatic insights from mapping the global distribution of non-glacial cryogenic landforms in sub-humid montane environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slee, Adrian; Shulmeister, James

    2015-04-01

    Much of the 'periglacial' literature is based on landforms and observations from either high mountains or continental environments dominated by strong winter cooling and/or permafrost conditions. Cryogenic conditions occur in many other settings and some of the most widespread are montane landscapes in mid- to low latitudes. In Australia observations of 'periglacial' landforms have traditionally been limited to higher elevation regions of the Australian Alps and central Tasmania. However, the distribution of relict cryogenic landforms is much wider and extends well into sub-tropical latitudes along the eastern highlands of Australia. Here we map the distribution of relict block deposits (block streams and block fields) of known cryogenic origin so as to delineate the limits of 'periglacial' climatic conditions during cold phases in the Late Quaternary. The mapping is based on image analyses supported by extensive and intensive ground truthing. Three distinct regimes are recognised - a high elevation winter wet regime (Mt Kosciuszko style); a temperate maritime westerly regime (Tasmania style) and, unexpectedly, an east coast (sub-tropical) regime (New England style). We utilise bio-climatic modelling to derive modern climate parameters from the distribution of the block deposits so as to map regions affected by cryogenic conditions in late Quaternary cold periods. We assumed that relative changes in mean cooling and precipitation would be shared by other mid-latitude climate locales worldwide and predicted the likely distribution of block deposits in these areas. A literature review confirms the presence of 'periglacial' style block deposits in the predicted regions, including part of the Iberian Peninsula, the Atlas and Drakensburg Mountains of Africa, the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, the higher volcanoes of Mexico and parts of China, all of which have mean annual precipitation similar to the New England area. However, we also note that many of these areas

  10. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Leisching, Gina; Pietersen, Ray-Dean; Mpongoshe, Vuyiseka; van Heerden, Carel; van Helden, Paul; Wiid, Ian; Baker, Bienyameen

    2016-01-01

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM) infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate) using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T), or in detergent-free medium (R179NT). RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14) were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not be used in

  11. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Leisching, Gina; Pietersen, Ray-Dean; Mpongoshe, Vuyiseka; van Heerden, Carel; van Helden, Paul; Wiid, Ian; Baker, Bienyameen

    2016-01-01

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM) infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate) using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T), or in detergent-free medium (R179NT). RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14) were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not be used in

  12. Calibration of a Soil Water Uptake Model Using Model Ensemble and Prior Information in a Semiarid Environment Using Global and Local Search Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta Lopez, M. P.; Wallender, W. W.; Schnabel, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    A common model used to simulate actual evapotranspiration in watershed scale hydrologic models is the Kristensen and Jensen model (e.g. Mike She or MODHMS models). While the Kristensen and Jensen model was originally developed for Nordic climates, it has been extensively used in other types of environments without specific calibration or testing of its performance in climates other than the one for which the model was developed. In semiarid watershed hydrology, evapotranspiration is the main output component of the mass balance and is critical for a correct description of the hydrologic processes during interstorm periods. In this work we calibrate and study the performance of the Kristensen and Jensen model in a semiarid rangeland environment in southwest Spain. For this, a full soil water atmosphere model was used to describe the water fluxes in a column of soil. The model describes variably saturated water flow in the soil using Richards' equation and the van Genuchten soil retention curves. The Kristensen and Jensen model is used to calculate direct evaporation and the water uptake by grass cover. Seven parameters are simultaneously calibrated. Two are for the van Genuchten retention curve and three for the Kristensen and Jensen model. Hydraulic conductivity is assumed to decay exponentially with depth. The decay exponent and the hydraulic conductivity at zero depth are the two remaining parameters to be calibrated. Given the large set of free parameters involved, the calibration set up involves two sources of information: soil moisture measurements at four different depths in the soil column and an auxiliary simple linear model relating maximum daily temperatures and average soil moisture; and two sources of prior information: field capacity measured on soil cores and the maximum dry weight biomass when the soil is fully covered by grass. A global search method (SCE-UA) is used to locate the global minimum in the allowed parameter error space and a local

  13. Food & Environment. Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Through articles and activities designed for the senior secondary level, students examine the food production system in British Columbia and the world and explore creative, sustainable alternatives for food production. A description of raising food in the first world with the critical issues of energy use and environmental degradation precedes a…

  14. Metrication in a global environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief history about the development of the metric system of measurement is given. The need for the U.S. to implement the 'SI' metric system in the international markets, especially in the aerospace and general trade, is discussed. Development of metric implementation and experiences locally, nationally, and internationally are included.

  15. Multi-kernel aggregation of local and global features in long-wave infrared for detection of SWAT teams in challenging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Ankit S.; Anderson, Derek T.; Bethel, Cindy L.; Carruth, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    A vision system was designed for people detection to provide support to SWAT team members operating in challenging environments such as low-to-no light, smoke, etc. When the vision system is mounted on a mobile robot platform: it will enable the robot to function as an effective member of the SWAT team; to provide surveillance information; to make first contact with suspects; and provide safe entry for team members. The vision task is challenging because SWAT team members are typically concealed, carry various equipment such as shields, and perform tactical and stealthy maneuvers. Occlusion is a particular challenge because team members operate in close proximity to one another. An uncooled electro-opticaljlong wav e infrared (EO/ LWIR) camera, 7.5 to 13.5 m, was used. A unique thermal dataset was collected of SWAT team members from multiple teams performing tactical maneuvers during monthly training exercises. Our approach consisted of two stages: an object detector trained on people to find candidate windows, and a secondary feature extraction, multi-kernel (MK) aggregation and classification step to distinguish between SWAT team members and civilians. Two types of thermal features, local and global, are presented based on ma ximally stable extremal region (MSER) blob detection. Support vector machine (SVM) classification results of approximately [70, 93]% for SWAT team member detection are reported based on the exploration of different combinations of visual information in terms of training data.

  16. Investigating the impacts of deep ocean euxinia on continental shelf environments during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: did changes in global oceanic redox have any effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, P. J.; Marenco, K. N.; Phillips, D. E.; Garcia, E.; Toure, N.; Fullem, A.

    2013-12-01

    ) as a proxy for global oceanic redox changes. Our δ34SCAS results correlate well with other published data and exhibit high values and high-magnitude fluctuations that suggest changes in deep ocean redox (e.g., Thompson and Kah, 2012, Marenco et al., 2013). However, TOC and TS abundances are uniformly low (less than 1 wt. % and 0.1 wt. %, respectively) throughout more than 800m of stratigraphic section in fossiliferous and unfossiliferous carbonates and shales. Although factors such as burial, sedimentation rate, and productivity need to be considered, our TOC and TS results suggest a lack of evidence for incursion of euxinic deep water into the shallow marine environments being investigated. Thus, it is possible that the availability of continental shelf area allowed the GOBE to proceed largely independently of changes in deep ocean redox.

  17. The Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability (GUPES): Networking of Higher Educational Institutions in Facilitating Implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradhan, Mahesh; Mariam, Ayombi

    2014-01-01

    This article will focus on involvement of Higher Education Institutions in promoting Education for Sustainable Development through UNEPs flagship programme Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability. To achieve this, the activities of the network are centered on three pillars: Education, Training and Networking.

  18. Globalization and American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  19. The Five E's: Ethnicity, Education, Economy, Equity, and Environment. Proceedings [of the] Annual Conference of the Global Awareness Society International (Chicago, Illinois, June 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, James H., Ed.; And Others

    The 23 conference papers in this proceedings include: (1) "Global Awareness Society International: Retrospectives and Prospectives" (Chang Shub Roh); (2) "Technology Transfer in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey (1989-1994)" (Huseyin Ates; Asim Sen); (3) "Indigenous People, Environmental Protection and Globalization" (Edward D. Barker); (4)…

  20. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  1. "Going Global": Conceptualization of the "Other" and Interpretation of Cross-Cultural Experience in an All-White, Rural Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung

    2006-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic case study done in an all-white, rural middle school, this article examines the students' experience with and interpretation of an international education program implemented with a hope of providing more global/international contents to the curriculum. The study shows that these students interpreted other cultures…

  2. The response of flowering time to global warming in a high-altitude plant: the impact of genetics and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change as a result of global warming may seriously affect plant reproduction. This is especially true for alpine plant species because they have few suitable alternative habitats to colonize. It is therefore important to determine the ability of high altitude plants to adapt to environmental...

  3. Energy. Our Common Home: Earth. A Curriculum Strategy to Affect Student Skills Development and Exposure to Diverse Global Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    One of a series of global education instructional units, this energy awareness curriculum was designed to be infused with existing social studies courses aimed at students in grades 5-12. Concept-based and skills-oriented, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of synthetic energy sources; human dependence…

  4. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  5. Ecosocial Studies: A Strategy to Develop Global Perspectives and Relationships Among Nations and Between Humans and Their Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Presented is a view of ecosocial studies as representing one instructional strategy which can be used in the classroom to develop global awareness and perspectives in elementary and secondary education students. In addition to defining the need for and scope of ecosocial studies, this document: (1) discusses the role of the social studies; (2)…

  6. Global Arrays

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  7. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  8. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  9. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  10. Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Salvucci, Gianluigi; Viviroli, Daniel; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    Proximity to the coast and elevation are important geographical considerations for human settlement. Little is known, however, about how spatial variation in these factors exactly relates to human settlements and activities, and how this has developed over time. Such knowledge is important for identifying vulnerable regions that are at risk from phenomena such as food shortages and water stress. Human activities are a key driving force in global change, and thus detailed information on population distribution is an important input to any research framework on global change. In this paper we assess the global geospatial patterns of the distribution of human population and related factors, with regard to the altitude above sea level and proximity to the coast. The investigated factors are physical conditions, urbanisation, agricultural practices, economy, and environmental stress. An important novel element in this study, is that we included the temporal evolution in various factors related to human settlements and agricultural practices over the 20th century, and used projections for some of these factors up to the year 2050. We found population pressure in the proximity of the coast to be somewhat greater than was found in other studies. Yet, the distribution of population, urbanisation and wealth are evolving to become more evenly spread across the globe than they were in the past. Therefore, the commonly believed tendency of accumulation of people and wealth along coasts is not supported by our results. At the same time, food production is becoming increasingly decoupled from the trends in population density. Croplands are spreading from highly populated coastal zones towards inland zones. Our results thus indicate that even though people and wealth continue to accumulate in proximity to the coast, population densities and economic productivity are becoming less diverse in relation to elevation and distance from the coast.

  11. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  12. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area. PMID:24346654

  13. Jerks as Guiding Influences on the Global Environment: Effects on the Solid Earth, Its Angular Momentum and Lithospheric Plate Motions, the Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. M.; Leybourne, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Jerks are thought to be the result of torques applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) caused by either of two possible processes, working together or separately: 1) Electromagnetic Induction and 2) Mechanical Slippage. In the first case, it is thought that electromagnetic energy slowly builds-up at the CMB, reaches some critical level, and is then suddenly released, causing a geomagneticly induced torque at the CMB due to the differential electrical conductivity between the lower mantle and the surface of the outer core. The second case is driven by stress and strain increases that buildup mechanical potential energy, which is released when a critical level is reached, thereby generating a torque at the CMB. Generally, a trigger is required to start the Jerk process in motion. In the electromagnetic case, it is suggested that energy from the Sun may supply the requisite energy buildup that is subsequently released by a magnetic storm trigger, for instance. In the case of mechanical slippage, bari-center motion among the Earth, Moon, and Sun, as well as tidal forces and mass redistributions through Earth's wobbles combine to provide the accumulated stress/strain buildup and subsequent trigger. The resulting fluid flow changes at the CMB result in geomagnetic field changes and Joule heating throughout the solid Earth, its oceans, and atmosphere. It is shown that the Global Temperature Anomaly (GTA), which is measured at Earth's surface, correlates with changes in the geomagnetic non-dipole moment, and thus with core fluid motions. This links Global Warming and weather with core processes, important examples being the 1930's Dust Bowl Era and the 1947 Impulse. The CMB torque also affects Earth's angular momentum. But it appears that magnetic storms can as well. As a consequence, the Jet Stream, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the Global Oscillation System (i.e., El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decade Oscillation, etc.) are

  14. Teaching for Global Perspective: A Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patricia Betts, Ed.

    This state resource guide of approximately 250 lesson units for teaching global studies provides 18 topics and from 3-12 lessons for each topic. The topics include global perspective, using models, balance of power, conflict, development, global environment, global resources, global trade, human rights, hunger, ideologies, international…

  15. Globalization and global health.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1999-01-01

    Along with the positive or negative consequences of the globalization of health, we can consider global health as a goal, responding to human rights and to common interests. History tells us that after the "microbial unification" of the world, which began in 1492, over three centuries elapsed before the recognition of common risks and attempts to cope with them in a cross-boundary effort. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the struggle against epidemics united countries, world health became a common goal, and considerable results were achieved. However, in recent decades the notion of health as a cornerstone of economic development has been replaced by the idea that public health and health services are an obstacle to the wealth of nations. Meanwhile, new common threats are growing: among them, the exacerbation of old infections and emergence of new ones, the impact of environmental changes, drug traffic on a world scale, and destructive and self-destructive violence. New and stronger empirical motives relate the interests of peoples to universal rights and to global health. The author concludes with some proposals for policies.

  16. Employing Cloud Services to Augment the Processing and Dissemination of Global GEO Satellite Cloud Products from a Distributed and Heterogeneous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Spangenberg, D.; Chu, C.; Mitrescu, C.; Vakhnin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Processing and deriving satellite cloud properties from operational geostationary satellites products is an important task for NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group. With the increase in temporal and spatial resolution of satellite imager sensors, additional computing resources are required. We look to Amazon Web Services (AWS) to augment our computing, storage, and data distribution requirements. This work will describe our current web of data flow, distributed processing systems, and our use of AWS to ingest, produce, and publish over 50 TB of satellite data that are fused and interconnected using varies technologies and protocols. In addition, we will discuss future directions with AWS and leverage this common computing environment to promote unification of real-time processing systems and visualization tools to access a large repository of data products.

  17. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, A F; Van Drecht, G; van der Hoek, K W

    2005-12-01

    Abstract Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals. In most industrialized countries we see a gradual increase of the overall N recovery of the intensive agricultural production systems over the whole 1970-2030 period. In contrast, low N input systems in many developing countries sustained low crop yields for many years but at the cost of soil fertility by depleting soil nutrient pools. In most developing countries the N recovery will increase in the coming decades by increasing efficiencies of N use in both crop and livestock production systems. The surface balance surplus of N is lost from the agricultural system via different pathways, including NH3 volatilization, denitrification, N20 and NO emissions, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Global NH3-N emissions from fertilizer and animal manure application and stored manure increased from 18 to 34 Tg x yr(-1) between 1970 and 1995, and will further increase to 44 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030. Similar developments are seen for N2O-N (2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970, 2.7 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 3.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030) and NO-N emissions (1.1 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970, 1.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030).

  18. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species' traits and environment

    PubMed Central

    Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Hulme, Philip E; Pergl, Jan; Hejda, Martin; Schaffner, Urs; Vilà, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    With the growing body of literature assessing the impact of invasive alien plants on resident species and ecosystems, a comprehensive assessment of the relationship between invasive species traits and environmental settings of invasion on the characteristics of impacts is needed. Based on 287 publications with 1551 individual cases that addressed the impact of 167 invasive plant species belonging to 49 families, we present the first global overview of frequencies of significant and non-significant ecological impacts and their directions on 15 outcomes related to the responses of resident populations, species, communities and ecosystems. Species and community outcomes tend to decline following invasions, especially those for plants, but the abundance and richness of the soil biota, as well as concentrations of soil nutrients and water, more often increase than decrease following invasion. Data mining tools revealed that invasive plants exert consistent significant impacts on some outcomes (survival of resident biota, activity of resident animals, resident community productivity, mineral and nutrient content in plant tissues, and fire frequency and intensity), whereas for outcomes at the community level, such as species richness, diversity and soil resources, the significance of impacts is determined by interactions between species traits and the biome invaded. The latter outcomes are most likely to be impacted by annual grasses, and by wind pollinated trees invading mediterranean or tropical biomes. One of the clearest signals in this analysis is that invasive plants are far more likely to cause significant impacts on resident plant and animal richness on islands rather than mainland. This study shows that there is no universal measure of impact and the pattern observed depends on the ecological measure examined. Although impact is strongly context dependent, some species traits, especially life form, stature and pollination syndrome, may provide a means to predict

  19. Global transcriptional response of the alkali-tolerant cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to a pH 10 environment.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Tina C; Sherman, Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Many cyanobacterial strains are able to grow at a pH range from neutral to pH 10 or 11. Such alkaline conditions favor cyanobacterial growth (e.g., bloom formation), and cyanobacteria must have developed strategies to adjust to changes in CO2 concentration and ion availability. Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 exhibits similar photoautotrophic growth characteristics at pH 10 and pH 7.5, and we examined global gene expression following transfer from pH 7.5 to pH 10 to determine cellular adaptations at an elevated pH. The strategies used to develop homeostasis at alkaline pH had elements similar to those of many bacteria, as well as components unique to phototrophic microbes. Some of the response mechanisms previously identified in other bacteria included upregulation of Na+/H+ antiporters, deaminases, and ATP synthase. In addition, upregulated genes encoded transporters with the potential to contribute to osmotic, pH, and ion homeostasis (e.g., a water channel protein, a large-conductance mechanosensitive channel, a putative anion efflux transporter, a hexose/proton symporter, and ABC transporters of unidentified substrates). Transcriptional changes specific to photosynthetic microbes involved NADH dehydrogenases and CO2 fixation. The pH transition altered the CO2/HCO3(-) ratio within the cell, and the upregulation of three inducible bicarbonate transporters (BCT1, SbtA, and NDH-1S) likely reflected a response to this perturbed ratio. Consistent with this was increased transcript abundance of genes encoding carboxysome structural proteins and carbonic anhydrase. Interestingly, the transition to pH 10 resulted in increased abundance of transcripts of photosystem II genes encoding extrinsic and low-molecular-weight polypeptides, although there was little change in photosystem I gene transcripts. PMID:18606800

  20. Global perspectives: A new global ethic, a new global partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1990-06-01

    In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new global partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for global change.

  1. “Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects”: Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V.; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as “everything is everywhere but the environment selects.” While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge. PMID:27190206

  2. Technology and Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  3. Global warming. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and Environmental Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a warming trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential environmental destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.

  4. Application of δ13c Values Recorded in Neoproterozoic Marine Dolomite As a Marker for Global Correlations: Significance of Major δ13c Variations for the Carbon Cycle Based on Studies of Modern Dolomite Precipitating Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since the early Paleozoic, the average bulk δ13C value of marine carbonates has remained relatively positive varying between 0 and +4‰ with distinctive positive excursions that are associated with global changes in the carbon cycle. Unlike the Phanerozoic δ13C data for marine limestones, a major δ13C excursion has been recorded in a globally deposited Neoproterozoic marine dolomite formation, known as the cap dolostone. This excursion with δ13C values ranging systematically between -3 and -5‰ represents a global chronstratigraphic marker used to correlate the end of the major Marinoan glaciation at 636 Ma1. Does this excursion signify a primary seawater value and how might it be interpreted as a primary carbon cycle signal, considering the widespread distribution of the cap dolostone? Studies of modern dolomite precipitating environments, such as supratidal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. and Qatar and coastal hypersaline lagoons of Rio de Janiero State, Brazil, indicate that microbial activity or the biological products, thereof, influence or mediate mineral formation. The precipitating solutions are sourced from normal seawater, which has experienced variable stages of concentration through evaporative processes. Comparison of δ13C values of sabkha dolomite with that formed in the hypersaline lagoons reveals that the former are always rather positive (approx. +2 to +7 ‰), whereas the latter are always negative (approx. -5‰ to -11‰). During very early diagenesis, the original δ13C value of the initial precipitate is not necessarily retained, indicating that synsedimentary processes can alter the carbon signal prior to burial and later diagenesis. However, the potential for very early lithification of microbial dolomite promotes the preservation of original δ13C values, which, thus, can be useful for evaluation of the ancient carbon cycle. 1Halverson, G.P. et al., 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record, GSA Bulletin, v. 117, p

  5. The response of the Okhotsk Sea environment to the orbital-millennium global climate changes during the Last Glacial Maximum, deglaciation and Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbarenko, Sergey A.; Artemova, Antonina V.; Goldberg, Evgeniy L.; Vasilenko, Yuriy P.

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of regional climate and the Okhotsk Sea (OS) environment for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation and Holocene was performed on the basis of high-resolution records of ice rafted debris (IRD), СаСО3, opal, total organic carbon (TOС), biogenic Ba (Ba_bio) and redox sensitive element (Mn, Mo) content, and diatom and pollen results of four cores that form a north-southern transect. Age models of the studied cores were earlier established by AMS 14C data, oxygen-isotope chronostratigraphy and tephrochronology. According to received results, since 25 ka the regional climate and OS environmental conditions have changed synchronously with LGM condition, cold Heinrich event 1, Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming, Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and Pre-Boreal (PB) warming recorded in the Greenland ice core, North Atlantic sediment, and China cave stalagmites. Calculation of IRD MAR in sediment of north-south transect cores indicates an increase of sea ice formation several times in the glacial OS as compared to the Late Holocene. Accompanying ice formation, increased brine rejection and the larger potential density of surface water at the north shelf due to a drop of glacial East Asia summer monsoon precipitation and Amur River run off, led to strong enhancement of the role of the OS in glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation. The remarkable increase in OS productivity during BA and PB warming was probably related with significant reorganisation of the North Pacific deep water ventilation and nutrient input into the NPIW and OS Intermediate Water (OSIW). Seven Holocene OS millennial cold events based on the elevated values of the detrended IRD stack record over the IRD broad trend in the sediments of the studied cores have occurred synchronously with cold events recorded in the North Atlantic, Greenland ice cores and China cave stalagmites after 9 ka. Diatom production in the OS was mostly controlled by sea ice cover changes and surface

  6. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  7. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  8. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  9. Energy and Global Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Author believes that the nuclear fuel cycle is damaging to our health, physical system, ecosystem, and social system. He recommends reversing the trend toward nuclear power and solving the energy crisis by creating a global society able to live in balance with its physical environment. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York…

  10. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  11. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals. PMID:25276514

  12. Developing a Global Mindset: Learning of Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Khilji, Shaista E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the requirements of leading in a global environment as perceived by the leaders participating in this study as well as the way these leaders learn and develop their global mindset. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology informed by social constructivism included…

  13. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  14. Population, environment, medicine and global sustainability.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The final two decades of this century see our planet in a highly perilous condition. This paper, after touching on the problem of nuclear proliferation, goes on to consider three other issues overpopulation, environmental depredation and the future of medical practice all of which are of high salience. The section on population concentrates on the time required for numbers to stabilize at two children per family. Europe is likely to attain stabilization before 2050, North America and the USSR by 2100. In the developing world South and East Asia could also be in balance by the beginning of the twenty-second century; but the situation in Africa vis-à-vis population growth is much more serious and stabilization cannot be anticipated until about 2150. Destruction of life support systems on a massive scale continues, particularly in developing countries. Much of Asia, Africa and Latin America is riddled with soil erosion; expanding populations of humans and livestock are proving a notable catalyst to desertification; the 'firewood crisis' is deepening as slowly but surely the earth is being deforested. There is little convincing evidence that the major aims of the World Conservation Strategy maintenance and responsible utilization of essential ecological systems, preservation of genetic diversity are being obeyed anywhere in the world. In the more sustainable society of the future engineering medicine with its proclivity for resource depletion will be less attractive. Rather will the emphasis be on prevention and on attempting to delineate the environmental factors known to be responsible for an increasing number of diseases. The likely pattern of morbidity and mortality in the twenty-first century is discussed. Geriatric medicine will hold pride of place; the incidence of cancer will rise markedly, and as an increasing number of Third World nations undergo the process of development diseases, which up till now have mainly affected affluent technological societies, it will spread throughout the planet. PMID:6765304

  15. Population, environment, medicine and global sustainability.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The final two decades of this century see our planet in a highly perilous condition. This paper, after touching on the problem of nuclear proliferation, goes on to consider three other issues overpopulation, environmental depredation and the future of medical practice all of which are of high salience. The section on population concentrates on the time required for numbers to stabilize at two children per family. Europe is likely to attain stabilization before 2050, North America and the USSR by 2100. In the developing world South and East Asia could also be in balance by the beginning of the twenty-second century; but the situation in Africa vis-à-vis population growth is much more serious and stabilization cannot be anticipated until about 2150. Destruction of life support systems on a massive scale continues, particularly in developing countries. Much of Asia, Africa and Latin America is riddled with soil erosion; expanding populations of humans and livestock are proving a notable catalyst to desertification; the 'firewood crisis' is deepening as slowly but surely the earth is being deforested. There is little convincing evidence that the major aims of the World Conservation Strategy maintenance and responsible utilization of essential ecological systems, preservation of genetic diversity are being obeyed anywhere in the world. In the more sustainable society of the future engineering medicine with its proclivity for resource depletion will be less attractive. Rather will the emphasis be on prevention and on attempting to delineate the environmental factors known to be responsible for an increasing number of diseases. The likely pattern of morbidity and mortality in the twenty-first century is discussed. Geriatric medicine will hold pride of place; the incidence of cancer will rise markedly, and as an increasing number of Third World nations undergo the process of development diseases, which up till now have mainly affected affluent technological societies, it will spread throughout the planet.

  16. Your Students: Global or Articulated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Wallace P.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses the psychological concept of differentiation,'' its two extremes (global and articulated), and the effects this trait can have on a child's education (articulated children break down their environment into functional and perceptual components while the global person does not change the framework of his perceptions). (JA)

  17. Year 2000--A Global Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    By 2000 A.D. there is a great potential for progressive impoverishment of world resources and degradation of the global environment. This adaptation of the report "Global Future: Time to Act", summarizes a reconnaisance of the future as it might be if no preventative measures are taken. As the world becomes more crowded, polluted, vulnerable to…

  18. Globalization: Separating Fact from Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics Trends, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the new environment of increased international trade and investment flows, human resources represent the key competitive edge of this interconnected global economy. The share the United States has of worldwide output is shrinking. This issue explores data that provide a snapshot of how globalization is affecting the economy and changing its…

  19. Effects of individual characteristics and school environment on cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15: A multilevel analysis of the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Minh, Hoang; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Quynh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Vietnam ages 13-15 and examines its relationship with compositional and contextual factors. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in nine provinces in Vietnam. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to analyse the association between the current incidence of cigarette smoking and factors on both the individual and school level. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students was 3.3% overall. The prevalence of smoking among male students (5.9%) was higher than that among females (1.2%). Parental smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking among the students. Having a friend who smoked was the strongest predictor of smoking status among the study subjects. We have demonstrated that school-level factors appeared to impact the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15. This paper highlights the importance of utilising an extensive range of actions to prevent students from using tobacco in Vietnam. These actions should include providing specific curricula for students that address both individual characteristics and the school environment. Further, prevention programmes should also target both parental- and peer-smoking issues.

  20. Global Resources, Environment, and Population Act of 1983. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2491 (July 26, 1984). Serial No. 98-49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.

    These hearings focused on issues and topics related to House Resolution 2491. The major purposes of this proposed lesiglation are to: (1) establish in the federal government a global foresight capability with respect to natural resources, the environment, and population; (2) establish a national population policy; and (3) establish an interagency…

  1. Global environmental report card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Worldwatch Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, issued a gloomy yet hopeful annual “State of the World” report on global environmental trends on 10 January.The report notes some recent successful efforts to protect the environment, including the phasing out of the production of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the 2001 signing of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Nonetheless, the report calls for a global war on environmental degradation “that is as aggressive and well-funded as the war on terrorism” following the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States.

  2. State of the Earth’s cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century : glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments: Chapter A in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2012-01-01

    critically important hydrologic cycle, in which glacier ice is the second largest reservoir of water after the oceans. The second part assesses the state of glaciers in all of the glacierized regions of the planet, primarily as drawn in the other 10 chapters. It includes sections on ice cores and the climate record they contain, volumetric changes in glaciers, harnessing spaceborne sensors to measure changes in glaciers, and related topics. The third part summarizes trends in global snow cover. The fourth part summarizes long-term changes in area and thickness of floating ice, including polar sea ice and freshwater (lake and river) ice. The fifth part assesses the loss of permafrost and changes in periglacial environments at high latitudes and high altitudes.

  3. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...

  4. Global Albedo

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... estimation of crop yields and disease outbreaks) and land management. Global MISR DHR maps are also available for all other parts of the ... of Directional Hemispherical Reflectance. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  5. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  6. Globalization and Migration: Some Pressing Contradictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Examines the contradictions of inclusion and exclusion of group members, the state and market, growing wealth and impoverishment, networks and the self, global and local levels, economy and environment, modernity and postmodernity, citizen as a national and global citizen, and globalization from above and below. Illustrates each contradiction by…

  7. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  8. Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushell, Brenda

    Rationale and techniques for incorporating global environmental education into second language instruction are discussed. The approach suggested combines infusion of environmental issues into the curriculum and presentation of a global perspective on environmental problems and their solutions. Six concepts of global education are outlined:…

  9. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  10. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  11. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  12. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  13. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  14. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…

  15. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-05-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  16. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  17. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  18. The UNEP State of the Environment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Presents information from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) 1989 State of the World Environment Report. Provides an overview of global environmental concerns, including overpopulation, air and water pollution, global warming, hazardous waste disposal, and species extinction. Reaffirms the need to dedicate research and development…

  19. Global proliferation of cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Doubleday, Zoë A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Arkhipkin, Alexander; Pierce, Graham J; Semmens, Jayson; Steer, Michael; Leporati, Stephen C; Lourenço, Sílvia; Quetglas, Antoni; Sauer, Warwick; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2016-05-23

    Human activities have substantially changed the world's oceans in recent decades, altering marine food webs, habitats and biogeochemical processes [1]. Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopuses) have a unique set of biological traits, including rapid growth, short lifespans and strong life-history plasticity, allowing them to adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions [2-4]. There has been growing speculation that cephalopod populations are proliferating in response to a changing environment, a perception fuelled by increasing trends in cephalopod fisheries catch [4,5]. To investigate long-term trends in cephalopod abundance, we assembled global time-series of cephalopod catch rates (catch per unit of fishing or sampling effort). We show that cephalopod populations have increased over the last six decades, a result that was remarkably consistent across a highly diverse set of cephalopod taxa. Positive trends were also evident for both fisheries-dependent and fisheries-independent time-series, suggesting that trends are not solely due to factors associated with developing fisheries. Our results suggest that large-scale, directional processes, common to a range of coastal and oceanic environments, are responsible. This study presents the first evidence that cephalopod populations have increased globally, indicating that these ecologically and commercially important invertebrates may have benefited from a changing ocean environment. PMID:27218844

  20. Built environment and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pasala, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, Allam Appa; Sridhar, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is influenced by built environment, which is, ‘the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution.’ Built environment contributes to diabetes through access to physical activity and through stress, by affecting the sleep cycle. With globalization, there is a possibility that western environmental models may be replicated in developing countries such as India, where the underlying genetic predisposition makes them particularly susceptible to diabetes. Here we review published information on the relationship between built environment and diabetes, so that appropriate modifications can be incorporated to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:20535308

  1. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order.

  2. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order. PMID:16495684

  3. Global Issues and Environmental Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    An action of an individual or a societal action that has an impact on other societies constitutes a "global issue." Global climate change, airborne toxins, ozone depletion, and solid waste management are a few of the global issues concerning the environment. This digest discusses methods by which students learn about global issues and acquire…

  4. The global ocean microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-12-11

    The microbiome of the largest environment on Earth has been gradually revealing its secrets over four decades of study. Despite the dispersed nature of substrates and the transience of surfaces, marine microbes drive essential transformations in all global elemental cycles. Much has been learned about the microbes that carry out key biogeochemical processes, but there are still plenty of ambiguities about the factors important in regulating activity, including the role of microbial interactions. Identifying the molecular "currencies" exchanged within the microbial community will provide key information on microbiome function and its vulnerability to environmental change.

  5. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2016-07-12

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  6. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  7. Global Data Toolset (GDT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Riegle, Jodi L.

    2007-01-01

    According to the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) approximately 60 percent of the data contained in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has missing or incomplete boundary information. As a result, global analyses based on the WDPA can be inaccurate, and professionals responsible for natural resource planning and priority setting must rely on incomplete geospatial data sets. To begin to address this problem the World Data Center for Biodiversity and Ecology, in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), the Global Earth Observation System, and the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) sponsored a Protected Area (PA) workshop in Asuncion, Paraguay, in November 2007. The primary goal of this workshop was to train representatives from eight South American countries on the use of the Global Data Toolset (GDT) for reviewing and editing PA data. Use of the GDT will allow PA experts to compare their national data to other data sets, including non-governmental organization (NGO) and WCMC data, in order to highlight inaccuracies or gaps in the data, and then to apply any needed edits, especially in the delineation of the PA boundaries. In addition, familiarizing the participants with the web-enabled GDT will allow them to maintain and improve their data after the workshop. Once data edits have been completed the GDT will also allow the country authorities to perform any required review and validation processing. Once validated, the data can be used to update the global WDPA and IABIN databases, which will enhance analysis on global and regional levels.

  8. ABB and the global market

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, G. )

    1994-09-01

    Competing in a global environment implies that the authors previous business environment has been less than global, and there are indeed changes underway that lead to a more universal environment. But, there are still differences between regions and especially between the mature economies in the OECD countries and the rapidly developing countries, of which a majority are in Asia. For the OECD countries, the time after World War 2 and up to about 1970 was a period of unprecedented growth. Rebuilding after the war and a general growth of the use of electric power required high investments in power systems and caused a booming market for equipment suppliers. After a trend break in the beginning of the 1970s to less than 40 GW 10 years later, then slowly increased to about 50 GW today. At the same time, annual capacity growth in developing countries increased from less than 20 GW to about 50 GW, i.e. the same level as in OECD. This means that ABB is now passing a cross-over point: from now on less than half of their global market is in their well-known OECD world. And this share will continue to shrink. ABB is now restructuring to fulfill market needs in less developed, developing, and newly industrialized countries. This is the most important change in their global environment is addressed in this article.

  9. Social Capital and Global Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Natalie S.; Fierro, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of development of cultural knowledge and cosmopolitan identities among international management students in multicultural learning environments and to investigate how international business students develop global mindset during their studies. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative…

  10. Global climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kargel, J S; Strom, R G

    1996-11-01

    The authors examine evidence from Mariner and Viking probes of the Martian environment to support theories of a global climate change on Mars. Similarities between some geographical features on Earth and Mars are used to suggest a warmer climate on Mars in the past. An overview of planned Mars exploration missions is included.

  11. Global teaching of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  12. Global Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  13. The Global Network Society and STS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard

    1999-01-01

    Anticipates the impact of the globalization of markets and expanding communication technology upon education in science, technology, and society (STS). Considers the effects on curriculum, instructional methods, learning environments, and administration. (DDR)

  14. Geography's Role in Promoting Global Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1983-01-01

    Modern geography instruction should contribute to multidisciplinary global studies by making students aware of human modification of the earth's environment and of the relationships between human behavior, culture, and the natural habitat. (MJL)

  15. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  16. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  17. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  18. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  19. The Global 2000 Report to the President. Volume Three. Documentation on the Government's Global Sectoral Models: The Government's "Global Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Gerald O., Ed.

    The third volume of the Global 2000 study presents basic information ("documentation") on the long-term sectoral models used by the U.S. government to project global trends in population, resources, and the environment. Its threefold purposes are: (1) to present all this basic information in a single volume, (2) to provide an explanation, in the…

  20. Global Energy Futures Model

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data frommore » 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.« less

  1. Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

  2. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  3. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  4. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  5. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  6. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  7. Global cooling?

    PubMed

    Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

    1976-08-01

    The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes.

  8. Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.S.

    1992-12-31

    A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

  9. Consequences of nuclear war on the global environment. Report by the Committee on Science and Technology together with minority and dissenting views, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, House Report No. 98-344

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The results of a nuclear war could include a number of medical and ecological risks from high radiation, post-war epidemics, sun screening, smog, and the depletion of atmospheric ozone. On the basis of these findings, the Subcommittee recommends a global coordinated effort in the nature of an international year of research, some of the components of which are already in effect, followed by a comprehensive set of hearings. The report summarizes the findings on each of the effects and the issues raised by the Subcommittee in its research. Eight appendices and summaries of the minority and dissenting views complete the report. 101 references. (DCK)

  10. Mercury's global fabric of thrust faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury's global tectonic history is thought to have been shaped by two major processes: tidal despinning and global contraction. Each process is expected to have produced a distinctive global stress field and resultant fault pattern. Data from three years of orbital operations by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft reveal thousands of thrust faults that are attributed to global contraction, but no global signature of tidal despinning has been conclusively documented. Global contraction operated throughout an extended portion of Mercury's geologic history, whereas tidal despinning likely operated for a shorter duration. Therefore, any tidal despinning pattern, if not entirely obliterated by the late heavy bombardment, either would have formed together with global contraction, or would have been modified by global contraction after despinning was complete. Here, we reassess global fracture patterns predicted to result from tidal despinning alone, and from a combination of tidal despinning and global contraction. We specifically make use of rock strength and deformability parameters appropriate for Mercury's fractured lithosphere. Our results indicate that a tidal despinning pattern would consist only of a global set of opening-mode fractures (joints) in the upper part of the lithosphere, whereas the combination of tidal despinning and global contraction would have produced a global population of thrust faults, with no preferred orientations in the polar regions but with an increasing preference for north-south orientations toward the equator. If an equatorial bulge from an early state of rapid spin were supported by Mercury's lithosphere, two end-member scenarios for the timing and duration of these two processes can be considered. In one, tidal despinning predated global contraction; in the other, tidal despinning and global contraction temporally overlapped. We test the predictions for both scenarios against the

  11. Global change and the ecology of cities.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Nancy B; Faeth, Stanley H; Golubiewski, Nancy E; Redman, Charles L; Wu, Jianguo; Bai, Xuemei; Briggs, John M

    2008-02-01

    Urban areas are hot spots that drive environmental change at multiple scales. Material demands of production and human consumption alter land use and cover, biodiversity, and hydrosystems locally to regionally, and urban waste discharge affects local to global biogeochemical cycles and climate. For urbanites, however, global environmental changes are swamped by dramatic changes in the local environment. Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects. Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world.

  12. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap. PMID:21896361

  13. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap.

  14. Synthetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  15. Global change research highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1995-12-31

    Wood - the fuel source of the past - is expected to be a fuel source of the future. Fast growing trees are being cloned and nurtured for conversion to biofuels to replace or supplement gasoline for transportation. The future may also bring higher temperatures and drought if global climate changes as predicted. So, it seems practical to raise fastgrowing trees that not only provide fuel by capturing carbon from the atmosphere (helping to deter climate change) but also flourish under dry conditions. A recent ORNL finding has bearing on this goal. Hybrid willow trees have been cloned because they grow fast and serve as good fuel sources. However, there are important gender differences. Male willow clones are generally more tolerant of drought than female willows. Also, male willows cause no weed problems because they do not disperse seeds. In addition research work has looked at the impact of enhanced carbon dioxide environments on the growth of trees and the potential sequestering of carbon dioxide into the trees or soils. Scientists have found that ground-level ozone in the environment can reduce the growth of the loblolly pine, a forest tree species of great economic importance in the Southeast. It is predicted that global warming could lead to changes in regional precipitation, even periods of drought. How would climate change affect the growth of forest trees? This is a question ORNL has been attempting to answer. Geologic records have been studied by means of isotope ratio techniques to study reasons for vegetation changes in the past. The question is what was the reason for these changes.

  16. The Global Soil Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  17. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  18. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  19. Global trends in mercury management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  20. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  1. Scalable Networked Information Processing Environment (SNIPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K.; Dongarra, J.J. |; Geist, A.

    1997-11-01

    SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.

  2. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  3. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  4. The environment and the eye.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G J

    2004-12-01

    The use of the 'environment' has become extended to include population changes, the 'domestic' environment, and cultural factors, in addition to physical influences such as global warming and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The likely effects of each of these classes of agents on the eye and rates of blindness are illustrated by reference mainly to cataract and trachoma--two of the commonest causes of the world blindness.Trachoma infection and its blinding consequences could be eventually eliminated by environmental measures and changes in behaviour. While the threat of increased incidence of blindness from cataract due to ozone depletion and greater solar UVR has receded, global warming may become a factor in the early onset and rapid progression of cataract. Although we continue to need research into the physical and biological causes of cataract, elimination of world blindness will only be achieved when we understand the conceptual and cultural environments which are inhibiting the acceptance of cataract surgery.

  5. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.

  6. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

  7. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global dynamics; and…

  8. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  9. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  10. BETR Global - A geographically explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Macleod, M.; Waldow, H. von; Tay, P.; Armitage, J. M.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Riley, W.; McKone, T. E.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2011-04-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15{sup o} x 15{sup o} grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  11. Land-related global habitability science issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The scientific investigation of the viewpoint of the biosphere that living organisms and their physical and chemical environment are bound, inseparable parts of one set of closely coupled global processes of the global biogeochemical system, life and life support cycles, is discussed as one of the major scientific challenges of the next decade by building from understanding land processes to interdisciplinary, holistic studies of biospheric dynamics including human impacts.

  12. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Grob, G.R.

    1998-02-01

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  13. Transforming Academic Globalization into Globalization for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Driving innovation and continuous improvement with regard to ecological, environmental and human sustainability is essential for win-win globalization. That calls for research on strategic and monitoring planning to manage globalization and technological and scientific change. This paper describes a new basic function of the university institution…

  14. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  15. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere.

  16. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...

  17. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...

  18. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...

  19. Environment matters

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This year's annual review is devoted to the theme of environmental health. It contains: an overview by the Director of the World Bank's Environment Department, J. Warren Evans; viewpoints on health risks of environmental pollution, integrating health concerns into carbon planning, sanitation in the world's poorest countries and impacts of indoor air pollution on health; and reviews on the World Bank's efforts to adapt safeguards to demanding priorities and on the Banks' 2005 environmental portfolio. Feature articles include a review of the Bank's Clean Air Initiative (now active in Africa, South and East Asia and Latin America). Reviews of work in the Bank's six regions focus on efforts to address the linkages among poverty, environmental pollution and human health.

  20. Global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  1. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  2. Used planet: A global history

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  3. Rust fungi and global change.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    Rust fungi are important components of ecological communities and in ecosystem function. Their unique life strategies as biotrophic pathogens with complicated life cycles could make them vulnerable to global environmental change. While there are gaps in our knowledge, especially in natural plant–rust systems, this review of the exposure of rust fungi to global change parameters revealed that some host–rust relationships would decline under predicted environmental change scenarios, whereas others would either remain unchanged or become more prevalent. Notably, some graminicolous rusts are negatively affected by higher temperatures and increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2. An increase of atmospheric O3 appears to favour rust diseases on trees but not those on grasses. Combined effects of CO2 and O3 are intermediary. The most important global drivers for the geographical and host plant range expansion and prevalence of rusts, however, are global plant trade, host plant genetic homogenization and the regular occurrence of conducive environmental conditions, especially the availability of moisture. However, while rusts thrive in high-humidity environments, they can also survive in desert habitats, and as a group their environmental tolerance is large, with no conclusive change in their overall prevalence predictable to date.

  4. Reconciliation of global temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    In recent years there has been a public debate about whether the rate of global warming has waned, prompting the paper 'Is the climate warming or cooling?' in Geophysical Research Letters by Easterling and Wehner (2009). This question has also attracted attention in wider scientific circles, and in a recent paper in Science, Solomon et al (2010) suggested that a decrease in stratospheric water vapour concentrations has slowed the global surface temperature rate between 2000 and 2009. Yet another study by Kaufmann et al (2011) argued that the 'hiatus' in the global warming coincided with near constant combined anthropogenic and natural forcings. The reason: a declining solar insolation, a shift to La Niña conditions and a rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions have masked the effect from rising greenhouse gas concentrations (GHGs). So, what is new? In the paper 'Global temperature evolution 1979-2010', Foster and Rahmstorf (2011) re-examine the situation. Whereas Kaufmann's group only examined the global temperature record from the Hadley Centre and Climate Research Unit (HadCRUT3; Brohan et al 2006) in the United Kingdom, Foster and Rahmstorf present an analysis of the range of available historical temperature records, both from surface thermometers and satellite-based remote sensing. There is one caveat associated with the analysis that Kaufmann's group carried out, which is that the HadCRUT3 record does not fully capture recent enhanced warming over the Arctic, thereby underestimating the evolution of the true global mean compared with other sources. Other analyses, such as the one from NASA/GISS (GISSTEMP; Hansen et al 2010) and those based on atmospheric models (e.g. Kalnay et al 1996), cover the Arctic region better by interpolating the values surrounding the data void or taking physics into account. These, and independent indices such as sea-ice extent (Kinnard et al 2011), ice melting over Greenland (Mernild et al 2009) and permafrost thawing

  5. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeburgh, W. S.

    2003-12-01

    impact of CH4 on climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published periodic updates (see, e.g., IPCC, 2001).Substantial advances have resulted from research aimed at understanding the global CH4 mixing ratio increase. Time-series measurements of atmospheric CH4 have continued, new CH4 flux measurements in a range of environments have been reported, and data allowing use of the stable isotope (13C/12C, 2H/1H) composition of CH4 as an independent budget constraint have increased. The importance of microbial oxidation of CH4 has been recognized and modeled; the possible role of CH4 clathrate hydrates in the global budget has been clarified with the introduction of new technology. Studies of CH4 trapped in ice cores from the Greenland and Antarctic ice caps have continued, resulting in higher-resolution records and new interpretations of past conditions. There have been few recent changes in our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of CH4, and since this is covered in Cicerone and Oremland (1988) it will not be covered here. The aim here is not to repeat information contained in the reviews mentioned above, but to present results that have appeared in the literature since their publication, to outline major questions, and to point to promising new approaches.

  6. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action.

  7. A massive global effort.

    PubMed

    Mcnamara, R S

    1994-06-01

    The former president of the World Bank sees rapid growth as one of the greatest barriers to economic growth and social well-being of people in developing countries. Growth rates are so high that three billion people will be added to global population over the next thirty years. It is clear that the reduction in population growth rates must be accelerated. Only by acting now can we deal with the problem without coercive policies and programs. The author argues that high population growth aggravates poverty in developing countries, adversely affects the role and status of women and the health and opportunities of their children, and increases the danger that the present courses of economic development in developed and developing countries are unsustainable and threaten to destroy our physical environment. He reviews population growth, past and projected, and considers the relationship between population growth and sustainable development; the relationship of population growth to economic development and the alleviation of poverty; the impact of population growth rates on the status of women and children; implications of the adverse effects of high fertility rates for population policy; a program to reduce rates of population growth; financial requirements of the proposed program; organizing to carry out the program; and a leadership role for Japan in family planning programs.

  8. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  9. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health.

  10. IMERG Global Precipitation Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first global map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...

  11. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... repository Reports Country statistics Map gallery Standards Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Monitoring health for the SDGs ... relevant web pages on the theme. Monitoring the health goal: indicators of overall progress Mortality and global ...

  12. Global Tuberculosis Report 2015

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis The End TB Strategy Areas ... data News, events and features About us Global tuberculosis report 2015 This is the twentieth global report ...

  13. Global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

  14. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  15. Programming environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Dieter; Sommer, Manfred; Stadel, Manfred

    1986-08-01

    This paper covers the implementation part of the software life cycle. It gives a survey of important tools and their user interface to assist the software developer. With these tools, programs can be edited, compiled and tested, and the various documents and finished programs can be managed in library systems. Programs have to be developed and modified by editors. The different kinds of editors, such as text editors, syntax oriented editors and syntax directed editors, are described and their advantages and current limitations for program development are discussed in the second part of this paper. Developed software has to be tested. Debuggers are tools which assist the software developer by discovering errors in a program. Therefore, requirement for such debuggers, their user interface and different realization approaches are described in the third part. The development of software systems leads to several versions and variants of the program. For each version, extensive documents such as design and specification documents as well as software modules will be produced. They are managed by library systems as they are described in the fourth part. The survey ends with the description of three examples of integrated programming environments: the GANDALF System, the Cornell Program Synthesizer and the Siemens Pascal-XT System

  16. Mapping Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  17. Globalization: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Nationally oriented institutions of the developmentalist era are being replaced by globally oriented institutions under the legitimizing cloak of efficiency and financial credibility. Meanwhile, producing communities either seek niches in the global economy or resist global pressures, thereby newly emphasizing the local. Explores the conjunction…

  18. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  19. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials Global Warming Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.) Carbon dioxide 124-38-9 CO2 1 Methane 74-82-8 CH4 a...

  20. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials Global Warming Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.) Carbon dioxide 124-38-9 CO2 1 Methane 74-82-8 CH4...

  1. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior.

  2. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior. PMID:21586763

  3. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  4. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  5. Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Vitousek, P.M. )

    1994-10-01

    While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use/land cover change. Human activity - now primarily fossil fuel combustion - has increased carbon dioxide concentrations from [approximately] 280 to 355 [mu]L/L since 1800 and is likely to have climatic consequences and direct effects on biota in all terrestrial ecosystems. The global nitrogen cycle has been altered so that more nitrogen is fixed annually by humanity than by all natural pathways combined. Altering atmospheric chemistry and aquatic ecosystems, contributes to eutrophication of the biosphere, and has substantial regional effects on biological diversity. Finally, human land use/land cover change has transformed one-third to one-half of Earth's ice-free surface, representing the most important component of global change now. Any clear dichotomy between pristine ecosystems and human-altered areas that may have existed in the past has vanished, and ecological research should account for this reality. Certain components of global environmental change are the primary causes of anticipated changes in climate, and of ongoing losses of biological diversity. They are caused by the extraordinary growth in size and resource use of the human population. On a broad scale, there is little uncertainty about any of these components of change or their causes. However, much of the public believes the causes of global change to be uncertain and contentious. By speaking out effectively,the focus of public discussion towards what can and should be done about global environmental change can be shifted. 135 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  7. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  8. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  9. Research Review: Walter Orr Roberts on the Atmosphere, Global Pollution and Weather Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Sally

    1973-01-01

    Global Atmospheric Research Program is envisaged to study various aspects of the environment for the whole globe. Describes programs undertaken and the international problems involved in implementing results of such research on a global level. (PS)

  10. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  11. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  12. Global Biology Research Program: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

  13. The Global Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Amplifies five principles set forth at the 1994 World Telecommunication Development Conference held in Buenos Aires (Argentina) to identify the U.S. government role in developing a global information infrastructure. Highlights include private sector investment, competition, open access, flexible regulatory environment, universal service, and a…

  14. International Business Education in a Global Environment: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation phenomenon poses a different set of challenges to the higher education system in countries around the world and requires that international business students be prepared to function professionally in an increasingly complex, interdependent, and dynamic economy. Understanding the educational implications of the…

  15. Migrating Legacy Systems in the Global Merger & Acquisition Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katerattanakul, Pairin; Kam, Hwee-Joo; Lee, James J.; Hong, Soongoo

    2009-01-01

    The MetaFrame system migration project at WorldPharma, while driven by merger and acquisition, had faced complexities caused by both technical challenges and organizational issues in the climate of uncertainties. However, WorldPharma still insisted on instigating this post-merger system migration project. This project served to (1) consolidate the…

  16. Living in a Global Environment. Classroom Activities in Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.

    Forty classroom activities selected from New Internationalist Calendars published between 1984-1989 were collected. Each activity is presented in the form of a short story about a real-life person and a graphic spread of data consisting of maps, tables, photographs, diagrams, text, and student exercises. These activities have been written to…

  17. Preserving the Global Environment: The Challenge of Shared Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Jessica Tuchman, Ed.

    In April of 1990, a three-day conference was convened at which 76 men and women from 18 countries representing a spectrum of government, business, labor, academia, the media, and the professions gathered to discuss how the United State should reorient its policies and relations toward other countries and international institutions to preserve the…

  18. Balancing Act: Population, Consumption and the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzech, Michelle; Baird, Jim

    The Izaak Walton League is committed to investigation and dialogue that contribute to a sustainable world. An understanding of conservation continues to evolve and mature as new science comes to light and is transformed, through civil discourse, into common sense policy and action. The information presented in this action guide continues a…

  19. Health care and the environment: local champions, global impact.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Jeanette; Patow, Carl

    2011-04-01

    Health care as a sector has recently become aware that it is a major user of energy and generator of waste. Now, many institutions are taking steps to curb their energy consumption, reduce waste, and design processes and facilities that are more environmentally friendly and, as a result, healthier. This article describes these trends as well as specific efforts underway in Minnesota that could serve as models for providers in other parts of the United States.

  20. English in Advertising: Generic Intertextuality in a Globalizing Media Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, AN H.

    2010-01-01

    Across the globe, the use of English is a popular advertising technique. The ever expanding body of studies on this topic has revealed a number of explanations for the use of English in the advertising. It can be related to the larger marketing strategy of a campaign, to the cultural connotations English carries, or English can be used for…

  1. Organophosphates and their impact on the global environment.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T; Hosokawa, M

    2000-01-01

    Serious intoxications and incidences due to misuse of organophosphorus insecticides (OP) have been reported for over three decades. In this meeting I am talking about the following three topics. (1) Epidemiological studies on the use of OP in Japan, Taiwan and Thailand. The National Research Institute of Police Science (NRIPS) in Japan has published the annual report of the epidemiological studies on the criminal and suicide events. The numbers of the incidence of pesticides are approximately 22%-30% of the total incidences, during 1991 and 1996. The incidence of pesticides has been gradually reduced for past six years. This seems to be influenced by the decrease of the incidences of paraquat having extremely high toxicity. According to the epidemiological data in the National Poison Center in Taiwan, unlike the prevalence of drug poisoning exposures in most western countries, pesticides poisoning exposures are numerous in Taiwan. The number of pesticide intoxication cases is 6,872 out of 23,436 of total case numbers of various intoxications during the 1985 and 1997. The fatality rate is much higher in Taiwan than in most western countries, with 5.65% of all poisoning exposures resulted in death. Paraquot is the leading cause of death in Taiwan. The ratio of death to total OP intoxication cases is 11.5% including accidental exposure and suicide. According to the report of the Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand during the 1990-1995, the overall morbidity due to poisoning was 30 per 100,000 population with 300 deaths per year. The morbidity rate of reported pesticide poisoning in the whole country was 10 per 100,000 population. (2) Sarin victims in Tokyo. On March 20, 1995, a terrorist attack using sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate) occurred on the Tokyo subway. Many people inhaled the sarin gas and collapsed in the train. Eventually, 12 people died and over 5,000 were injured. The results of the forensic studies showed that methylphosphonic acid, the hydrolysis product of sarin, bound to AChE in the cerebellums of the victims was separated and identified using GCMS. (3) A sensitive and rapid biomarker of OP-poisoning. Beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) is loosely bound to egasyn which is one of carboxylesterase isozymes in the liver microsomes. The oxon formed from OP in the liver microsomes is covalently bound to egasyn and causes the cleavage of the egasyn-glucuronidase complex, leading to the release of beta-G into the blood. In fact, plasma beta-G activities is a much more sensitive and rapid biomarker than the blood cholinesterase inhibition. In conclusion, OPs cause serious toxicity in both acute and chronic exposures. The epidemiological data in Taiwan and Thailand show that paraquat intoxication cause the most serious irreversible damage in the patients. In 1995, terrorists attack using sarin which is one of the most toxic OP, on the Tokyo subway, and 12 people died. This is an example of the acute intoxication of OP and some people have been still in hospitalized. Recently, the present authors have reported that the plasma beta-G activity is a novel biomarker of OP intoxication. The plasma beta-G is rapidly and significantly increased after OP exposure, and this is a much more sensitive to OP intoxication than ChE inhibition.

  2. The Environment: A Global Concern, An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document describes an interdisciplinary approach for encouraging students to become more cognizant of environmental concerns. Environmental issues are addressed in high school social studies, chemistry, and German language classes. The objectives of the plan are as follows: 1) develop student awareness of environmental issues and the…

  3. Global Eco-Communication: Assessing the Communication and Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Ramona R.

    It is no longer "new" news that the "new" media, separately or in convergence with the traditional mass media, are often reinforcing old ways and traditional patterns. Concentration of ownership; under- or misappropriate employment patterns for certain groups and classes of people; and inadequate, inappropriate, and inaccurate content have been…

  4. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. PMID:22827320

  5. Physics literacy, energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2003-03-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how one might teach three such issues: energy use in transportation, global ozone depletion and global warming.

  6. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  7. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  8. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  9. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  10. Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabogunje, Akin L.

    2002-01-01

    Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

  11. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  12. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  13. Regulating environments to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Hayne, Cheryl L; Moran, Patricia A; Ford, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity appears to be attributable to environmental conditions that implicitly discourage physical activity while explicitly encouraging the consumption of greater quantities of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. In the United States food environment, consumers are bombarded with advertising for unhealthy food, and receive inadequate nutritional information, especially at restaurants. In the US school environment children have access to sugary sodas and unhealthy a la carte foods in their cafeterias, at the same time getting inadequate physical activity and nutrition education. In the built environment, sprawl has reduced active living. We describe these environments and explore the potential effects of regulatory measures on these environments. In the United States, regulatory opportunities exist at the national, state and local levels to mandate action and to allocate funds for promising health-promoting strategies. Regulatory approaches, much like litigation, can transform the entire environment in which corporations operate. Even with incomplete enforcement of rules, they send a public message about what is acceptable behavior for corporations and individuals. Additionally, because the United States is party to many multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and is an active participant in the GATT/WTO framework, US regulatory actions promise to have a beneficial impact both domestically and globally. PMID:15683074

  14. Antarctic chlorine chemistry - Possible global implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak

    1988-01-01

    Occurrence of heterogeneous reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) is a necessary component of the Cl-related chemical mechanisms proposed to explain the recently observed decrease of O3 during Antarctic spring. A one-dimensional model is used to assess the impact of these heterogeneous reactions on future global O3 trends if they were to occur on the global aerosol layer. The impact of these reactions on the concentration of Cl species in the present-day atmosphere is also calculated. The reaction (ClNO3 + HCl) could have a large impact on stratospheric O3. A fast rate for this reaction would greatly enhance the present concentration of ClO and reduce the abundance of HCl in the lower stratosphere. Because of the large differences between the Antarctic and global environments, the calculated global O3 trends are smaller than those calculated for Antarctica.

  15. The Interaction of Global Biochemical Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III; Dastoor, M. N.

    1984-01-01

    The global biosphere in an exceedingly complex system. To gain an understanding of its structure and dynamic features, it is necessary not only to increase the knowledge about the detailed processes but also to develop models of how global interactions take place. Attempts to analyze the detailed physical, chemical and biological processes in this context need to be guided by an advancement of understanding of the latter. It is necessary to develop a strategy of data gathering that severs both these purposes simultaneously. The following papers deal with critical aspects in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in details as well as the cycle of water and the flow of energy in the Earth's environment. The objective is to set partly the foundation for the development of mathematical models that allow exploration of the coupled dynamics of the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, as well as energy and water flux.

  16. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry.

  17. The Ozone Layer. UNEP/GEMS Environment Library No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Since the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) was created, more than a dozen years ago, public understanding of the environmental issues confronting our planet has increased enormously. The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) has provided several environmental assessments. The aim of the UNEP/GEMS Environment Library is to provide…

  18. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  19. The New Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365

  20. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  1. The new global health.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  2. Globalization in the Face of Standardization: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Rocio; Norman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    As globalization affects political and economic systems, cultures, and the environment, it affects the educational needs of a globalized workforce. In this complex, fast-evolving knowledge economy, workers must possess analytic skills, creativity, flexibility, and innovation. They need oral and written communication skills and the disposition to…

  3. Globalizing the Professional Component of Teacher Education: Considerations for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna S.

    Ways and means for changing the professional component of teacher education programs to enable future teachers to create learning environments that reflect global/international dimensions are examined. In the first section, the ineffectiveness of teacher education courses in preparing teachers with a global outlook is discussed. It is pointed out…

  4. Global Challenge: Save the World on Your Way to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; Grasso, Susan Hull

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the Global Challenge allows high school students to do something for the environment while winning an award that will help them financially through college. The Global Challenge is an online competition for high school students across the world. Students from other nations can pair up with students in the U.S. and…

  5. Global Education: What the Research Shows. Information Capsule. Volume 0604

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching from a global perspective is important because the lives of people around the world are increasingly interconnected through politics, economics, technology, and the environment. Global education teaches students to understand and appreciate people from different cultural backgrounds; view events from a variety of perspectives; recognize…

  6. Professional Competence of Teachers in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orazbayeva, Kuldarkhan O.

    2016-01-01

    Current challenges of globalization in a democratic post-industrial information society make the competency-based approach a standard in the creation of the global educational environment. This study describes the special aspects of the integration of the competency-based approach into the educational theory and practice of post-Soviet countries,…

  7. Ethical Considerations for Internationalization: Perspectives from Global Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garson, Kyra

    2012-01-01

    A variety of globalizing influences have dramatically shifted the environment of Canadian institutions of higher education in the past few decades. Increased global student mobility has quite literally brought the world to our campuses. The presence of over 200,000 international students is only one factor contributing to increased cultural…

  8. Global Investing: Diversification Enhances Return and Controls Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1995-01-01

    As the business environment becomes more global, so should a college or university's investment portfolio. Global diversification is becoming increasingly important in controlling risk and enhancing return. This article examines the size of bond markets and returns on bond investments in several nations, performance of world equity markets, and…

  9. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawks range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the completed science campaigns. In addition, the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

  10. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  11. Global toxification: A manageable problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Meent, D. van de; Verbruggen, E.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Using the multimedia fate model GLOBETOX, concentration-time series of chemicals in air, water, sediment, and soil, on continental and global spatial scales, are predicted from former, present and future emissions, on the basis of transport and transformation rate constants. GLOBETOX was designed as a sub-model for RIVM`s decision support system TARGETS, an integrated assessment tool for analyzing the environmental consequences of socioeconomic developments. GLOBETOX is a nested version of the Mackay-type multimedia model SIMPLEBOX. GLOBETOX models the global environment as consisting of continental islands (air, water, sediment, soil), embedded in a global oceanic background (air and water only). The ``islands`` considered are generic representations of the main continents: North America, Europe, Asia, and the combined continents on the southern hemisphere (South America, Africa, Australia). The fully mechanistic GLCBETOX model was applied, without further calibration of the parameters to the actual situation, to four test chemicals: DDT, PCBs, DEHP and lead. The predicted concentrations were interpreted as spatially averaged values and compared with available monitoring data. The results indicate that the model simulations do reflect reality in the sense that (1) predicted concentrations have the right order of magnitude and (2) predicted time-responses seem reasonable. This preliminary analysis gives reason for moderate optimism about the potential for controlling global toxification. While the use of organic chemicals will increase, rapid response to emission reduction programs and to shift towards use of more degradable alternatives can be expected. Metals remain a source of concern, mainly because of their absolute non-degradability. The effects of local exposure in many hot spots may be of more concern than the effects of continental-scale background exposure.

  12. "Global Competency" Is Imperative for Global Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    According to a recent report of scenarios prepared by the National Intelligence Council, the next 15 years will bring significant global changes, including the transformation of the international political system built after World War II, a transfer of wealth from the West to the East, pressure on natural resources resulting from continuing…

  13. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  14. The impact of the environment on health.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly science is providing evidence linking the disease burden of people with exposure to toxins in their environments. The quality of one's health is determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychological problems in the environment. This article provides an overview of the current science on how environmental pollution is impacting upon the chronic disease burden in people, how toxic chemicals are traveling globally and entering the food chain, and the impact of changes in climate upon one's health.

  15. Learning to Plunder: Global Education, Global Inequality and the Global City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Most research and policy discussions of education in the global city have focused on the ways in which globalization and the emergence of global or globalizing cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the global city itself. Global cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…

  16. Preparing Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  17. Globalization and Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiga, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Today, it would be difficult to find a community that has been unaffected by globalization, yet its effects are still unknown to many people. This paper is an attempt to bring the subject to the awareness of educators while particularly focusing on those in the Philippines. It is ironic that globalization on one hand has incited people all over…

  18. Globalism and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on globalization and human resource development (HRD). "Challenges and Strategies of Developing Human Resources in the Surge of Globalization: A Case of the People's Republic of China" (De Zhang, Baiyin Yang, Yichi Zhang) analyzes the challenges and strategies of HRD in China and discusses the…

  19. Critically Theorizing the Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  20. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  1. Multiculturalism vs. Globalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Nelly

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the error of treating multiculturalism and globalism as the same concept. Considers the boundaries and shared purposes of multiculturalism and globalism. Defines the former as using multiple perspectives that reflect the diversity within a society and the latter as developing students' understanding of peoples and cultures of other…

  2. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  3. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsumi, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The Global University System (GUS) [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st…

  4. Building Global Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  5. Globalization, Interdependence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration)…

  6. Global Managers' Career Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis…

  7. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  8. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  9. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  10. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  11. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  12. Global Awareness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, James

    The paper discusses the Global Awareness Test administered to 6,396 grade 9 students in New Brunswick, Canada at the beginning and end of the 1987 school year. The test was designed to better assess the impact of the grade 9 social studies program and the activities of New Brunswick's Global Education Centre. By comparing the results of the pre-…

  13. Defining Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Sarina; Lattimer, Heather

    2013-01-01

    As the world is becoming increasingly flat, it has become important for educators to prepare students to understand global perspectives and engage with people from countries and cultures around the world. Although there is no question as to the importance of global education to meet with the demands of a flat world, what internationalization and…

  14. Global Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the different definitions and conceptualizations of global education, stating that much of the traditional curriculum of international studies can be reinterpreted to prepare students to participate in an interdependent society. Gives nine objectives for global education, and delineates the issues surrounding current conceptions of…

  15. Wanted: Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.; Sattin, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Young people need more innovative thinking skills, cultural awareness, higher-order cognitive skills, and sophisticated communication and collaboration skills than ever before. To prepare students for their global futures, schools must be in tune with the new global reality. Schools need to restructure curriculum and pedagogy to place student…

  16. Global 2000 Countdown Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Fourteen units for high school global education classes are based on "The Global 2000 Report to the President," which examines the relationships between worldwide population growth and resource and environmental consequences. Topics of the units are population; income; food; fisheries; forests; water; nonfuel minerals; energy; impacts on…

  17. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  18. Global Distribution of Pyrogenic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, Moritz; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC) is ubiquitous in the environment and represents presumably one of the most stable compounds of the total organic carbon. Due to its persistence in the soil, it might play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In order to model future CO2 emissions from soils it is thus crucial to know where and how much of PyC exists on a global scale. Yet, only rough estimates for global PyC stocks in soils could be made, and even less is known about the distribution across ecosystems. Therefore we propose here literature analysis of data on PyC concentrations and stocks worldwide. We extracted PyC values in soils from the literature (n = 600) and analysed the percentage of PyC in the soil organic carbon (SOC) as a function of climate (temperature, precipitation), soil parameters (pH, clay content), fire characteristics (fire frequency and fire regime) and land use. Overall, the average contribution of PyC to SOC was 13 %, ranging from 0.1 % up to 60 %. We observed that the PyC content was significantly higher with high clay content, higher pH, and in cultivated land as compared to forest and grassland. We did not observe any relationships between fire activity, frequency or intensity and PyC % at a global scale. When the fire regime was monitored on site (only 12 % of the data we collected), we observed higher PyC concentrations with higher fire frequencies. We hypothesise that the resolution of global fire datasets is neither temporally nor spatially high enough to explain the very local fire history of the soil samples. Data points were not homogeneously distributed on the globe, but rather aggregated in places like Central Europe, the Russian Steppe or North America. Therefore, a global interpolation is not directly possible. We modelled PyC concentrations, based on the five most significant parameters, which were clay content, pH, mean annual temperature and precipitation as well as land use. We then predicted worldwide PyC using global datasets

  19. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  20. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  1. [Environment: the other disaster].

    PubMed

    Acevi

    The arid conditions started in the Sahel of Africa around 1960, but no attention was paid partly because of the low population size (1/2 of the 1990 figure), low level of urbanization, and inadequate social development. Development projects have contributed to the acceleration of the degradation of natural resources and to increasing pollution. At that time the alarming rate of desertification could not be proven by satellite photography, nor was enough known about the progression of global climate changes. A committee to combat Sahelian desertification was established only in 1970. The forces of desertification are controlled by the rainfall regularly deposited by the intertropical front which has receded 1000-1500 km in the last 10,000 years. In the last 20 years precipitation has decreased by 20% in Niamey, Niger. Contributory factors are the increase of temperature, the reduction of cloud masses, carbon gas emissions from human activities, deforestation for agriculture, construction, industrialization, and pollution from toxic chemicals. Development programs have resulted in the diversion of water volumes draining the Sahelian Nile and Niger valleys. Increased population and misguided government policies have increased socioeconomic pressures on the environment. The 1st plans to fight desertification were developed during 1984-1987. Effecting change, however, means a change of mentality. The objectives are food self-sufficiency by rehabilitation and utilization of the productive potential of water, soil, and human know-how; the preservation of the environment; a credible birth control policy; and promotion of small-scale integrated projects of 500-1500 and 10-2500 hectares depending on regions. The most threatened zones receive 250-400 mm of rain whose fate in the next 50 years is crucial.

  2. Plants in alpine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  3. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  4. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first. PMID:15847699

  5. Open access: changing global science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  6. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

  7. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  8. Responsibility for global health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen; DeCamp, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    There are several reasons for the current prominence of global health issues. Among the most important is the growing awareness that some risks to health are global in scope and can only be countered by global cooperation. In addition, human rights discourse and, more generally, the articulation of a coherent cosmopolitan ethical perspective that acknowledges the importance of all persons, regardless of where they live, provide a normative basis for taking global health seriously as a moral issue. In this paper we begin the task of translating the vague commitment to doing something to improve global health into a coherent set of more determinate obligations. One chief conclusion of our inquiry is that the responsibilities of states regarding global health are both more determinate and more extensive than is usually assumed. We also argue, however, that institutional innovation will be needed to achieve a more comprehensive, fair distribution of concrete responsibilities regarding global health and to provide effective mechanisms for holding various state and nonstate actors accountable for fulfilling them.

  9. GLOBEC: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: A component of the US Global Change Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research initiative proposed by the oceanographic and fisheries communities to address the question of how changes in global environment are expected to affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea. The approach to this problem is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that determine both the abundance of key marine animal populations and their variances in space and time. The assumption is that the physical environment is a major contributor to patterns of abundance and production of marine animals, in large part because the planktonic life stages typical of most marine animals are intrinsically at the mercy of the fluid motions of the medium in which they live. Consequently, the authors reason that a logical approach to predicting the potential impact of a globally changing environment is to understand how the physical environment, both directly and indirectly, contributes to animal abundance and its variability in marine ecosystems. The plans for this coordinated study of of the potential impact of global change on ocean ecosystems dynamics are discussed.

  10. A Global MBA for Tomorrow's Global Business Leaders: Integrating Best Practice with Boston's Locational Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaunay, Christian J.; Blodgett, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional IB programs have received mixed reviews from the corporate world. With this in mind, the Suffolk GMBA was benchmarked against the leading international business programs. The Suffolk GMBA was designed to be different and to ascertain the global environment in which business operates. A unique feature of the GMBA curriculum detailed in…

  11. Hybridization and hybrid speciation under global change.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Hiscock, Simon J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1170 I. 1170 II. 1172 III. 1175 IV. 1180 V. 1183 1184 References 1184 SUMMARY: An unintended consequence of global change is an increase in opportunities for hybridization among previously isolated lineages. Here we illustrate how global change can facilitate the breakdown of reproductive barriers and the formation of hybrids, drawing on the flora of the British Isles for insight. Although global change may ameliorate some of the barriers preventing hybrid establishment, for example by providing new ecological niches for hybrids, it will have limited effects on environment-independent post-zygotic barriers. For example, genic incompatibilities and differences in chromosome numbers and structure within hybrid genomes are unlikely to be affected by global change. We thus speculate that global change will have a larger effect on eroding pre-zygotic barriers (eco-geographical isolation and phenology) than post-zygotic barriers, shifting the relative importance of these two classes of reproductive barriers from what is usually seen in naturally produced hybrids where pre-zygotic barriers are the largest contributors to reproductive isolation. Although the long-term fate of neo-hybrids is still to be determined, the massive impact of global change on the dynamics and distribution of biodiversity generates an unprecedented opportunity to study large numbers of unpredicted, and often replicated, hybridization 'experiments', allowing us to peer into the birth and death of evolutionary lineages. PMID:27214560

  12. How global brands compete.

    PubMed

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  13. How global brands compete.

    PubMed

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise. PMID:15449856

  14. Environment, Education and Sustainable Development: Workshop Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the 7th World Assembly of the International Council of Adult Education. It also presents a workshop proposal on Environment, Ecology and Sustainable Development, based mainly on the Treaty of Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility. The proposal emphasizes on an inclusive, permanent and…

  15. Education, Population, Environment and Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John I.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the emergence and evolution of global concerns in recent decades and the particular interrelationships between population and environmental concerns. Considers the potential for population geography, with its emphasis on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, cultures, economies, politics, and environments, to link population and…

  16. SQL level global query resolving for web based GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Huang, Fengru; Huang, Zhou; Sun, Yumei; Fang, Yu

    2007-06-01

    This paper introduced a SQL level approach to resolve global spatial query in Web based heterogeneous distributed spatial database environment. The main prohibit of this SQL level approach was its widespread compatibility and standardization. Firstly, a SQL based Equivalent Distributed Program (EDP) was introduced to express distributed spatial processing transactions. Then global resource directories for virtual global view describing were discussed to organize information that resolving need. The contents of global resource directories included data storage directory, hosts directory and working status directory. With these mechanisms, relational algebra expression equivalence principles were utilized to resolve global spatial queries to EDPs. Finally, several samples were presented to show the process of resolving. This approach was suitable to all sorts of distributed computing environments either centralized such as CORBA or decentralized such as P2P computing platforms.

  17. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

  18. Dilatonic global strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, Owen; Gregory, Ruth

    1998-07-01

    We examine the field equations of a self-gravitating global string in low energy superstring gravity, allowing for an arbitrary coupling of the global string to the dilaton. Massive and massless dilatons are considered. For the massive dilaton the spacetime is similar to the recently discovered non-singular time-dependent Einstein self-gravitating global string, but the massless dilaton generically gives a singular spacetime, even allowing for time dependence. We also demonstrate a time-dependent non-singular string-antistring configuration, in which the string pair causes a compactification of two of the spatial dimensions, albeit on a very large scale.

  19. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  20. Globalization and health.

    PubMed

    Walt, G

    2001-01-01

    Globalization means different things to different people; a general definition is the increasing movement of information, material and people across borders. It can be considered in terms of five conflicting but inter-relating themes, economic transformation; new patterns of trade; an increasing poverty gap associated with widening health inequalities; the revolution in electronic communication; and the growing role of non-state actors, such as non-governmental organizations and transnational corporations, in global governance. Globalization is both an opportunity and a threat, but it is not inexorable. Successful action against its undesirable aspects is possible.

  1. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon.

  2. [Assessing the impact of the environment on human health].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marine

    2016-05-01

    In public health, nurses are concerned with the global health of populations. A recently qualified nurse, interested in this area of health, enhanced her skills with a master's degree specialising in the links between the environment and health.

  3. The Global Menace

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Summary The history of medicine has gone ‘global.’ Why? Can the proliferation of the ‘global’ in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects’ categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new ‘global’ problematic or performed serious ‘global’ analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the ‘global’ authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices. PMID:26345469

  4. Cancer and globalization.

    PubMed

    Sasco, Annie J

    2008-02-01

    Global human cancer is increasing. Exposures to cancer risk factors are not only becoming more prevalent in the less industrialized countries, but they have also become more complex all over the world. Human societies have always traded and migrated, yet the growth of powerful economic institutions and globalization is accelerating, mixing many cancer risk factors. Critically, new cancer risk factors have also appeared, concurrent with globalization: modern diet, addictive products, pharmaceuticals, and toxic and waste products. Prevention, which still rests on recognition and elimination of exposure to carcinogens, is difficult, with seemingly opposed priorities such as income (corporate or individual) versus health. The solutions require not only individual behavioural change but also more importantly innovative action of all concerned at the global, collective level.

  5. Draft global warming study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net carbon contribution of certain resource strategies designed to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the greenhouse gas'' most associated with electricity production. The main purpose of the global warming study is to identify possible courses of action that BPA might take to reduce its contributions to the risk of global warming and to estimate the efficacy and costs of each approach. The principal measure of effectiveness is the reduction in total atmospheric carbon emissions compared to a base case. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Meeting global conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    Hot on the heels of last year's Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, representatives from the global conservation community met to set the conservation agenda that will help to implement these targets.

  7. Global Tropospheric OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicely, J. M.; Canty, T. P.; Lang, C.; Duncan, B. N.; Liang, Q.; Oman, L.; Salawitch, R. J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Waugh, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidizing capacity of the troposphere is controlled, to a large extent, by the abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH). The global mean concentration of OH, inferred from measurements of methyl chloroform, has remained relatively constant during the past several decades, despite rising levels of CH4 that should have led to a steady decline. Here we examine other factors that may have affected global [OH], such as the overhead burden of stratospheric O3 and tropospheric H2O, using global OH fields from the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model. Our analysis suggests these factors may have contributed a positive trend to global [OH] large enough to counter the decrease due to CH4.

  8. Global reach and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  9. Environmental geochemistry at the global scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, J.; Smith, D.; Smith, B.; Williams, L.

    2000-01-01

    Land degradation and pollution caused by population pressure and economic development pose a threat to the sustainability of the Earth's surface, especially in tropical regions where a long history of chemical weathering has made the surface environment particularly fragile. Systematic baseline geochemical data provide a means of monitoring the state of the environment and identifying problem areas. Regional surveys have already been carried out in some countries, and with increased national and international funding they can be extended to cover the rest of the land surface of the globe. Preparations have been made, under the auspices of the IUGS, for the establishment of just such an integrated global database.

  10. Chytridiomycosis: a global threat to amphibians.

    PubMed

    Pereira, P L L; Torres, A M C; Soares, D F M; Hijosa-Valsero, M; Bécares, E

    2013-12-01

    Chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. The disease is one of the main causes of the global decline in amphibians. The aetiological agent is ubiquitous, with worldwide distribution, and affects a large number of amphibian species in several biomes. In the last decade, scientific research has substantially increased knowledge of the aetiological agent and the associated infection. However, important epidemiological aspects of the environment-mediated interactions between the aetiological agent and the host are not yet clear. The objective of the present review is to describe chytridiomycosis with regard to the major features of the aetiological agent, the host and the environment.

  11. A multidisciplinary database for global distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The issue of selenium toxicity in the environment has been documented in the scientific literature for over 50 years. Recent studies reveal a complex connection between selenium and human and animal populations. This article introduces a bibliographic citation database on selenium in the environment developed for global distribution via the Internet by the University of Wyoming Libraries. The database incorporates material from commercial sources, print abstracts, indexes, and U.S. government literature, resulting in a multidisciplinary resource. Relevant disciplines include, biology, medicine, veterinary science, botany, chemistry, geology, pollution, aquatic sciences, ecology, and others. It covers the years 1985-1996 for most subject material, with additional years being added as resources permit.

  12. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  13. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. PMID:27604540

  14. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD.

  15. Monitoring global snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Richard; Hardman, Molly

    1991-01-01

    A snow model that supports the daily, operational analysis of global snow depth and age has been developed. It provides improved spatial interpolation of surface reports by incorporating digital elevation data, and by the application of regionalized variables (kriging) through the use of a global snow depth climatology. Where surface observations are inadequate, the model applies satellite remote sensing. Techniques for extrapolation into data-void mountain areas and a procedure to compute snow melt are also contained in the model.

  16. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  17. Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.; Shen, S.

    1996-09-01

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

  18. Global Health—A Circumpolar Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chatwood, Susan; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Global health should encompass circumpolar health if it is to transcend the traditional approach of the “rich North” assisting the “poor South.” Although the eight Arctic states are among the world’s most highly developed countries, considerable health disparities exist among regions across the Arctic, as well as between northern and southern regions and between indigenous and nonindigenous populations within some of these states. While sharing commonalities such as a sparse population, geographical remoteness, harsh physical environment, and underdeveloped human resources, circumpolar regions in the northern hemisphere have developed different health systems, strategies, and practices, some of which are relevant to middle and lower income countries. As the Arctic gains prominence as a sentinel of global issues such as climate change, the health of circumpolar populations should be part of the global health discourse and policy development. PMID:22594729

  19. Global Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K.

    2010-12-01

    We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed night lights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and periurban stations for nonclimatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change are small. Because the GISS analysis combines available sea surface temperature records with meteorological station measurements, we test alternative choices for the ocean data, showing that global temperature change is sensitive to estimated temperature change in polar regions where observations are limited. We use simple 12 month (and n × 12) running means to improve the information content in our temperature graphs. Contrary to a popular misconception, the rate of warming has not declined. Global temperature is rising as fast in the past decade as in the prior 2 decades, despite year-to-year fluctuations associated with the El Niño-La Niña cycle of tropical ocean temperature. Record high global 12 month running mean temperature for the period with instrumental data was reached in 2010.

  20. Globalization and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-06-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.