Science.gov

Sample records for global environment shinrin

  1. Natural environments, nature relatedness and the ecological theater: connecting satellites and sequencing to shinrin-yoku.

    PubMed

    Craig, Jeffrey M; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-13

    Recent advances in research concerning the public health value of natural environments have been remarkable. The growing interest in this topic (often housed under terms such as green and/or blue space) has been occurring in parallel with the microbiome revolution and an increased use of remote sensing technology in public health. In the context of biodiversity loss, rapid urbanization, and alarming rates of global non-communicable diseases (many associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation), discussions of natural vis-a-vis built environments are not merely fodder for intellectual curiosity. Here, we argue for increased interdisciplinary collaboration with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms-including aerobiological and epigenetic-that might help explain some of the noted positive health outcomes. It is our contention that some of these mechanisms are related to ecodiversity (i.e., the sum of biodiversity and geodiversity, including biotic and abiotic constituents). We also encourage researchers to more closely examine individual nature relatedness and how it might influence many outcomes that are at the interface of lifestyle habits and contact with ecodiversity.

  2. Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing) and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M; Jones, Reo; Tocchini, Kirsten

    2017-07-28

    Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing) in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus) and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: "Shinrin-yoku" AND/OR "forest bathing" AND/OR "nature therapy", 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into "physiological," "psychological," "sensory metrics" and "frameworks" sub-groups. Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day "stress-state" and "technostress.".

  3. Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing) and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Margaret M.; Jones, Reo; Tocchini, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing) in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. Methods: A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus) and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. Results: From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: “Shinrin-yoku” AND/OR “forest bathing” AND/OR “nature therapy”, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into “physiological,” “psychological,” “sensory metrics” and “frameworks” sub-groups. Conclusions: Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day “stress-state” and “technostress.”. PMID:28788101

  4. Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ideno, Yuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yukina; Ueda, Kayo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2017-08-16

    Shinrin-yoku (experiencing the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) has received increasing attention from the perspective of preventive medicine in recent years. Some studies have reported that the forest environment decreases blood pressure. However, little is known about the possibility of anti-hypertensive applications of Shinrin-yoku. This study aimed to evaluate preventive or therapeutic effects of the forest environment on blood pressure. We systematically reviewed the medical literature and performed a meta-analysis.Four electronic databases were systematically searched for the period before May 2016 with language restriction of English and Japanese. The review considered all published, randomized, controlled trials, cohort studies, and comparative studies that evaluated the effects of the forest environment on changes in systolic blood pressure. A subsequent meta-analysis was performed. Twenty trials involving 732 participants were reviewed. Systolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. Additionally, diastolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. This systematic review shows a significant effect of Shinrin-yoku on reduction of blood pressure.

  5. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  6. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  7. The Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2003-10-01

    What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

  8. Teaching about the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    Social studies educators hold an important key to our future success in the management of "spaceship earth." Students must be made aware of the global environment and the many problems facing it. These problems are discussed. (RM)

  9. Designing for the global environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains papers which were presented at the symposium entitled Designing for the Global Environment. Session topics included policy and the implementation of energy efficient technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  10. Population and environment: a global report.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1989-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the

  11. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    SciTech Connect

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future.

  12. Industrial Lead in the Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegal, A. R.; Ericson, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Although the rates of emission, fluxes and recycling of natural and industrial lead in biogeochemical systems are needed to quantify environmental lead pollution, those geochemical processes are rarely incorporated in either Earth Science or Environmental Health Science curriculum. The need for an understanding of the global lead cycle in those diverse fields is due to the omnipresence of industrial lead contamination that was initiated over five millennia ago, which has often exceeded natural emissions of lead by orders of magnitude. That contamination has been repeatedly demonstrated in environmental analyses ranging from the most remote polar regions and oceans of the Earth to urban and industrial regions. The latter include studies of soil lead in Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Paul-Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Tijuana, and Ottawa, which show that lead from past combustion of leaded gasoline remains in those cities and it is bioavailable. With the protracted residence time of that soil lead (102 - 103 years), it is estimated that generations of urban children will continue to be exposed to this toxicant, unless there is abatement. Moreover, many third world countries are still using leaded gasoline and other sources of industrial lead continue to be emitted into the environment, albeit at reduced levels. Consequently, the geochemical cycling of lead is and will continue to be a most appropriate and topical subject of study in the curriculum of earth science and environmental health science.

  13. The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation…

  14. The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation…

  15. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

  16. Teaching Global Perspectives in a Rural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Mary Ann

    1980-01-01

    Rural students can understand global perspectives by developing pride as food providers who share "kinship of the soil" with the developing world. Important lessons include man's dependence on the land; philosophy of environmental protection; agricultural technology; political influence over soil use; and five factors controlling crop production.…

  17. Teaching Global Perspectives in a Rural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Mary Ann

    1980-01-01

    Rural students can understand global perspectives by developing pride as food providers who share "kinship of the soil" with the developing world. Important lessons include man's dependence on the land; philosophy of environmental protection; agricultural technology; political influence over soil use; and five factors controlling crop production.…

  18. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  19. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  20. The global forum on environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The first Global Conference of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival was held in Oxford, England not to discuss world issues, but to test the ability of 100 spiritual leaders and 100 parliamentarians to work together in a world which has preferred to separate church and state. This conference, held in Moscow, attracted more than 1,000 people. The main purpose was to find common solutions to environmental quality, economic development, and human survival as citizens of planet Earth. Notable addresses were heard from Javier Perez de Cuellar, Senator Albert Gore, Carl Sagan, Lester Brown, Nafis Sadik, Evguenij Velikhov, and Mikhail Gorbachev who advocated an International Green Cross.

  1. One earth, one future. Our changing global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

  2. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass.

  3. Study of the global environment of small galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancic, F.; Dávila, F.; Coldwell, G.

    2017-07-01

    The present work presents a study of the global density environment of small galaxy groups. To this end we use a catalog of small galaxy systems constructed from the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To characterize the global environment of small galaxy groups we use different estimators, including the number of significant neighbors within a fixed aperture, the distance to the nearest neighbor and the number density profile of these systems. In order to perform a comparative study, we select different categories of systems considering galaxy pairs, triplets of galaxies and groups with at least four member galaxies. We found differences between the global environment of pairs compared to triplet of galaxies and groups. Galaxy pairs inhabit environments of lower global density than triplets and groups which are located in higher global density regions. This result is in agreement with different studies in the literature which propose that triplets of galaxies and compact groups have similarities in their fundamental properties and are different from galaxy pairs. Our findings suggest that the global density environment of small galaxy groups plays a fundamental role in the characterization of the main properties of these systems and their member galaxies.

  4. Human population and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Holdren, J P; Ehrlich, P R

    1974-01-01

    A stable ecosystem resists large, rapid changes in the sizes of its constituent populations which upset the orderly flow of energy and nutrients. An early example of such alteration was the conversion to desert of the rich Tigris and Euphrates valleys through erosion and salt accumulation resulting from faulty irrigation practices that caused the downfall of the great Mesopotamian civilization. Overgrazing and poor cultivation practices have contributed over the millennia to the expansion of the Sahara Desert. Attempts to cultivate too intensively the fragile soil of tropical rainforest areas are suspected of being in part responsible for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. The 19th century Irish potato famine because of heavy reliance of the Irish population on a single, highly productive crop led to 1.5 million deaths when the potato monoculture, a simple agricultural ecosystem, fell victim to a fungus. Modern agriculture's desire to maximize yields per acre are worrisome ecologically (increases in the use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers). The liabilities include that as larger land areas are farmed the tracts available for reservoirs of species diversity and for natural ecosystems become smaller. Pressure to expand agriculture to steep hillsides unsuitable for cultivation has led to serious erosion in Indonesia, and increasing slash-and-burn practices are destroying tropical forests in the Philippines. The enormous expansion of wheat or rice monoculture has increased the probability of epidemic crop failure from insects or disease. 37% of the world's population is under 15 years of age which means that population will grow for 50-70 years more before leveling off. Despite a declining growth rate population would still increase 30% or more during the transition to stability. Zero global population growth is required for a prosperous and environmentally sustainable civilization.

  5. Extending Global Tool Integration Environment towards Lifecycle Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kääriäinen, Jukka; Eskeli, Juho; Teppola, Susanna; Välimäki, Antti; Tuuttila, Pekka; Piippola, Markus

    Development and verification of complex systems requires close collaboration between different disciplines and specialists operating in a global development environment with various tools and product data storage. Fluent integration of the tools and databases facilitate a productive development environment by enabling the user to easily launch tools and transfer information between the disconnected databases and tools. The concept of Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) was established to indicate the coordination of activities and the management of artefacts during the software product's lifecycle. This paper presents the analysis of an open source global tool integration environment called ToolChain, and proposes improvement ideas for it towards application lifecycle management. The demonstration of ToolChain and the collection of improvement proposals were carried out in the telecommunication industry. The analysis was made using the ALM framework and Global Software Development (GSD) patterns developed in previous studies in the automation industry.

  6. Towards Real-Time Global Localization in Dynamic Unstructured Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kanji; Kondo, Eiji

    Global localization is the problem in which a mobile robot has to estimate the self-position with respect to an a priori given map as it navigates without using any a priori knowledge of the initial self-position. Previous studies on global localization mainly focused on static environments, where the a priori map is almost correct. On the other hand, in dynamic environments, there are several sources of computational complexity. For example, not only the self-position but also the map should be estimated due to the map errors. The main contribution of this paper is to address such computational complexity by decomposing our global localization problem into two smaller subproblems, and solving the subproblems in a practical computation time. Also, we demonstrate the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed method in various large and complex environments.

  7. Trusting in a better future: the global environment facility.

    PubMed

    Holton, W C

    2000-07-01

    Individual countries acting alone cannot solve environmental problems that span national borders. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in 1991 to serve as a mechanism for international cooperation in the funding of grants to address concerns in four areas of the global environment: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion. To date, more than 500 projects have been funded with over $2 billion of GEF funds and another $5 billion leveraged from public and private sources, including $2 billion in matching funds from developing countries.

  8. Trusting in a better future: the global environment facility.

    PubMed Central

    Holton, W C

    2000-01-01

    Individual countries acting alone cannot solve environmental problems that span national borders. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in 1991 to serve as a mechanism for international cooperation in the funding of grants to address concerns in four areas of the global environment: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion. To date, more than 500 projects have been funded with over $2 billion of GEF funds and another $5 billion leveraged from public and private sources, including $2 billion in matching funds from developing countries. PMID:10903626

  9. Incremental costs of global environmental benefits. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 5

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-11-01

    The report covers the conceptual, analytical, and strategic issues involved in measuring the costs and potential benefits of environmental programs. This paper surveys the core issues that will be explored in the Global Environment Facility`s (GEF) Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This research examines the measurement of incremental costs associated with reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases, protecting international waters, and conserving global biodiversity. An appendix provides examples of environmental protection efforts that incur net incremental costs. Another delineates principles for equitable resource transfers.

  10. International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Darryl G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…

  11. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

  12. The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; van Joije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Muller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, J; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

    2005-12-07

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using twenty-five state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, whilst the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models, and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition and NO{sub 2} satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations, and high depositions of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 {+-} 1.2 ppbv (CLE), and 4.3 {+-} 2.2 ppbv (A2). Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone by -2.3 {+-} 1.1 ppbv. The CLE and A2 scenarios project further increases in nitrogen critical loads, with particularly large impacts in Asia where nitrogen emissions and deposition are forecast to increase by a factor of 1.4 (CLE) to 2 (A2). Climate change may modify surface ozone by -0.8 {+-} 0.6 ppbv, with larger decreases over sea than over land. This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation, and the major benefits of going further. Non-attainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.

  13. Special article: general anesthetic gases and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 million patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists' offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have potential significant impact on global warming. The widely used anesthetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metabolized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous oxide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. The primary goal of this article is to critically review the current data on the potential effects of general anesthetics on the global environment and to describe possible alternatives and new technologies that may prevent these gases from being discharged into the atmosphere.

  14. Formation and evolution of cores in globally collapsing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    I will present recent results on the hierarchical gravitational fragmentation (HGF) of molecular clouds (MCs) leading to the formation of dense cores. I will first discuss the scenario of HGF as an alternative to the standard scenario of turbulent support --> turbulent dissipation --> collapse. In it, clouds are multi-Jeans-mass object undergoing global, multi-scale collapse, and the cores are the local centers of collapse. The lapse between the onset of local collapse and the formation of a singularity constitutes the prestellar phase. I will present numerical simulations of core growth during this phase in the idealized case of spherical geometry, immersed in a globally collapsing environment, discussing the evolution of the density and velocity profiles. I will also present synthetic molecular line observations of such idealized cores, aimed at determining to what extent such an idealized setup recovers the basic observational features of the cores, and which features require additional physics such as background turbulence and non-spherical symmetry.

  15. Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Yuheng, Gao

    1996-12-31

    The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

  16. Pharmaceuticals in the environment--Global occurrences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    aus der Beek, Tim; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Hickmann, Silke; Ebert, Ina; Hein, Arne; Küster, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to occur widely in the environment of industrialized countries. In developing countries, more monitoring results have recently become available, but a concise picture of measured environmental concentrations (MECs) is still elusive. Through a comprehensive literature review of 1016 original publications and 150 review articles, the authors collected MECs for human and veterinary pharmaceutical substances reported worldwide in surface water, groundwater, tap/drinking water, manure, soil, and other environmental matrices in a comprehensive database. Due to the heterogeneity of the data sources, a simplified data quality assessment was conducted. The database reveals that pharmaceuticals or their transformation products have been detected in the environment of 71 countries covering all continents. These countries were then grouped into the 5 regions recognized by the United Nations (UN). In total, 631 different pharmaceutical substances were found at MECs above the detection limit of the respective analytical methods employed, revealing distinct regional patterns. Sixteen substances were detected in each of the 5 UN regions. For example, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has been detected in environmental matrices in 50 countries, and concentrations found in several locations exceeded predicted no-effect concentrations. Urban wastewater seems to be the dominant emission pathway for pharmaceuticals globally, although emissions from industrial production, hospitals, agriculture, and aquaculture are important locally. The authors conclude that pharmaceuticals are a global challenge calling for multistakeholder approaches to prevent, reduce, and manage their entry into and presence in the environment, such as those being discussed under the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management, a UN Environment Program.

  17. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  18. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  19. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  20. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-07-27

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  1. Resources, environment and population. The Global Tomorrow Coalition Conference.

    PubMed

    Olson, R K

    1983-01-01

    The challenge for environmental action has been direct and powerful for the Global Tomorrow Coalition. In June 1983 a major international conference was held by the Coalition in Washington, D.C., the Conference examined the issues of acid rain, biological diversity, foresight capability, hazardous exports, water resources, the oceans, sustainable development, population, and nuclear issues. The Conference presented a unique portrait of the US environmental movement, its problems and the possibilities for US leadership at the international level. The Coalition issued an indictment of the Reagan Administration, charging that it had reversed American domestic and international policies and was threatening the foundation on international cooperation which the US had worked hard to establish. Specifically, the Administration did the following: prevented cooperative international action on acid rain; destroyed the effectiveness of the Council on Environmental Quality by cutting its budget by 2/3 and replacing the entire professional staff with new personnel lacking environmental expertise; withdrew US participation from the Law of the Sea Conference; discouraged initiatives and programs on environment and resource trends by OECD; obstructed OECD's efforts to harmonize testing for new chemicals; sought more than a 25% reduction in US fiscal 1984 support for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); opposed UN efforts to control hazardous exports and removed US governmental restraints on this trade; withdrew support for the Internatioanl Man and the Biopshere program; proposed cutting the US voluntary contribution to the UN Environment Program by 2/3; proposed weakening the rules under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and withdrew support for the World Heritage Convention and the Convention for the Protection of Nature and Preservation of Wildlife in the Western hemisphere; and withdrew funding for participation in US and international

  2. Stable Isotopes in Ice: Tracers of the Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffey, K. M.

    2003-12-01

    Significant advances in geophysical sciences most often follow from development of new abilities to measure Earth's properties. One major development of the past half century has been the measurement of stable isotopic composition of precipitation and its variations on vast spatial and temporal scales, the latter especially in Arctic and Antarctic glacial ice. The venerable tradition of research in this subject emanates directly from work of Dansgaard, Craig, and Epstein. Here I discuss how isotopic variations induced by atmospheric distillation offer a compelling example of a geophysical phenomenon arising from microphysical properties, but one that is dependent on the global-scale environment. I discuss how the geography of precipitation isotopes is explicable by treating the problem as an advective diffusive reaction system. Three of the most important results of environmental geophysics have emerged from analyses exploiting (in part) the record of this system in polar ice: the strong but quixotic coupling of climate and biogeochemistry on multi-millennial time scales; the high but plausible (and contentious) values for global climate sensitivity to radiative forcings; and the documentation of past very rapid climate changes. Looking forward, I also discuss the major unresolved issues lurking behind this facade of success, including poor understanding of the controls on deuterium excess at low temperatures, and inability to quantify many non-temperature effects on isotope time series (many of which were clearly discussed by Dansgaard nearly forty years ago).

  3. Remote sensing of the global environment with satellite scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of satellite scatterometry for remote sensing of the global environment from the tropics to polar regions. Results were derived from microwave backscatter data acquired by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite. QSCAT observed two successive super cyclones that hit the Orissa coastal region of India, affecting 15 million people in 1999. The extent of soil moisture change was delineated after Cyclone Nargis made landfall in Myanmar in May 2008. QSCAT detected excessive rainwater followed by a severe drought leading to widespread wildfires in California, U.S., in 2007. QSCAT tracked vegetation change in an extreme drought in Nairobi, Kenya, affecting 3 million people in 2000. QSCAT monitored snowmelt patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, which showed poleward oscillations of melt bands. QSCAT revealed a record reduction in Arctic perennial sea ice in this decade and a further drastic decline of perennial ice in 2008. At 1-km posting, QSCAT identified urban and suburban areas where backscatter was shown to correlate with population density. QSCAT delineated wind shadow areas near small islands in the Asia-Pacific region. These results demonstrate that satellite scatterometer can provide numerous crucial data products to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.

  4. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  5. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  6. Experiences with systematic triangulation at the Global Environment Facility.

    PubMed

    Carugi, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Systematic triangulation may address common challenges in evaluation, such as the scarcity or unreliability of data, or the complexities of comparing and cross-checking evidence from diverse disciplines. Used to identify key evaluation findings, its application has proven to be effective in addressing the limitations encountered in country-level evaluation analysis conducted by the Independent Evaluation Office of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). These include the scarcity or unreliability of national statistics on environmental indicators and data series, especially in Least Developed Countries; challenges in evaluating the impacts of GEF projects; and inherent difficulties in defining the GEF portfolio of projects prior to the undertaking of the evaluation. In addition to responding to the need for further developing triangulation protocols, procedures and/or methodologies advocated by some authors, the approach offers a contribution to evaluation practice. This applies particularly to those evaluation units tasked with country-level evaluations in international organizations, facing similar constraints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  8. Designing Training for Global Environments: Knowing What Questions To Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane M.; Sanchirico, Christine; Anderson, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for identifying important issues for instructional design and delivery in global settings. Highlights include cultural factors in global training; an instructional design model; corporate globalization strategy; communication and training norms; language barriers; implicit value differences; and technical and legal…

  9. Designing Training for Global Environments: Knowing What Questions To Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane M.; Sanchirico, Christine; Anderson, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for identifying important issues for instructional design and delivery in global settings. Highlights include cultural factors in global training; an instructional design model; corporate globalization strategy; communication and training norms; language barriers; implicit value differences; and technical and legal…

  10. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions.

  11. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Hall, Kevin D; McPherson, Klim; Finegood, Diane T; Moodie, Marjory L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-08-27

    The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers.

  12. Influence of global climatic processes on environment The Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmyansky, Mikhael; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kartashov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    One of the most actual problems of the present is changes of environment of Arctic regions under the influence of global climatic processes. Authors as a result of the works executed by them in different areas of the Russian Arctic regions, have received the materials characterising intensity of these processes. Complex researches are carried out on water area and in a coastal zone the White, the Barents, the Kara and the East-Siberian seas, on lake water areas of subarctic region since 1972 on the present. Into structure of researches enter: hydrophysical, cryological observations, direct measurements of temperatures, the analysis of the drill data, electrometric definitions of the parametres of a frozen zone, lithodynamic and geochemical definitions, geophysical investigations of boreholes, studying of glaciers on the basis of visual observations and the analysis of photographs. The obtained data allows to estimate change of temperature of a water layer, deposits and benthonic horizon of atmosphere for last 25 years. On the average they make 0,38⁰C for sea waters, 0,23⁰C for friable deposits and 0,72⁰C for atmosphere. Under the influence of temperature changes in hydrosphere and lithosphere of a shelf cryolithic zone changes the characteristics. It is possible to note depth increase of roof position of the cryolithic zone on the most part of the studied water area. Modern fast rise in temperature high-ice rocks composing coast, has led to avalanche process thermo - denudation and to receipt in the sea of quantity of a material of 1978 three times exceeding level Rise in temperature involves appreciable deviation borders of the Arctic glacial covers. On our monitoring measurements change of the maintenance of oxygen in benthonic area towards increase that is connected with reduction of the general salinity of waters at the expense of fresh water arriving at ice thawing is noticed. It, in turn, leads to change of a biogene part of ecosystem. The executed

  13. Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment for Glioblastoma: GBM AGILE.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian M; Ba, Sujuan; Berger, Mitchel S; Berry, Donald A; Cavenee, Webster K; Chang, Susan M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Jiang, Tao; Khasraw, Mustafa; Li, Wenbin; Mittman, Robert; Poste, George H; Wen, Patrick Y; Yung, W K Alfred; Barker, Anna D

    2017-08-16

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly disease with few effective therapies. Although much has been learned about the molecular characteristics of the disease, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical improvements for patients. At the same time, many new therapies are being developed. Many of these therapies have potential biomarkers to identify responders. The result is an enormous amount of testable clinical questions that must be answered efficiently. The GBM Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment (GBM AGILE) is a novel, multi-arm, platform trial designed to address these challenges. It is the result of the collective work of over 130 oncologists, statisticians, pathologists, neurosurgeons, imagers, and translational and basic scientists from around the world. GBM AGILE is composed of two stages. The first stage is a Bayesian adaptively randomized screening stage to identify effective therapies based on impact on overall survival compared with a common control. This stage also finds the population in which the therapy shows the most promise based on clinical indication and biomarker status. Highly effective therapies transition in an inferentially seamless manner in the identified population to a second confirmatory stage. The second stage uses fixed randomization to confirm the findings from the first stage to support registration. Therapeutic arms with biomarkers may be added to the trial over time, while others complete testing. The design of GBM AGILE enables rapid clinical testing of new therapies and biomarkers to speed highly effective therapies to clinical practice. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 1-7. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The SAGE Cross-Culture Matrix Approach to the Study of Global Environments and Human Inhabitants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    The Humans and Environment Learning Program (HELP) and the Student Awareness of Global Environments (SAGE) approach are designed to directly and vicariously expose students to natural and social environments and develop their awareness of the character and nature of the different environments in which each individual functions throughout a…

  15. The Global Imperative: Rethinking the Economy, the Environment, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukensmeyer, Carolyn J.

    The global imperative is acting on the reality that people's survival, the planet's existence, and the quality of humanity requires change in the relationship between economic development and environmental redevelopment. The destructive patterns of shortsighted global economic development warrant rethinking of the link between the economy and the…

  16. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  17. Global 2000: The Presidential Task Force on Resources and the Environment--A Series of Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; And Others

    A series of responses to "The Global 2000 Report to the President" is presented. The Global 2000 Report examines the issues and interdependencies of population, resources, and environment in the long term global perspective (ED 188 935). According to the above report, if present trends continue, serious stresses of overcrowding, pollution,…

  18. Issues to be addressed by the program for measuring incremental costs for the environment. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 8

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-12-01

    Describes the five key research areas to be addressed by the Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This paper outlines incremental cost concepts, operational interpretations, national climate change studies, country studies on ozone protection, and transaction costs. It also develops a broad interpretation of `incremental cost` that can be used across the range of issues covered by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Those issues include global warming, pollution of international waters, destruction of biodiversity, and ozone depletion. This is one of five GEF Working Papers to explore the PRINCE program and is co-published with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme.

  19. Regulatory challenges for in vitro diagnostics in a global environment.

    PubMed

    Longwell, A

    1994-06-01

    U.S. medical products are marketed globally and are designed to meet needs of medical practitioners and their patients throughout the world. However, differences in how these products are regulated in different countries can pose challenges for the global marketer. This paper explores some of the differences between proposed and extant U.S. and European regulations for in vitro diagnostic products in terms of documentation, records, and labelling. It will describe some of the practical implications of these differences.

  20. University Leaders' Strategies in the Global Environment: A Comparative Study of Universitas Indonesia and the Australian National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2006-01-01

    In a global environment in which global, national and local nodes relate freely within common networks, all research universities must pursue strategies for building global capacity and facilitating cross-border staff and student movement and research collaboration. The study compares readings of the global environment, global and international…

  1. University Leaders' Strategies in the Global Environment: A Comparative Study of Universitas Indonesia and the Australian National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2006-01-01

    In a global environment in which global, national and local nodes relate freely within common networks, all research universities must pursue strategies for building global capacity and facilitating cross-border staff and student movement and research collaboration. The study compares readings of the global environment, global and international…

  2. Sustaining Breakthrough Research in a Changing Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    As companies face ever-increasing economic and competitive pressures, the imperative to deliver real, sustained growth through innovation is clear. Corporations need to develop and maintain a research and development portfolio that recognizes this reality. This talk examines how General Electric's Global Research Center is implementing a technology portfolio that balances long- and shorter-term R&D across four global facilities. Examples from medical imaging and energy business segments will be used to illustrate strategies for delivering growth through sustained investment in technology.

  3. A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

  4. Establishing Sustainable Higher Education Partnerships in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigisheva, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The paper written in the form of literature review is devoted to the analysis of the latest educational manuscripts by Laura M. Portnoi et al and Robin Sakamoto et al and provides a critical overview of possible partnership interactions in the actively globalizing sphere of world higher education. [For complete volume, see ED567118.

  5. Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Regina M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

  6. Constructing Meaning in a Technology-Rich, Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Ian W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Forum on School Leadership (GFSL) as a Type II application of interactive computing technology suitable for 21st century learners, teachers, and school leaders. Simply put, the concept of the GFSL brings together learners who share a common goal, a common subject area, or a common profession, and encourages them to…

  7. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  8. A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

  9. The Power of Leadership in a Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Richard A.; Terehoff, Irina I.

    2000-01-01

    Effective principals must deal with challenges (such as local, national, and international school comparisons) arising from global changes in economics, politics, and demography. Comparative NASSP-sponsored international programs in Russia, China, Ireland, and other countries provide advantages for practicing principals and insights for aspiring…

  10. Meeting global needs via genetics x environment x management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed a projected 9 billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the w...

  11. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  12. Food systems change and the environment: local and global connections.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Bess, Kimberly D

    2011-06-01

    Making changes to the way food is produced, distributed, and processed is one strategy for addressing global climate change. In this case study, we examine the "forming" stage of an emergent and locally-based coalition that is both participatory and focused on promoting food security by creating food systems change. Social network analysis is used to compare network density, centrality, and centralization among coalition partners before the formation of the coalition and at its one-year anniversary. Findings reveal that the coalition facilitated information seeking, assistance seeking, and collaborative efforts related to food security among a group of organizational stakeholders that were relatively disconnected pre-coalition. Results also illuminate tensions related to increased centralization of the network, coalition efficiency, and the goals of democratic decision-making. This study highlights the utility of social network analysis as a tool for evaluating the aims and trajectory of locally-based coalitions focused on global concerns.

  13. Global telecommunications needs for the long duration balloon environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymire, Stephen L.

    The Long Duration (LD) balloon environment significantly complicates the means of providing effective telecommunications support when compared to support possible within the conventional zero-pressure (ZP) environment. This paper will discuss general aspects of supporting two-way telecommunications between ground based facilities and multiple LD balloon payloads. A summary of the LD environment (general operational and NSBF support) is presented as a basis for discussing generic network characteristics. General LD telecommunication needs are highlighted and a preliminary systems model of an ``ideal'' LD telecommunication network is introduced. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  14. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  15. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  16. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A.; Steele, W. Baylor; Yates, Brian S.; Breed, Christopher S.; Williams, E. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  17. Application of the Open Software Foundation (OSF)distributed computing environment to global PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to developing Global Picture Archiving and Communication System (GPACS) applications using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The OSF DCE services include remote procedure calls, naming service, threads service, time service, file management services, and security service. Several OSF DCE toolkits are currently available from computer and software vendors. Designing distributed Global PACS applications using the OSF DCE approach will feature an open architecture, heterogeneity, and technology independence for GPACS remote consultation and diagnosis applications, including synchronized image annotation, and system privacy and security. The applications can communicate through various transport services and communications networks in a Global PACS environment. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS will enable us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

  18. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  19. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and…

  20. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and…

  1. Countermeasures for mitigating the effects of global environment changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental countermeasures for preventing the negative effects of global climate change and ozone depletion are discussed with special emphasis on the possibilities of space-based actions. Among the programs addressed are the Mission to Planet Earth, the Solar Power Satellite (and linkage to the Space Exploration Initiative), and proposed projects such as a lunar-based power generator that utilizes He-3 as a fusion fuel when combined with deuterium. The concept of regional working groups is proposed for initiating the programs for effective countermeasures.

  2. Geothermal energy and the environment - The global experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualetti, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discusses the impact of environmental problems on the world's geothermal generating stations. The significant impacts include conflicts in land use, air pollution, subsidence, water pollution, induced seismicity, blowouts, and noise. Development of geothermal resources has been slowed down in some countries: in U.S., the emission of hydrogen sulfide produced a problem; in Japan, land use in national parks and waste-water disposal resulted in difficulties; and in El Salvador, waste-water disposal presented a difficulty. Geothermal development faces many regulations and difficulties, particularly in U.S., a country which could stimulate a global acceleration in this field with appropriately relaxed controls.

  3. Executive Perceptions on International Education in a Globalized Environment: The Travel Industry's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, J. Mark; Katsioloudes, Marios I.

    2004-01-01

    Research on globalization has determined travel executives' perceptions of the psychological implications brought about by an interconnected global environment and the implications on international education. With the concepts of Clyne and Rizvi (1998) and Pittaway, Ferguson, and Breen (1998) on the value of cross-cultural interaction as a…

  4. Veterinary medicine, food security and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A M; Marshak, R R

    2009-08-01

    The authors focus on the role of veterinary medicine in feeding the nine billion people projected to inhabit the planet by 2050, despite the problems of global warming, political constraints and environmental destruction. Population growth, predominantly urban, will occur mainly in developing countries, at a magnitude comparable to creating a city the size of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States of America, every three weeks for the next 40 years. Accompanying this growth will be a greatly increased demand for animal protein. How this burgeoning demand can be met by intensive and extensive systems of animal production is discussed, with particular reference to the immensely important role that the veterinary profession and schools must play.

  5. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  6. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  7. Global transcriptional response of Lactobacillus reuteri to the sourdough environment.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Eric; Britton, Robert A; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Hertel, Christian

    2008-10-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium that is highly adapted to the sourdough environment. It is a dominant member of industrial type II sourdoughs, and is also able to colonize the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans, and birds. In this study, the transcriptional response of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was investigated during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays. Significant changes of mRNA levels were found for 101 genes involved in diverse cellular processes, such as carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell envelope biosynthesis, exopolysaccharide production, stress responses, signal transduction and cobalamin biosynthesis. The results showed extensive changes of the organism's gene expression during growth in sourdough as compared with growth in chemically defined medium, and, thus, revealed pathways involved in the adaptation of L. reuteri to the ecological niche of sourdough. The utilization of starch and non-starch carbohydrates, the remodelling of the cell wall, characterized by reduced D-alanylation, and increased amounts of cell wall-associated polysaccharides, as well as the regulatory function of two component systems for cell wall biogenesis and metabolism were suggested by the gene expression data as being important for growth in sourdough. The impact of several L. reuteri genes for effective growth in sourdough was shown by implementation of mutant strains in sourdough fermentation. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular fundamentals of L. reuteri's ecological competitiveness, and provides a basis for further exploration of genetic traits involved in adaptation to the food environment.

  8. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. GLOBE supports students, teachers, and scientists in collaborations using inquiry-based investigations of the environment and the earth system. GLOBE currently works in close…

  9. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

  10. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  11. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  12. Global Future: Time to Act. Report to the President on Global Resources, Environment and Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Katherine, Ed.; And Others

    This report presents recommendations and ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a vigorous response to urgent global problems. The goal of the report is to further public discussion of these important issues and to offer ideas to government leaders who will be developing U.S. policy in the years ahead. A…

  13. Developing Global Leaders: Building Effective Global- Intercultural Collaborative Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Karen Lynne-Daniels

    2017-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of a study conducted on a virtual inter-cultural global leadership development learning project. Mixed Methods analysis techniques were used to examine the interviews of U.S. and Uganda youth project participants. The study, based on cultural and social constructivist learning theories, investigated the effects of…

  14. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  15. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  16. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I.-I.; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  17. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-18

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  18. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  19. OSF-distributed computing environment for multimedia telemedicine services in global PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to developing global picture archiving and communication system (PACS) remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) application using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The current RCD system now uses programming services similar to those offered by OSF DCE, the Cell Directory Service, the Distributed Time Service, the Security Service, the RPC Facility, and the Threads Facility. In this research we have formally applied OSF DCE services to the Global PACS RCD software. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS enables us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

  20. Laboratory and software applications for clinical trials: the global laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Chad

    2011-11-01

    The Applied Pharmaceutical Software Meeting is held annually. It is sponsored by The Boston Society, a not-for-profit organization that coordinates a series of meetings within the global pharmaceutical industry. The meeting generally focuses on laboratory applications, but in recent years has expanded to include some software applications for clinical trials. The 2011 meeting emphasized the global laboratory environment. Global clinical trials generate massive amounts of data in many locations that must be centralized and processed for efficient analysis. Thus, the meeting had a strong focus on establishing networks and systems for dealing with the computer infrastructure to support such environments. In addition to the globally installed laboratory information management system, electronic laboratory notebook and other traditional laboratory applications, cloud computing is quickly becoming the answer to provide efficient, inexpensive options for managing the large volumes of data and computing power, and thus it served as a central theme for the meeting.

  1. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-06

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport.

  2. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-03-05

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs.

  3. Global Biogeographic Analysis of Methanogenic Archaea Identifies Community-Shaping Environmental Factors of Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xi; Yang, Sizhong; Horn, Fabian; Winkel, Matthias; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea are important for the global greenhouse gas budget since they produce methane under anoxic conditions in numerous natural environments such as oceans, estuaries, soils, and lakes. Whether and how environmental change will propagate into methanogenic assemblages of natural environments remains largely unknown owing to a poor understanding of global distribution patterns and environmental drivers of this specific group of microorganisms. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis targeting the biogeographic patterns and environmental controls of methanogenic communities using 94 public mcrA gene datasets. We show a global pattern of methanogenic archaea that is more associated with habitat filtering than with geographical dispersal. We identify salinity as the control on methanogenic community composition at global scale whereas pH and temperature are the major controls in non-saline soils and lakes. The importance of salinity for structuring methanogenic community composition is also reflected in the biogeography of methanogenic lineages and the physiological properties of methanogenic isolates. Linking methanogenic alpha-diversity with reported values of methane emission identifies estuaries as the most diverse methanogenic habitats with, however, minor contribution to the global methane budget. With salinity, temperature and pH our study identifies environmental drivers of methanogenic community composition facing drastic changes in many natural environments at the moment. However, consequences of this for the production of methane remain elusive owing to a lack of studies that combine methane production rate with community analysis.

  4. Global Biogeographic Analysis of Methanogenic Archaea Identifies Community-Shaping Environmental Factors of Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xi; Yang, Sizhong; Horn, Fabian; Winkel, Matthias; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea are important for the global greenhouse gas budget since they produce methane under anoxic conditions in numerous natural environments such as oceans, estuaries, soils, and lakes. Whether and how environmental change will propagate into methanogenic assemblages of natural environments remains largely unknown owing to a poor understanding of global distribution patterns and environmental drivers of this specific group of microorganisms. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis targeting the biogeographic patterns and environmental controls of methanogenic communities using 94 public mcrA gene datasets. We show a global pattern of methanogenic archaea that is more associated with habitat filtering than with geographical dispersal. We identify salinity as the control on methanogenic community composition at global scale whereas pH and temperature are the major controls in non-saline soils and lakes. The importance of salinity for structuring methanogenic community composition is also reflected in the biogeography of methanogenic lineages and the physiological properties of methanogenic isolates. Linking methanogenic alpha-diversity with reported values of methane emission identifies estuaries as the most diverse methanogenic habitats with, however, minor contribution to the global methane budget. With salinity, temperature and pH our study identifies environmental drivers of methanogenic community composition facing drastic changes in many natural environments at the moment. However, consequences of this for the production of methane remain elusive owing to a lack of studies that combine methane production rate with community analysis. PMID:28769904

  5. Global vs. Localized Search: A Comparison of Database Selection Methods in a Hierarchical Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Jack G.; Claussen, Joanne Smestad; Yang, Changwen

    2002-01-01

    Compares standard global information retrieval searching with more localized techniques to address the database selection problem that users often have when searching for the most relevant database, based on experiences with the Westlaw Directory. Findings indicate that a browse plus search approach in a hierarchical environment produces the most…

  6. Water in the Global Environment. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterstone, Marvin

    This report deals with the importance of water to life. The physical characteristics of water, its distribution, and a number of current water-related problems are examined. The issue of water management is discussed, along with the ways water is made available for our many uses in life. The introductory essay, "Water in the Global Environment,"…

  7. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  8. Universal Service in a Global Networked Environment: Selected Issues and Possible Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Owens, Kimberly A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents selected issues related to the development of universal service to networked information resources and services in a global networked environment. Defines universal service as a set of telecommunications services to which users should have access, including appropriate funding and interconnected public telecommunications infrastructure…

  9. Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inger, Robert F.; And Others

    The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

  10. Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inger, Robert F.; And Others

    The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

  11. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kocman, David; Wilson, Simon J.; Amos, Helen M.; Telmer, Kevin H.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Sunderland, Elsie M.; Mason, Robert P.; Outridge, Peter; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg), as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes) associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg·a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget. PMID:28157152

  12. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments.

    PubMed

    Kocman, David; Wilson, Simon J; Amos, Helen M; Telmer, Kevin H; Steenhuisen, Frits; Sunderland, Elsie M; Mason, Robert P; Outridge, Peter; Horvat, Milena

    2017-02-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg), as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes) associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a-1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  13. Precision markup modeling and display in a global geo-spatial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartell, Zachary J.; Ribarsky, William; Faust, Nickolas L.

    2003-08-01

    A data organization, scalable structure, and multiresolution visualization approach is described for precision markup modeling in a global geospatial environment. The global environment supports interactive visual navigation from global overviews to details on the ground at the resolution of inches or less. This is a difference in scale of 10 orders of magnitude or more. To efficiently handle details over this range of scales while providing accurate placement of objects, a set of nested coordinate systems is used, which always refers, through a series of transformations, to the fundamental world coordinate system (with its origin at the center of the earth). This coordinate structure supports multi-resolution models of imagery, terrain, vector data, buildings, moving objects, and other geospatial data. Thus objects that are static or moving on the terrain can be displayed without inaccurate positioning or jumping due to coordinate round-off. Examples of high resolution images, 3D objects, and terrain-following annotations are shown.

  14. Development of the virtual research environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of global climate change impacts on the regional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Fazliev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Description and the first results of the Russian Science Foundation project "Virtual computational information environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of the impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of a selected region" is presented. The project is aimed at development of an Internet-accessible computation and information environment providing unskilled in numerical modelling and software design specialists, decision-makers and stakeholders with reliable and easy-used tools for in-depth statistical analysis of climatic characteristics, and instruments for detailed analysis, assessment and prediction of impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of the targeted region. In the framework of the project, approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platform of the Russian leading institution involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research laboratory focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies. VRE under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed information and computing system CLIMATE (http://climate.scert.ru/), which is widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The Project includes several major directions of research listed below. 1. Preparation of geo-referenced data sets, describing the dynamics of the current and possible future climate and environmental changes in detail. 2. Improvement of methods of analysis of climate change. 3. Enhancing the functionality of the VRE prototype in order to create a convenient and reliable tool for the study of regional social, economic and political consequences of climate change. 4. Using the output of the first three tasks, compilation of the VRE prototype, its validation, preparation of applicable detailed description of

  15. Relationship between urban eco-environment and competitiveness with the background of globalization: statistical explanation based on industry type newly classified with environment demand and environment pressure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiao-guang; Ma, Qing-Bin

    2005-01-01

    Within the global urban system, the statistical relationship between urban eco-environment (UE) and urban competitiveness (UC) (RUEC) is researched. Data showed that there is a statistically inverted-U relationship between UE and UC. Eco-environmental factor is put into the classification of industries, and gets six industrial types by two indexes viz. industries' eco-environmental demand and pressure. The statistical results showed that there is a strong relationship, for new industrial classification, between the changes of industrial structure and evolvement of UE. The drive mechanism of the evolvement of urban eco-environment, with human demand and global work division was analyzed. The conclusion is that the development stratege, industrial policies of cities, and environmental policies fo cities must be fit with their ranks among the global urban system. At the era of globalization, so far as the environmental policies, their rationality could not be assessed with the level of strictness, but it can enhance cities' competitiveness when they are fit with cities' capabilities to attract and control some sections of the industry's value-chain. None but these kinds of environmental policies can probably enhance the UC.

  16. Global cytosine methylation in Daphnia magna depends on genotype, environment, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Jansen, Mieke; Decaestecker, Ellen; De Meester, Luc; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-05-01

    The authors characterized global cytosine methylation levels in 2 different genotypes of the ecotoxicological model organism Daphnia magna after exposure to a wide array of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors. The present study aimed to improve the authors' understanding of the role of cytosine methylation in the organism's response to environmental conditions. The authors observed a significant genotype effect, an environment effect, and a genotype × environment effect. In particular, global cytosine methylation levels were significantly altered after exposure to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, and sodium chloride compared with control conditions. Significant differences between the 2 genotypes were observed when animals were exposed to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, Cryptomonas, and sodium chloride. Despite the low global methylation rate under control conditions (0.49-0.52%), global cytosine methylation levels upon exposure to Triops demonstrated a 5-fold difference between the genotypes (0.21% vs 1.02%). No effects were found in response to arsenic, cadmium, fish, lead, pH of 5.5, pH of 8, temperature, hypoxia, and white fat cell disease. The authors' results point to the potential role of epigenetic effects under changing environmental conditions such as predation (i.e., Triops), diet (i.e., Cryptomonas and Microcystis), and salinity. The results of the present study indicate that, despite global cytosine methylation levels being low, epigenetic effects may be important in environmental studies on Daphnia. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Cooperative Environments in a Global Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajah, Kirusnapillai; Speirs, Neil

    The increasing number of devices that are invisibly embedded into our surrounding environment as well as the proliferation of wireless communication and sensing technologies are the basis for visions like ambient intelligence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. In this context, the objective of PECES EU project is the creation of a comprehensive software layer to enable the seamless cooperation of embedded devices across various smart spaces on a global scale in a context-dependent, secure and trustworthy manner.

  18. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  19. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  20. Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on

  1. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE PAGES

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; ...

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore » and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel

  2. Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management

  3. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  4. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  5. Cycling of DDT in the global environment 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The global distribution and fate of the insecticide DDT was modeled for the first time using a spatially resolved global multicompartment chemistry-transport model comprising a 3D coupled atmosphere and ocean GCM, coupled to 2D vegetation surfaces and top soils. DDT enters the model environment as a pesticide in agriculture only. Final sinks of DDT in the total environment are degradation in air (hydroxyl radical reaction), on vegetation surfaces, in ocean sediments and soils. The process resolution of the ocean compartment, i.e., either a fixed or variable size and sinking velocity of suspended particles, has almost no effect on the large-scale cycling and fate of DDT. The residence times in various ocean basins were declining but varied regionally. The global ocean absorbed until 1977 and since then has been losing DDT, while large sea areas are still accumulating the pollutant. The main sink is volatilization to the atmosphere. In 1990, the year when emissions ceased, 292 kt of DDT were deposited to the global ocean, 301 kt were volatilized, and 41 kt were exported from the surface layer to the deeper levels. The sea region that has been representing the most significant (secondary) DDT source is the western N Atlantic (Gulf stream and N Atlantic Drift regions). It has been a source since approximately 1970. Also large parts of the tropical ocean and the southern mid-latitude ocean have turned net volatilizational (i.e., volatilization flux > deposition flux) during the 1980s. Despite the emissions migrating southward as a consequence of substance ban in mid latitudes, the geographic distribution of the contaminant (and, hence, environmental exposure) has been migrating steadily northward since the 1960s.

  6. Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career

  7. Methodological challenges of evaluating the impact of the Global Environment Facility's biodiversity program.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Jos; Todd, David

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we explore some of the methodological challenges that evaluators face in assessing the impacts of complex intervention strategies. We illustrate these challenges, using the specific example of an impact evaluation of one of the six focal areas of the Global Environment Facility; its biodiversity program. The discussion is structured around the concepts of attribution and aggregation, offering the reader a framework for reflection. Subsequently, the paper discusses how theory-based evaluation can provide a basis for addressing the attribution and aggregation challenges presented.

  8. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  9. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  10. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  11. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanaka, Takashi

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  12. The Analysis of Moonborne Cross Track Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Global Environment Change Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yixing, Ding; Huadong, Guo; Guang, Liu; Daowei, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Faced to the earth observation requirement of large scale global environment change, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) antenna system is proposed to set on Moon's surface for interferometry in this paper. With several advantages superior to low earth obit SAR, such as high space resolution, large range swath and short revisit interval, the moonborne SAR could be a potential data resource of global changes monitoring and environment change research. Due to the high stability and ease of maintenance, the novel system is competent for offering a long and continuous time series of remote sensing imagery. The Moonborne SAR system performance is discussed at the beginning. Then, the peculiarity of interferometry is analyzed in both repeat pass and single pass cases. The chief distinguishing feature which is worth to research the potentiality of repeat pass interferometry is that the revisit interval is reduced to one day in most cases, and in worst case one month. Decorrelation deriving from geometry variety is discussed in detail. It turns out that the feasibility of moonborne SAR repeat pass interferometry depends on the declination of Moon. The severity of shift effects in radar echoes increased as Moon approaches to the equatorial plane. Moreover, referring to the single pass interferometry, two antennas are assumed to set on different latitude of Moon. There is enough space on Moon to form a long baseline, which is highly related to the interferogram precision.

  13. A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

  14. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a

  15. Global warming in the palliative care research environment: adapting to change.

    PubMed

    Fainsinger, R L

    2008-06-01

    Advocates of palliative care research have often described the cold and difficult environment that has constrained the development of research internationally. The development of palliative care research has been slow over the last few decades and has met with resistance and sometimes hostility to the idea of conducting research in 'vulnerable populations'. The seeds of advocacy for research can be found in palliative care literature from the 1980s and early 1990s. Although we have much to do, we need to recognize that palliative care research development has come a long way. Of particular note is the development of well-funded collaboratives that now exist in Europe, Canada, Australia and the USA. The European Association for Palliative Care and the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care has recognized the need to develop and promote global research initiatives, with a special focus on developing countries. Time is needed to develop good research evidence and in a more complex healthcare environment takes increasingly more resources to be productive. The increased support (global warming) evident in the increased funding opportunities available to palliative care researchers in a number of countries brings both benefits and challenges. There is evidence that the advocacy of individuals such as Kathleen Foley, Neil MacDonald, Balfour Mount, Vittorio Ventafridda, Robert Twycross and Geoff Hanks is now providing fertile ground and a much friendlier environment for a new generation of interdisciplinary palliative care research. We have achieved many of the goals necessary to avoid failure of the 'palliative care experiment', and need to accept the challenge of our present climate and adapt and take advantage of the change.

  16. What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

  17. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have

  18. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

  19. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    PubMed

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  20. The galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution with time show no dependence on global environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Oemler, A.; Dressler, A.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; De Lucia, G.; Moretti, A.; Gladders, M.; Abramson, L.; Halliday, C.

    2013-02-01

    We present an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function in different environments at intermediate redshift (0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.8) for two mass-limited galaxy samples. We use the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS; M∗ ≥ 1010.5 M⊙) to study cluster, group and field galaxies at z = 0.3-0.45, and the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS; M∗ ≥ 1010.2 M⊙) to investigate cluster and group galaxies at z = 0.4-0.8. Our analysis thus includes galaxies with masses reaching just below that of the Milky Way. Excluding the brightest cluster galaxies, we show that the shape of the mass distribution does not seem to depend on global environment, Our two main results are: (1) Galaxies in the virialised regions of clusters, in groups, and in the field follow similar mass distributions. (2) Comparing the ICBS and EDisCS mass functions to mass functions in the local universe, we detect evolution from z ~ 0.4-0.6 to z ~ 0.07 in the sense that the population of low-mass galaxies has grown with time with respect to the population of massive galaxies. This evolution is independent of environment, i.e., the same for clusters and the field. Furthermore, considering only cluster galaxies, we find that no differences can be detected in their mass functions either within the virialised regions, or when we compare galaxies inside and outside the virial radius. Finally, we find that red and blue galaxies have different mass functions. However, the shapes of the mass functions of blue and red galaxies do not seem to depend on their environment (clusters groups and the field). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. The global tobacco control 'endgame': change the policy environment to implement the FCTC.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Paul; Mamudu, Hadii

    2014-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) has prompted major change in tobacco control globally. However, policy implementation has been uneven, making 'smoke free' outcomes possible in some countries, but not others. We identify the factors that would improve implementation. We describe an ideal type of 'comprehensive tobacco control regimes', where policy environments are conducive to the implementation of tobacco control measures designed to eradicate tobacco use. The ideal type requires that a country have certain policy processes: the department of health takes the policy lead; tobacco is 'framed' as a public health problem; public health groups are consulted at the expense of tobacco interests; socioeconomic conditions are conducive to policy change; and, the scientific evidence is 'set in stone' within governments. No country will meet all these criteria in the short term, and the gap between the ideal type and the current state is wide in many countries. However, the WHO experience provides a model for progress.

  2. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  3. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  4. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  6. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

  7. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

  8. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

  9. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  10. A Sensitivity Study of the Thermodynamic Environment on GFDL Model Hurricane Intensity: Implications for Global Warming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weixing; Tuleya, Robert E.; Ginis, Isaac

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to ±4°C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26° to 31°C given the same relative humidity profile.The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO2 is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity is highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO2.

  11. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  12. Global adaptation to a lipid environment triggers the dormancy-related phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan G; Hernández, Adriana C; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Aguilar Ayala, Diana; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M; Bustos, Jose R; Zambrano, María M; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge; García, María J; Del Portillo, Patricia

    2014-05-20

    Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium's metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcriptome revealed a shift toward the glyoxylate cycle, the overexpression of main regulators whiB3, dosR, and Rv0081, and the increased expression of several genes related to reductive stress. Our evidence showed that lipid storage seems to be the selected mechanism used by M. tuberculosis to ameliorate the assumed damage of reductive stress and that concomitantly the bacilli acquired a slowed-growth and drug-tolerant phenotype, all characteristics previously associated with the dormant stage. Additionally, intergenic regions were also detected, including the unexpected upregulation of tRNAs that suggest a new role for these molecules in the acquisition of a drug-tolerant phenotype by dormant bacilli. Finally, a set of lipid signature genes for the adaptation process was also identified. This in vitro model represents a suitable condition to illustrate the participation of reductive stress in drugs' activity against dormant bacilli, an aspect scarcely investigated to date. This approach provides a new perspective to the understanding of latent infection and suggests the participation of previously undetected molecules. Mycobacterium tuberculosis establishes long-lasting highly prevalent infection inside the human body, called latent tuberculosis. The known involvement of fatty acids is changing our understanding of that silent infection; however, question of how tubercle bacilli globally adapt to a lipid-enriched environment is still an unanswered. With the single change of providing fatty

  13. Searching for global descriptors of engineered nanomaterial fate and transport in the environment.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-19

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases, researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However, ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore, researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies, that

  14. Global isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN, ECMWF analyses and a detailed canopy environment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.-F.; Stavrakou, T.; Wallens, S.; de Smedt, I.; van Roozendael, M.; Potosnak, M. J.; Rinne, J.; Munger, B.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A. B.

    2007-11-01

    The global emissions of isoprene are calculated at 0.5° resolution for each year between 1995 and 2006, based on the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) version 2 model (Guenther et al., 2006) and a detailed multi-layer canopy environment model for the calculation of leaf temperature and visible radiation fluxes. The calculation is driven by meteorological fields - air temperature, cloud cover, downward solar irradiance, windspeed, volumetric soil moisture in 4 soil layers - provided by analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The estimated annual global isoprene emission ranges between 374 Tg (in 1996) and 449 Tg (in 1998 and 2005), for an average of ca. 410 Tg/year over the whole period, i.e. about 30% less than the standard MEGAN estimate (Guenther et al., 2006). This difference is due, to a large extent, to the impact of the soil moisture stress factor, which is found here to decrease the global emissions by more than 20%. In qualitative agreement with past studies, high annual emissions are found to be generally associated with El Niño events. The emission inventory is evaluated against flux measurement campaigns at Harvard forest (Massachussets) and Tapajós in Amazonia, showing that the model can capture quite well the short-term variability of emissions, but that it fails to reproduce the observed seasonal variation at the tropical rainforest site, with largely overestimated wet season fluxes. The comparison of the HCHO vertical columns calculated by a chemistry and transport model (CTM) with HCHO distributions retrieved from space provides useful insights on tropical isoprene emissions. For example, the relatively low emissions calculated over Western Amazonia (compared to the corresponding estimates in the inventory of Guenther et al., 1995) are validated by the excellent agreement found between the CTM and HCHO data over this region. The parameterized impact of the soil moisture stress

  15. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    contrast to the case of the strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Overall, these research improves understanding of mechanisms underlying the expansion of CAM plants with important implications on shifts in dryland vegetation composition, bioenergy production, food security, and adaptation to global environment change.

  16. Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies

  17. Designing for the global environment: A US manufacturer`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, H.

    1995-12-31

    Georgia Tech is one of only two Centers of Excellence in Photovoltaic Research and Education designated by the Department of Energy. Solarex has a long relationship with Georgia Tech in cooperative research in photovoltaics and recently has had the pleasure to return some of the fruits of that research to Georgia Tech in the form of almost 3000 large area PV modules to be installed on the roof of the new Aquatic Center. This system, located on a highly visible facility that will be the site of the 1996 Olympic swimming and diving events, is a showcase for the PV technology steadfastly developed by US industry with the support of DOE over the last 20 years. It is hoped that this system will serve as a model for sustainable energy to the nations of the world present at the Olympics and viewing it on their TV screens. This paper goes on to discuss the global implications and opportunities of photovoltaics and how this energy system fits into concerns about the environment.

  18. Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2004-08-01

    Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

  19. Natural hazards education in global environment leaders education programme for designing a low-carbon society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2010-05-01

    Global environmental leader (GEL) education programme at graduate school for international development and cooperation (IDEC) in Hiroshima University is an education and training programme for graduate students especially from developing countries in Asian region to build and enhance their ability to become international environmental leaders. Through this programme, they will participate in regular course works and other activities to learn how to cope with the various environment and resource management issues from global to regional scales toward a low-carbon society via multi-disciplinary approaches considering sustainable development and climate change. Under this GEL programme, there are five different research sub-groups as follows assuming a cause-effect relationship among interacting components of social, economic, and environmental systems; 1) urban system design to prevent global warming, 2) wise use of biomass resources, 3) environmental impact assessment, 4) policy and institutional design, and 5) development of environmental education programs. Candidate students of GEL programme belong to one of the five research sub-groups, perform their researches and participate in many activities under the cross-supervisions from faculty members of different sub-groups. Under the third research group for environmental impact assessment, we use numerical models named as regional environment simulator (RES) as a tool for research and education for assessing the environmental impacts due to natural hazards. Developed at IDEC, Hiroshima University, RES is a meso-scale numerical model system that can be used for regional simulation of natural disasters and environmental problems caused by water and heat circulation in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. RES has three components: i) atmosphere-surface waves-ocean part, ii) atmosphere-land surface process-hydrologic part, and iii) coastal and estuarine part. Each part is constructed with state-of-the-art public

  20. Teaching about the Global Environment at a Jesuit Liberal Arts University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about global environmental issues is often reserved to courses in environmental and/or geoscience departments. Universities that do not have departments that fall into these categories may be missing out on educating both science and non-science students about these important and timely issues. Loyola University Maryland is a private Jesuit liberal arts University with no environmental or geoscience department and prior to 2008 had no courses that focused on the science of global environmental issues. Global Environment in a course offered by the Chemistry Department that fills this niche. The course is designed for a general non-science audience, though the course content is also appropriate for science students. The primary goal of the course is for students to learn the basics about how the Earth system works and how our changing climate is related to biodiversity, pollution, water availability and society. The course is designated a diversity course which is a course that fulfills the University's call "to prepare students … to pursue justice by making an action-oriented response to the needs of the world." All students at Loyola University Maryland are required to take one diversity course. For this class, the diversity focus is environmental justice which is brought into the course through lectures, discussions and student projects. By bringing societal impacts into a science course the students can better understand why the environment is important and our actions affect both ourselves and others. The course has also evolved over four iterations into a course that maximizes student involvement while minimizing student angst. One way that this is accomplished is by eliminating tests and substituting daily quizzes using a student response system (clickers). Clickers are also used to poll students and to review what information the students are retaining. Students are able to self-guide their own learning in the course by creating a portfolio

  1. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  2. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  3. Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Martine Courant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

  4. Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Martine Courant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

  5. "What Price Respect"--Exploring the Notion of Respect in a 21st Century Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Doirean

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the meaning of respect in a 21st century global learning environment, with a view to exploring the implications for promoting harmonious working relationships among students of culturally diverse ethnic backgrounds in the classroom. Research conducted since 2005 that investigates the understanding, meaning and experience of…

  6. Promoting Positive Academic Dispositions Using a Web-Based PBL Environment: The GlobalEd 2 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Boyer, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional design approach for promoting student learning, understanding and knowledge development in context rich settings. Previous PBL research has primarily focused on face-to-face learning environments, but current technologies afford PBL designers the opportunities to create online, virtual, PBL…

  7. Functional traits determine plant co-occurrence more than environment or evolutionary relatedness in global drylands.

    PubMed

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T; Bowker, Matthew A; Torices, Rubén; Quero, José L; García-Gómez, Miguel; Cabrera, Omar; Cea, Alex; Coaguila, Daniel; Eldridge, David J; Espinosa, Carlos I; Hemmings, Frank; Monerris, Jorge J; Tighe, Matthew; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria; Blones, Julio; Derak, Mchich; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gutiérrez, Julio R; Hernández, Rosa M; Noumi, Zouhaier

    2014-08-20

    Plant-plant interactions are driven by environmental conditions, evolutionary relationships (ER) and the functional traits of the plants involved. However, studies addressing the relative importance of these drivers are rare, but crucial to improve our predictions of the effects of plant-plant interactions on plant communities and of how they respond to differing environmental conditions. To analyze the relative importance of -and interrelationships among- these factors as drivers of plant-plant interactions, we analyzed perennial plant co-occurrence at 106 dryland plant communities established across rainfall gradients in nine countries. We used structural equation modeling to disentangle the relationships between environmental conditions (aridity and soil fertility), functional traits extracted from the literature, and ER, and to assess their relative importance as drivers of the 929 pairwise plant-plant co-occurrence levels measured. Functional traits, specifically facilitated plants' height and nurse growth form, were of primary importance, and modulated the effect of the environment and ER on plant-plant interactions. Environmental conditions and ER were important mainly for those interactions involving woody and graminoid nurses, respectively. The relative importance of different plant-plant interaction drivers (ER, functional traits, and the environment) varied depending on the region considered, illustrating the difficulty of predicting the outcome of plant-plant interactions at broader spatial scales. In our global-scale study on drylands, plant-plant interactions were more strongly related to functional traits of the species involved than to the environmental variables considered. Thus, moving to a trait-based facilitation/competition approach help to predict that: 1) positive plant-plant interactions are more likely to occur for taller facilitated species in drylands, and 2) plant-plant interactions within woody-dominated ecosystems might be more

  8. Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long

  9. Functional traits determine plant co-occurrence more than environment or evolutionary relatedness in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Torices, Rubén; Quero, José L.; García-Gómez, Miguel; Cabrera, Omar; Cea, Alex; Coaguila, Daniel; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Hemmings, Frank; Monerris, Jorge J.; Tighe, Matthew; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria; Blones, Julio; Derak, Mchich; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Noumi, Zouhaier

    2015-01-01

    Plant-plant interactions are driven by environmental conditions, evolutionary relationships (ER) and the functional traits of the plants involved. However, studies addressing the relative importance of these drivers are rare, but crucial to improve our predictions of the effects of plant-plant interactions on plant communities and of how they respond to differing environmental conditions. To analyze the relative importance of –and interrelationships among– these factors as drivers of plant-plant interactions, we analyzed perennial plant co-occurrence at 106 dryland plant communities established across rainfall gradients in nine countries. We used structural equation modeling to disentangle the relationships between environmental conditions (aridity and soil fertility), functional traits extracted from the literature, and ER, and to assess their relative importance as drivers of the 929 pairwise plant-plant co-occurrence levels measured. Functional traits, specifically facilitated plants’ height and nurse growth form, were of primary importance, and modulated the effect of the environment and ER on plant-plant interactions. Environmental conditions and ER were important mainly for those interactions involving woody and graminoid nurses, respectively. The relative importance of different plant-plant interaction drivers (ER, functional traits, and the environment) varied depending on the region considered, illustrating the difficulty of predicting the outcome of plant-plant interactions at broader spatial scales. In our global-scale study on drylands, plant-plant interactions were more strongly related to functional traits of the species involved than to the environmental variables considered. Thus, moving to a trait-based facilitation/competition approach help to predict that: 1) positive plant-plant interactions are more likely to occur for taller facilitated species in drylands, and 2) plant-plant interactions within woody-dominated ecosystems might be more

  10. Think Locally, Act Globally! Linking Local and Global Communities through Democracy and Environment. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Lorraine

    Designed so that it can be adapted to a wide range of student abilities and institutional settings, this learning module on the human dimensions of global change seeks to: actively engage students in problem solving, challenge them to think critically, invite them to participate in the process of scientific inquiry, and involve them in cooperative…

  11. U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following…

  12. Why Some Distance Education Programs Fail while Others Succeed in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Downey, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many universities increase their recruiting efforts to reach a larger and more diverse audience. Some universities also extend their reach with cross-border initiatives and seek international students in order to promote enrollment growth and global learning. The economic potential of distance education and academic globalization has attracted…

  13. Why Some Distance Education Programs Fail while Others Succeed in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Downey, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many universities increase their recruiting efforts to reach a larger and more diverse audience. Some universities also extend their reach with cross-border initiatives and seek international students in order to promote enrollment growth and global learning. The economic potential of distance education and academic globalization has attracted…

  14. Implementing a New Learning Strategy: Organizational Change for a Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goho, James; Webb, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Globalization, new technology, and the knowledge economy are transforming the role of community colleges in learning. In an increasingly competitive and global education market community colleges in Canada and the USA are responding by changing their missions, culture, curricula, program delivery models, and organizational structures. This…

  15. A framework for the implementation of the comprehensive plan for the global investigation of pollution in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Prepared to provide guidance to the IOC and its Member States on implementing the IOC/GIPME program in general and on developing the Marine Pollution Monitoring System (MARPOLMON), this document outlines the components and essential features of the Comprehensive Plan for the Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (GIPME), assesses the validity of the approach advocated in it, and offers a strategic framework for GIPME activities.

  16. Effects of wildland fire on regional and global carbon stocks in a changing environment

    Treesearch

    Susan G. Conard; Allen M. Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Every year tens of millions of hectares of forests, woodlands, and grasslands burn globally. Some are burned intentionally for land conversion, pasture renewal or hazard reduction, or wildlife habitat improvement, but most are burned by uncontrolled wildfire. Estimates of...

  17. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING THE RISKS TO HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT FROM GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE: A SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global atmosphere is changing. Anthropogenic activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases and releasing synthetic compounds that deplete stratospheric ozone and increase UV-B radiation. Changes of temperature in the Northern Hemisphere during the past cent...

  18. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING THE RISKS TO HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT FROM GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE: A SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global atmosphere is changing. Anthropogenic activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases and releasing synthetic compounds that deplete stratospheric ozone and increase UV-B radiation. Changes of temperature in the Northern Hemisphere during the past cent...

  19. Satellite missions, global environment, and the concept of a global satellite observation information network. The role of the committee on Earth observation satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Brent; Williams, David F.; Fujita, Akihiro

    The paper traces the development of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) since its November 1990 Plenary: its restructuring to include major intergovernmental user and international scientific organizational affiliates; its focus on data sharing issues and completion of a CEOS resolution guaranteeing global change researchers access to satellite data at the cost of filling a user request; unfolding of a CEOS-associated initiative of the UK Prime Minister reporting to UNCED delegations on the relevance of satellite missions to the study of the global environment; development of a "Dossier" providing detailed information on all CEOS agency satellite missions, including sensor specifications, ground systems, standard data products, and other information relevant to users; creation of a permanent CEOS Secretariat; and efforts currently underway to assess the feasibility of a global satellite observation information network. Of particular relevance to developing countries, the paper will discuss CEOS efforts to assure broad user access and to foster acceptance of applications in such important areas as disaster monitoring and mitigation, land cover change, weather forecasting, and long-term climate modeling.

  20. Environment, Complexity and Professional Training in Agriculture. "Turning Local Learning into Global Knowledge."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevost, P.

    1994-01-01

    Training farmers to care for the environment must address the complex relationship between farming and the environment. The example of maize weeding in France demonstrates the process of decision making on a farm and the need for teaching about complexity and adopting a pragmatic approach to training. (SK)

  1. It Is a Small World after All: Teaching Business Ethics in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, managers and employees are facing ethical issues when conducting business in the global marketplace. Business educators attempting to teach appropriate ethical behavior and develop skills for dealing with complex ethical situations need to incorporate realistic case scenarios to challenge students. Such cases should appropriately…

  2. From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

  3. Once upon a Future Time: Thoughts on the Global Environment and LRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Argues that law-related education should prepare students to be able to debate global environmental issues. Discusses overpopulation, water quality, and species extinction. Concludes that law-related education's critical contribution may be to prepare citizens to balance competing interests and make decisions that promote the common good. (CFR)

  4. Once upon a Future Time: Thoughts on the Global Environment and LRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Argues that law-related education should prepare students to be able to debate global environmental issues. Discusses overpopulation, water quality, and species extinction. Concludes that law-related education's critical contribution may be to prepare citizens to balance competing interests and make decisions that promote the common good. (CFR)

  5. Using TIMSS and PIRLS to Construct Global Indicators of Effective Environments for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuschoff, Anna Corinna

    2011-01-01

    As an extension of the effort devoted to updating the questionnaires for TIMSS and PIRLS 2011, this dissertation explored a new reporting strategy for contextual questionnaire data. The study investigated the feasibility of constructing "global indicators" from a large number of diverse background variables, which could provide policy…

  6. Internationalization as a Response to Globalization: Radical Shifts in University Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2007-01-01

    This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic…

  7. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    attributes that underpin inquiry-based learning. For example, science topics can either be globa %y or loca%y defined and data can be co%ected for scientific...Climate Research Campaign (SCRC), which is focused sequentially on global warming ; the carbon and energy footprint; climate and human health; and

  8. Internationalization as a Response to Globalization: Radical Shifts in University Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2007-01-01

    This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic…

  9. Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-07-01

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  10. Thinking globally to meet local needs: autism spectrum disorders in Africa and other low-resource environments.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Petrus J

    2016-04-01

    Most people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) live in low and middle-income countries, yet almost everything we know about ASD comes from high-income countries. Here we review recent research from Africa, with some references to research in other low-resource environments. We examine publications on screening and diagnosis, intervention, clinical presentation of ASD, cultural perspectives, and neuroscience and technology. Open-access screening and diagnostic tools represent a positive, but nontrivial, future goal. Recent efforts at 'low intensity' community-based interventions are encouraging, but many significant scalability challenges remain. Proposals that ASD in Africa is more severe and overrepresented in high socioeconomic families are likely to be attributable to ascertainment biases and the absence of standardized phenotyping tools. Cultural perspectives and innovative use of technology and neuroscience have the potential to generate novel strategies of global relevance, but research priorities have to be determined by local needs. To have a real impact on clinical services, training, and research in local communities, clinician-scientists should start by thinking globally. ASD research in Africa and other low-resource environments remains limited and of questionable quality and highlights the need to build high-quality research capacity in these low-resource environments.

  11. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their

  12. Local and global epidemic outbreaks in populations moving in inhomogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Rizzo, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    We study disease spreading in a system of agents moving in a space where the force of infection is not homogeneous. Agents are random walkers that additionally execute long-distance jumps, and the plane in which they move is divided into two regions where the force of infection takes different values. We show the onset of a local epidemic threshold and a global one and explain them in terms of mean-field approximations. We also elucidate the critical role of the agent velocity, jump probability, and density parameters in achieving the conditions for local and global outbreaks. Finally, we show that the results are independent of the specific microscopic rules adopted for agent motion, since a similar behavior is also observed for the distribution of agent velocity based on a truncated power law, which is a model often used to fit real data on motion patterns of animals and humans.

  13. A program in global biology. [biota-environment interaction important to life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's Global Biology Research Program and its goals for greater understanding of planetary biological processes are discussed. Consideration is given to assessing major pathways and rates of exchange of elements such as carbon and nitrogen, extrapolating local rates of anaerobic activities, determining exchange rates of ocean nutrients, and developing models for the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Satellites and sensors operating today are covered: the Nimbus, NOAA, and Landsat series. Block diagrams of the software and hardware for a typical ground data processing and analysis system are provided. Samples of the surface cover data achieved with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Multispectral Scanner, and the Thematic Mapper are presented, as well as a productive capacity model for coastal wetlands. Finally, attention is given to future goals, their engineering requirements, and the necessary data analysis system.

  14. A program in global biology. [biota-environment interaction important to life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's Global Biology Research Program and its goals for greater understanding of planetary biological processes are discussed. Consideration is given to assessing major pathways and rates of exchange of elements such as carbon and nitrogen, extrapolating local rates of anaerobic activities, determining exchange rates of ocean nutrients, and developing models for the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Satellites and sensors operating today are covered: the Nimbus, NOAA, and Landsat series. Block diagrams of the software and hardware for a typical ground data processing and analysis system are provided. Samples of the surface cover data achieved with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Multispectral Scanner, and the Thematic Mapper are presented, as well as a productive capacity model for coastal wetlands. Finally, attention is given to future goals, their engineering requirements, and the necessary data analysis system.

  15. Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment.

    PubMed

    Göktaş, Recep Kaya; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, semi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness

  16. Rapid Reaction Peacekeeping Under a Blue Flag: A Viable Response to Today’s Global Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-14

    aggression must result in a cooperative international effort to reduce the threat, otherwise the entire theory is invalidated. 3 Theories about global...time (by preventing or at a minimum greatly reducing the violence between belligerents), for negotiations aimed at addressing the causal factors of...peace. Multidimensional peace operations include a mandate not only to reduce the tension between former foes (as in traditional peacekeeping) but

  17. a Framework for Voxel-Based Global Scale Modeling of Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrung, Joachim; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael; Stilla, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    The generation of 3D city models is a very active field of research. Modeling environments as point clouds may be fast, but has disadvantages. These are easily solvable by using volumetric representations, especially when considering selective data acquisition, change detection and fast changing environments. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework for the volumetric modeling and visualization of large scale urban environments. Beside an architecture and the right mix of algorithms for the task, two compression strategies for volumetric models as well as a data quality based approach for the import of range measurements are proposed. The capabilities of the framework are shown on a mobile laser scanning dataset of the Technical University of Munich. Furthermore the loss of the compression techniques is evaluated and their memory consumption is compared to that of raw point clouds. The presented results show that generation, storage and real-time rendering of even large urban models are feasible, even with off-the-shelf hardware.

  18. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

  19. Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043

  20. Effects of global warming on ancient mammalian communities and their environments.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Larisa R G; Feranec, Robert S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2009-06-03

    Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C(3)/C(4) transitions and relative seasonality. Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (approximately 1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (approximately 1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C(4) grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (approximately 28 degrees N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems.

  1. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment.

    PubMed

    Nordhaus, William D

    2010-06-29

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 degrees C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord.

  2. How to Quantify Human-environment Interactions in the Past: A Global Historical Land Use Data Set for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Goldewijk, K.

    2015-12-01

    Land use plays an important role in the climate system. Many ecosystem processes are directly or indirectly climate driven, and together with human driven land use changes, they determine how the land surface will evolve through time. To assess the effects of land cover changes on the climate system, models are required which are capable of simulating interactions between the involved components of the Earth system. Since driving forces for global environmental change differ among regions, a geographically (spatially) explicit modeling approach is called for, so that it can be incorporated in global and regional (climate and/or biophysical) change models in order to enhance our understanding of the underlying processes and thus improving future projections.Some researchers suggest that mankind has shifted from living in the Holocene (~emergence of agriculture) into the Anthropocene (~humans capable of changing the Earth' atmosphere) since the start of the Industrial Revolution. But in the light of the sheer size and magnitude of some historical land use changes (e.g. the Black Plague in the 14th century and the aftermath of the Colombian Exchange in the 16th century), some believe that this point might have occurred earlier in time. There are still many uncertainties and gaps in our knowledge about the importance of land use (change) in the global biogeochemical cycle, and it is crucial that researchers from other disciplines are involved in decreasing the uncertainties.Thus, integrated records of the co-evolving human-environment system over millennia are needed to provide a basis for a deeper understanding of the present and for forecasting the future. This requires the major task of assembling and integrating regional and global historical, archaeological, and paleo-environmental records. Humans cannot predict the future. Here I present a tool for such long term global change studies; it is the latest update (v 3.2) of the History Database of the Global

  3. The Global Classroom Project: Learning a Second Language in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Brant; Kennedy, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of a pilot project exploring the integration of a collaborative virtual learning environment (Second Life) with the instruction of English courses at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. An educational partnership was developed with two TESOL teacher-training courses at Texas A&M University in the US. The project…

  4. Global Channels of Evidence for Learning and Assessment in Complex Game Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.; Erlandson, Benjamin; Denham, Andre

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we take a designer's look at how the activities and data of learning and assessment can be structured in immersive virtual game environments called Massively Multi-Player Online Games (MMOG). In doing so, we examine the channels of evidence through which learning and assessment activities are derived in MMOGs, offering examples of…

  5. Home Musical Environment of Children in Singapore: On Globalization, Technology, and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    The home musical environments of a class of 28 first-grade children in Singapore were examined in this ethnographic study. Technology was an integral part of the soundscape in the home. The musical repertoire gathered was closely associated with electronic and pop-influenced music, approaching the styles favored by teens and adults. Particular…

  6. Population, Poverty, and Land Degradation. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the complex connections among population growth, economic activity, and changes in the environment. The lesson is divided into five parts and may be completed in one or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Facts about Population, Poverty, and…

  7. Population, Poverty, and Land Degradation. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the complex connections among population growth, economic activity, and changes in the environment. The lesson is divided into five parts and may be completed in one or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Facts about Population, Poverty, and…

  8. Two Frameworks for Preparing Teachers for the Shift from Local to Global Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Barbara; Stevens, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The research outlined in this paper is based on the convergence of two conceptual frameworks that guide the transfer of knowledge and skills from traditional teacher education, which focused on teaching in single classrooms, to open networked learning environments that include both inter-institutional teaching and learning and local and global…

  9. Home Musical Environment of Children in Singapore: On Globalization, Technology, and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    The home musical environments of a class of 28 first-grade children in Singapore were examined in this ethnographic study. Technology was an integral part of the soundscape in the home. The musical repertoire gathered was closely associated with electronic and pop-influenced music, approaching the styles favored by teens and adults. Particular…

  10. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsenti, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  11. Resolving global versus local/regional Pu sources in the environment using sector ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketterer, M.E.; Hafer, K.M.; Link, C.L.; Kolwaite, D.; Wilson, Jim; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a versatile method for the determination of plutonium activities and isotopic compositions in samples containing this element at fallout levels. Typical detection limits for 239+240Pu are 0.1, 0.02 and 0.002 Bq kg -1Pu for samples sizes of 0.5 g, 3 g, and 50 g of soil, respectively. The application of sector ICP-MS-based Pu determinations is demonstrated in studies in sediment chronology, soil Pu inventory and depth distribution, and the provenance of global fallout versus local or regional Pu sources. A sediment core collected from Sloans Lake (Denver, Colorado, USA) exhibits very similar 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity profiles; 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios indicate possible small influences from the Nevada Test Site and/or the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. An undisturbed soil profile from Lockett Meadow (Flagstaff, Arizona, USA) exhibits an exponential decrease in 239+240Pu activity versus depth; 240Pu/239Pu in the top 3 cm is slightly lower than the global fallout range of 0.180 ?? 0.014 due to possible regional influence of Nevada Test Site fallout. The 239??240Pu inventory at Lockett Meadow is 56 ?? 4 Bq m-2, consistent with Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude fallout. Archived NdF3 sources, prepared from Polish soils, demonstrate that substantial 239+240Pu from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been deposited in north eastern regions of Poland; compared to global fallout, Chernobyl Pu exhibits higher abundances of 240Pu and 241Pu. The ratios 240Pu/239pu and 241Pu/239Pu co-vary and range from 0.186-0.348 and 0.0029-0.0412, respectively, in forest soils (241Pu/239Pu = 0.2407??[240Pu/239Pu] - 0.0413; r2 = 0.9924). ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2004.

  12. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    PubMed

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V A

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients.

  13. Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  14. Remote sensing of the earth's biosphere - A tool for studies of the global atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, David S.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology and its use for global studies of the biospheric processes are described. Special consideration is given to research related to two issues: (1) quantifying the impacts of natural vegetation and its changing patterns of occurrence on the atmospheric CO2 budget and (2) assessing wetlands (such as the swamps and marshes of Florida's Everglades) as sources of atmospheric CH4. The results include the data from NOAA-AVHRR sensors and from experiments in remote detection of plant growth rate.

  15. The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johannessen, O.M.; Muench, R.D.; Overland, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of major advances made in the past decade in understanding of the interactions between polar oceans and the local atmosphere and ocean system. Included are 38 papers discussing the circulation, dynamics and convective processes occurring in the polar oceans; its carbon cycle chemistry and biology; the paleooceanography and paleoclimate of the polar regions; the interaction between the polar ocean and the global climate, and a variety of strategies for detection of climate change in polar regions, predominantly Arctic.

  16. Remote sensing of the earth's biosphere - A tool for studies of the global atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, David S.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology and its use for global studies of the biospheric processes are described. Special consideration is given to research related to two issues: (1) quantifying the impacts of natural vegetation and its changing patterns of occurrence on the atmospheric CO2 budget and (2) assessing wetlands (such as the swamps and marshes of Florida's Everglades) as sources of atmospheric CH4. The results include the data from NOAA-AVHRR sensors and from experiments in remote detection of plant growth rate.

  17. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted.

  18. Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ∼500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ∼104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  19. Global water cycle and the coevolution of the Earth's interior and surface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, Jun; Planavsky, Noah J.; Evans, David A. D.

    2017-04-01

    The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the operation of plate tectonics, depending on where water resides. The global water cycle, which circulates surface water into the deep mantle and back to the surface again, could thus have played a critical role in the Earth's history. In this contribution, we first review the present-day water cycle and discuss its uncertainty as well as its secular variation. If the continental freeboard has been roughly constant since the Early Proterozoic, model results suggest long-term net water influx from the surface to the mantle, which is estimated to be 3-4.5×1014 g yr-1 on the billion years time scale. We survey geological and geochemical observations relevant to the emergence of continents above the sea level as well as the nature of Precambrian plate tectonics. The global water cycle is suggested to have been dominated by regassing, and its implications for geochemical cycles and atmospheric evolution are also discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  20. Global water cycle and the coevolution of the Earth's interior and surface environment.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Jun; Planavsky, Noah J; Evans, David A D

    2017-05-28

    The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the operation of plate tectonics, depending on where water resides. The global water cycle, which circulates surface water into the deep mantle and back to the surface again, could thus have played a critical role in the Earth's history. In this contribution, we first review the present-day water cycle and discuss its uncertainty as well as its secular variation. If the continental freeboard has been roughly constant since the Early Proterozoic, model results suggest long-term net water influx from the surface to the mantle, which is estimated to be 3-4.5×10(14) g yr(-1) on the billion years time scale. We survey geological and geochemical observations relevant to the emergence of continents above the sea level as well as the nature of Precambrian plate tectonics. The global water cycle is suggested to have been dominated by regassing, and its implications for geochemical cycles and atmospheric evolution are also discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Black Carbon : Impacts on Local, Regional and Global Environment and Climate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2010-12-01

    Black Carbon is one of the unique pollutants that has a large direct negative impact on human health, indoor and outdoor air quality, temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, mountain glaciers, sea ice, and snow packs. We are just beginning to unravel its impact on all these scales and phenomena. The lack of access to fossil fuels forces more than 3 billion from rural populations to burn biomass fuels such as dung, firewood, and crops. The resulting pollution indoors and outdoors kills over 2 million people annually in developing nations. It also contributes to the so-called atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs), which eventually become transcontinental plumes, with large impacts on clouds and rainfall patterns and which also contribute to glacier melting. In the industrial world, fossil fuel combustion is a major source of black carbon and ABCs, which contribute to global warming and retreat of arctic sea ice. There is now a compelling, if not convincing, case to regulate or eliminate black carbon emissions. Such measures can reduce global warming, improve health, improve air quality, and slow down glacier retreat.

  2. Global mammal beta diversity shows parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Catherine H.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Hedges, S. Blair; Davidson, Ana D.; Costa, Gabriel C.

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity, but higher trait biodiversity among assemblages that are connected but are in differing environmental conditions. We calculated all pairwise comparisons of approximately 110 × 110 km grid cells across the globe for more than 5000 mammal species (approx. 70 million comparisons). We considered realms as units representing geographical distance and historical isolation and biomes as units with similar environmental conditions. While beta diversity dimensions were generally correlated, we highlight geographical regions of decoupling among beta diversity dimensions. Our analysis shows that assemblages from tropical forests in different realms had low trait dissimilarity while phylogenetic beta diversity was significantly higher than expected, suggesting potential convergent evolution. Low trait beta diversity was surprisingly not found between isolated deserts, despite harsh environmental conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence for parallel assemblage structure of mammal assemblages driven by environmental conditions at a global scale. PMID:27559061

  3. Global trends of research on emerging contaminants in the environment and humans: a literature assimilation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Wei, Yan-Li; Yao, Yao; Ruan, Qin-Qin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-02-01

    Available literature data on five typical groups of emerging contaminants (EMCs), i.e., chlorinated paraffins (CPs), dechlorane plus and related compounds (DPs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), phthalate esters, and pyrethroids, accumulated between 2003 and 2013 were assimilated. Research efforts were categorized by environmental compartments and countries, so that global trends of research on EMCs and data gaps can be identified. The number of articles on the target EMCs ranged from 126 to 1,379 between 2003 and 2013. The numbers of articles on CPs, DPs, HBCDs, and pyrethroids largely followed the sequence of biota > sediment ≥ air > water ≥ soil > human tissue, whereas the sequence for phthalate esters was water > sediment > soil > human tissue ≥ biota ≥ air. Comprehensive studies on the target EMCs in biological samples and human tissues have been conducted worldwide. However, investigations into the occurrence of the target EMCs in soil of background areas and water are still scarce. Finally, developed and moderately developed countries, such as the USA, China, Canada, Japan, and Germany, were the main contributors to the global research efforts on EMCs, suggesting that economic prosperity may be one of the main factors propelling scientific research on EMCs.

  4. U.S.-Brazil Cooperation: Working Together to Shape the Global Strategic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    complex and ambiguous international scenario. Brazil is consolidating its growth, leading the country to a more significant role on the world stage...complex and ambiguous (VUCA) international environment, such as persistent world economic crisis, political instability in many countries, and diffused...country is a member of the major international institutions, such as the UN, OAS, IMF, World Bank and IDB. Brazil also sees the G-20 as an opportunity

  5. Archaea in artificial environments: their presence in global spacecraft clean rooms and impact on planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The presence and role of Archaea in artificial, human-controlled environments is still unclear. The search for Archaea has been focused on natural biotopes where they have been found in overwhelming numbers, and with amazing properties. However, they are considered as one of the major group of microorganisms that might be able to survive a space flight, or even to thrive on other planets. Although still concentrating on aerobic, bacterial spores as a proxy for spacecraft cleanliness, space agencies are beginning to consider Archaea as a possible contamination source that could affect future searches for life on other planets. This study reports on the discovery of archaeal 16S rRNA gene signatures not only in US American spacecraft assembly clean rooms but also in facilities in Europe and South America. Molecular methods revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota in all clean rooms sampled, while signatures derived from methanogens and a halophile appeared only sporadically. Although no Archaeon was successfully enriched in our multiassay cultivation approach thus far, samples from a European clean room revealed positive archaeal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals of rod-shaped microorganisms, representing the first visualization of Archaea in clean room environments. The molecular and visual detection of Archaea was supported by the first quantitative PCR studies of clean rooms, estimating the overall quantity of Archaea therein. The significant presence of Archaea in these extreme environments in distinct geographical locations suggests a larger role for these microorganisms not only in natural biotopes, but also in human controlled and rigorously cleaned environments.

  6. Archaea in artificial environments: Their presence in global spacecraft clean rooms and impact on planetary protection

    PubMed Central

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The presence and role of Archaea in artificial, human-controlled environments is still unclear. The search for Archaea has been focused on natural biotopes where they have been found in overwhelming numbers, and with amazing properties. However, they are considered as one of the major group of microorganisms that might be able to survive a space flight, or even to thrive on other planets. Although still concentrating on aerobic, bacterial spores as a proxy for spacecraft cleanliness, space agencies are beginning to consider Archaea as a possible contamination source that could affect future searches for life on other planets. This study reports on the discovery of archaeal 16S rRNA gene signatures not only in US American spacecraft assembly clean rooms but also in facilities in Europe and South America. Molecular methods revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota in all clean rooms sampled, while signatures derived from methanogens and a halophile appeared only sporadically. Although no Archaeon was successfully enriched in our multiassay cultivation approach thus far, samples from a European clean room revealed positive archaeal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals of rod-shaped microorganisms, representing the first visualization of Archaea in clean room environments. The molecular and visual detection of Archaea was supported by the first quantitative PCR studies of clean rooms, estimating the overall quantity of Archaea therein. The significant presence of Archaea in these extreme environments in distinct geographical locations suggests a larger role for these microorganisms not only in natural biotopes, but also in human controlled and rigorously cleaned environments. PMID:20703318

  7. Global Use of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index has been endorsed as a gauge of the quality of the nursing practice environment by several organizations in the United States promoting healthcare quality, there is no literature describing its use in different practice settings and countries. Objective To inform research by describing the modifications and use of the scale in a variety of practice settings and countries. Method The Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed databases were searched for the years 2002-2010 to identify 37 research reports published since 2002 describing use, modification, and scoring variations in different practice settings and countries. Results The scale was modified for 10 practice settings in five countries and translated into three languages. Composite scores ranged from 2.48 to 3.17 (on a 1-4 scale). The Staffing and Resource Adequacy subscale most often scored lowest. A new nursing information technology subscale has been developed. New scoring methods to identify the favorability of practice environments are described. Over time, the nature of the research conducted using the measure has changed. Overall, most publications report significant associations between scale scores and multiple nurse, patient, and organizational outcomes. Discussion Scale use is growing across different clinical settings and countries. Recommendations for future research use include reducing scale length, employing consistent scoring methods, considering the impact of various modifications based on cultural and clinical setting nuances, and using the measure in longitudinal and intervention research designs. PMID:21127450

  8. Global MHD Simulations of Space Plasma Environments: Heliosphere, Comets, Magnetospheres of Plants and Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabin, K.; Hansen, K. C.; Gombosi, T. I.; Combi, M. R.; Linde, T. J.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Groth, C. P. T.; Powell, K. G.; Nagy, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides an approximate description of a great variety of processes in space physics. Accurate numerical solutions of the MHD equations are still a challenge, but in the past decade a number of robust methods have appeared. Once these techniques made the direct solution of MHD equations feasible, a number of global three-dimensional models were designed and applied to many space physics objects. The range of these objects is truly astonishing, including active galactic nuclei, the heliosphere, the solar corona, and the solar wind interaction with planets, satellites, and comets. Outside the realm of space physics, MHD theory has been applied to such diverse problems as laboratory plasmas and electromagnetic casting of liquid metals. In this paper we present a broad spectrum of models of different phenomena in space science developed in the recent years at the University of Michigan. Although the physical systems addressed by these models are different, they all use the MHD equations as a unifying basis.

  9. Abundance in Capital: Global Risk Sharing and Insurance in a Changing Financial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Schaper, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Insurance has played a viable role in the hedging of homeowners and commercial risks around the world. Countries that have significant penetration in insurance have in addition performed better after large regional or over-regional catastrophic losses. Insurance has hence increased the resilience of western societies. This is opposed to emerging or developing markets with low insurance penetration which have suffered significant drawbacks in their development after large catastrophic events. Examples include the recent Typhoon(s) in the Philippines and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. This presentation will provide insights into the opportunities, views and risk management features a global reinsurance company must assume in order to hedge and mitigate risk across the world. During the past year, an unprecedented amount of new capital has been entering the insurance market, looking for profitable investments outside the much wider capital market. Catastrophe insurance is seen as a valuable alternative to investing in assets that that have shown low returns and high correlation in the recent financial meltdown. The new capital is mostly deployed - or competing with already deployed capital - in the US where insurance penetration is already high. This is opposed to more than half of the world including all developing and most emerging countries which have low insurance penetration and often lack infrastructure hindering new capital to be deployed effectively. What is needed to overcome this obvious deficiency in capital supply and demand? One reason why it is difficult to deploy capital in developing countries is the lack of available exposure information and catastrophe models. This presentation sheds light on the potential science needs of our market and gives an overview of what is being done at Montpelier, a global reinsurance company, to understand catastrophe risk around the globe.

  10. Impacts Of Global/Regional Climate Changes On Environment And Health: Need For Integrated Research And Education Collaboration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuluri, F.

    2013-12-01

    The realization of long term changes in climate in research community has to go beyond the comfort zone through climate literacy in academics. Higher education on climate change is the platform to bring together the otherwise disconnected factors such as effective discovery, decision making, innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, Climate change is a complex process that may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system, or to variations in natural or anthropogenic (human-driven) external forcing. Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for several decades or longer. This includes changes in average weather conditions on Earth, such as a change in average global temperature, as well as changes in how frequently regions experience heat waves, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather. It is important to examine the effects of climate variations on human health and disorders in order to take preventive measures. Similarly, the influence of climate changes on animal management practices, pests and pest management systems, and high value crops such as citrus and vegetables is also equally important for investigation. New genetic agricultural varieties must be explored, and pilot studies should examine biotechnology transfer. Recent climate model improvements have resulted in an enhanced ability to simulate many aspects of climate variability and extremes. However, they are still characterized by systematic errors and limitations in accurately simulating more precisely regional climate conditions. The present situations warrant developing climate literacy on the synergistic impacts of environmental change, and improve development, testing and validation of integrated stress impacts through computer modeling. In the present study we present a detailed study of the current status on the impacts of global/regional climate changes on environment and health with a view

  11. Core Microbial Functional Activities in Ocean Environments Revealed by Global Metagenomic Profiling Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S.; Dawe, Adam S.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A. C.; Jankovic, Boris R.; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B.; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light. PMID:24921648

  12. Environment. Development. How Can Societies Develop To Meet Basic Needs and Nurture Economies without Undermining the Natural Resources and Environmental Integrity on Which They Depend? Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachergram, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for the senior secondary level, these activities and articles explore critical issues between the environment and development. Two causes of environmental degradation are wasteful affluence and desperate poverty. The problems with development and the environment addresses Canadian and global situations. An article presents three…

  13. Stimulating innovation for global monitoring of agriculture and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need to ensure food supply for a growing global population. To enable a sustainable growth of agricultural production, effective and timely information is required to support decision making and to improve management of agricultural resources. This requires innovative ways and monitoring methods that will not only improve short-term crop production forecasts, but also allow to assess changes in cultivation practices, agricultural areas, agriculture in general and, its impact on the environment. The G20 launched in June 2011 the "GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM), requesting the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) Agricultural Community of Practice to implement GEOGLAM with the main objective to improve crop yield forecasts as an input to the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), in order to foster stabilisation of markets and increase transparency on agricultural production. In response to this need, the European Commission decided in 2013 to fund an international partnership to contribute to GEOGLAM and its research agenda. The resulting SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), a partnership of 23 globally distributed expert organisations, focusses on developing datasets and innovative techniques in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterise cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, will be used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series will be explored to assess crop

  14. The identification of global patterns and unique signatures of proteins across 14 environments using outer membrane proteomics of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schliep, Martin; Ryall, Ben; Ferenci, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We test the hypothesis that organisms sourced from different environments exhibit unique fingerprints in macromolecular composition. Experimentally, we followed proteomic changes with 14 different sub-lethal environmental stimuli in Escherichia coli at controlled growth rates. The focus was on the outer membrane sub-proteome, which is known to be extremely sensitive to environmental controls. The analyses surprisingly revealed that pairs of proteins belonging to very different regulons, such as Slp and OmpX or FadL and OmpF, have the closest patterns of change with the 14 conditions. Fe-limited and cold-cultured bacteria have the most distinct global patterns of spot changes, but the patterns with fast growth and oxygen limitation are the closest amongst the 14 environments. These unexpected but statistically robust results suggest that we have an incomplete picture of bacterial regulation across different stress responses; baseline choices and growth-rate influences are probably underestimated factors in such systems-level analysis. In terms of our aim of getting a unique profile for each of the 14 investigated environments, we find that it is unnecessary to compare all the proteins in a proteome and that a panel of five proteins is sufficient for identification of environmental fingerprints. This demonstrates the future feasibility of tracing the history of contaminating bacteria in hospitals, foods or industrial settings as well as for released organisms and biosecurity purposes.

  15. Environment and the global underclass. 40,000 preventable child deaths each day.

    PubMed

    Eckholm, E

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the past decade's achievements in raising the environmental conscience of the world while promoting economic development. Analyzes the relationship between environmental degradation, development, world poverty and hunger, and social justice. The deterioration of natural systems is seen as both a symptom and a cause of the misery of millions of the earth's poor and hungry people. Often the poor are forced into destroying the natural systems that support them, as when landless peasants attempt to clear and farm unsuitable places, such as rain forests or steep slopes. The poor are the most victimized by industrial pollution, and are not served with sewage disposal facilities and safe water supplies. The struggle to preserve the environment is unavoidably intertwined with the struggle to improve the conditions under which the poor of many Third World countries live.

  16. Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients - Advancement of Global Environment Simulations (ironages)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, H. J. W.; Ironages Team

    Iron limits productivity in 40 percent of the oceans, and is a co-limitation in the re- maining 60 percent of surface waters. Moreover the paradigm of a single factor limit- ing plankton blooms, is presently giving way to co-limitation by light, and the nutri- ents N, P, Si, and Fe. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the 'biological pump' in Ocean Biogeochemi- cal Climate Models (OBCM's). Thus far OBCM's assume just one limiting nutrient (P) and one universal phytoplankton species, for deriving C budgets and CO2 ex- change with the atmosphere. New realistic OBCM's are being developed in IRON- AGES for budgeting and air/sea exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, implementing (1) co-limitation by 4 nutrients of 5 major taxonomic classes of phytoplankton in a nested plankton ecosystem model, (ii) DMS(P) pathways, (iii) global iron cycling, (iv) chem- ical forms of iron and (v) iron supply in surface waters from above by aerosols and from below out of reducing margin sediments. IRONAGES is a consortium of 12 Eu- ropean institutes coordinated by the Royal NIOZ.

  17. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  18. Operational Global Deterministic and Ensemble Wave Prediction Systems at Environment Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Natacha; Peel, Syd; Bélanger, Jean-Marc; Roch, Michel; Lépine, Mario; Pellerin, Pierre; Henrique Alves, José; Tolman, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Canada's new global deterministic and ensemble wave prediction systems are presented together with an evaluation of their performance over a 5 month hindcast. Particular attention is paid to the Arctic Ocean where accurate forecasts are crucial for maintaining safe activities such as drilling, and vessel operation. The wave prediction systems are based on WAVEWATCHIII and are operated at grid spacings of 1/4° (deterministic) and 1/2 ° (ensemble). Both systems are run twice daily with lead times of 120h (5 days) for the deterministic systems and 240h (10 days) for the ensemble system. The wave prediction systems will be shown to have skill in forecasting significant wave height and peak period over the future several days. Beyond lead times of 120h, deterministic forecasts are extended using ensembles of wave forecasts to generate probabilistic forecasts for long-range events. New displays will be used to summarize the wealth of information generated by ensembles into depictions that could help support early warning systems.

  19. Response of the biosphere to the changing global environment: Evidence from historic record of biotic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.A.S.; Tian, H.; Qi, Y. . College of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1993-06-01

    Recently, the observed increase in the amplitude of the winter-summer difference in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations has been used to infer that the terrestrial biota is reacting to CO[sub 2] enrichment. However, previous studies of this phenomenon did not consider seasonal variations in fossil fuel use, oceanic exchange. In this paper, the authors derive a normalized CO[sub 2] curve for yearly biotic metabolism corrected for these additional factors. The authors also developed a simulation model to test the sensitivity of biotic metabolism on fossil fuel release, oceanic exchange and other factors. By analyzing CO[sub 2] data from Mauna Loa Observatory, the authors generated a historic record of global biotic metabolism over the recent past. After correcting for the additional factors the authors found that both photosynthesis and respiration have increased since the early 1970's. Even though photosynthesis and respiration have changed, the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration has not changed significantly. The authors tentatively conclude, therefore, that CO[sub 2] sequestered by photosynthesis is being balanced by the CO[sub 2] released by respiration. The increases of biospheric respiration, perhaps as a result of the same factors that increase photosynthesis.

  20. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  1. Global Adaptation to a Lipid Environment Triggers the Dormancy-Related Phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan G.; Hernández, Adriana C.; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Aguilar Ayala, Diana; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M.; Bustos, Jose R.; Zambrano, María M.; González-y-Merchand, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium’s metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcriptome revealed a shift toward the glyoxylate cycle, the overexpression of main regulators whiB3, dosR, and Rv0081, and the increased expression of several genes related to reductive stress. Our evidence showed that lipid storage seems to be the selected mechanism used by M. tuberculosis to ameliorate the assumed damage of reductive stress and that concomitantly the bacilli acquired a slowed-growth and drug-tolerant phenotype, all characteristics previously associated with the dormant stage. Additionally, intergenic regions were also detected, including the unexpected upregulation of tRNAs that suggest a new role for these molecules in the acquisition of a drug-tolerant phenotype by dormant bacilli. Finally, a set of lipid signature genes for the adaptation process was also identified. This in vitro model represents a suitable condition to illustrate the participation of reductive stress in drugs’ activity against dormant bacilli, an aspect scarcely investigated to date. This approach provides a new perspective to the understanding of latent infection and suggests the participation of previously undetected molecules. PMID:24846381

  2. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  3. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  4. [Comment on "Meeting Ph.D. Graduates' needs in a changing global environment"] Challenges to fostering interdisciplinary graduate education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, Beaudry

    C. Susan Weiler's article ("Meeting Ph.D. graduates' needs in a changing global environment," Eos, 55(13), 149, 151) calling for more care and attention to interdisciplinary graduate education illuminated an important and neglected issue. Weiler makes the excellent point that for society to manage complex natural systems effectively, it is imperative that we establish stronger connections between science and public policy. However, as a nation, the United States lacks the institutional research culture to foster this. Nor are we training sufficient numbers of professionals with the skills to make these connections; and when the small number of truly interdisciplinary scientists emerge annually into the workforce, there are few positions that fit them.I echo Weiler's call for increased interdisciplinary collaboration, and the necessary training to support this increase. However, there are some fundamental obstacles her article does not explore.

  5. The fascinating side of dirt: Soil and the global environment course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S.; Krzic, M.; Crowley, C.; Lascu, G.; Rosado, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil has recently been attracting some renewed public attention due to its inextricable link to current environmental challenges such as climate change, food security and water resource protection. It is increasingly acknowledged that the world's future will require a better understanding of soil science. Yet enrolment in soil related programs at universities in North America and around the world has been declining. One of the proposed causes for this drop is the tendency for soil science education to emphasize the agricultural side of soil science, while our increasingly urban and environmentally conscious student population is more interested in environmental sciences. To address this issue, in 2011 we created an on-line, first-year soil science course designed specifically to communicate the significance of soil science to global environmental questions. We propose that this type of course is an effective way to help increase interest in higher level soil courses and reverse the downward trend in enrolments. The course content was centered on prominent environmental issues, which were used to introduce basic concepts of soil science. Course materials emphasized integration with other natural resources disciplines such as ecology, biogeochemistry and hydrology. The online format allowed for a seamless integration of multimedia components and web content into course materials, and is believed to be appealing to technologically savvy new generations of students. Online discussion boards were extensively used to maintain strong student engagement in the course. Discussion topics were based on soil-related news stories that helped demonstrate the relevance of soils to society and illustrate the complex and often controversial nature of environmental issues. Students also made significant use of an online bulletin board to post information about environmental events and share news stories related to the course. This course was offered for the first time in term 1 of

  6. Investigating the Martian Environment with the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is being used to investigate the surface and atmosphere of Mars and the martian moons Phobos and Deimos. As such, it builds upon infrared observations obtained by previous spacecraft, e.g.. Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiters. The objectives of the TES experiment are: (1) determine and map surface minerals. rocks. and ices; (2) study the atmospheric dust composition. particle size, and spatial and temporal distribution; (3) investigate condensate clouds, CO2 and H2O, location. temperature, and height; (4) investigate polar cap deposits, e.g., growth, retreat, and energy balance; (5) measure the thermo-physical properties of surface materials; and (6) characterize the atmospheric structure and dynamics. The TES instrument is based upon a Michelson interferometer and collects data in the 1700-200 per cm region (about 6-50 micron at 5 or 10 per cm resolution. There are also broad-band bolometric (4.5100 microns and solar reflectance (0.3-2.7 microns) channels. The TES was designed to have a noise equivalent spectral radiance of 1.2 x l0(exp -8) per W per square cm per sr per cm corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 490 at 1000 per cm (10 mm) for a 270 K scene and preflight data suggest a radiometric accuracy of about 1.2 x 10(exp -8) per W per square cm per sr per cm. In-flight observations indicate a small systematic calibration offset of about 1.2 x 10(exp -7) per W per square cm per sr per cm is present in the TES data. MGS achieved Mars orbital insertion September 11, 1997, and entered the initial aerobraking phase. MGS should have reached a circular orbit by early 1998. However, structural damage to one solar panel occurred during its deployment in the cruise phase and ultimately required an assessment of the extent of the damage and a much slower aerobraking period. This has delayed reaching the final circular orbit until March 1999. TES and the other MGS science instruments began

  7. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Sganderla, J A; Prodanov, C C; Daroit, D

    2010-12-01

    This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  8. Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China.

  9. Integration of Pre-college Chemistry Education and the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Zapata, R.; López-Garriga, J.

    2000-12-01

    Pre-college chemistry objectives can be strengthened through incorporation of the chemistry activities of the GLOBE program. In this initiative, pre-college teachers and students perform scientific protocols and measurements related to the atmosphere, hydrology, land cover/biology, and soil. These cooperative-learning activities develop skills in chemistry, earth science, mathematics, data analysis, computer communications, and use of the global positioning system and global information system. Chemistry activities involve measuring pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, alkalinity, potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus in water, air, and soil environments. These exercises develop knowledge and skills in qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Our program combines a week-long workshop, follow-up Saturday academies, and visits to the K through 12 schools to ensure that teachers are well prepared to establish and continue the program at their schools. These activities, with the teacher's GLOBE manual, the basic equipment provided to perform measurements in the field, and continuous interaction between teachers and GLOBE training team, resulted in 91 percent of teachers feeling that their preparation to establish the program at their schools was excellent or very good. We conclude that the GLOBE protocols are an effective way to promote environmental chemistry education at the pre-college level.

  10. Use of global positioning systems to study physical activity and the environment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Patricia J; Titze, Sylvia; Oja, Pekka; Jones, Andrew; Ogilvie, David

    2011-11-01

    The GPS represents an innovative way to objectively assess the spatial locations of physical activity behavior. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the capability of GPS to collect high-quality data on the location of activities in research on the relationship between physical activity and the environment. Published and unpublished articles identified from seven electronic databases, reference lists, bibliographies, and websites up to March 2010 were systematically searched for, appraised, and analyzed in summer 2010. Included studies used GPS to measure the spatial locations of physical activity and some form of environmental analysis related to the GPS data. The capability of GPS was expressed in terms of data quality, which in turn was defined as the proportion of GPS data lost in each study. 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data loss was positively correlated with the measurement period for which participants were asked to wear the GPS device (r=0.81, p<0.001). Major reasons for data loss included signal drop-outs, loss of device battery power, and poor adherence of participants to measurement protocols. Data loss did not differ significantly between children and adults or by study sample size, year of publication, or GPS device manufacturer. GPS is a promising tool for improving understanding of the spatial context of physical activity. The current findings suggest that the choice of an appropriate device and efforts to maximize participant adherence are key to improving data quality, especially over longer study periods. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling wildfire and hydrologic response to global climate change using the Landlab modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. M.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Hutton, E.; Hobley, D. E.; Nudurupati, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change presents new challenges in modeling surface processes across landscapes that are prone to wildfire. Historical recurrence intervals of wildfire and precipitation must be adapted to account for changes in climate. Warming temperatures have already been linked to shorter winters, smaller volumes of snowmelt, and lower soil moisture content, all of which can contribute to more frequent fires. As fire and precipitation distributions change, the magnitude of fluvial erosion in burned landscapes may change dramatically. Fluvial erosion driven by large precipitation events post-fire can threaten property, infrastructure and human life in the short-term, and potentially impact long-term landscape evolution. Understanding post-fire landscape response across multiple time scales can be accomplished through numerical modeling of fire and rainfall events and the resulting stream flow across a landscape. This study uses the Landlab modeling environment to explore possible fire and precipitation scenarios that could lead to significant post-fire landscape change. Landlab is a plug-and-play model that is designed to be highly flexible in order to address a wide range of scientific questions. This study links together a stochastic fire generator, stochastic storm generator, and overland flow module to explore scenarios that may cause significant flow in the one-year period following a high-severity fire. Post-fire landscapes have been observed to be particularly vulnerable to fluvial erosion during this period. The parameters in the fire and rainfall generator are varied to test whether erosion-inducing precipitation events will increase in frequency and severity as climate changes. We analyze potential scenarios in which fire and storm recurrence change with the climate. Three test cases are explored: increasing fire recurrence while holding the parameters of the precipitation distribution constant; increasing the recurrence of precipitation events while holding

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

  13. The GLOBAL Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Collaboration System. Building a robust international collaboration environment for teachers, scientists and students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overoye, D.; Lewis, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program founded on Earth Day 1995. Implemented in 117 countries, GLOBE promotes the teaching and learning of science, supporting students, teachers and scientists worldwide to collaborate with each other on inquiry-based investigations of the Earth system. As an international platform supporting a large number and variety of stakeholders, the GLOBE Data Information System (DIS) was re-built with the goal of providing users the support needed to foster and develop collaboration between teachers, students and scientists while supporting the collection and visualization of over 50 different earth science investigations (protocols). There have been many challenges to consider as we have worked to prototype and build various tools to support collaboration across the GLOBE community - language, security, time zones, user roles and the Child Online Protection Act (COPA) to name a few. During the last 3 years the re-built DIS has been in operation we have supported user to user collaboration, school to school collaboration, project/campaign to user collaboration and scientist to scientist collaboration. We have built search tools to facilitate finding collaboration partners. The tools and direction continue to evolve based on feedback, evolving needs and changes in technology. With this paper we discuss our approach for dealing with some of the collaboration challenges, review tools built to encourage and support collaboration, and analyze which tools have been successful and which have not. We will review new ideas for collaboration in the GLOBE community that are guiding upcoming development.

  14. A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (δ). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated δ using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an

  15. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Ellen

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  16. Managing the Global Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Development Projects in Brazilian Amazonia .’ Conservation L2.LgA . 1.3 (Oct. 1987): 214-21. Fearnside, Philip M. ’Land-Use Trends in the Brazilian Amazon...78, Xohlhepp, Gerd. ’A Challenge to Science and Regional Development Policy: Reflections on the Future Development of Amazonia .’ Alied Geography j...Public Policy. 2 (Fall 1987): 58- 67. Hassan, Rashid M., and Greg Hertzler. *Deforestation From the Overexploitation of Wood Resources as a Cooking

  17. The Global Regulator CodY in Streptococcus thermophilus Controls the Metabolic Network for Escalating Growth in the Milk Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, W. W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.

    2015-01-01

    CodY is a transcriptional regulator conserved in the low-GC group of Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, we demonstrated the presence in Streptococcus thermophilus ST2017 of a functional member of the CodY family of global regulatory proteins, S. thermophilus CodY (CodYSt). The CodYSt regulon was identified by transcriptome analysis; it consisted predominantly of genes involved in amino acid metabolism but also included genes involved in several other cellular processes, including carbon metabolism, nutrient transport, and stress response. It was revealed that CodYSt repressed the transformation of the central metabolic pathway to amino acid metabolism and improved lactose utilization. Furthermore, the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA), repressed by CodYSt, was suggested to coordinate the interconversion between carbon metabolism and amino acid metabolism and to play an important role on the optimal growth of S. thermophilus ST2017 in milk. A conserved CodYSt box [AA(T/A)(A/T)TTCTGA(A/C)AATT] was indeed required for in vitro binding of CodYSt to the target regions of DNA. These results provided evidence for the function of CodYSt, by which this strain coordinately regulates its various metabolic pathways so as to adapt to the milk environment. PMID:25616791

  18. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes.

  19. Review of the Applications of Formosat-2 on Rapidly Responding to Global Disasters and Monitoring Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2009-12-01

    Formosat-2 is the first satellite with high-spatial-resolution sensor deployed in a daily-revisit orbit in the world. Together with its agility of pointing ±45 degree both across and along track, we are able to observe each accessible scene from the same angle under the similar illumination conditions. These characteristics make Formosat-2 an ideal satellite for site surveillance. We developed a Formosat-2 automatic image processing system (F-2 AIPS) that can accurately and rapidly process a large amount of Formosat-2 images to produce the higher levels of products, including rigorous band-to-band coregistration, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal image coregistration and radiance normalization, and pan-sharpening. This system has been successfully employed to rapidly respond to many international disaster events in the past five years, including flood caused by Typhoon Mindulle (2004), landslide caused by Typhoon Aere (2004), South Asia earthquake and tsunami (2004), Hurricane Katrina (2005), California wildfire (2007), Sichuan Earthquake (2008), Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008), Typhoon Sinlaku (2008), Mountain Ali wildfire (2009), Victoria bushfire in Australia (2009), Honduras earthquake (2009), Typhoon Morakot (2009). This paper reviews the applications of Formosat-2 on rapidly responding to global disasters and monitoring earth environment.

  20. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  1. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

  2. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase; Fonds pour l`environnement mondial: evaluation independante de la phase pilote

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This study responds to a request by participants in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for an independent evaluation of the pilot phase. It profiles the GEF, discusses its policy framework, and reviews project development procedures and the strategies and projects in each of the GEF`s four focal areas. The study concludes that fundamental changes must occur and recommends specific reforms, such as articulating more clearly the GEF`s mandate, objectives, and strategies; addressing deficiencies in meeting its global focus; improving capacities and procedures within implementing agencies for managing the portfolio; and increasing non-government organization (NGO), country and community-level participation.

  3. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase; Fondo para el medio ambiente mundial: evaluacion independiente de la etapa experimental

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This study responds to a request by participants in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for an independent evaluation of the pilot phase. It profiles the GEF, discusses its policy framework, and reviews project development procedures and the strategies and projects in each of the GEF`s four focal areas. The study concludes that fundamental changes must occur and recommends specific reforms, such as articulating more clearly the GEF`s mandate, objectives, and strategies; addressing deficiencies in meeting its global focus; improving capacities and procedures within implementing agencies for managing the portfolio; and increasing non-government organization (NGO), country and community-level participation.

  4. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  5. Satellite missions, global environment, and the concept of a global satellite observation information network - The role of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Williams, David F.; Fujita, Akihiro

    1993-10-01

    The efforts of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) to assure broad user access to satellite-produced data is discussed. The role of CEOS in fostering acceptance of applications of those data in areas such as disaster monitoring and mitigation, land cover change, weather forecasting, and long-term climate modeling is addressed. The initiative of UK Prime Minister John Major calling for increased attention to CEOS is discussed along with the related CEOS Dossier effort. The tasks of the CEOS Secretariat in these areas are examined, and the role of CEOS is developing a global satellite network is considered. The future of CEOS is discussed.

  6. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  7. Global patterns and environmental controls of perchlorate and nitrate co-occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, J. K.; Andraski, Brian J.; Fahlquist, Lynne; Bexfield, Laura; Eckardt, Frank D.; Gates, John B.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Rajagopalan, Srinath; Estrada, Nubia; Sturchio, Neil; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Anderson, Todd A.; Orris, Greta; Betancourt, Julio; Stonestrom, David; Latorre, Claudio; Li, Yanhe; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2015-09-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4-) is of increasing interest due to its wide-spread occurrence on Earth and Mars, yet little information exists on the relative abundance of ClO4- compared to other major anions, its stability, or long-term variations in production that may impact the observed distributions. Our objectives were to evaluate the occurrence and fate of ClO4- in groundwater and soils/caliche in arid and semi-arid environments (southwestern United States, southern Africa, United Arab Emirates, China, Antarctica, and Chile) and the relationship of ClO4- to the more well-studied atmospherically deposited anions NO3- and Cl- as a means to understand the prevalent processes that affect the accumulation of these species over various time scales. ClO4- is globally distributed in soil and groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions on Earth at concentrations ranging from 10-1 to 106 μg/kg. Generally, the ClO4- concentration in these regions increases with aridity index, but also depends on the duration of arid conditions. In many arid and semi-arid areas, NO3- and ClO4- co-occur at molar ratios (NO3-/ClO4-) that vary between ∼104 and 105. We hypothesize that atmospheric deposition ratios are largely preserved in hyper-arid areas that support little or no biological activity (e.g. plants or bacteria), but can be altered in areas with more active biological processes including N2 fixation, N mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, and microbial ClO4- reduction, as indicated in part by NO3- isotope data. In contrast, much larger ranges of Cl-/ClO4- and Cl-/NO3- ratios indicate Cl- varies independently from both ClO4- and NO3-. The general lack of correlation between Cl- and ClO4- or NO3- implies that Cl- is not a good indicator of co-deposition and should be used with care when interpreting oxyanion cycling in arid systems. The Atacama Desert appears to be unique compared to all other terrestrial locations having a NO3-/ClO4- molar ratio ∼103. The relative

  8. Global patterns and environmental controls of perchlorate and nitrate co-occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Andraski, Brian; Fahlquist, Lynne S.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Eckardt, Frank D.; Gates, John B.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Rajagopalan, Srinath; Estrada, Nubia; Sturchio, Neil C.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Anderson, Todd A.; Orris, Greta J.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Stonestrom, David A.; Latorre, Claudio; Li, Yanhe; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4−) is of increasing interest due to its wide-spread occurrence on Earth and Mars, yet little information exists on the relative abundance of ClO4− compared to other major anions, its stability, or long-term variations in production that may impact the observed distributions. Our objectives were to evaluate the occurrence and fate of ClO4− in groundwater and soils/caliche in arid and semi-arid environments (southwestern United States, southern Africa, United Arab Emirates, China, Antarctica, and Chile) and the relationship of ClO4− to the more well-studied atmospherically deposited anions NO3−and Cl− as a means to understand the prevalent processes that affect the accumulation of these species over various time scales. ClO4− is globally distributed in soil and groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions on Earth at concentrations ranging from 10−1to 106 μg/kg. Generally, the ClO4− concentration in these regions increases with aridity index, but also depends on the duration of arid conditions. In many arid and semi-arid areas, NO3− and ClO4− co-occur at molar ratios (NO3−/ClO4−) that vary between ∼104and 105. We hypothesize that atmospheric deposition ratios are largely preserved in hyper-arid areas that support little or no biological activity (e.g. plants or bacteria), but can be altered in areas with more active biological processes including N2 fixation, N mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, and microbial ClO4− reduction, as indicated in part by NO3− isotope data. In contrast, much larger ranges of Cl−/ClO4− and Cl−/NO3−ratios indicate Cl− varies independently from both ClO4− and NO3−. The general lack of correlation between Cl− and ClO4− or NO3− implies that Cl− is not a good indicator of co-deposition and should be used with care when interpreting oxyanion cycling in arid systems. The Atacama Desert appears to be unique compared to all other terrestrial locations having a

  9. Beacons and surface features differentially influence human reliance on global and local geometric cues when reorienting in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Bodily, Kent D; Kilday, Zachary A; Eastman, Caroline K; Gaskin, Katherine A; Graves, April A; Roberts, Jonathan E; Sturz, Bradley R

    2013-02-01

    In the reorientation literature, non-geometric cues include discrete objects (e.g., beacons) and surface-based features (e.g., colors, textures, and odors). To date, these types of non-geometric cues have been considered functionally similar, and it remains unknown whether beacons and surface features differentially influence the extent to which organisms reorient via global and local geometric cues. In the present experiment, we trained human participants to approach a location in a trapezoid-shaped enclosure uniquely specified by global and local geometric cues. We explored the role of beacons on the use of geometric cues by training participants in the presence or absence of uniquely-colored beacons. We explored the role of surface features on the use of geometric cues by recoloring two adjacent walls at the correct location and/or adding a line on the floor which corresponded to the major principal axis of the enclosure. All groups were then tested in novel-shaped enclosures in the absence of unique beacons and surface features to assess the relative use of global and local geometric cues. Results suggested that beacons facilitated the use of global geometric cues, whereas surface features either facilitated or hindered the use of geometric cues, depending on the feature. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Achieving Engineering Competencies in the Global Information Society through the Integration of On-Campus and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Malcolm; Chisholm, Colin U.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering organizations are increasingly under pressure to perform more efficiently with fewer people. To manage this, organizations need to understand what skills, knowledge and behaviours they need from engineers who have to practise in a global information society. Engineering educators, in collaboration with employers, therefore now need to…

  11. Enhancing Student Awareness of and Exposure to the Global Environment through Extra-Curricular Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Culture studies/global education could easily occupy students' time for an entire academic year. However, faced with the realities of the typical teaching day, it is difficult to find time for anything new or different. One solution is to provide students in the social studies with enrichment learning opportunities through the creation of an…

  12. Impact of Globalization on Sugarcane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment: A Review of the 2009 Entomology Workshop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 7th International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT) Entomology Workshop was held from 20 to 24 April 2009 in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina under the theme: “Impact of Globalization on Sugar Cane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment”. Technical sessions held over three days were g...

  13. Achieving Engineering Competencies in the Global Information Society through the Integration of On-Campus and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Malcolm; Chisholm, Colin U.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering organizations are increasingly under pressure to perform more efficiently with fewer people. To manage this, organizations need to understand what skills, knowledge and behaviours they need from engineers who have to practise in a global information society. Engineering educators, in collaboration with employers, therefore now need to…

  14. Estimating the global burden of thalassogenic diseases: human infectious diseases caused by wastewater pollution of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Hillel

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary attempt at obtaining an order-of-magnitude estimate of the global burden of disease (GBD) of human infectious diseases associated with swimming/bathing in coastal waters polluted by wastewater, and eating raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish harvested from such waters. Such diseases will be termed thalassogenic--caused by the sea. Until recently these human health effects have been viewed primarily as local phenomena, not generally included in the world agenda of marine scientists dealing with global marine pollution problems. The massive global scale of the problem can be visualized when one considers that the wastewater and human body wastes of a significant portion of the world's population who reside along the coastline or in the vicinity of the sea are discharged daily, directly or indirectly, into the marine coastal waters, much of it with little or no treatment. Every cubic metre of raw domestic wastewater discharged into the sea can carry millions of infectious doses of pathogenic microorganisms. It is estimated that globally, foreign and local tourists together spend some 2 billion man-days annually at coastal recreational resorts and many are often exposed there to coastal waters polluted by wastewater. Annually some 800 million meals of potentially contaminated filter-feeding shellfish/bivalves and other sea foods, harvested in polluted waters are consumed, much of it raw or lightly steamed. A number of scientific studies have shown that swimmers swallow significant amounts of polluted seawater and can become ill with gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases from the pathogens they ingest. Based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) and academic research sources the present study has made an estimate that globally, each year, there are in excess of 120 million cases of gastrointestinal disease and in excess of 50 million cases of more severe respiratory diseases caused by swimming and

  15. Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment from IBEX (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N.; Adams, F.; Christian, E. R.; Desiati, P.; Frisch, P. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Jokipii, J. R.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes enhanced Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) emission from a narrow 'ribbon' likely centered on the local interstellar (LIS) magnetic field direction. Further, IBEX has revised the local interstellar velocity based on interstellar atom measurements. These new determinations are shown to be consistent with the interstellar modulation of TeV cosmic rays revealed in global anisotropy maps of Milagro, Asγ and IceCube.

  16. The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Effects of Environment on Globular Cluster Global Mass Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; Reid, I. Neill; Piotto, Giampaolo; Aparicio, Antonio; Anderson, Jay; Sarajedini, Ata; Bedin, Luigi R.; Chaboyer, Brian; Dotter, Aaron; Hempel, Maren; Majewski, Steven; Marín-Franch, A.; Milone, Antonino; Rosenberg, Alfred; Siegel, Michael

    2010-02-01

    We have used observations obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to construct global present-day mass functions for 17 globular clusters utilizing multi-mass King models to extrapolate from our observations to the global cluster behavior. The global present-day mass functions for these clusters are well matched by power laws from the turnoff, ≈0.8 M sun, to 0.2-0.3 M sun on the lower main sequence. The slopes of those power-law fits, α, have been correlated with an extensive set of intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties to investigate which parameters may influence the form of the present-day mass function. We do not confirm previous suggestions of correlations between α and either metallicity or Galactic location. However, we do find a strong statistical correlation with the related parameters central surface brightness, μ V , and inferred central density, ρ0. The correlation is such that clusters with denser cores (stronger binding energy) tend to have steeper mass functions (a higher proportion of low-mass stars), suggesting that dynamical evolution due to external interactions may have played a key role in determining α. Thus, the present-day mass function may owe more to nurture than to nature. Detailed modeling of external dynamical effects is therefore a requisite for determining the initial mass function for Galactic globular clusters.

  17. THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER GLOBAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; Reid, I. Neill; Anderson, Jay E-mail: inr@stsci.edu

    2010-02-15

    We have used observations obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to construct global present-day mass functions for 17 globular clusters utilizing multi-mass King models to extrapolate from our observations to the global cluster behavior. The global present-day mass functions for these clusters are well matched by power laws from the turnoff, {approx}0.8 M {sub sun}, to 0.2-0.3 M {sub sun} on the lower main sequence. The slopes of those power-law fits, {alpha}, have been correlated with an extensive set of intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties to investigate which parameters may influence the form of the present-day mass function. We do not confirm previous suggestions of correlations between {alpha} and either metallicity or Galactic location. However, we do find a strong statistical correlation with the related parameters central surface brightness, {mu} {sub V}, and inferred central density, {rho}{sub 0}. The correlation is such that clusters with denser cores (stronger binding energy) tend to have steeper mass functions (a higher proportion of low-mass stars), suggesting that dynamical evolution due to external interactions may have played a key role in determining {alpha}. Thus, the present-day mass function may owe more to nurture than to nature. Detailed modeling of external dynamical effects is therefore a requisite for determining the initial mass function for Galactic globular clusters.

  18. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B.

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examines processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.

  19. Cooperative Writing Response Groups: Revising Global Aspects of Second-Language Writing in a Constrained Educational Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative writing response initiative designed to develop writing skills in foreign/second-language contexts (hereafter L2). The strategy originated from my desire to cater for my learners' need to become better writers in English within a constrained educational environment in Argentina. In this article I describe this…

  20. Twenty-First Century Technology and the Global Environment: Developing a Cause/Effect Relationship Perspective Among Proactive Action Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Technology, defined as power to build or to destroy, affects both the natural and social environments. Technological societies are characterized by five elements: green revolution, industry, medicine, biology, and space technology. To demonstrate that individuals and groups perceive the effects of these aspects differently, a summary of nine pro…

  1. Twenty-First Century Technology and the Global Environment: Developing a Cause/Effect Relationship Perspective Among Proactive Action Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Technology, defined as power to build or to destroy, affects both the natural and social environments. Technological societies are characterized by five elements: green revolution, industry, medicine, biology, and space technology. To demonstrate that individuals and groups perceive the effects of these aspects differently, a summary of nine pro…

  2. Cooperative Writing Response Groups: Revising Global Aspects of Second-Language Writing in a Constrained Educational Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative writing response initiative designed to develop writing skills in foreign/second-language contexts (hereafter L2). The strategy originated from my desire to cater for my learners' need to become better writers in English within a constrained educational environment in Argentina. In this article I describe this…

  3. Measuring Global Perceptions of the Research Training Environment Using a Short Form of the RTES-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the development and cross validation of a brief measure of the Research Training Environment Scale-Revised (RTES-R) in counseling graduate programs. Results indicate that the new RTES-R-S total scores correlate strongly with the original form and show good internal consistency. Recommends this new instrument when efficient measurement is…

  4. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement. PMID:26799483

  5. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement.

  6. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  7. Io's plasma interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere: Influence of global asymmetries in Io's atmosphere and volcanic plumes on the plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloecker, A.; Saur, J.; Roth, L.

    2016-12-01

    Io's atmosphere is supported by sublimation of SO2 surface frost and by direct volcanic outgassing of SO2, which both lead to partly unknown density variations with latitude and longitude. We apply a 3D MHD model to analyze the effects of an asymmetric atmosphere and a volcanic plume on the plasma interaction. Therefore, we use different atmosphere models with longitudinal and latitudinal dependencies, e.g., an atmosphere which is concentrated at the equator or possesses an upstream-downstream asymmetry. We compare our model results with the measured magnetic field data from different flybys of the Galileo spacecraft at Io. Khurana et al. (Science 2011) showed that the magnetic field perturbations measured by the Galileo spacecraft can only be explained when induction signals from a global and partially molten magma ocean are included. We demonstrate that significant parts of the magnetic field perturbations, associated with the induction signals by Khurana et al. can alternatively be explained by considering global asymmetries of the atmosphere without induced fields from an electrically conductive layer.

  8. AAPS/RAPS/CAPRA collaborative program: exploring the challenges of drug regulation in a global environment: clinical concerns.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn N; McGilveray, Iain

    2003-10-23

    Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry has led to a need to harmonize the regulatory requirements governing the marketing of medicinal products. To minimize the barriers impeding global drug product registration, the International Conference on the Harmonization of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) was established in 1990. The ICH has developed a series of guidelines that reflect agreements reached by participating nations on aspects of the chemistry and clinical technical sections that will fulfill the regulatory requirements of these various jurisdications. Nevertheless, there continue to be points of divergent perspectives and barriers that can impede the use of foreign clinical data. Given the importance of these issues, the Regulatory Science (RS) section of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS), in conjunction with the Regulatory Affairs Professional Society (RAPS) and the Canadian Association of Professional Regulatory Affairs (CAPRA) cosponsored a public forum on this topic. This manuscript provides a summary of the speaker presentations and audience discussions regarding the design of clinical trials and the extrapolation of results from these trials to support international drug registration.

  9. Changes in severe thunderstorm environment frequency during the 21st century caused by anthropogenically enhanced global radiative forcing

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Robert J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Brooks, Harold E.; Baldwin, Michael E.; Robinson, Eric D.; Pal, Jeremy S.

    2007-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms comprise an extreme class of deep convective clouds and produce high-impact weather such as destructive surface winds, hail, and tornadoes. This study addresses the question of how severe thunderstorm frequency in the United States might change because of enhanced global radiative forcing associated with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. We use global climate models and a high-resolution regional climate model to examine the larger-scale (or “environmental”) meteorological conditions that foster severe thunderstorm formation. Across this model suite, we find a net increase during the late 21st century in the number of days in which these severe thunderstorm environmental conditions (NDSEV) occur. Attributed primarily to increases in atmospheric water vapor within the planetary boundary layer, the largest increases in NDSEV are shown during the summer season, in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastal regions. For example, this analysis suggests a future increase in NDSEV of 100% or more in locations such as Atlanta, GA, and New York, NY. Any direct application of these results to the frequency of actual storms also must consider the storm initiation.

  10. Variation in heat-shock proteins and photosynthetic thermotolerance among natural populations of Chenopodium album L. from contrasting thermal environments: implications for plant responses to global warming.

    PubMed

    Barua, Deepak; Heckathorn, Scott A; Coleman, James S

    2008-11-01

    Production of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is a key adaptation to acute heat stress and will be important in determining plant responses to climate change. Further, intraspecifc variation in Hsps, which will influence species-level response to global warming, has rarely been examined in naturally occurring plants. To understand intraspecific variation in plant Hsps and its relevance to global warming, we examined Hsp content and thermotolerance in five naturally occurring populations of Chenopodium album L. from contrasting thermal environments grown at low and high temperatures. As expected, Hsp accumulation varied between populations, but this was related more to habitat variability than to mean temperature. Unexpectedly, Hsp accumulation decreased with increasing variability of habitat temperatures. Hsp accumulation also decreased with increased experimental growth temperatures. Physiological thermotolerance was partitioned into basal and induced components. As with Hsps, induced thermotolerance decreased with increasing temperature variability. Thus, populations native to the more stressful habitats, or grown at higher temperatures, had lower Hsp levels and induced thermotolerance, suggesting a greater reliance on basal mechanisms for thermotolerance. These results suggest that future global climate change will differentially impact ecotypes within species, possibly by selecting for increased basal versus inducible thermotolerance.

  11. Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variation Can Shape the Responses of Organisms to Global Change in Both Natural and Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Murdock, Courtney C; Vickers, Mathew; Sears, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    When predicting the response of organisms to global change, models use measures of climate at a coarse resolution from general circulation models or from downscaled regional models. Organisms, however, do not experience climate at such large scales. The climate heterogeneity over a landscape and how much of that landscape an organism can sample will determine ultimately the microclimates experienced by organisms. This past few decades has seen an important increase in the number of studies reporting microclimatic patterns at small scales. This synthesis intends to unify studies reporting microclimatic heterogeneity (mostly temperature) at various spatial scales, to infer any emerging trends, and to discuss the causes and consequences of such heterogeneity for organismal performance and with respect to changing land use patterns and climate. First, we identify the environmental drivers of heterogeneity across the various spatial scales that are pertinent to ectotherms. The thermal heterogeneity at the local and micro-scales is mostly generated by the architecture or the geometrical features of the microhabitat. Then, the thermal heterogeneity experienced by individuals is modulated by behavior. Second, we survey the literature to quantify thermal heterogeneity from the micro-scale up to the scale of a landscape in natural habitats. Despite difficulties in compiling studies that differ much in their design and aims, we found that there is as much thermal heterogeneity across micro-, local and landscape scales, and that the temperature range is large in general (>9 °C on average, and up to 26 °C). Third, we examine the extent to which urban habitats can be used to infer the microclimatic patterns of the future. Urban areas generate globally drier and warmer microclimatic patterns and recent evidence suggest that thermal traits of ectotherms are adapted to them. Fourth, we explore the interplay between microclimate heterogeneity and the behavioral thermoregulatory

  12. Global anisotropies in TeV cosmic rays related to the Sun's local galactic environment from IBEX.

    PubMed

    Schwadron, N A; Adams, F C; Christian, E R; Desiati, P; Frisch, P; Funsten, H O; Jokipii, J R; McComas, D J; Moebius, E; Zank, G P

    2014-02-28

    Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here, we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high-energy (tera-electron volts, TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asγ, and IceCube). Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the LISM, which is particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.

  13. Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment from IBEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Adams, F. C.; Christian, E. R.; Desiati, P.; Frisch, P.; Funsten, H. O.; Jokipii, J. R.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here, we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high-energy (tera-electron volts, TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asg, and IceCube). Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the LISM, which is particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.

  14. Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun’s Local Galactic Environment from IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Adams, F. C.; Christian, E. R.; Desiati, P.; Frisch, P.; Funsten, H. O.; Jokipii, J. R.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here, we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high-energy (tera-electron volts, TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asγ, and IceCube). Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the LISM, which is particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.

  15. Analyzing the Food-Fuel-Environment Tri-Lemma Facing World Agriculture: Global Land Use in the Coming Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.

    2011-12-01

    The number of people which the world must feed is expected to increase by another 3 billion people by 2100. When coupled with significant nutritional improvements for the 2.1 billion people currently living on less than $2/day, this translates into a very substantial rise in the demand for agricultural production. At the same time, the growing use of biomass for energy generation has introduced an important new source of industrial demand in agricultural markets. To compound matters, water, a key input into agricultural production, is rapidly diminishing in availability in large parts of the world and many soils are degrading. In addition, agriculture and forestry are increasingly envisioned as key sectors for climate change mitigation policy. Any serious attempt to reduce land-based emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on the expansion of farming - particularly in the tropics, where most of the agricultural land conversion has come at the expense of forests, either directly, or indirectly via a cascading of land use requirements with crops moving into pasture and pasture into forest. Finally, agriculture and forestry are likely to be the economic sectors whose productivity is most sharply affected by climate change. In light of these challenges facing the global farm and food system, this paper will review the main sources of supply and demand for the world's cropland, and then provide a quantitative assessment of the impact of these forces on global land use over the coming century. The model incorporates forward looking behavior and examines competition between land used for ecosystem services, forestry, food and fuel. Explicit account is taken of emissions associated with both the intensive and extensive margins of agricultural expansion, as well as carbon sequestration and energy combustion. Key findings include: (a) energy prices and environmental policies will be increasingly important drivers of land use

  16. Io's Plasma Environment During the Galileo Flyby: Global Three-Dimensional MHD Modeling with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, M. R.; Kabin, K.; Gombosi, T. I.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Powell, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    The first results for applying a three-dimensional multimedia ideal MHD model for the mass-loaded flow of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma past Io are presented. The model is able to consider simultaneously physically realistic conditions for ion mass loading, ion-neutral drag, and intrinsic magnetic field in a full global calculation without imposing artificial dissipation. Io is modeled with an extended neutral atmosphere which loads the corotating plasma torus flow with mass, momentum, and energy. The governing equations are solved using adaptive mesh refinement on an unstructured Cartesian grid using an upwind scheme for AHMED. For the work described in this paper we explored a range of models without an intrinsic magnetic field for Io. We compare our results with particle and field measurements made during the December 7, 1995, flyby of to, as published by the Galileo Orbiter experiment teams. For two extreme cases of lower boundary conditions at Io, our model can quantitatively explain the variation of density along the spacecraft trajectory and can reproduce the general appearance of the variations of magnetic field and ion pressure and temperature. The net fresh ion mass-loading rates are in the range of approximately 300-650 kg/s, and equivalent charge exchange mass-loading rates are in the range approximately 540-1150 kg/s in the vicinity of Io.

  17. Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment and Heliotail from IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; McComas, David; Funsten, Herbert; Zank, Gary; Christian, Eric; Frisch, Priscilla; Desiati, Paolo; Jokipii, Jack; Möbius, Eberhard; Adams, Fred

    Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high energy (TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asgamma and IceCube). Further, we discuss recent observations by IBEX of the heliotail and its relationship with structures observed in TeV cosmic ray anisotropy maps. Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the local interstellar medium, particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.

  18. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  19. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-07-07

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  20. Does the presence of caffeine in the marine environment represent an environmental risk? A regional and global study.

    PubMed

    Dafouz, Raquel; Cáceres, Neus; Rodríguez-Gil, José Luis; Mastroianni, Nicola; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; de Miguel, Ángel Gil; Valcárcel, Yolanda

    2017-10-06

    Caffeine is an emerging contaminant considered to be an indicator of human contamination that has been widely detected in various aquatic systems, especially in continental waters. Nevertheless, the extent of its possible environmental impact is yet to be determined. This study determined the presence of caffeine, and evaluated the environmental hazard posed by this substance, in the "Rías Gallegas", a series of costal inlets in north-west Spain which are of great ecological value and in which fishing and bivalve farming, are a significant source of income. Caffeine was found to be present at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ=3.07ngL(-1)) in 15 of the 23 samples analysed, with the highest seawater concentration being 857ngL(-1) (the highest measured in seawater in Spain). Six out of 22 seawater samples resulted in a hazard quotient (HQ) from chronic exposure higher than 1 with the highest being 17.14, indicating a high probability of adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Environmental Exposure Distributions (EEDs) generated from a literature review of caffeine levels reported previously in four out of the five continents, showed that 28% of all seawater samples, and 69% of all estuary water samples where caffeine has ever been measured resulted in HQ>1 for chronic exposure. Further studies into the potential adverse effects that may arise from exposure to caffeine in aquatic systems are still required. Indeed, the need to gain a more in-depth understanding of the long-term ecotoxicological effects of caffeine is essential to ensure the quality of our health and environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The physical environment and health-enhancing activity during the school commute: global positioning system, geographical information systems and accelerometry.

    PubMed

    McMinn, David; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Aitkenhead, Matt J; Johnston, Derek W; Murtagh, Shemane; Rowe, David A

    2014-05-01

    Active school travel is in decline. An understanding of the potential determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute may help to inform interventions aimed at reversing these trends. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environmental factors associated with health-enhancing physical activity during the school commute. Data were collected in 2009 on 166 children commuting home from school in Scotland. Data on location and physical activity were measured using global positioning systems (GPS) and accelerometers, and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Multi-level logistic regression models accounting for repeated observations within participants were used to test for associations between each land-use category (road/track/path, other man-made, greenspace, other natural) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thirty-nine children provided 2,782 matched data points. Over one third (37.1%) of children's school commute time was spent in MVPA. Children commuted approximately equal amounts of time via natural and man-made land-uses (50.2% and 49.8% respectively). Commuting via road/track/path was associated with increased likelihood of MVPA (Exp(B)=1.23, P <0.05), but this association was not seen for commuting via other manmade land-uses. No association was noted between greenspace use and MVPA, but travelling via other natural land-uses was associated with lower odds of MVPA (Exp(B)=0.32, P <0.05). Children spend equal amounts of time commuting to school via man-made and natural land-uses, yet man-made transportation route infrastructure appears to provide greater opportunities for achieving health-enhancing physical activity levels.

  2. Factoring in weather variation to capture the influence of urban design and built environment on globally recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children

    PubMed Central

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In curbing physical inactivity, as behavioural interventions directed at individuals have not produced a population-level change, an ecological perspective called active living research has gained prominence. However, active living research consistently underexplores the role played by a perennial phenomenon encompassing all other environmental exposures—variation in weather. After factoring in weather variation, this study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including urban design and built environment) on the accumulation of globally recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) in children. Design This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. As part of this study, Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Moreover, diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer) to derive MVPA of 331 10–14-year-old children in 25 1-week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample and matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Multilevel modelling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modelling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on the accumulation of recommended MVPA. Results Urban design, including diversity of destinations within neighbourhoods played a significant role in the accumulation of MVPA. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations) were more likely to accumulate

  3. Trends in health burden of untreated water and insanitary environments in Iran, 1990-2010: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Afshin; Mahdavi, Mokhtar; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Sharifi, Farshad; Mohammadi, Rasool; Nejatifar, Masoumeh; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Ansari, Hossain; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water, sanitation and hygiene have a very important role in public health. Poor sanitation is the cause of water contamination, which causes many types of diseases. The aim of this paper was to present the attributable death and disability adjusted life year (DALYs) of untreated water and insanitary environments from 1990 to 2010 in Iran. Methods: In the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study, using the comparative risk assessment, the proportion of death and DALYs attributable to untreated water source and insanitary environment has been calculated in 1990 to 2010. The certain outcomes were intestinal infectious diseases for both untreated water source and insanitary environments. Estimated attributable deaths and DALYs were reported with 95% uncertainty interval (UI). Results: DALY number for untreated water source and insanitary environments was 5838 (95% UI: 198- 14837) in 1990, which decreased to 326 (95% UI: 9-863) in 2010 and the percent of decrease was 94.42%. In addition, DALY rate was 5667 (95% UI: 192-14402) DALY per 100,000 in 1990, which decreased to 453 (95% UI: 13-1199) DALY per 100,000 in 2010 and the percent of the reduction was 92.01%. The greatest percentage of decrease in the attributed number of deaths was also found in the late neonatal age group (95.45%). Conclusion: A significant decrease has occurred in a number of DALYs and deaths between 1990 and 2010, which was attributed to the development of new water systems and environmental sanitations in Iran. PMID:28210589

  4. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarmah, Ajit K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.

  5. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Ajit K; Meyer, Michael T; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2006-10-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.

  6. "Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects": Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O

    2016-05-13

    The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as "everything is everywhere but the environment selects." While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: Impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. Dust plumes frequently cover huge areas of the earth; they are one of the most prominent and commonly visible features in satellite imagery. Dust is believed to play a role in many biogeochemical processes, but the importance of dust in these processes is not well understood because of the dearth of information about the global distribution of dust and its physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This paper describes some features of the large-scale distribution of dust and identifies some of the geological characteristics of important source areas. The transport of dust from North Africa is presented as an example of possible long-range dust effects, and the impact of African dust on environmental processes in the western North Atlantic and the southeastern United States is assessed. Dust transported over long distances usually has a mass median diameter <10 μm. Small wind-borne soil particles show signs of extensive weathering; consequently, the physical and chemical properties of the particles will greatly depend on the weathering history in the source region and on the subsequent modifications that occur during transit in the atmosphere (typically a period of a week or more). To fully understand the role of dust in the environment and in human health, mineralogists will have to work closely with scientists in other disciplines to characterize the properties of mineral particles as an ensemble and as individual particles especially with regard to surface characteristics. PMID:10097049

  8. Interactions among genes, tumor biology and the environment in cancer health disparities: examining the evidence on a national and global scale.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Tiffany A; Martin, Damali N; Ambs, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates show great variations across nations and between population groups. These variations are largely explained by differences in age distribution, diet and lifestyle, access to health care, cultural barriers and exposure to carcinogens and pathogens. Cancers caused by infections are significantly more common in developing than developed countries, and they overproportionally affect immigrant populations in the USA and other countries. The global pattern of cancer is not stagnant. Instead, it is dynamic because of fluctuations in the age distribution of populations, improvements in cancer prevention and early detection in affluent countries and rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in parts of the world. For example, increased smoking rates have caused tobacco-induced cancers to rise in various Asian countries, whereas reduced smoking rates have caused these cancers to plateau or even begin to decline in Western Europe and North America. Some population groups experience a disproportionally high cancer burden. In the USA and the Caribbean, cancer incidence and mortality rates are excessively high in populations of African ancestry when compared with other population groups. The causes of this disparity are multifaceted and may include tumor biological and genetic factors and their interaction with the environment. In this review, we will discuss the magnitude and causes of global cancer health disparities and will, with a focus on African-Americans and selected cancer sites, evaluate the evidence that genetic and tumor biological factors contribute to existing cancer incidence and outcome differences among population groups in the USA.

  9. Validation of a rapid DNA process with the RapidHIT(®) ID system using GlobalFiler(®) Express chemistry, a platform optimized for decentralized testing environments.

    PubMed

    Salceda, Susana; Barican, Arnaldo; Buscaino, Jacklyn; Goldman, Bruce; Klevenberg, Jim; Kuhn, Melissa; Lehto, Dennis; Lin, Frank; Nguyen, Phong; Park, Charles; Pearson, Francesca; Pittaro, Rick; Salodkar, Sayali; Schueren, Robert; Smith, Corey; Troup, Charles; Tsou, Dean; Vangbo, Mattias; Wunderle, Justus; King, David

    2017-05-01

    The RapidHIT(®) ID is a fully automated sample-to-answer system for short tandem repeat (STR)-based human identification. The RapidHIT ID has been optimized for use in decentralized environments and processes presumed single source DNA samples, generating Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)-compatible DNA profiles in less than 90min. The system is easy to use, requiring less than one minute of hands-on time. Profiles are reviewed using centralized linking software, RapidLINK™ (IntegenX, Pleasanton, CA), a software tool designed to collate DNA profiles from single or multiple RapidHIT ID systems at different geographic locations. The RapidHIT ID has been designed to employ GlobalFiler(®) Express and AmpFLSTR(®) NGMSElect™, Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA) STR chemistries. The Developmental Validation studies were performed using GlobalFiler(®) Express with single source reference samples according to Scientific Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods guidelines. These results show that multiple RapidHIT ID systems networked with RapidLINK software form a highly reliable system for wide-scale deployment in locations such as police booking stations and border crossings enabling real-time testing of arrestees, potential human trafficking victims, and other instances where rapid turnaround is essential.

  10. Interactions among genes, tumor biology and the environment in cancer health disparities: examining the evidence on a national and global scale

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Tiffany A.; Martin, Damali N.; Ambs, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates show great variations across nations and between population groups. These variations are largely explained by differences in age distribution, diet and lifestyle, access to health care, cultural barriers and exposure to carcinogens and pathogens. Cancers caused by infections are significantly more common in developing than developed countries, and they overproportionally affect immigrant populations in the USA and other countries. The global pattern of cancer is not stagnant. Instead, it is dynamic because of fluctuations in the age distribution of populations, improvements in cancer prevention and early detection in affluent countries and rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in parts of the world. For example, increased smoking rates have caused tobacco-induced cancers to rise in various Asian countries, whereas reduced smoking rates have caused these cancers to plateau or even begin to decline in Western Europe and North America. Some population groups experience a disproportionally high cancer burden. In the USA and the Caribbean, cancer incidence and mortality rates are excessively high in populations of African ancestry when compared with other population groups. The causes of this disparity are multifaceted and may include tumor biological and genetic factors and their interaction with the environment. In this review, we will discuss the magnitude and causes of global cancer health disparities and will, with a focus on African-Americans and selected cancer sites, evaluate the evidence that genetic and tumor biological factors contribute to existing cancer incidence and outcome differences among population groups in the USA. PMID:21464040

  11. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Leisching, Gina; Pietersen, Ray-Dean; Mpongoshe, Vuyiseka; van Heerden, Carel; van Helden, Paul; Wiid, Ian; Baker, Bienyameen

    2016-01-01

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM) infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate) using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T), or in detergent-free medium (R179NT). RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14) were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not be used in

  12. Paleoclimatic insights from mapping the global distribution of non-glacial cryogenic landforms in sub-humid montane environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slee, Adrian; Shulmeister, James

    2015-04-01

    Much of the 'periglacial' literature is based on landforms and observations from either high mountains or continental environments dominated by strong winter cooling and/or permafrost conditions. Cryogenic conditions occur in many other settings and some of the most widespread are montane landscapes in mid- to low latitudes. In Australia observations of 'periglacial' landforms have traditionally been limited to higher elevation regions of the Australian Alps and central Tasmania. However, the distribution of relict cryogenic landforms is much wider and extends well into sub-tropical latitudes along the eastern highlands of Australia. Here we map the distribution of relict block deposits (block streams and block fields) of known cryogenic origin so as to delineate the limits of 'periglacial' climatic conditions during cold phases in the Late Quaternary. The mapping is based on image analyses supported by extensive and intensive ground truthing. Three distinct regimes are recognised - a high elevation winter wet regime (Mt Kosciuszko style); a temperate maritime westerly regime (Tasmania style) and, unexpectedly, an east coast (sub-tropical) regime (New England style). We utilise bio-climatic modelling to derive modern climate parameters from the distribution of the block deposits so as to map regions affected by cryogenic conditions in late Quaternary cold periods. We assumed that relative changes in mean cooling and precipitation would be shared by other mid-latitude climate locales worldwide and predicted the likely distribution of block deposits in these areas. A literature review confirms the presence of 'periglacial' style block deposits in the predicted regions, including part of the Iberian Peninsula, the Atlas and Drakensburg Mountains of Africa, the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, the higher volcanoes of Mexico and parts of China, all of which have mean annual precipitation similar to the New England area. However, we also note that many of these areas

  13. Promoting "Global" Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…

  14. Factoring in weather variation to capture the influence of urban design and built environment on globally recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Rainham, Daniel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-11-30

    In curbing physical inactivity, as behavioural interventions directed at individuals have not produced a population-level change, an ecological perspective called active living research has gained prominence. However, active living research consistently underexplores the role played by a perennial phenomenon encompassing all other environmental exposures-variation in weather. After factoring in weather variation, this study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including urban design and built environment) on the accumulation of globally recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) in children. This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. As part of this study, Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Moreover, diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer) to derive MVPA of 331 10-14-year-old children in 25 1-week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample and matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Multilevel modelling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modelling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on the accumulation of recommended MVPA. Urban design, including diversity of destinations within neighbourhoods played a significant role in the accumulation of MVPA. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations) were more likely to accumulate recommended MVPA. The findings

  15. Metrication in a global environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief history about the development of the metric system of measurement is given. The need for the U.S. to implement the 'SI' metric system in the international markets, especially in the aerospace and general trade, is discussed. Development of metric implementation and experiences locally, nationally, and internationally are included.

  16. Food & Environment. Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Through articles and activities designed for the senior secondary level, students examine the food production system in British Columbia and the world and explore creative, sustainable alternatives for food production. A description of raising food in the first world with the critical issues of energy use and environmental degradation precedes a…

  17. The Environment: A Global Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Kurt R.

    1973-01-01

    An interview with Maurice Strong, of the United Nations, primarily about the world conference held in Stockholm in the summer of 1973 concerned with the effects of man's activities on the future of humanity. (MS)

  18. Level 4 Global and European Chl-a Daily Analyses for End Users and Data Assimilation in the Frame of the Copernicus-Marine Environment Monitoring Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulquin, Bertrand; Gohin, Francis; Garnesson, Philippe; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; Fanton d'Andon, Odile

    2016-08-01

    The level-4 daily chl-a products are a combination of a water typed merge of chl-a estimates and an optimal interpolation based on the kriging method with regional anisotropic models [1, 2]. The Level 4 products basically pro- vide a global continuous (cloud free) estimation of the surface chl-a concentration at 4 km resolution over the world and 1 km resolution over the Europe. The level-4 products gather MODIS, MERIS, SeaWiFS, VIIRS and OLCI daily observations from 1998 to now.The Level 4 product avoids end users to consider typical lack of data as observed during cloudy conditions and the historical multiplicity of available algorithms such as involved by case 1 (oligotrophic) and case 2 (turbid) water issues in ocean colour. [3, 4].A total product uncertainty, i.e. a combination of the interpolation and the estimation error, is provided for each daily product. The L4 products are freely distributed in the frame of the Copernicus - Marine environment monitoring service.

  19. The GLOBAL Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Data Visualization and Retrieval System. Building a robust system for scientists and students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overoye, D.; Lewis, C.; Butler, D. M.; Andersen, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program founded on Earth Day 1995. Implemented in 117 countries, GLOBE promotes the teaching and learning of science, supporting students, teachers and scientists worldwide to collaborate with each other on inquiry-based investigations of the Earth system. The GLOBE Data Information System (DIS) currently supports users with the ability to enter data from over 50 different science protocols. GLOBE's Data Access and Visualization tools have been developed to accommodate the need to display and retrieve data from this large number of protocols. The community of users is also diverse, including NASA scientists, citizen scientists and grade school students. The challenge for GLOBE is to meet the needs from this diverse set of users with protocol specific displays that are simple enough for a GLOBE school to use, but also provide enough features for a NASA Scientist to retrieve data sets they are interested in. During the last 3 years, the GLOBE visualization system has evolved to meet the needs of these various users, leveraging user feedback and technological advances. Further refinements and enhancements continue. In this session we review the design and capabilities of the GLOBE visualization and data retrieval tool set, discuss the evolution of these tools, and discuss coming directions.

  20. Ubiquitous production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in global marine environments: a new source indicator for brGDGTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wenjie; Wang, Yinghui; Zhou, Shangzhe; Hu, Limin; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2016-10-01

    Presumed source specificity of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) from bacteria thriving in soil/peat and isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) from aquatic organisms led to the development of several biomarker proxies for biogeochemical cycle and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, recent studies reveal that brGDGTs are also produced in aquatic environments besides soils and peat. Here we examined three cores from the Bohai Sea, and found distinct difference in brGDGT compositions varying with the distance from the Yellow River mouth. We thus propose an abundance ratio of hexamethylated to pentamethylated brGDGT (IIIa / IIa) to evaluate brGDGT sources. The compilation of globally distributed 1354 marine sediments and 589 soils shows that the IIIa / IIa ratio is generally < 0.59 in soils and 0.59-0.92 and > 0.92 in marine sediments with and without significant terrestrial inputs, respectively. Such disparity confirms the existence of two sources for brGDGTs, a terrestrial origin with lower IIIa / IIa and a marine origin with higher IIIa / IIa, which is likely attributed to a generally higher pH and the production of brGDGTs in cold deep water in marine waters. The application of the IIIa / IIa ratio to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf proves it to be a sensitive source indicator for brGDGTs, which is helpful for accurate estimation of organic carbon source and paleoclimates in marine settings.

  1. Investigating the impacts of deep ocean euxinia on continental shelf environments during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: did changes in global oceanic redox have any effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, P. J.; Marenco, K. N.; Phillips, D. E.; Garcia, E.; Toure, N.; Fullem, A.

    2013-12-01

    ) as a proxy for global oceanic redox changes. Our δ34SCAS results correlate well with other published data and exhibit high values and high-magnitude fluctuations that suggest changes in deep ocean redox (e.g., Thompson and Kah, 2012, Marenco et al., 2013). However, TOC and TS abundances are uniformly low (less than 1 wt. % and 0.1 wt. %, respectively) throughout more than 800m of stratigraphic section in fossiliferous and unfossiliferous carbonates and shales. Although factors such as burial, sedimentation rate, and productivity need to be considered, our TOC and TS results suggest a lack of evidence for incursion of euxinic deep water into the shallow marine environments being investigated. Thus, it is possible that the availability of continental shelf area allowed the GOBE to proceed largely independently of changes in deep ocean redox.

  2. The Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability (GUPES): Networking of Higher Educational Institutions in Facilitating Implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradhan, Mahesh; Mariam, Ayombi

    2014-01-01

    This article will focus on involvement of Higher Education Institutions in promoting Education for Sustainable Development through UNEPs flagship programme Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability. To achieve this, the activities of the network are centered on three pillars: Education, Training and Networking.

  3. The Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability (GUPES): Networking of Higher Educational Institutions in Facilitating Implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradhan, Mahesh; Mariam, Ayombi

    2014-01-01

    This article will focus on involvement of Higher Education Institutions in promoting Education for Sustainable Development through UNEPs flagship programme Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability. To achieve this, the activities of the network are centered on three pillars: Education, Training and Networking.

  4. Globalization and American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  5. Globalization and American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  6. The Five E's: Ethnicity, Education, Economy, Equity, and Environment. Proceedings [of the] Annual Conference of the Global Awareness Society International (Chicago, Illinois, June 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, James H., Ed.; And Others

    The 23 conference papers in this proceedings include: (1) "Global Awareness Society International: Retrospectives and Prospectives" (Chang Shub Roh); (2) "Technology Transfer in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey (1989-1994)" (Huseyin Ates; Asim Sen); (3) "Indigenous People, Environmental Protection and Globalization" (Edward D. Barker); (4)…

  7. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  8. Energy. Our Common Home: Earth. A Curriculum Strategy to Affect Student Skills Development and Exposure to Diverse Global Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    One of a series of global education instructional units, this energy awareness curriculum was designed to be infused with existing social studies courses aimed at students in grades 5-12. Concept-based and skills-oriented, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of synthetic energy sources; human dependence…

  9. The response of flowering time to global warming in a high-altitude plant: the impact of genetics and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change as a result of global warming may seriously affect plant reproduction. This is especially true for alpine plant species because they have few suitable alternative habitats to colonize. It is therefore important to determine the ability of high altitude plants to adapt to environmental...

  10. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  11. "Going Global": Conceptualization of the "Other" and Interpretation of Cross-Cultural Experience in an All-White, Rural Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung

    2006-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic case study done in an all-white, rural middle school, this article examines the students' experience with and interpretation of an international education program implemented with a hope of providing more global/international contents to the curriculum. The study shows that these students interpreted other cultures…

  12. "Going Global": Conceptualization of the "Other" and Interpretation of Cross-Cultural Experience in an All-White, Rural Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung

    2006-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic case study done in an all-white, rural middle school, this article examines the students' experience with and interpretation of an international education program implemented with a hope of providing more global/international contents to the curriculum. The study shows that these students interpreted other cultures…

  13. Energy. Our Common Home: Earth. A Curriculum Strategy to Affect Student Skills Development and Exposure to Diverse Global Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    One of a series of global education instructional units, this energy awareness curriculum was designed to be infused with existing social studies courses aimed at students in grades 5-12. Concept-based and skills-oriented, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of synthetic energy sources; human dependence…

  14. Ecosocial Studies: A Strategy to Develop Global Perspectives and Relationships Among Nations and Between Humans and Their Natural/Social Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Presented is a view of ecosocial studies as representing one instructional strategy which can be used in the classroom to develop global awareness and perspectives in elementary and secondary education students. In addition to defining the need for and scope of ecosocial studies, this document: (1) discusses the role of the social studies; (2)…

  15. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  16. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  17. Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) Revisited: First Steps toward a Network of Networks for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Muir, Derek; Zeng, Eddy Y; Bao, Lian-Jun; Allan, Ian J; Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Booij, Kees; Helm, Paul; Kaserzon, Sarit; Mueller, Jochen F; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Smedes, Foppe; Tsapakis, Manolis; Wong, Charles S; You, Jing

    2017-02-07

    Organic contaminants, in particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs), adversely affect water quality and aquatic food webs across the globe. As of now, there is no globally consistent information available on concentrations of dissolved POPs in water bodies. The advance of passive sampling techniques has made it possible to establish a global monitoring program for these compounds in the waters of the world, which we call the Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) network. A recent expert meeting discussed the background, motivations, and strategic approaches of AQUA-GAPS, and its implementation as a network of networks for monitoring organic contaminants (e.g., POPs and others contaminants of concern). Initially, AQUA-GAPS will demonstrate its operating principle via two proof-of-concept studies focused on the detection of legacy and emerging POPs in freshwater and coastal marine sites using both polyethylene and silicone passive samplers. AQUA-GAPS is set up as a decentralized network, which is open to other participants from around the world to participate in deployments and to initiate new studies. In particular, participants are sought to initiate deployments and studies investigating the presence of legacy and emerging POPs in Africa, Central, and South America.

  18. Industry in Concert with the Environment: Technological Change and Industrial Ecology. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eflin, James

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module stresses the key principals, concepts, and problems in the emerging…

  19. Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Salvucci, Gianluigi; Viviroli, Daniel; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    Proximity to the coast and elevation are important geographical considerations for human settlement. Little is known, however, about how spatial variation in these factors exactly relates to human settlements and activities, and how this has developed over time. Such knowledge is important for identifying vulnerable regions that are at risk from phenomena such as food shortages and water stress. Human activities are a key driving force in global change, and thus detailed information on population distribution is an important input to any research framework on global change. In this paper we assess the global geospatial patterns of the distribution of human population and related factors, with regard to the altitude above sea level and proximity to the coast. The investigated factors are physical conditions, urbanisation, agricultural practices, economy, and environmental stress. An important novel element in this study, is that we included the temporal evolution in various factors related to human settlements and agricultural practices over the 20th century, and used projections for some of these factors up to the year 2050. We found population pressure in the proximity of the coast to be somewhat greater than was found in other studies. Yet, the distribution of population, urbanisation and wealth are evolving to become more evenly spread across the globe than they were in the past. Therefore, the commonly believed tendency of accumulation of people and wealth along coasts is not supported by our results. At the same time, food production is becoming increasingly decoupled from the trends in population density. Croplands are spreading from highly populated coastal zones towards inland zones. Our results thus indicate that even though people and wealth continue to accumulate in proximity to the coast, population densities and economic productivity are becoming less diverse in relation to elevation and distance from the coast.

  20. The diffuse-to-global and diffuse-to-direct-beam spectral irradiance ratios as turbidity indexes in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Kambezidis, Harry D.

    2009-02-01

    Continuous measurements of solar spectral radiation using the Multi-filter Rotating Shadow Band Radiometer (MFRSR) are performed at the Actinometric Station of the National Observatory of Athens (ASNOA). The present study utilizes three clear-sky days of continuous observations, from local sunrise to local sunset, in order to investigate the daily variation of the radiation components (diffuse, global and direct-beam) as well as their ratios (diffuse-to-global, DGR, and diffuse-to-direct-beam, DDR) under different atmospheric conditions. Both ratios have received great scientific interest, especially for investigating solar irradiance modifications under various atmospheric conditions, aerosol load and optical properties. Apart from this, the present study shows that the DDR can constitute a measure of atmospheric turbidity when it is determined at longer wavelengths, while the DGR cannot. The effect of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on both ratios is significant at the shorter wavelengths with varying sensitivities depending on the aerosol field and sun elevation. The present study confirms the results obtained by previous solar irradiance measurements in Athens and also those computed via radiative transfer codes and sheds light on the scientific knowledge of the use of spectral DDR as an atmospheric turbidity index.

  1. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  2. Jerks as Guiding Influences on the Global Environment: Effects on the Solid Earth, Its Angular Momentum and Lithospheric Plate Motions, the Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. M.; Leybourne, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Jerks are thought to be the result of torques applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) caused by either of two possible processes, working together or separately: 1) Electromagnetic Induction and 2) Mechanical Slippage. In the first case, it is thought that electromagnetic energy slowly builds-up at the CMB, reaches some critical level, and is then suddenly released, causing a geomagneticly induced torque at the CMB due to the differential electrical conductivity between the lower mantle and the surface of the outer core. The second case is driven by stress and strain increases that buildup mechanical potential energy, which is released when a critical level is reached, thereby generating a torque at the CMB. Generally, a trigger is required to start the Jerk process in motion. In the electromagnetic case, it is suggested that energy from the Sun may supply the requisite energy buildup that is subsequently released by a magnetic storm trigger, for instance. In the case of mechanical slippage, bari-center motion among the Earth, Moon, and Sun, as well as tidal forces and mass redistributions through Earth's wobbles combine to provide the accumulated stress/strain buildup and subsequent trigger. The resulting fluid flow changes at the CMB result in geomagnetic field changes and Joule heating throughout the solid Earth, its oceans, and atmosphere. It is shown that the Global Temperature Anomaly (GTA), which is measured at Earth's surface, correlates with changes in the geomagnetic non-dipole moment, and thus with core fluid motions. This links Global Warming and weather with core processes, important examples being the 1930's Dust Bowl Era and the 1947 Impulse. The CMB torque also affects Earth's angular momentum. But it appears that magnetic storms can as well. As a consequence, the Jet Stream, atmospheric circulation patterns, and the Global Oscillation System (i.e., El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decade Oscillation, etc.) are

  3. ANFIS, SVM and ANN soft-computing techniques to estimate daily global solar radiation in a warm sub-humid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quej, Victor H.; Almorox, Javier; Arnaldo, Javier A.; Saito, Laurel

    2017-03-01

    Daily solar radiation is an important variable in many models. In this paper, the accuracy and performance of three soft computing techniques (i.e., adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were assessed for predicting daily horizontal global solar radiation from measured meteorological variables in the Yucatán Peninsula, México. Model performance was assessed with statistical indicators such as root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The performance assessment indicates that the SVM technique with requirements of daily maximum and minimum air temperature, extraterrestrial solar radiation and rainfall has better performance than the other techniques and may be a promising alternative to the usual approaches for predicting solar radiation.

  4. Global perspectives: A new global ethic, a new global partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1990-06-01

    In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new global partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for global change.

  5. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, A F; Van Drecht, G; van der Hoek, K W

    2005-09-01

    Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals. In most industrialized countries we see a gradual increase of the overall N recovery of the intensive agricultural production systems over the whole 1970-2030 period. In contrast, low N input systems in many developing countries sustained low crop yields for many years but at the cost of soil fertility by depleting soil nutrient pools. In most developing countries the N recovery will increase in the coming decades by increasing efficiencies of N use in both crop and livestock production systems. The surface balance surplus of N is lost from the agricultural system via different pathways, including NH3 volatilization, denitrification, N(2)O and NO emissions, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Global NH(3)-N emissions from fertilizer and animal manure application and stored manure increased from 18 to 34 Tg x yr(-1) between 1970 and 1995, and will further increase to 44 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030. Similar developments are seen for N(2)O-N (2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970, 2.7 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 3.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030) and NO-N emissions (1.1 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970,1.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030).

  6. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, A F; Van Drecht, G; van der Hoek, K W

    2005-12-01

    Abstract Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals. In most industrialized countries we see a gradual increase of the overall N recovery of the intensive agricultural production systems over the whole 1970-2030 period. In contrast, low N input systems in many developing countries sustained low crop yields for many years but at the cost of soil fertility by depleting soil nutrient pools. In most developing countries the N recovery will increase in the coming decades by increasing efficiencies of N use in both crop and livestock production systems. The surface balance surplus of N is lost from the agricultural system via different pathways, including NH3 volatilization, denitrification, N20 and NO emissions, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Global NH3-N emissions from fertilizer and animal manure application and stored manure increased from 18 to 34 Tg x yr(-1) between 1970 and 1995, and will further increase to 44 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030. Similar developments are seen for N2O-N (2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970, 2.7 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 3.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030) and NO-N emissions (1.1 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970, 1.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030).

  7. Technology and Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  8. Evidence to inform education, training and supportive work environments for midwives involved in the care of women with female genital mutilation: a review of global experience.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angela; Turkmani, Sabera; Fray, Shairon; Nanayakkara, Susie; Varol, Nesrin; Homer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    to identify how midwives in low and middle income countries (LMIC) and high income countries (HIC) care for women with female genital mutilation (FGM), their perceived challenges and what professional development and workplace strategies might better support midwives to provide appropriate quality care. an integrative review involving a narrative synthesis of the literature was undertaken to include peer reviewed research literature published between 2004 and 2014. 10 papers were included in the review, two from LMIC and eight from HIC. A lack of technical knowledge and limited cultural competency was identified, as well as socio-cultural challenges in the abandonment process of the practice, particularly in LMIC settings. Training in the area of FGM was limited. One study reported the outcomes of an education initiative that was found to be beneficial. professional education and training, a working environment supported by guidelines and responsive policy and community education, are necessary to enable midwives to improve the care of women with FGM and advocate against the practice. improved opportunities for midwives to learn about FGM and receive advice and support, alongside opportunities for collaborative practice in contexts that enable the effective reporting of FGM to authorities, may be beneficial and require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Petascale lattice-Boltzmann studies of amphiphilic cubic liquid crystalline materials in a globally distributed high-performance computing and visualization environment.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Radhika S; Mazzeo, Marco D; Zasada, Stefan J; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    We present very large-scale rheological studies of self-assembled cubic gyroid liquid crystalline phases in ternary mixtures of oil, water and amphiphilic species performed on petascale supercomputers using the lattice-Boltzmann method. These nanomaterials have found diverse applications in materials science and biotechnology, for example, in photovoltaic devices and protein crystallization. They are increasingly gaining importance as delivery vehicles for active agents in pharmaceuticals, personal care products and food technology. In many of these applications, the self-assembled structures are subject to flows of varying strengths and we endeavour to understand their rheological response with the objective of eventually predicting it under given flow conditions. Computationally, our lattice-Boltzmann simulations of ternary fluids are inherently memory- and data-intensive. Furthermore, our interest in dynamical processes necessitates remote visualization and analysis as well as the associated transfer and storage of terabytes of time-dependent data. These simulations are distributed on a high-performance grid infrastructure using the application hosting environment; we employ a novel parallel in situ visualization approach which is particularly suited for such computations on petascale resources. We present computational and I/O performance benchmarks of our application on three different petascale systems.

  10. “Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects”: Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V.; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as “everything is everywhere but the environment selects.” While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge. PMID:27190206

  11. Global warming. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and Environmental Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a warming trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential environmental destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.

  12. Extreme 13Ccarb enrichment in ca. 2.0 Ga magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' association in a global context: a case for the world-wide signal enhanced by a local environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melezhik, Victor A.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Medvedev, Pavel V.; Makarikhin, Vladimir V.

    1999-12-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic positive excursion of δ 13Ccarb is now considered as three positive shifts of δ 13Ccarb separated by returns to 0‰, which all occurred between 2.40 and 2.06 Ma. This isotopic event is unique in terms of both duration (>300 Ma) and 13C enrichment (up to +18‰). The mechanism responsible for one of the most significant carbon isotopic shifts in Earth history remains highly debatable. To date, δ 13C of +10‰ to +15‰ cannot be balanced by organic carbon burial ( forg) as there is no geological evidence for an enhanced C org accumulation prior to or synchronous with the excursion. Instead, termination of these excursions is followed by formation of a vast reservoir of 13C-depleted organic material (-45‰ at Shunga) and by one of the earliest known oil-generation episodes at 2.0 Ga. None of the three positive excursions of δ 13Ccarb is followed by a negative isotopic shift significantly below 0‰, as has always been observed in younger isotopic events, reflecting an overturn of a major marine carbon reservoirs. This may indicate that forg was constant: implying that the mechanism involved in the production of C org was different. Onset of intensive methane cycling resulting in Δc change is another possibility. The majority of sampled 13Ccarb-rich localities represents shallow-water stromatolitic dolostones, `red beds' and evaporites formed in restricted intracratonic basins, and may not reflect global δ 13Ccarb values. Closely spaced drill core samples ( n=73) of stromatolitic dolostones from the >1980±27 Ma Tulomozerskaya Formation in the Onega palaeobasin, Russian Karelia, have been analysed for δ 13Ccarb and δ 18Ocarb in order to demonstrate that different processes were involved in the formation of 13Ccarb-rich carbonates. The 800 m-thick magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' succession formed in a complex combination of environments on the Karelian craton: peritidal shallow marine, low-energy protected bights, barred

  13. Application of δ13c Values Recorded in Neoproterozoic Marine Dolomite As a Marker for Global Correlations: Significance of Major δ13c Variations for the Carbon Cycle Based on Studies of Modern Dolomite Precipitating Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since the early Paleozoic, the average bulk δ13C value of marine carbonates has remained relatively positive varying between 0 and +4‰ with distinctive positive excursions that are associated with global changes in the carbon cycle. Unlike the Phanerozoic δ13C data for marine limestones, a major δ13C excursion has been recorded in a globally deposited Neoproterozoic marine dolomite formation, known as the cap dolostone. This excursion with δ13C values ranging systematically between -3 and -5‰ represents a global chronstratigraphic marker used to correlate the end of the major Marinoan glaciation at 636 Ma1. Does this excursion signify a primary seawater value and how might it be interpreted as a primary carbon cycle signal, considering the widespread distribution of the cap dolostone? Studies of modern dolomite precipitating environments, such as supratidal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. and Qatar and coastal hypersaline lagoons of Rio de Janiero State, Brazil, indicate that microbial activity or the biological products, thereof, influence or mediate mineral formation. The precipitating solutions are sourced from normal seawater, which has experienced variable stages of concentration through evaporative processes. Comparison of δ13C values of sabkha dolomite with that formed in the hypersaline lagoons reveals that the former are always rather positive (approx. +2 to +7 ‰), whereas the latter are always negative (approx. -5‰ to -11‰). During very early diagenesis, the original δ13C value of the initial precipitate is not necessarily retained, indicating that synsedimentary processes can alter the carbon signal prior to burial and later diagenesis. However, the potential for very early lithification of microbial dolomite promotes the preservation of original δ13C values, which, thus, can be useful for evaluation of the ancient carbon cycle. 1Halverson, G.P. et al., 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record, GSA Bulletin, v. 117, p

  14. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission - A New Approach to Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of Earth's Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; McClintock, W. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Andersson, L.; Burns, A. G.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R. E.; England, S.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Solomon, S. C.; Strickland, D. J.; Woods, T. N.; Budzien, S. A.; Dymond, K.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jones, S.; Martinis, C. R.; Oberheide, J.; Talaat, E. R.; Barrett, R.; Harvey, J.

    2016-12-01

    The GOLD mission of opportunity will fly a far ultraviolet imaging spectrograph in geostationary (GEO) orbit as a hosted payload. The mission is scheduled for launch in late 2017 on SES-14, a commercial communications satellite that will be stationed over eastern South America at 47.5 degrees west longitude. GOLD is on schedule to be the first NASA science mission to fly as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. The GOLD imager has two identical channels. Each channel can scan the full disk at a 30 minute cadence, making spectral images of Earth's UV emission from 132 to 162 nm, as well as make a measurement on the Earth's limb. Remote sensing techniques that have been proven on previous Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions will be used to derive fundamental parameters for the neutral and ionized space environment. Parameters that will be derived include composition (O/N2 ratio) and temperature of the neutral atmosphere on the dayside disk. On the nightside, peak electron densities will be obtained in the low latitude ionosphere. Similar imaging of atmospheric composition from LEO, at only a daily cadence for revisiting locations, has already provided many new insights into the behavior of Earth's Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system. From geostationary orbit, GOLD can repeatedly image the same geographic locations over most of the hemisphere at a cadence comparable to that of the T-I system (order of an hour). Such time resolution and spatial coverage will allow the mission to track the changes due to geomagnetic storms, variations in solar extreme ultraviolet radiation, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. In addition to providing a new perspective by being able to repeatedly remotely sense the same hemisphere at a high cadence, GOLD's simultaneous measurements of not only composition but also temperatures across the disk will provide a valuable, new parameter for understanding of how the T-I system responds to forcing from the sun and the lower

  15. Neuroprotective effects of enriched environment housing after transient global cerebral ischaemia are associated with the upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling.

    PubMed

    Wadowska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Briones, Teresita L

    2015-06-01

    Use of enriched environment (EE) housing has been shown to promote recovery from cerebral ischaemic injury but the underlying mechanisms of their beneficial effects remains unclear. Here we examined whether the beneficial effects of EE housing on ischaemia-induced neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment are associated with increased insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling in the hippocampus. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischaemia or sham surgery. Rats in each group were further randomized to either: EE or standard laboratory cage housing (control). Rats were placed in their assigned housing condition immediately after recovery from anaesthesia. Behavioural testing in the cued learning and discrimination learning tasks were conducted 2 weeks after ischaemia. Rats were euthanized after behavioural testing and the hippocampus was analysed for IGF-1 level, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation, protein kinase B (Akt) pathway activation, neurone loss and caspase 3 expression. Our data showed that EE housing: (1) mitigated ischaemia-induced neuronal loss; (2) attenuated ischaemia-induced increase in caspase 3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus; (3) ameliorated ischaemia-induced cognitive impairments; and (4) increased IGF-1R activation and signalling through the Akt pathway after ischaemic injury. Ultimately, these findings suggest the possibility that IGF-1 signalling may be one of the underlying mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of EE in optimizing recovery following cerebral ischaemic injury. © 2014 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  16. The response of the Okhotsk Sea environment to the orbital-millennium global climate changes during the Last Glacial Maximum, deglaciation and Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbarenko, Sergey A.; Artemova, Antonina V.; Goldberg, Evgeniy L.; Vasilenko, Yuriy P.

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of regional climate and the Okhotsk Sea (OS) environment for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation and Holocene was performed on the basis of high-resolution records of ice rafted debris (IRD), СаСО3, opal, total organic carbon (TOС), biogenic Ba (Ba_bio) and redox sensitive element (Mn, Mo) content, and diatom and pollen results of four cores that form a north-southern transect. Age models of the studied cores were earlier established by AMS 14C data, oxygen-isotope chronostratigraphy and tephrochronology. According to received results, since 25 ka the regional climate and OS environmental conditions have changed synchronously with LGM condition, cold Heinrich event 1, Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming, Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and Pre-Boreal (PB) warming recorded in the Greenland ice core, North Atlantic sediment, and China cave stalagmites. Calculation of IRD MAR in sediment of north-south transect cores indicates an increase of sea ice formation several times in the glacial OS as compared to the Late Holocene. Accompanying ice formation, increased brine rejection and the larger potential density of surface water at the north shelf due to a drop of glacial East Asia summer monsoon precipitation and Amur River run off, led to strong enhancement of the role of the OS in glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation. The remarkable increase in OS productivity during BA and PB warming was probably related with significant reorganisation of the North Pacific deep water ventilation and nutrient input into the NPIW and OS Intermediate Water (OSIW). Seven Holocene OS millennial cold events based on the elevated values of the detrended IRD stack record over the IRD broad trend in the sediments of the studied cores have occurred synchronously with cold events recorded in the North Atlantic, Greenland ice cores and China cave stalagmites after 9 ka. Diatom production in the OS was mostly controlled by sea ice cover changes and surface

  17. Global Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Health Security HIV & Tuberculosis Global Health Protection Malaria & Parasitic Diseases Immunization Other Diseases & Threats Travelers' Health ... Seasonal changes in climate may muddle results of malaria interventions in Africa Medical Xpress September 28, 2017 ...

  18. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  19. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization.…

  20. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and…

  1. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization.…

  2. Global Skills: Vital Components of Global Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    skills and resources fundamental to competing in the new international environment. THE UNITED STATES still lacks ade ­quate foreign-language capa...for our national fail ure in the language and area-studies arena. Unlike most other nations, the United States has tradi tion ally attrib uted a...Cen tury Air Force rec og nizes the chang ing global- security en vi ron ment, with projec tion of forces based in the conti nen tal United States

  3. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  4. Energy and Global Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Author believes that the nuclear fuel cycle is damaging to our health, physical system, ecosystem, and social system. He recommends reversing the trend toward nuclear power and solving the energy crisis by creating a global society able to live in balance with its physical environment. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York…

  5. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  6. USGS global change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Earth's global environment--its interrelated climate, land, oceans, fresh water, atmospheric and ecological systems-has changed continually throughout Earth history. Human activities are having ever-increasing effects on these systems. Sustaining our environment as population and demands for resources increase requires a sound understanding of the causes and cycles of natural change and the effects of human activities on the Earth's environmental systems. The U.S. Global Change Research Program was authorized by Congress in 1989 to provide the scientific understanding necessary to develop national and international policies concerning global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The program addresses questions such as: what factors determine global climate; have humans already begun to change the global climate; will the climate of the future be very different; what will be the effects of climate change; and how much confidence do we have in our predictions? Through understanding, we can improve our capability to predict change, reduce the adverse effects of human activities, and plan strategies for adapting to natural and human-induced environmental change.

  7. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  8. Developing a Global Mindset: Learning of Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Khilji, Shaista E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the requirements of leading in a global environment as perceived by the leaders participating in this study as well as the way these leaders learn and develop their global mindset. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology informed by social constructivism included…

  9. Developing a Global Mindset: Learning of Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Khilji, Shaista E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the requirements of leading in a global environment as perceived by the leaders participating in this study as well as the way these leaders learn and develop their global mindset. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology informed by social constructivism included…

  10. Population, environment, medicine and global sustainability.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The final two decades of this century see our planet in a highly perilous condition. This paper, after touching on the problem of nuclear proliferation, goes on to consider three other issues overpopulation, environmental depredation and the future of medical practice all of which are of high salience. The section on population concentrates on the time required for numbers to stabilize at two children per family. Europe is likely to attain stabilization before 2050, North America and the USSR by 2100. In the developing world South and East Asia could also be in balance by the beginning of the twenty-second century; but the situation in Africa vis-à-vis population growth is much more serious and stabilization cannot be anticipated until about 2150. Destruction of life support systems on a massive scale continues, particularly in developing countries. Much of Asia, Africa and Latin America is riddled with soil erosion; expanding populations of humans and livestock are proving a notable catalyst to desertification; the 'firewood crisis' is deepening as slowly but surely the earth is being deforested. There is little convincing evidence that the major aims of the World Conservation Strategy maintenance and responsible utilization of essential ecological systems, preservation of genetic diversity are being obeyed anywhere in the world. In the more sustainable society of the future engineering medicine with its proclivity for resource depletion will be less attractive. Rather will the emphasis be on prevention and on attempting to delineate the environmental factors known to be responsible for an increasing number of diseases. The likely pattern of morbidity and mortality in the twenty-first century is discussed. Geriatric medicine will hold pride of place; the incidence of cancer will rise markedly, and as an increasing number of Third World nations undergo the process of development diseases, which up till now have mainly affected affluent technological societies, it will spread throughout the planet.

  11. The Global Water Cycle Geochemistry, and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, Owen P.

    In the preface the authors state, as reasons for producing this book, the need for an appropriate undergraduate-level text on water chemistry and the desire to provide broader coverage of atmospheric and environmental chemistry than is found in other existing books on this topic. They have attempted to write a book that could be understood by almost anyone with an elementarv knowledge of science, yet could still serve as a source of geochemical and environmental data for researchers in a variety of fields. The authors have succeeded admirably in achieving these difficult goals.

  12. Global Environment Facility (GEF): An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-17

    available on its new website, at http://www.thegef.org/gef/. 6 A full overview and analysis of the history of GEF and environmental financing can be found...total of $1.61 billion. U.S. commitments correspond to 13.9% of total contributions for GEF during the history of the program, or, more specifically...energy to rural dispersed communities. Biodiversity Conservation in Cacao Agro-forestry in Costa Rica GEF Grant: $750,000 Description: The project

  13. Globalization: Separating Fact from Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics Trends, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the new environment of increased international trade and investment flows, human resources represent the key competitive edge of this interconnected global economy. The share the United States has of worldwide output is shrinking. This issue explores data that provide a snapshot of how globalization is affecting the economy and changing its…

  14. Year 2000--A Global Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    By 2000 A.D. there is a great potential for progressive impoverishment of world resources and degradation of the global environment. This adaptation of the report "Global Future: Time to Act", summarizes a reconnaisance of the future as it might be if no preventative measures are taken. As the world becomes more crowded, polluted, vulnerable to…

  15. Globalization: Separating Fact from Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics Trends, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the new environment of increased international trade and investment flows, human resources represent the key competitive edge of this interconnected global economy. The share the United States has of worldwide output is shrinking. This issue explores data that provide a snapshot of how globalization is affecting the economy and changing its…

  16. Year 2000--A Global Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    By 2000 A.D. there is a great potential for progressive impoverishment of world resources and degradation of the global environment. This adaptation of the report "Global Future: Time to Act", summarizes a reconnaisance of the future as it might be if no preventative measures are taken. As the world becomes more crowded, polluted, vulnerable to…

  17. Energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Fay; Dan S. Golomb

    2002-02-15

    Chapter headings are: Energy and the environment; Global energy use and supply including a section on coal reserves; Thermodynamic principles of energy conversion; Electrical energy generation, transmissions and storage; Fossil-fueled power plants; Nuclear-fueled power plants; Renewable energy; Transportation; Environmental effects of fossil fuel use; Global warning, which includes sections on greenhouse gas emissions and controlling CO{sub 2} emissions; and Concluding remarks. 1 app.

  18. EPA Leadership in the Global Mercury Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Global Mercury Partnership is a voluntary multi-stakeholder partnership initiated in 2005 to take immediate actions to protect human health and the environment from the releases of mercury and its compounds to the environment.

  19. H. J. RES. 431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.J.RES.431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment.

  20. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... cover from one day to another. The lower panel is a composite in which red, green, and blue radiances from MISR's 70-degree ... In relatively clear ocean areas, the oblique-angle composite is generally brighter than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced ... Mar 2002 Images:  Global Composite location:  Global Images thumbnail:  ...

  1. Global environmental report card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Worldwatch Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, issued a gloomy yet hopeful annual “State of the World” report on global environmental trends on 10 January.The report notes some recent successful efforts to protect the environment, including the phasing out of the production of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the 2001 signing of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Nonetheless, the report calls for a global war on environmental degradation “that is as aggressive and well-funded as the war on terrorism” following the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States.

  2. State of the Earth’s cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century : glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments: Chapter A in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2012-01-01

    critically important hydrologic cycle, in which glacier ice is the second largest reservoir of water after the oceans. The second part assesses the state of glaciers in all of the glacierized regions of the planet, primarily as drawn in the other 10 chapters. It includes sections on ice cores and the climate record they contain, volumetric changes in glaciers, harnessing spaceborne sensors to measure changes in glaciers, and related topics. The third part summarizes trends in global snow cover. The fourth part summarizes long-term changes in area and thickness of floating ice, including polar sea ice and freshwater (lake and river) ice. The fifth part assesses the loss of permafrost and changes in periglacial environments at high latitudes and high altitudes.

  3. Image matching as a data source for forest inventory - Comparison of Semi-Global Matching and Next-Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction algorithms in a typical managed boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, M.; Maltamo, M.; Packalen, P.

    2017-08-01

    Image matching is emerging as a compelling alternative to airborne laser scanning (ALS) as a data source for forest inventory and management. There is currently an open discussion in the forest inventory community about whether, and to what extent, the new method can be applied to practical inventory campaigns. This paper aims to contribute to this discussion by comparing two different image matching algorithms (Semi-Global Matching [SGM] and Next-Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction [NGATE]) and ALS in a typical managed boreal forest environment in southern Finland. Spectral features from unrectified aerial images were included in the modeling and the potential of image matching in areas without a high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) was also explored. Plot level predictions for total volume, stem number, basal area, height of basal area median tree and diameter of basal area median tree were modeled using an area-based approach. Plot level dominant tree species were predicted using a random forest algorithm, also using an area-based approach. The statistical difference between the error rates from different datasets was evaluated using a bootstrap method. Results showed that ALS outperformed image matching with every forest attribute, even when a high resolution DTM was used for height normalization and spectral information from images was included. Dominant tree species classification with image matching achieved accuracy levels similar to ALS regardless of the resolution of the DTM when spectral metrics were used. Neither of the image matching algorithms consistently outperformed the other, but there were noticeably different error rates depending on the parameter configuration, spectral band, resolution of DTM, or response variable. This study showed that image matching provides reasonable point cloud data for forest inventory purposes, especially when a high resolution DTM is available and information from the understory is redundant.

  4. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  5. Globalization and Migration: Some Pressing Contradictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Examines the contradictions of inclusion and exclusion of group members, the state and market, growing wealth and impoverishment, networks and the self, global and local levels, economy and environment, modernity and postmodernity, citizen as a national and global citizen, and globalization from above and below. Illustrates each contradiction by…

  6. Analysis of Globalization, the Planet and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsegay, Samson Maekele

    2016-01-01

    Thorough the framework of theories analyzing globalization and education, this paper focuses on the intersection among globalization, the environment and education. This paper critically analyzes how globalization could affect environmental devastation, and explore the role of pedagogies that could foster planetary citizenship by exposing…

  7. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  8. Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushell, Brenda

    Rationale and techniques for incorporating global environmental education into second language instruction are discussed. The approach suggested combines infusion of environmental issues into the curriculum and presentation of a global perspective on environmental problems and their solutions. Six concepts of global education are outlined:…

  9. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  10. Global Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  11. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates…

  12. Global militarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

  13. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  14. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  15. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  16. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  17. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  18. Global burden sharing.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G X

    1994-06-01

    The Prime Minister of Norway discusses issues of population growth and sustainable development. Months before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, she establishes the basis upon which a global compact on population and development can be built. Individuals and groups in developed countries increasingly implore people in developing countries to reduce their levels of fertility in the interest of environmental protection and sustainable development. People in developing countries, however, point out that the industrialized developed countries have a disproportionately large role in polluting the environment. Fertility declines, lower consumption levels in the North, and less waste are all needed to safeguard the long-term health and survivability of the planet. The world simply cannot sustain a Western level of consumption for all. Accordingly, a commitment by the South to reduce population growth should be coupled with an equal commitment from the North to reduce the strain of consumption and production patterns on the global environment. Individual attitudes and habits must change while internationally coordinated political decisions are also made about the course and content of the world economy. Norway hosted a meeting January 1994 to address changing consumption patterns in hopes of launching a qualitatively new debate on sustainable consumption in the North and to demonstrate to the South that we are serious about our responsibility. As we move ahead, the author stresses the need to recognize the importance of providing education to both men and women, and paying the bill for necessary global reforms.

  19. The UNEP State of the Environment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Presents information from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) 1989 State of the World Environment Report. Provides an overview of global environmental concerns, including overpopulation, air and water pollution, global warming, hazardous waste disposal, and species extinction. Reaffirms the need to dedicate research and development…

  20. The UNEP State of the Environment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Presents information from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) 1989 State of the World Environment Report. Provides an overview of global environmental concerns, including overpopulation, air and water pollution, global warming, hazardous waste disposal, and species extinction. Reaffirms the need to dedicate research and development…

  1. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  2. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-05-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  3. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged…

  4. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged…

  5. ONR Global

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    ONRG provides seed funding for innovative research CSP Liaison Visit VSP NICOP Proposal NICOP ADs Making a Difference Graphene • A...better than silicon. ONR Global partnered with UK’s Dr Geim, who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research on graphene . Reducing...total life-cycle costs • Pitch-Adapting Propeller - a propeller blade tip redesign deform as it rotates provides improved efficiency, lower

  6. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  7. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order.

  8. Global Geospace Science Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  9. Potential global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere.

  10. Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Thomas G., Ed.; Wright, Benjamin E., Ed.

    The focus of the 16 essays in this book is the physical environment of learning, specifically the man-made or built environment. The authors contend that educators have tended to overlook the influence of built environments on the learning process--a process not confined to schools, but involving play areas, tree houses, and the city itself. The…

  11. Global Issues and Environmental Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    An action of an individual or a societal action that has an impact on other societies constitutes a "global issue." Global climate change, airborne toxins, ozone depletion, and solid waste management are a few of the global issues concerning the environment. This digest discusses methods by which students learn about global issues and…

  12. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2016-07-12

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  13. The global ocean microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-12-11

    The microbiome of the largest environment on Earth has been gradually revealing its secrets over four decades of study. Despite the dispersed nature of substrates and the transience of surfaces, marine microbes drive essential transformations in all global elemental cycles. Much has been learned about the microbes that carry out key biogeochemical processes, but there are still plenty of ambiguities about the factors important in regulating activity, including the role of microbial interactions. Identifying the molecular "currencies" exchanged within the microbial community will provide key information on microbiome function and its vulnerability to environmental change. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  15. Global Data Toolset (GDT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Riegle, Jodi L.

    2007-01-01

    According to the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) approximately 60 percent of the data contained in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has missing or incomplete boundary information. As a result, global analyses based on the WDPA can be inaccurate, and professionals responsible for natural resource planning and priority setting must rely on incomplete geospatial data sets. To begin to address this problem the World Data Center for Biodiversity and Ecology, in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), the Global Earth Observation System, and the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) sponsored a Protected Area (PA) workshop in Asuncion, Paraguay, in November 2007. The primary goal of this workshop was to train representatives from eight South American countries on the use of the Global Data Toolset (GDT) for reviewing and editing PA data. Use of the GDT will allow PA experts to compare their national data to other data sets, including non-governmental organization (NGO) and WCMC data, in order to highlight inaccuracies or gaps in the data, and then to apply any needed edits, especially in the delineation of the PA boundaries. In addition, familiarizing the participants with the web-enabled GDT will allow them to maintain and improve their data after the workshop. Once data edits have been completed the GDT will also allow the country authorities to perform any required review and validation processing. Once validated, the data can be used to update the global WDPA and IABIN databases, which will enhance analysis on global and regional levels.

  16. Social Capital and Global Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Natalie S.; Fierro, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of development of cultural knowledge and cosmopolitan identities among international management students in multicultural learning environments and to investigate how international business students develop global mindset during their studies. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative…

  17. Tourism in a Globalizing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudina, Elena V.; Uhina, Tatiana V.; Bushueva, Irina V.; Pirozhenko, Natalia T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the fact that virtually no comprehensive research on issues related to tourism as an integrative multidimensional phenomenon in the socio-cultural environment in the context of globalization has been made by now. The purpose of this article is based on sociological and cultural approach to…

  18. Social Capital and Global Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Natalie S.; Fierro, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of development of cultural knowledge and cosmopolitan identities among international management students in multicultural learning environments and to investigate how international business students develop global mindset during their studies. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative…

  19. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  20. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  1. Geography's Role in Promoting Global Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1983-01-01

    Modern geography instruction should contribute to multidisciplinary global studies by making students aware of human modification of the earth's environment and of the relationships between human behavior, culture, and the natural habitat. (MJL)

  2. 2002 Industry Analysis Research Paper: Global Environment, Global Industry, and Global Security: Managing the Crossroads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    further be subdivided into hazardous and non-hazardous varieties, customarily disposed of by landfill, incineration, or recycling • Soil/ groundwater ... pollution results from dumping waste solids or liquids on the ground. Correction of this problem requires (usually) digging the contaminated soil up and

  3. Global teaching of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  4. The Global 2000 Report to the President. Volume Three. Documentation on the Government's Global Sectoral Models: The Government's "Global Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Gerald O., Ed.

    The third volume of the Global 2000 study presents basic information ("documentation") on the long-term sectoral models used by the U.S. government to project global trends in population, resources, and the environment. Its threefold purposes are: (1) to present all this basic information in a single volume, (2) to provide an…

  5. Global Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  6. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  7. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  8. Global trends, needs, issues.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be.

  9. Global Energy Futures Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard; Baker, Arnold; Beyeler, Walt; Conrad, Stephen; Harris, David; Harris, Paul; Rexroth, Paul; Bixler, and Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data from 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.

  10. Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

  11. Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

  12. Aquatic Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  13. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  14. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  15. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  16. Introduction to Global Urban Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.; Kawano, N.; Darmanto, N. S.; Dong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is a widely investigated phenomenon in the field of urban climate characterized by the warming of urban areas relative to its surrounding rural environs. Being able to understand the mechanism behind the UHI formation of a city and distinguish its impact from that of global climate change is indispensable when identifying adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the lack of UHI studies many cities especially for developing countries makes it difficult to generalize the mechanism for UHI formation. Thus, there is an impending demand for studies that focus on the simultaneous analyses of UHI and its trends throughout the world. Hence, we propose a subfield of urban climatology, called "global urban climatology" (GUC), which mainly focuses on the uniform understanding of urban climates across all cities, globally. By using globally applicable methodologies to quantify and compare urban heat islands of cities with diverse backgrounds, including their geography, climate, socio-demography, and other factors, a universal understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of the phenomenon can be established. The implementation of GUC involves the use of globally acquired historical observation networks, gridded meteorological parameters from climate models, global geographic information system datasets; the construction of a distributed urban parameter database; and the development of techniques necessary to model the urban climate. Research under GUC can be categorized into three approaches. The collaborative approach (1st) relies on the collection of data from micro-scale experiments conducted worldwide with the aid or development of professional social networking platforms; the analytical approach (2nd) relies on the use of global weather station datasets and their corresponding objectively analysed global outputs; and the numerical approach (3rd) relies on the global estimation of high-resolution urban-representative parameters as

  17. Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.S.

    1992-12-31

    A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

  18. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  19. Global change and the ecology of cities.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Nancy B; Faeth, Stanley H; Golubiewski, Nancy E; Redman, Charles L; Wu, Jianguo; Bai, Xuemei; Briggs, John M

    2008-02-08

    Urban areas are hot spots that drive environmental change at multiple scales. Material demands of production and human consumption alter land use and cover, biodiversity, and hydrosystems locally to regionally, and urban waste discharge affects local to global biogeochemical cycles and climate. For urbanites, however, global environmental changes are swamped by dramatic changes in the local environment. Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects. Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world.

  20. Socioeconomic environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic environment of the Tennessee Valley region. It describes the region and mentions geographical factors, current economy, the agricultural sector, and future trends in the economy of the region.

  1. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Megacities and the environment.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ethan H; Elliott, Scott; Smith, Felisa A

    2002-02-09

    The world's 25 largest cities comprise only 4% of the global population, but they have substantial impacts on the environment at multiple scales. Here we review what is known of the biogeochemistry of these megacities. Climatic, demographic, and economic data show no patterns across cities, save that wealthier cities have lower growth rates. The flows of water, fuels, construction materials, and food are examined where data are available. Water, which by mass dwarfs the other inputs, is not retained in urban systems, whereas construction materials and food predominate in the urban infrastructure and the waste stream. Fuels are transformed into chemical wastes that have the most far-reaching and global impacts. The effects of megacity resource consumption on geologic, hydrologic, atmospheric, and ecological processes are explored at local, regional, and global scales. We put forth the concepts of urban metabolism and urban succession as organizing concepts for data collection, analysis, and synthesis on urban systems. We conclude that megacities are not the final stage of urban evolution; rather, the climax of urban development will occur at a global scale when human society is at steady state with resource supply rates.

  3. Solving global environmental problems through technological innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1990-03-01

    Much of the environment problems arise from the supply and utilization of energy for industrial, transportation and domestic markets. The use of fossil fuels can result in environmental, atmospheric, and terrestrial problems, including organic, acid rain, and global warming hazards. Here I will address the CO{sub 2} global greenhouse problem and touch upon the nuclear industry and its dilemma as well. We recognize the possibility of global natural feedback phenomena which may limit and mitigate anthropomorphic global greenhouse climate change, however, here I am limiting the discussion to anthropomorphic (man made) technological mitigation process as opposed to adaptation which means adapting to change.

  4. Synthetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  5. Environment and Women's Health Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can the environment affect older women? Outdoor air pollution What is outdoor air pollution and how can ... reduce outdoor air pollution and global warming? Indoor air pollution What is indoor air pollution and how can ...

  6. Global change research highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1995-12-31

    Wood - the fuel source of the past - is expected to be a fuel source of the future. Fast growing trees are being cloned and nurtured for conversion to biofuels to replace or supplement gasoline for transportation. The future may also bring higher temperatures and drought if global climate changes as predicted. So, it seems practical to raise fastgrowing trees that not only provide fuel by capturing carbon from the atmosphere (helping to deter climate change) but also flourish under dry conditions. A recent ORNL finding has bearing on this goal. Hybrid willow trees have been cloned because they grow fast and serve as good fuel sources. However, there are important gender differences. Male willow clones are generally more tolerant of drought than female willows. Also, male willows cause no weed problems because they do not disperse seeds. In addition research work has looked at the impact of enhanced carbon dioxide environments on the growth of trees and the potential sequestering of carbon dioxide into the trees or soils. Scientists have found that ground-level ozone in the environment can reduce the growth of the loblolly pine, a forest tree species of great economic importance in the Southeast. It is predicted that global warming could lead to changes in regional precipitation, even periods of drought. How would climate change affect the growth of forest trees? This is a question ORNL has been attempting to answer. Geologic records have been studied by means of isotope ratio techniques to study reasons for vegetation changes in the past. The question is what was the reason for these changes.

  7. Geospace Environment Modeling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Siscoe, George L.

    1992-02-01

    The geospace environment encompasses the highest and largest of the four physical geospheres—lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and magnetosphere. Despite its size, its far-reaching structures interconnect and move together in a choreography of organized dynamics, whose complexity is reflected in the intricate movements of the northern lights. The vastness and inaccessibility of geospace, encompassing the plasma environment of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system, and the invisibility of its structures pose great challenges to scientists who want to study its dynamics by obtaining, in effect, video tapes of its globally organized motions. A key component of their strategy is the ability to see nearly all of geospace imaged onto the top of the atmosphere. The geomagnetic field threads the volume of geospace and transmits action, TV-like, from the magnetospheric stage down its lines of force onto the atmospheric screen.

  8. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  9. Safe environments.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  10. Global sustainability: Toward definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Becky J.; Hanson, Mark E.; Liverman, Diana M.; Merideth, Robert W.

    1987-11-01

    Sustainability is increasingly viewed as a desired goal of development and environmental management. This term has been used in numerous disciplines and in a variety of contexts, ranging from the concept of maximum sustainable yield in forestry and fisheries management to the vision of a sustainable society with a steady-state economy. The meaning of the term is strongly dependent on the context in which it is applied and on whether its use is based on a social, economic, or ecological perspective, Sustainability may be defined broadly or narrowly, but a useful definition must specify explicitly the context as well as the temporal and spatial scales being considered. Although societies differ in their conceptualizations of sustainability, indefinite human survival on a global scale requires certain basic support systems, which can be maintained only with a healthy environment and a stable human population. A clearer understanding of global sustainability and the development of appropriate indicators of the status of basic support systems would provide a useful framework for policy making.

  11. The Global Soil Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  12. NASA's Global Hawk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    View from a Chase Plane; HS3 Science Flight 8 Wraps Up The chase plane accompanying NASA's Global Hawk No. 872 captured this picture on Sept. 19 after the Global Hawk completed science flight #8 where it gathered data from a weakening Tropical Storm Edouard over the North Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NASA -- The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a five-year mission specifically targeted to investigate the processes that underlie hurricane formation and intensity change in the Atlantic Ocean basin. HS3 is motivated by hypotheses related to the relative roles of the large-scale environment and storm-scale internal processes. Read more: espo.nasa.gov/missions/hs3/mission-gallery NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Corell, R.W.; Anderson, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty years ago the buzz words in science were [open quotes]atomic energy,[close quotes] and the general mood of the public, in those more naive days, was that the earth is so large that it could take any kind of human abuse. The advance of science and technology since then has proved that this is not the case. It is now common sense, even to the layperson, that the earth's environment is delicate and needs careful protection if future generations are to enjoy it. The buzz words now are [open quotes]global change.[close quotes] This book is the outcome of the Workshop on the Science of Global Environmental Change sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of the NATO's Advanced Science Institute Series books. It is essentially a collection of the lectures given in the workshop. The workshop was apparently not intended for in-depth scientific discussions but to review the overall current research situation and to identify future research needs. Accordingly, the papers collected in this volume are basically of this nature.

  14. Globalization of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the “normal-weight metabolically obese” phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority. PMID:21617109

  15. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Quinn O.

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  16. Scalable Networked Information Processing Environment (SNIPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K.; Dongarra, J.J. |; Geist, A.

    1997-11-01

    SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.

  17. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    PubMed

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  18. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  19. Global trends in mercury management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health.

  20. The southern global change program

    Treesearch

    Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1992-01-01

    For mote than a decade, scientists around the world have expressed concern over observed changes in the Earth's environment that suggest fum global environmental problems. They have documented increased levels of air pollutants such as ozone nd acid I as well as in- in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Scientists also have noted a 0.5°F to l.0°F rise...

  1. Globalization of Science Education: Comment and a Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The globalized nature of modern society has generated a number of pressures that impact internationally on countries' policies and practices of science education. Among these pressures are key issues of health and environment confronting global science, global economic control through multi-national capitalism, comparative and competitive…

  2. Globalization of Science Education: Comment and a Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The globalized nature of modern society has generated a number of pressures that impact internationally on countries' policies and practices of science education. Among these pressures are key issues of health and environment confronting global science, global economic control through multi-national capitalism, comparative and competitive…

  3. EPA's Role in International Environment, Trade and Finance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Both domestically and globally, protecting human health and the environment is essential to sustainable economic growth and development. EPA works in trade, environment and finance to protect these goals.

  4. Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

  5. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  6. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  7. Safer Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes how new rules mean a safer environment.

  8. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  9. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.

  10. Global Water Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gordon J.; Dooge, James C. I.; Rodda, John C.

    1994-07-01

    The world's water resources are coming under increasing stress, a stress that will become critical globally sometime during the next century. This is due to the rapidly rising population demanding more and more water and an increasing level of affluence. The book discusses the background to this issue and the measures to be taken over the next 20-30 years to overcome some of the difficulties that can be foreseen, and the means of avoiding others, such as the hazard of floods. It looks at the water resource and its assessment and management in an integrated fashion. It deals with the requirements of agriculture and of rural and urban societies and to a lesser extent with those of industry and power, against the background of the needs of the natural environment. It presents a number of ways and means of improving the management of national and international affairs involving fresh water. It highlights the importance of fresh water as a major issue for the environment and for development.

  11. Global Water Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gordon J.; Dooge, James C. I.; Rodda, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The world's water resources are coming under increasing stress, a stress that will become critical globally sometime during the next century. This is due to the rapidly rising population demanding more and more water and an increasing level of affluence. The book discusses the background to this issue and the measures to be taken over the next 20-30 years to overcome some of the difficulties that can be foreseen, and the means of avoiding others, such as the hazard of floods. It looks at the water resource and its assessment and management in an integrated fashion. It deals with the requirements of agriculture and of rural and urban societies and to a lesser extent with those of industry and power, against the background of the needs of the natural environment. It presents a number of ways and means of improving the management of national and international affairs involving fresh water. It highlights the importance of fresh water as a major issue for the environment and for development.

  12. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

  13. Land-related global habitability science issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The scientific investigation of the viewpoint of the biosphere that living organisms and their physical and chemical environment are bound, inseparable parts of one set of closely coupled global processes of the global biogeochemical system, life and life support cycles, is discussed as one of the major scientific challenges of the next decade by building from understanding land processes to interdisciplinary, holistic studies of biospheric dynamics including human impacts.

  14. BETR Global - A geographically explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Macleod, M.; Waldow, H. von; Tay, P.; Armitage, J. M.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Riley, W.; McKone, T. E.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2011-04-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15{sup o} x 15{sup o} grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  15. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  16. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  17. Alexithymia and childhood family environment.

    PubMed

    Kench, S; Irwin, H J

    2000-06-01

    Little research has been conducted on the contribution of environmental factors to the development of alexithymic tendencies. Ninety-two university students were surveyed to determine if features of the childhood family environment could predict the level of alexithymic tendencies. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was used to measure alexithymic tendencies. Also surveyed retrospectively were dimensions of the childhood family environment such as the family's level of cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, disengagement, sociability, enmeshment, organization, and parenting style. Multiple-regression analysis showed that the set of family-environment variables did predict alexithymia scores. The sole family variable independently predictive of global alexithymic tendencies was expressiveness, although other family variables were predictive of individual components of alexithymia. The findings are consistent with the view that the childhood family environment has a bearing on the development of alexithymic tendencies, although other explanations by no means are excluded.

  18. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Grob, G.R.

    1998-02-01

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  19. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere.

  20. Transforming Academic Globalization into Globalization for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Driving innovation and continuous improvement with regard to ecological, environmental and human sustainability is essential for win-win globalization. That calls for research on strategic and monitoring planning to manage globalization and technological and scientific change. This paper describes a new basic function of the university institution…

  1. Global Awareness and Perspectives in Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnouf, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the whole notion of global education by discussing theoretical and practical understandings by major figures in the field. Global education is a recent addition in social studies and there are many different understandings and conceptual which effectively teach the concepts in schools as part of the entire curriculum. A review…

  2. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  3. Environment matters

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This year's annual review is devoted to the theme of environmental health. It contains: an overview by the Director of the World Bank's Environment Department, J. Warren Evans; viewpoints on health risks of environmental pollution, integrating health concerns into carbon planning, sanitation in the world's poorest countries and impacts of indoor air pollution on health; and reviews on the World Bank's efforts to adapt safeguards to demanding priorities and on the Banks' 2005 environmental portfolio. Feature articles include a review of the Bank's Clean Air Initiative (now active in Africa, South and East Asia and Latin America). Reviews of work in the Bank's six regions focus on efforts to address the linkages among poverty, environmental pollution and human health.

  4. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  5. Used planet: a global history.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C; Kaplan, Jed O; Fuller, Dorian Q; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-05-14

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human-environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects.

  6. Used planet: A global history

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  7. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  8. Global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  9. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  10. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeburgh, W. S.

    2003-12-01

    impact of CH4 on climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published periodic updates (see, e.g., IPCC, 2001).Substantial advances have resulted from research aimed at understanding the global CH4 mixing ratio increase. Time-series measurements of atmospheric CH4 have continued, new CH4 flux measurements in a range of environments have been reported, and data allowing use of the stable isotope (13C/12C, 2H/1H) composition of CH4 as an independent budget constraint have increased. The importance of microbial oxidation of CH4 has been recognized and modeled; the possible role of CH4 clathrate hydrates in the global budget has been clarified with the introduction of new technology. Studies of CH4 trapped in ice cores from the Greenland and Antarctic ice caps have continued, resulting in higher-resolution records and new interpretations of past conditions. There have been few recent changes in our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of CH4, and since this is covered in Cicerone and Oremland (1988) it will not be covered here. The aim here is not to repeat information contained in the reviews mentioned above, but to present results that have appeared in the literature since their publication, to outline major questions, and to point to promising new approaches.

  11. Reconciliation of global temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    In recent years there has been a public debate about whether the rate of global warming has waned, prompting the paper 'Is the climate warming or cooling?' in Geophysical Research Letters by Easterling and Wehner (2009). This question has also attracted attention in wider scientific circles, and in a recent paper in Science, Solomon et al (2010) suggested that a decrease in stratospheric water vapour concentrations has slowed the global surface temperature rate between 2000 and 2009. Yet another study by Kaufmann et al (2011) argued that the 'hiatus' in the global warming coincided with near constant combined anthropogenic and natural forcings. The reason: a declining solar insolation, a shift to La Niña conditions and a rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions have masked the effect from rising greenhouse gas concentrations (GHGs). So, what is new? In the paper 'Global temperature evolution 1979-2010', Foster and Rahmstorf (2011) re-examine the situation. Whereas Kaufmann's group only examined the global temperature record from the Hadley Centre and Climate Research Unit (HadCRUT3; Brohan et al 2006) in the United Kingdom, Foster and Rahmstorf present an analysis of the range of available historical temperature records, both from surface thermometers and satellite-based remote sensing. There is one caveat associated with the analysis that Kaufmann's group carried out, which is that the HadCRUT3 record does not fully capture recent enhanced warming over the Arctic, thereby underestimating the evolution of the true global mean compared with other sources. Other analyses, such as the one from NASA/GISS (GISSTEMP; Hansen et al 2010) and those based on atmospheric models (e.g. Kalnay et al 1996), cover the Arctic region better by interpolating the values surrounding the data void or taking physics into account. These, and independent indices such as sea-ice extent (Kinnard et al 2011), ice melting over Greenland (Mernild et al 2009) and permafrost thawing

  12. MITK global tractography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neher, Peter F.; Stieltjes, Bram; Reisert, Marco; Reicht, Ignaz; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Fritzsche, Klaus H.

    2012-02-01

    Fiber tracking algorithms yield valuable information for neurosurgery as well as automated diagnostic approaches. However, they have not yet arrived in the daily clinical practice. In this paper we present an open source integration of the global tractography algorithm proposed by Reisert et.al.1 into the open source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) developed and maintained by the Division of Medical and Biological Informatics at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). The integration of this algorithm into a standardized and open development environment like MITK enriches accessibility of tractography algorithms for the science community and is an important step towards bringing neuronal tractography closer to a clinical application. The MITK diffusion imaging application, downloadable from www.mitk.org, combines all the steps necessary for a successful tractography: preprocessing, reconstruction of the images, the actual tracking, live monitoring of intermediate results, postprocessing and visualization of the final tracking results. This paper presents typical tracking results and demonstrates the steps for pre- and post-processing of the images.

  13. Medical aspects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, D; Rom, W N

    2001-08-01

    Global warming is caused by increased carbon dioxide (CO2)resulting in a greenhouse effect with enhanced warming of the earth. Measurements of CO2 show a steady increase over the past 30 years caused by the burning of fossil fuels and from the loss of natural CO2 sinks. A 100-year increase in global temperature by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C is reflected in atmospheric warming, glacier shrinkage, and rising sea levels. Planetary ecosystem dynamics are being altered, challenging public health. It is predicted that morbidity and mortality will increase as a result of heat stress, as seen in recent heat waves in the U.S. Weather disaster effects will increase in number and magnitude, and both noninfectious and infectious diseases may flourish. A significant challenge will be the changes in life cycles of microbial species due to the warmer environs. Specific increases in incidence have been noted for vector-borne diseases, in addition to pulmonary findings, cardiovascular morbidity, neurological diseases, and occupational diseases. Warming can be demonstrated by the observed changes that have already occurred in the environment, particularly the thinning of polar ice caps. The United States Global Research Program has been established to coordinate research activities, which responds to issues deemed important by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Research issues pertain to the scientific uncertainties in the greenhouse effect, temperature measurements at various atmospheric levels and latitudes, and impact on biota redistribution. The Kyoto Protocol has mandated specific solutions, e.g., a 7% reduction in CO2 levels within 10 years. Future recommendations involve supporting new technologies that are available to decrease emissions as well as understanding the role that occupational and environmental specialists have in global warming recognition. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Global Menace.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    The history of medicine has gone 'global.' Why? Can the proliferation of the 'global' in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects' categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new 'global' problematic or performed serious 'global' analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the 'global' authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices.

  15. IMERG Global Precipitation Rates

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first global map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...

  16. Global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

  17. Global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

  18. Globalization and State Soverignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question , (Macitutious, Polity Press, 2000, 2nd edition), 256-257. Islam, M. Monwarul., “Globalization and Future of... in Question , (Macitutious, Polity Press, 2000, 2nd edition), 256-257. 8 Martin Wolf, “Will the Nation State Survive Globalization?” Foreign Affairs...Among Many?” Interview with Lebel France- January 2000; available from <http://www.france.diplomatie.fr. 7 Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization

  19. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  20. Globalization and world trade

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...