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Sample records for global health informatics

  1. Health Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Marie; Brittain, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Identifies current trends and issues in health informatics with examples of applications, particularly in English-speaking countries. Topics include health systems, professionals, and patients; consumer health information; electronic medical records; nursing; privacy and confidentiality; finding and using information; the Internet; e-mail;…

  2. Building the foundations of an informatics agenda for global health - 2011 workshop report.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muzna; Kratz, Mary; Medeiros, Donna; Pina, Jamie; Richards, Janise; Zhang, Xiaohui; Fraser, Hamish; Bailey, Christopher; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening the capacity of public health systems to protect and promote the health of the global population continues to be essential in an increasingly connected world. Informatics practices and principles can play an important role for improving global health response capacity. A critical step is to develop an informatics agenda for global health so that efforts can be prioritized and important global health issues addressed. With the aim of building a foundation for this agenda, the authors developed a workshop to examine the evidence in this domain, recognize the gaps, and document evidence-based recommendations. On 21 August 2011, at the 2011 Public Health Informatics Conference in Atlanta, GA, USA, a four-hour interactive workshop was conducted with 85 participants from 15 countries representing governmental organizations, private sector companies, academia, and non-governmental organizations. The workshop discussion followed an agenda of a plenary session - planning and agenda setting - and four tracks: Policy and governance; knowledge management, collaborative networks and global partnerships; capacity building; and globally reusable resources: metrics, tools, processes, templates, and digital assets. Track discussions examined the evidence base and the participants' experience to gather information about the current status, compelling and potential benefits, challenges, barriers, and gaps for global health informatics as well as document opportunities and recommendations. This report provides a summary of the discussions and key recommendations as a first step towards building an informatics agenda for global health. Attention to the identified topics and issues is expected to lead to measurable improvements in health equity, health outcomes, and impacts on population health. We propose the workshop report be used as a foundation for the development of the full agenda and a detailed roadmap for global health informatics activities based on further

  3. Building the Foundations of an Informatics Agenda for Global Health - 2011 Workshop Report

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muzna; Kratz, Mary; Medeiros, Donna; Pina, Jamie; Richards, Janise; Zhang, Xiaohui; Fraser, Hamish; Bailey, Christopher; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening the capacity of public health systems to protect and promote the health of the global population continues to be essential in an increasingly connected world. Informatics practices and principles can play an important role for improving global health response capacity. A critical step is to develop an informatics agenda for global health so that efforts can be prioritized and important global health issues addressed. With the aim of building a foundation for this agenda, the authors developed a workshop to examine the evidence in this domain, recognize the gaps, and document evidence-based recommendations. On 21 August 2011, at the 2011 Public Health Informatics Conference in Atlanta, GA, USA, a four-hour interactive workshop was conducted with 85 participants from 15 countries representing governmental organizations, private sector companies, academia, and non-governmental organizations. The workshop discussion followed an agenda of a plenary session - planning and agenda setting - and four tracks: Policy and governance; knowledge management, collaborative networks and global partnerships; capacity building; and globally reusable resources: metrics, tools, processes, templates, and digital assets. Track discussions examined the evidence base and the participants’ experience to gather information about the current status, compelling and potential benefits, challenges, barriers, and gaps for global health informatics as well as document opportunities and recommendations. This report provides a summary of the discussions and key recommendations as a first step towards building an informatics agenda for global health. Attention to the identified topics and issues is expected to lead to measurable improvements in health equity, health outcomes, and impacts on population health. We propose the workshop report be used as a foundation for the development of the full agenda and a detailed roadmap for global health informatics activities based on further

  4. [Strengthening global health informatics research within the andean region through international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; García, Patricia J; Castillo, Greta M; Blas, Magaly M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2010-09-01

    To improve global health and the welfare of a population, skilled human resources are required, not only in medicine and health, but also in the field of informatics. Unfortunately, training and research programs specific to biomedical informatics in developing countries are both scarce and poorly documented. The aim of this paper is to report the results from the first Informatics Expert Meeting for the Andean Region, including, nine Latin American based institutional case studies. This two-day event occurred in March 2010 and brought together twenty-three leaders in biomedical informatics from around the world. The blend of practical and experiential advice from these experts contributed to rich discussions addressing both challenges and applications of informatics within Latin American. In addition, to address the needs emphasized at the meeting, the QUIPU Network was established to expand the research consortium in the Andean Region, Latin America, and internationally. The use of these new technologies in existing public health training and research programs will be key to improving the health of populations in the Andean Region and around the globe.

  5. The need for global certification in the field of health informatics: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the training of health information professionals (HIPs) has focussed almost exclusively on technical matters, the concerns of software developers and purveyors have essentially centred on security and functionality, and health care providers have mainly worried about costs and efficiency. This paper outlines some ethical threats that are ignored by such a purely technical focus and argues that because of the increasing globalization of health care delivery through e-Health, and because of the international threats to confidentiality posed by legislation such as the US Patriot Act, the health informatics community should pursue a project of global certification for HIPs that includes information ethics as an integral component. It also argues that a corresponding certification process for health care institutions and software developers should be initiated.

  6. What’s Past is Prologue: A Scoping Review of Recent Public Health and Global Health Informatics Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.; Pina, Jamie; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Richards, Janise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To categorize and describe the public health informatics (PHI) and global health informatics (GHI) literature between 2012 and 2014. Methods: We conducted a semi-systematic review of articles published between January 2012 and September 2014 where information and communications technologies (ICT) was a primary subject of the study or a main component of the study methodology. Additional inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to filter PHI and GHI articles from the larger biomedical informatics domain. Articles were identified using MEDLINE as well as personal bibliographies from members of the American Medical Informatics Association PHI and GHI working groups. Results: A total of 85 PHI articles and 282 GHI articles were identified. While systems in PHI continue to support surveillance activities, we identified a shift towards support for prevention, environmental health, and public health care services. Furthermore, articles from the U.S. reveal a shift towards PHI applications at state and local levels. GHI articles focused on telemedicine, mHealth and eHealth applications. The development of adequate infrastructure to support ICT remains a challenge, although we identified a small but growing set of articles that measure the impact of ICT on clinical outcomes. Discussion: There is evidence of growth with respect to both implementation of information systems within the public health enterprise as well as a widening of scope within each informatics discipline. Yet the articles also illuminate the need for more primary research studies on what works and what does not as both searches yielded small numbers of primary, empirical articles. Conclusion: While the body of knowledge around PHI and GHI continues to mature, additional studies of higher quality are needed to generate the robust evidence base needed to support continued investment in ICT by governmental health agencies. PMID:26392846

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE FIRST ONLINE CERTIFICATE AND MASTER PROGRAM OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS IN GLOBAL HEALTH IN PERU

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Egoavil, Miguel S.; Blas, Magaly M.; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H.; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Lopez, Diego M.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.

    2017-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. PMID:26338399

  8. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

  9. Coalescing medical systems: a challenge for health informatics in a global world.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, Andrew; Vaughan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As globalisation advances, patients in many nations increasingly access diverse medical systems including Western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Homeopathy and Ayervedic medicine. The trend toward co-existence of medical systems presents challenges for health informatics including the need to develop standards that can encompass the diversity required, the need to develop software applications that effectively inter-operate across diverse systems and the need to support patients when evaluating competing systems. This article advances the notion that the challenges can most effectively be met with the development of informatics approaches that do not assume the superiority of one medical system over another. Argument visualization to support patient decision making in selecting an appropriate medical system is presented as an application that exemplifies this stance.

  10. IPHIE: an International Partnership in Health Informatics Education.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, M W; Gardner, R M; Gatewood, L C; Haux, R; Leven, F J; Limburg, M; Ravesloot, J H; Schmidt, D; Wetter, T

    2000-01-01

    Medical informatics contributes significantly to high quality and efficient health care and medical research. The need for well educated professionals in the field of medical informatics therefore is now worldwide recognized. Students of medicine, computer science/informatics are educated in the field of medical informatics and dedicated curricula on medical informatics have emerged. To advance and further develop the beneficial role of medical informatics in the medical field, an international orientation of health and medical informatics students seems an indispensable part of their training. An international orientation and education of medical informatics students may help to accelerate the dissemination of acquired knowledge and skills in the field and the promotion of medical informatics research results on a more global level. Some years ago, the departments of medical informatics of the university of Heidelberg/university of applied sciences Heilbronn and the university of Amsterdam decided to co-operate in the field of medical informatics. Now, this co-operation has grown out to an International Partnership of Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) of 5 universities, i.e. the university of Heidelberg, the university of Heilbronn, the university of Minnesota, the university of Utah and the university of Amsterdam. This paper presents the rationale behind this international partnership, the state of the art of the co-operation and our future plans for expanding this international co-operation.

  11. Deep Learning for Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Daniele; Wong, Charence; Deligianni, Fani; Berthelot, Melissa; Andreu-Perez, Javier; Lo, Benny; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    With a massive influx of multimodality data, the role of data analytics in health informatics has grown rapidly in the last decade. This has also prompted increasing interests in the generation of analytical, data driven models based on machine learning in health informatics. Deep learning, a technique with its foundation in artificial neural networks, is emerging in recent years as a powerful tool for machine learning, promising to reshape the future of artificial intelligence. Rapid improvements in computational power, fast data storage, and parallelization have also contributed to the rapid uptake of the technology in addition to its predictive power and ability to generate automatically optimized high-level features and semantic interpretation from the input data. This article presents a comprehensive up-to-date review of research employing deep learning in health informatics, providing a critical analysis of the relative merit, and potential pitfalls of the technique as well as its future outlook. The paper mainly focuses on key applications of deep learning in the fields of translational bioinformatics, medical imaging, pervasive sensing, medical informatics, and public health.

  12. Massive Open Online Course for Health Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper outlines a new method of teaching health informatics to large numbers of students from around the world through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Methods The Health Informatics Forum is one of examples of MOOCs through a social networking site for educating health informatics students and professionals. It is running a MOOC for students from around the world that uses creative commons licenced content funded by the US government and developed by five US universities. The content is delivered through narrated lectures with slides that can be viewed online with discussion threads on the forum for class interactions. Students can maintain a professional profile, upload photos and files, write their own blog posts and post discussion threads on the forum. Results The Health Informatics Forum MOOC has been accessed by 11,316 unique users from 127 countries from August 2, 2012 to January 24, 2014. Most users accessed the MOOC via a desktop computer, followed by tablets and mobile devices and 55% of users were female. Over 400,000 unique users have now accessed the wider Health Informatics Forum since it was established in 2008. Conclusions Advances in health informatics and educational technology have both created a demand for online learning material in health informatics and a solution for providing it. By using a MOOC delivered through a social networking platform it is hoped that high quality health informatics education will be able to be delivered to a large global audience of future health informaticians without cost. PMID:24872906

  13. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  14. The scope and direction of health informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Patrick J.

    2002-01-01

    Health Informatics (HI) is a dynamic discipline based on the medical sciences, information sciences, and cognitive sciences. Its domain can broadly be defined as medical information management. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this domain, discuss the current "state of the art," and indicate the likely growth areas for health informatics. The sources of information used in this paper are selected publications from the literature of Health Informatics, HI 5300: Introduction to Health Informatics, which is a course from the Department of Health Informatics at the University of Texas Houston Health Sciences Center, and the author's personal experience in practicing telemedicine and implementing an electronic medical record at the NASA-Johnson Space Center. The conclusion is that the direction of Health Informatics is in the direction of data management, transfer, and representation via electronic medical records and the Internet.

  15. The Scope and Direction of Health Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    Health Informatics (HI) is a dynamic discipline based upon the medical sciences, information sciences, and cognitive sciences. Its domain is can broadly be defined as medical information management. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this domain, discuss the current "state of the art" , and indicate the likely growth areas for health informatics. The sources of information utilized in this paper are selected publications from the literature of Health Informatics, HI 5300: Introduction to Health Informatics, which is a course from the Department of Health Informatics at the University of Texas Houston Health Sciences Center, and the author's personal experience in practicing telemedicine and implementing an electronic medical record at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The conclusion is that the direction of Health Informatics is in the direction of data management, transfer, and representation via electronic medical records and the Internet.

  16. A National Agenda for Public Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Yasnoff, William A.; Overhage, J. Marc; Humphreys, Betsy L.; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. PMID:11687561

  17. Career development initiatives in biomedical health informatics.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of biomedical engineering and health informatics complement each other. These two scientific fields sometimes strive independently to deliver better health care services. The rapid evolution in data-intensive methods has made practitioners to think about reviewing the educational needs of the biomedical health informatics workforces. This paper discusses the changing skills requirements in biomedical health informatics discipline. The author reports on the challenges faced by IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBS) in the context of continuous career development of the EMBS members. This paper discusses Queensland chapter's initiative towards an integrated career development to address challenges faced by IEEE EMBS.

  18. Integrating Health Information Technology Safety into Nursing Informatics Competencies.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Cummings, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre W; Saranto, Kaija

    2017-01-01

    Nursing informatics competencies are constantly changing in response to advances in the health information technology (HIT) industry and research emerging from the fields of nursing and health informatics. In this paper we build off the work of Staggers and colleagues in defining nursing informatics competencies at five levels: the beginning nurse, the experienced nurse, the nursing informatics specialist, the nursing informatics innovator and the nursing informatics researcher in the area of HIT safety. The work represents a significant contribution to the literature in the area of nursing informatics competency development as it extends nursing informatics competencies to include those focused on the area of technology-induced errors and HIT safety.

  19. Telehealth and the global health network in the 21st century. From homecare to public health informatics.

    PubMed

    Kun, L G

    2001-03-01

    The Information Era we live in has created new challenges and opportunities. This age of information highways has an economic price, which has not been properly evaluated. Detailed studies are needed to prove the cost and medical effectiveness of these technologies as well as its effects in the quality of life. Our society's future may depend on it. People are living longer, discoveries in genetics and in information technology are not only helping produce newer drugs faster but also providing the opportunity to exploit new areas such as disease prevention. These technologies provide a variety of opportunities to address public health challenges such as universal access for the uneducated, counter-bioterrorism, telemedicine, distance education, and home care. These opportunities present new challenges such as: surveillance, privacy/confidentiality/security of personal information which will affect all of our lives. No strategy has been presented publicly (yet) addressing (neither) the benefits (n)or the pitfalls of such technologies. From an economic point of view it is an imperative necessity to understand the importance of the Information Technology Infrastructure (ITI) and what it is. The investments in creating and maintaining this ITI will not come from a single application area such as healthcare, but rather from a combination of sources such as electronic commerce, banking, financial, manufacturing, entertainment, travelling, weather forecasting, pharmaceuticals, education, defence and many other 'industries' or application areas.

  20. Health informatics: moving from a discipline to a science.

    PubMed

    Turley, James P

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the historical definitions of Health (Biomedical) Informatics. It is clear that a majority of the definitions refer to Health Informatics as a discipline. Rather it can be argued that the maturation of Health Informatics is beginning to culminate in a distinct science. This progress need to be reflected in academic programs as well as our conferences and publications.

  1. Informatics and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Scott J N; Koo, D; Seligman, J

    2006-12-22

    Since CDC acquired its first mainframe computer in 1964, the use of information technology in public health practice has grown steadily and, during the past 2 decades, dramatically. Public health informatics (PHI) arrived on the scene during the 1990s after medical informatics (intersecting information technology, medicine, and health care) and bioinformatics (intersecting mathematics, statistics, computer science, and molecular biology). Similarly, PHI merged the disciplines of information science and computer science to public health practice, research, and learning. Using strategies and standards, practitioners employ PHI tools and training to maximize health impacts at local, state, and national levels. They develop and deploy information technology solutions that provide accurate, timely, and secure information to guide public health action.

  2. Empowered Consumers and the Health Care Team: A Dynamic Model of Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Peggy J; Myneni, Sahiti

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic new model of health informatics. Within the model, the focus of health informatics changes from the provider to the consumer and incorporates the dynamic relationship of technological change to health care. Bioinformatics is the scientific discipline that is translated into care through the practice of health informatics. The loci of health informatics practices are the consumer (consumer informatics), the patient (clinical informatics), and the community (public health informatics). The continuum from individual to community interacts with and contributes to health care technology, which is represented as a constantly changing progressive wave.

  3. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes.

  4. Developing capacity in health informatics in a resource poor setting: lessons from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Ann Marie; Curioso, Walter H; Arima, Yuzo; Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Segovia-Juarez, Jose; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Holmes, King K

    2009-01-01

    The public sectors of developing countries require strengthened capacity in health informatics. In Peru, where formal university graduate degrees in biomedical and health informatics were lacking until recently, the AMAUTA Global Informatics Research and Training Program has provided research and training for health professionals in the region since 1999. The Fogarty International Center supports the program as a collaborative partnership between Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Peru and the University of Washington in the United States of America. The program aims to train core professionals in health informatics and to strengthen the health information resource capabilities and accessibility in Peru. The program has achieved considerable success in the development and institutionalization of informatics research and training programs in Peru. Projects supported by this program are leading to the development of sustainable training opportunities for informatics and eight of ten Peruvian fellows trained at the University of Washington are now developing informatics programs and an information infrastructure in Peru. In 2007, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia started offering the first graduate diploma program in biomedical informatics in Peru. PMID:19860918

  5. Health informatics model for helminthiasis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nithikathkul, C; Trevanich, A; Wongsaroj, T; Wongsawad, C; Reungsang, P

    2016-09-26

    At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The epicentre of this disease is located in north-east Thailand, where high prevalence coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). The current report was conducted to determine a mathematical model of surveillance for helminthiasis while also using a geographic information system. The fish-borne helminthiasis model or the predicted equation was Y1 = 3.028 + 0.020 (elevation) - 2.098 (clay). For soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the mathematical model or the predicted equation was Y2 = -1.559 + 0.005 (rainfall) + 0.004 (elevation) - 2.198 (clay). The Ministry of Public Health has concluded that mass treatment for helminthiasis in the Thai population, targeting high-risk individuals, may be a cost-effective way to allocate limited funds. This type of approach, as well as further study on the correlation of clinical symptoms with environmental and geographic information, may offer a novel strategy to the helminth crisis.

  6. Exploring the biomedical and health informatics educational programs in europe.

    PubMed

    Manifava, Eirini; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Mantas, John

    2014-01-01

    The Health Information Technology can improve public health, quality of health care etc. Thus, it is important for professionals to be well educated by training programs. The aim of this paper is to record all the educational programs with specializations in Health Informatics, Medical Informatics, Bioinformatics, Biomedical Informatics and Biomedical Engineering in European Universities and Institutions. An on-line research was conducted on Scopus, PubMed, Scholar Google, and Google. More than 150 universities and colleges in Europe conduct educational programs for these domains. The majority them, expertise in Biomedical Engineering (31%), 22% of the educational programs correspond to Bioinformatics, while Health Informatics studies have 18%. On the last few years, a growth of Health informatics professionals has been observed in Europe.

  7. Developing a Capstone Course within a Health Informatics Program

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, Gary; Cata, Teuta; Cole, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing development of a health informatics capstone program in a Midwest university from the hiring of a program coordinator to the development of a capstone course, through initial student results. University health informatics programs require a strong academic program to be successful but also require a spirited program coordinator to manage resources and organize an effective capstone course. This is particularly true of health informatics master's programs that support health industry career fields, whereby employers can locate and work with a pool of qualified applicants. The analysis of students’ logs confirms that students’ areas of focus and concern are consistent with course objectives and company work requirements during the work-study portion of the student capstone project. The article further discusses lessons learned and future improvements to be made in the health informatics capstone course. PMID:22783150

  8. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  9. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  10. Consumer health informatics: a consensus description and commentary from American Medical Informatics Association members.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, T. K.; Chang, B. L.; Brown, S.; Kukafka, R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although interest in Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) has increased, a consensus definition of CHI does not yet exist. PURPOSE: To conduct a hypothesis-generating survey of AMIA members regarding definition and research agenda for CHI. METHODS: We solicited participation among AMIA members in an Internet-based survey focusing on issues related to a definition of CHI. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five AMIA members responded. Participants indicated a broad spectrum of topics important to CHI including "self-help for disease management" and "patient access to their own medical records." CHI research was felt to rely heavily on public health methods such as epidemiology and outcomes research, a paradigm shift from traditional medical informatics. Responses indicated a perceived lack of funding and need for further research in CHI. CONCLUSIONS: A working definition should emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of CHI, include consumer input into CHI design, and focus on public health approaches to evaluation. PMID:11825193

  11. The Question Concerning Narration of Self in Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Botin, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Narration is central, even crucial, when it comes to embracing the whole individual, continuity of care, and responsible (ethical) handling of the technological construction of the self that takes place in health informatics. This paper will deal with the role of narratives in the construction of health informatics platforms and how different voices should have space for speech on these platforms. Theoretically the paper takes an outset in the actant model for narratives by the French-Lithuanian theorist of linguistics and literature A.-J. Greimas and post-phenomenological readings of human-technology interactions. The main assumption is that certain interactions and voices are absent from the construction of health informatics platforms, because regarded as outside the text of computational and medical practice and expertise. This has implications for what concerns meaning and understanding regarding both the actual users (physicians and medical staff) and excluded users (patients and citizens).

  12. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  13. A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Gerald J.; Roderer, Nancy K.; Assar, Soraya

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. Narrative: The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Summary: Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as “boundary spanners,” incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery. PMID:15858622

  14. Technological Ecosystems in Health Informatics: A Brief Review Article

    PubMed Central

    WU, Zhongmei; ZHANG, Xiuxiu; CHEN, Ying; ZHANG, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The existing models of information technology in health sciences have full scope of betterment and extension. The high demand pressures, public expectations, advanced platforms all collectively contribute towards hospital environment, which has to be kept in kind while designing of advanced technological ecosystem for information technology. Moreover, for the smooth conduct and operation of information system advanced management avenues are also essential in hospitals. It is the top priority of every hospital to deal with the essential needs of care for patients within the available resources of human and financial outputs. In these situations of high demand, the technological ecosystems in health informatics come in to play and prove its importance and role. The present review article would enlighten all these aspects of these ecosystems in hospital management and health care informatics. Methods: We searched the electronic database of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed for clinical controlled trials, pre-clinical studies reporting utilizaiono of ecosysyem advances in health information technology. Results: The primary outcome of eligible studies included confirmation of importance and role of advances ecosystems in health informatics. It was observed that technological ecosystems are the backbone of health informatics. Conclusion: Advancements in technological ecosystems are essential for proper functioning of health information system in clinical setting. PMID:27957459

  15. Leveraging Health Informatics to a Foster Smart Systems Response to Health Disparities and Health Equity Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jay Carney, Timothy; Kong, Amanda Y

    2017-02-15

    Informaticians are challenged to design health IT solutions for complex problems like health disparities but are only achieving mixed results in demonstrating a direct impact on health outcomes. This presentation of collective intelligence and the corresponding terms of smart health, knowledge ecosystem, enhanced health disparities informatics capacities, knowledge exchange, big-data, and situational awareness are means of demonstrating the complex challenges informatics professional face in trying to model, measure, and manage an intelligence and a smart systems response to health disparities. A critical piece in our understanding of collective intelligence for public and population health rests in our understanding of any public and population health as a living and evolving network of individuals, organizations, and resources. This discussion represents a step in advancing the conversation of what a smart response to health disparities should represent and how informatics can drive the design of intelligent systems to assist in eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity.

  16. Education for Health Information Professionals: Perspectives from Health Informatics in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Prudence W.; Roderer, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    While interest and activity in health informatics continues to increase worldwide, concerns about the most appropriate educational preparation for practice also arise. Health informatics is an interdisciplinary field that pursues effective use of data, information and knowledge to support effective decision making; in the health field, those…

  17. A stimulus to define informatics and health information technology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the growing interest by leaders, policy makers, and others, the terminology of health information technology as well as biomedical and health informatics is poorly understood and not even agreed upon by academics and professionals in the field. Discussion The paper, presented as a Debate to encourage further discussion and disagreement, provides definitions of the major terminology used in biomedical and health informatics and health information technology. For informatics, it focuses on the words that modify the term as well as individuals who practice the discipline. Other categories of related terms are covered as well, from the associated disciplines of computer science, information technolog and health information management to the major application categories of applications used. The discussion closes with a classification of individuals who work in the largest segment of the field, namely clinical informatics. Summary The goal of presenting in Debate format is to provide a starting point for discussion to reach a documented consensus on the definition and use of these terms. PMID:19445665

  18. Health Informatics and E-health Curriculum for Clinical Health Profession Degrees.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen; Choo, Dawn; Butler-Henderson, Kerryn; Whetton, Sue; Maeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The project reported in this paper models a new approach to making health informatics and e-health education widely available to students in a range of Australian clinical health profession degrees. The development of a Masters level subject uses design-based research to apply educational quality assurance practices which are consistent with university qualification frameworks, and with clinical health profession education standards; at the same time it gives recognition to health informatics as a specialised profession in its own right. The paper presents details of (a) design with reference to the Australian Qualifications Framework and CHIA competencies, (b) peer review within a three-university teaching team, (c) external review by experts from the professions, (d) cross-institutional interprofessional online learning, (e) methods for evaluating student learning experiences and outcomes, and (f) mechanisms for making the curriculum openly available to interested parties. The project has sought and found demand among clinical health professionals for formal health informatics and e-health education that is designed for them. It has helped the educators and organisations involved to understand the need for nuanced and complementary health informatics educational offerings in Australian universities. These insights may aid in further efforts to address substantive and systemic challenges that clinical informatics faces in Australia.

  19. Convergent Evolution of Health Information Management and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C. J.; Abrams, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  20. Investigating Informatics Activity, Control, and Training Needs in Large, Medium, and Small Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Ryan; Yang, Biru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A recent National Association of City & County Health Officials survey shed light on informatics workforce development needs. Local health departments (LHDs) of various jurisdictional sizes and control over informatics may differ on training needs and activity. Understanding the precise nature of this variation will allow stakeholders to appropriately develop workforce development tools to advance the field. Objective: To understand the informatics training needs for LHDs of different jurisdictional sizes. Methods: Survey responses were analyzed by comparing training needs and LHD population size. Results: Larger health departments consistently reported having greater informatics-related capacity and informatics-related training needs. Quantitative data analysis was identified as a primary need for large LHDs. In addition, LHDs that report higher control of informatics/information technology were able to engage in more informatics activities. Conclusion: Smaller LHDs need additional resources to improve informatics-related capacity and engagement with the field. PMID:27684621

  1. Global Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30, 2017 More news Who We Are Our Strategy Our Jobs Our Funding Our Leadership Global Health Our Newsletter Where We Work Download Fact Sheets Overseas Rightsizing What CDC Is Doing Who We Are Our Strategy Our Funding Our Partnerships Our Organization Our Leadership ...

  2. Big Data: Are Biomedical and Health Informatics Training Programs Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W.; Ganesh, A. U. Jai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The growing volume and diversity of health and biomedical data indicate that the era of Big Data has arrived for healthcare. This has many implications for informatics, not only in terms of implementing and evaluating information systems, but also for the work and training of informatics researchers and professionals. This article addresses the question: What do biomedical and health informaticians working in analytics and Big Data need to know? Methods We hypothesize a set of skills that we hope will be discussed among academic and other informaticians. Results The set of skills includes: Programming - especially with data-oriented tools, such as SQL and statistical programming languages; Statistics - working knowledge to apply tools and techniques; Domain knowledge - depending on one’s area of work, bioscience or health care; and Communication - being able to understand needs of people and organizations, and articulate results back to them. Conclusions Biomedical and health informatics educational programs must introduce concepts of analytics, Big Data, and the underlying skills to use and apply them into their curricula. The development of new coursework should focus on those who will become experts, with training aiming to provide skills in “deep analytical talent” as well as those who need knowledge to support such individuals. PMID:25123740

  3. Public Health Staff Development Needs in Informatics: Findings From a National Survey of Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Kelley; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Public health practice is information-intensive and information-driven. Public health informatics is a nascent discipline, and most public health practitioners lack necessary skills in this area. Objective: To describe the staff development needs of local health departments (LHDs) related to informatics. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included LHDs' specific staff development needs related to informatics. Predictors of interest included jurisdiction size and governance type. Results: Areas of workforce development and improvement in informatics staff of LHDs included using and interpreting quantitative data, designing and running reports from information systems, using and interpreting qualitative data, using statistical or other analytical software, project management, and using geographical information systems. Significant variation in informatics training needs exists depending on the size of the LHD population and governance type. Conclusion: Substantial training needs exist for LHDs across many areas of informatics ranging from very basic to specialized skills and are related to the size of LHD population and governance type. PMID:27684619

  4. Public Health Platforms: An Emerging Informatics Approach to Health Professional Learning and Development

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public health The landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector. PMID:27190977

  5. Public Health Platforms: An Emerging Informatics Approach to Health Professional Learning and Development.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen

    2016-04-26

    Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public healthThe landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector.

  6. A viewpoint on evidence-based health informatics, based on a pilot survey on evaluation studies in health care informatics.

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, Elske; de Keizer, Nicolette

    2007-01-01

    Concerned about evidence-based health informatics, the authors conducted a limited pilot survey attempting to determine how many IT evaluation studies in health care are never published, and why. A survey distributed to 722 academics had a low response rate, with 136 respondents giving instructive comments on 217 evaluation studies. Of those studies, half were published in international journals, and more than one-third were never published. Reasons for not publishing (with multiple reasons per study possible) included: "results not of interest for others" (1/3 of all studies), "publication in preparation" (1/3), "no time for publication" (1/5), "limited scientific quality of study" (1/6), "political or legal reasons" (1/7), and "study only conducted for internal use" (1/8). Those reasons for non-publication in health informatics resembled those reported in other fields. Publication bias (preference for positive studies) did not appear to be a major issue. The authors believe that widespread application of guidelines in conducting health informatics evaluation studies and utilization of a registry for evaluation study results could improve the evidence base of the field.

  7. Developing an evidence-based public health informatics course*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinyu; Xie, Yue; Pan, Xuequn; Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Whipple, Jessica; Azadbakht, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the need to develop a public health informatics (PHI) introductory course and determine contents of such a course. Methods Community assessments employing focus group interviews and an online survey were utilized to determine course need and content. Results Results revealed a need to provide PHI training to graduate public health students and suggested broad course content requirements. Results indicated lack of awareness of libraries and librarians as sources of public health information. Conclusions A graduate PHI course was developed and delivered. Additionally, implementation of a subject guide increased the library's profile. PMID:26512219

  8. Unobtrusive sensing and wearable devices for health informatics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Ding, Xiao-Rong; Poon, Carmen Chung Yan; Lo, Benny Ping Lai; Zhang, Heye; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-05-01

    The aging population, prevalence of chronic diseases, and outbreaks of infectious diseases are some of the major challenges of our present-day society. To address these unmet healthcare needs, especially for the early prediction and treatment of major diseases, health informatics, which deals with the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval, and use of health information, has emerged as an active area of interdisciplinary research. In particular, acquisition of health-related information by unobtrusive sensing and wearable technologies is considered as a cornerstone in health informatics. Sensors can be weaved or integrated into clothing, accessories, and the living environment, such that health information can be acquired seamlessly and pervasively in daily living. Sensors can even be designed as stick-on electronic tattoos or directly printed onto human skin to enable long-term health monitoring. This paper aims to provide an overview of four emerging unobtrusive and wearable technologies, which are essential to the realization of pervasive health information acquisition, including: (1) unobtrusive sensing methods, (2) smart textile technology, (3) flexible-stretchable-printable electronics, and (4) sensor fusion, and then to identify some future directions of research.

  9. Clinical Research Informatics and Electronic Health Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, M. M.; Rusincovitch, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The goal of this survey is to discuss the impact of the growing availability of electronic health record (EHR) data on the evolving field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI), which is the union of biomedical research and informatics. Results Major challenges for the use of EHR-derived data for research include the lack of standard methods for ensuring that data quality, completeness, and provenance are sufficient to assess the appropriateness of its use for research. Areas that need continued emphasis include methods for integrating data from heterogeneous sources, guidelines (including explicit phenotype definitions) for using these data in both pragmatic clinical trials and observational investigations, strong data governance to better understand and control quality of enterprise data, and promotion of national standards for representing and using clinical data. Conclusions The use of EHR data has become a priority in CRI. Awareness of underlying clinical data collection processes will be essential in order to leverage these data for clinical research and patient care, and will require multi-disciplinary teams representing clinical research, informatics, and healthcare operations. Considerations for the use of EHR data provide a starting point for practical applications and a CRI research agenda, which will be facilitated by CRI’s key role in the infrastructure of a learning healthcare system. PMID:25123746

  10. Cognitive engineering and health informatics: Applications and intersections.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, A Zachary; Roth, Emilie M; Bisantz, Ann M

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive engineering is an applied field with roots in both cognitive science and engineering that has been used to support design of information displays, decision support, human-automation interaction, and training in numerous high risk domains ranging from nuclear power plant control to transportation and defense systems. Cognitive engineering provides a set of structured, analytic methods for data collection and analysis that intersect with and complement methods of Cognitive Informatics. These methods support discovery of aspects of the work that make performance challenging, as well as the knowledge, skills, and strategies that experts use to meet those challenges. Importantly, cognitive engineering methods provide novel representations that highlight the inherent complexities of the work domain and traceable links between the results of cognitive analyses and actionable design requirements. This article provides an overview of relevant cognitive engineering methods, and illustrates how they have been applied to the design of health information technology (HIT) systems. Additionally, although cognitive engineering methods have been applied in the design of user-centered informatics systems, methods drawn from informatics are not typically incorporated into a cognitive engineering analysis. This article presents a discussion regarding ways in which data-rich methods can inform cognitive engineering.

  11. Developing informatics tools and strategies for consumer-centered health communication.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Logan, Robert; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising approaches to supporting health communication, and identifies challenges plus direction for future research and development. The authors' recommendations emphasize the need for drawing upon communication and social science theories of information behavior, reaching out to consumers via a range of traditional and novel formats, gaining better understanding of the public's health information needs, and developing informatics solutions for tailoring resources to users' needs and competencies. This article was written as a scholarly outreach and leadership project by members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Consumer Health Informatics Working Group.

  12. Developing Informatics Tools and Strategies for Consumer-centered Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Logan, Robert; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising approaches to supporting health communication, and identifies challenges plus direction for future research and development. The authors' recommendations emphasize the need for drawing upon communication and social science theories of information behavior, reaching out to consumers via a range of traditional and novel formats, gaining better understanding of the public's health information needs, and developing informatics solutions for tailoring resources to users' needs and competencies. This article was written as a scholarly outreach and leadership project by members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Consumer Health Informatics Working Group. PMID:18436895

  13. Towards Evidence Based Usability in Health Informatics?

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W

    2015-01-01

    In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still lacking. This paper underlines the need for evidence based HIT design and provides a definition of evidence based usability practice as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions in design of interactive systems in health by applying usability engineering and usability design principles that have proven their value in practice. Current issues that hamper evidence based usability practice are highlighted and steps needed to achieve evidence are presented.

  14. Health informatics in UK Medical Education: an online survey of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, Sarah; Taylor, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Health informatics has growing importance in clinical practice with successive General Medical Council recommendations. However, prior data suggest that undergraduate medical education largely neglects this area. An up-to-date, UK-wide view of health informatics training in medical schools is required. Design An online survey was developed using current guidance and recommendations of UK professional bodies. Participants and Setting Senior academic staff and health informatics educators at all 34 UK medical schools were invited to complete the survey. Main outcome measures Quantitative and qualitative data regarding health informatics in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Results A total of 26/34 (76%) of UK medical schools responded and 23 provided full information. Aspects most frequently mentioned were literature searching and research governance. Seventeen per cent of respondents felt there was little or no HI training, although clinical record keeping was addressed by all medical schools. Pedagogies used to teach health informatics were self-directed learning (78%) to lecture based (70%), seminars (70%), informal teaching in clinical settings (57%) and problem-based learning (22%). Health informatics was usually integrated vertically and horizontally across the curriculum (76%). Assessment and updates of the health informatics curriculum are limited (57 and 41%, respectively). Thirty-two per cent of respondents reported a low level of confidence among students to use health informatics as doctors. In the most up-to-date survey of health informatics teaching in UK medical schools, there are three major findings. First, the proportion of health informatics in the medical undergraduate curriculum is low. Second, there was variation in content, pedagogy and timing across medical schools. Third, health informatics is rarely assessed and course content is not regularly updated. Conclusions There is a role for national guidelines and further research in

  15. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community.

  16. Management and Evaluation of a Pan-Canadian Graduate Training Program in Health Informatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Marilynne; Lau, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Eight Canadian universities partnered to establish a Collaborative Health Informatics PhD/Postdoc Strategic Training Program (CHPSTP). The 6-year goal was to increase research capacity in health informatics in Canada. Three cohorts of 20 trainees participated in the training, which included online Research Learning Experiences, annual face-to-face…

  17. Biomedical informatics advancing the national health agenda: the AMIA 2015 year-in-review in clinical and consumer informatics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Boland, Mary Regina; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Dcruz, Jina; Berry, Andrew; Georgsson, Mattias; Hazen, Rebecca; Sarmiento, Raymond F; Backonja, Uba; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Jiang, Yun; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2017-04-01

    The field of biomedical informatics experienced a productive 2015 in terms of research. In order to highlight the accomplishments of that research, elicit trends, and identify shortcomings at a macro level, a 19-person team conducted an extensive review of the literature in clinical and consumer informatics. The result of this process included a year-in-review presentation at the American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium and a written report (see supplemental data). Key findings are detailed in the report and summarized here. This article organizes the clinical and consumer health informatics research from 2015 under 3 themes: the electronic health record (EHR), the learning health system (LHS), and consumer engagement. Key findings include the following: (1) There are significant advances in establishing policies for EHR feature implementation, but increased interoperability is necessary for these to gain traction. (2) Decision support systems improve practice behaviors, but evidence of their impact on clinical outcomes is still lacking. (3) Progress in natural language processing (NLP) suggests that we are approaching but have not yet achieved truly interactive NLP systems. (4) Prediction models are becoming more robust but remain hampered by the lack of interoperable clinical data records. (5) Consumers can and will use mobile applications for improved engagement, yet EHR integration remains elusive.

  18. Characteristics of Local Health Departments Associated with Implementation of Electronic Health Records and Other Informatics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Williams, Karmen S.; Luo, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assessing local health departments' (LHDs') informatics capacities is important, especially within the context of broader, systems-level health reform. We assessed a nationally representative sample of LHDs' adoption of information systems and the factors associated with adoption and implementation by examining electronic health records, health information exchange, immunization registry, electronic disease reporting system, and electronic laboratory reporting. Methods We used data from the National Association of County and City Health Officials' 2013 National Profile of LHDs. We performed descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression for the five implementation-oriented outcome variables of interest, with three levels of implementation (implemented, plan to implement, and no activity). Independent variables included infrastructural and financial capacity and other characteristics associated with informatics capacity. Results Of 505 LHDs that responded to the survey, 69 (13.5%) had implemented health information exchanges, 122 (22.2%) had implemented electronic health records, 245 (47.5%) had implemented electronic laboratory reporting, 368 (73.0%) had implemented an electronic disease reporting system, and 416 (83.8%) had implemented an immunization registry. LHD characteristics associated with health informatics adoption included provision of greater number of clinical services, greater per capita public health expenditures, health information systems specialists on staff, larger population size, decentralized governance system, one or more local boards of health, metropolitan jurisdiction, and top executive with more years in the job. Conclusion Many LHDs lack health informatics capacity, particularly in smaller, rural jurisdictions. Cross-jurisdictional sharing, investment in public health informatics infrastructure, and additional training may help address these shortfalls. PMID:26957662

  19. The state of information and communication technology and health informatics in ghana.

    PubMed

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.

  20. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  1. The National Student Forum and the emergence of Health Informatics Clubs.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Shirley L; Covvey, H Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Our greatest hope for the future of eHealth and the enabling of our health system is today's students. However, we face a challenge: few students are aware of careers in Health Informatics and other aspects of eHealth. This paper describes an initiative to engage our future workforce in HI. The National Student Forum for Health Informatics was established, in collaboration between the National Institutes of Health Informatics and COACH, to provide much needed opportunities for students to become involved in HI educational programs, research and student-student interaction. A key activity of NSF is the instantiation of Health Informatics Clubs at Canadian colleges and universities. We describe the rationale for NSF, its goals and objectives, its leadership and organization, and the development of the first HI Club at the University of Waterloo. Initiatives such as NSF are essential if we are to resolve the human resources crisis in HI.

  2. Partnership to promote interprofessional education and practice for population and public health informatics: A case study.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sripriya; Westra, Bonnie L; Monsen, Karen A; LaVenture, Martin; Gatewood, Laël Cranmer

    2015-01-01

    Team-based healthcare delivery models, which emphasize care coordination, patient engagement, and utilization of health information technology, are emerging. To achieve these models, expertise in interprofessional education, collaborative practice across professions, and informatics is essential. This case study from informatics programs in the Academic Health Center (AHC) at the University of Minnesota and the Office of Health Information Technology (OHIT) at the Minnesota Department of Health presents an academic-practice partnership, which focuses on both interprofessionalism and informatics. Outcomes include the Minnesota Framework for Interprofessional Biomedical Health Informatics, comprising collaborative curriculum development, teaching and research, practicums to promote competencies, service to advance biomedical health informatics, and collaborative environments to facilitate a learning health system. Details on these Framework categories are presented. Partnership success is due to interprofessional connections created with emphasis on informatics and to committed leadership across partners. A limitation of this collaboration is the need for formal agreements outlining resources and roles, which are vital for sustainability. This partnership addresses a recommendation on the future of interprofessionalism: that both education and practice sectors be attuned to each other's expectations and evolving trends. Success strategies and lessons learned from collaborations, such as that of the AHC-OHIT that promote both interprofessionalism and informatics, need to be shared.

  3. The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. Workshop Context: During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Recommendations and Conclusion: Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health. PMID:25848630

  4. Library and informatics skills competencies statements from major health professional associations.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Morley, Sarah K; Hendrix, Ingrid C; Carr, Richard D; Bengtson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Every major health profession now provides competency statements for preparing new members for their respective professions. These competency statements normally include expectations for training health professions students in library/informatics skills. For purposes of this article, searches were conducted using various sources to produce a comprehensive 32-page Compendium that inventories library/informatics-related competency statements. This compendium should aid readers in integrating their library/informatics skills training into various health professions education curricula.

  5. STAT-HI: A Socio-Technical Assessment Tool for Health Informatics Implementations

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Philip J; Briggs, James S

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a socio-technical assessment tool (STAT-HI) for health informatics implementations. We explore why even projects allegedly using sound methodologies repeatedly fail to give adequate attention to socio-technical issues, and we present an initial draft of a structured assessment tool for health informatics implementation that encapsulates socio-technical good practice. Further work is proposed to enrich and validate the proposed instrument. This proposal was presented for discussion at a meeting of the UK Faculty of Health Informatics in December 2009. PMID:21603280

  6. Faculty and organizational characteristics associated with informatics/health information technology adoption in DNP programs.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Cathy R; Meek, Julie A; Walker, Patricia Hinton

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics/health information technology are key components of graduate nursing education and an accreditation requirement, yet little is known about the extent to which doctor of nursing practice (DNP) curricula include these content domains. The purpose of this descriptive study was to elicit perceptions of DNP program directors relative to (a) whether and how the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN's) Essential IV standard has been met in their DNP programs; (b) whether the Technology Informatics Guiding Educational Reform Initiative Foundation's Phase II competencies have been integrated in their programs; and (c) the faculty and organizational characteristics associated with the adoption of the AACN's Essential IV. In 2011, an electronic survey was sent to all 138 DNP program directors identified on the AACN Web site with an 81.2% response rate. Findings include variation in whether and how programs have integrated informatics/health information technology content, a lack of informatics-certified and/or master's-prepared faculty, and a perceived lack of faculty awareness of informatics curricular guidelines. DNP program director and dean awareness and support of faculty informatics education, use of informatics competency guidelines, and national policy and stimulus funding support are recommended to promote curricular inclusion and the engagement of nurses in strong informatics practices.

  7. [Biomedical informatics].

    PubMed

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  8. An innovative capstone health care informatics clinical residency: Interprofessional team collaboration.

    PubMed

    Custis, Laura M; Hawkins, Shelley Y; Thomason, Tanna R

    2017-03-01

    Integrated information systems and wireless technology have been increasingly incorporated into health care organizations with the premise that information technology will promote safe, high-quality, cost-effective patient care. With the advancement of technology, the level of expertise necessary to assume health care information technology roles has escalated. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical residency project whereby students in a graduate degree health care informatics program successfully fulfilled program competencies through a faculty-lead research project focused on the use of home telehealth with a group of heart failure patients. Through the use of Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and outcomes, the health care informatics students completed essential learning activities deemed essential for transition into the role of an informatics specialist. Health care informatics educational leaders are encouraged to adapt this template of applied learning into their practices.

  9. A repository of codes of ethics and technical standards in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Hamman W; Zaïane, Osmar R

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository.

  10. A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Zaïane, Osmar R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository. PMID:25422725

  11. Global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  12. Evaluation of biomedical informatics innovations and their impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, I N

    2012-01-01

    This issue of Methods of Information in Medicine contains four feature articles that are focused on the theme of evaluation. Evaluation approaches are increasingly essential in the assessment of determining the potential impact of contemporary informatics innovations. The featured articles offer practical perspectives to determining the impact of advancements. Internationally, there are significant advances being made across biomedical informatics and its related sub-disciplines. As with any scientific discipline, it is important for practitioners to be able to relate the potential importance of findings. To this end, it is especially important for biomedical informaticians to convey, in a quantifiable and comparable form, the significance of the informatics findings -not only to peers but also to those across the biomedical research spectrum. As such, the feature articles in this issue describe the evaluation of core infrastructure and fundamental informatics innovations as well as evaluation of informatics-based resources that are a core aspect of public health initiatives.

  13. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future.

  14. Clinical Microbiology Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. PMID:25278581

  15. Informatics Metrics and Measures for a Smart Public Health Systems Approach: Information Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carney, Timothy Jay; Shea, Christopher Michael

    2017-01-01

    Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system "smartness." Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics. We also propose seven smart public health systems measures and capabilities that are important in a public health informatics professional's toolkit.

  16. Informatics Metrics and Measures for a Smart Public Health Systems Approach: Information Science Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Christopher Michael

    2017-01-01

    Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system “smartness.” Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics. We also propose seven smart public health systems measures and capabilities that are important in a public health informatics professional's toolkit. PMID:28167999

  17. Informatic nephrology.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos; Aguilera, Jerónimo; Otero, Carlos; Vilas, Manuel; Luna, Daniel; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical informatics in Health (BIH) is the discipline in charge of capturing, handling and using information in health and biomedicine in order to improve the processes involved with assistance and management. Informatic nephrology has appeared as a product of the combination between conventional nephrology with BIH and its development has been considerable in the assistance as well as in the academic field. Regarding the former, there is increasing evidence that informatics technology can make nephrological assistance be better in quality (effective, accessible, safe and satisfying), improve patient's adherence, optimize patient's and practitioner's time, improve physical space and achieve health cost reduction. Among its main elements, we find electronic medical and personal health records, clinical decision support system, tele-nephrology, and recording and monitoring devices. Additionally, regarding the academic field, informatics and Internet contribute to education and research in the nephrological field. In conclusion, informatics nephrology represents a new field which will influence the future of nephrology.

  18. Recent trends in biomedical and health informatics education: implications for practice, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Hersh, William

    2008-11-06

    The discipline of biomedical and health informatics has seen substantial change in practice as well as education in recent years. Most early programs in the field focused on either post-doctoral apprenticeship-like experiences or PhD degrees, usually with a strong research emphasis. More recently, however, a variety of new educational options have emerged, from certificate and professional master's programs to shorter courses, such as the AMIA 10x10 program. Other programs have emerged from the health information management field as well as at the undergraduate level. At the same time, the real growth and need for informatics expertise has emerged more in operational than academic settings. In this talk, an informatics educational leader and innovator will describe these changes, the research data that has explored them, and how they have impacted informatics educational programs, including his own at Oregon Health & Science University.

  19. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to

  20. [Professional health cards (CPS): informatic health care system in France].

    PubMed

    Fortuit, P

    2005-09-01

    The Professional Health Card Public interest group (Groupement d'Intérêt Public-Carte de professionnel de Santé (GIP-CPS)) was founded in 1993 as a joint initiative by the different parties involved in health care in France: the state, the representatives of the health care professions and the compulsory and complementary health insurance organizations. The CPS system enables safe exchange and electronic sharing of medical data. Via Intranet connections and Extranet hosting of medical files, databases, the CPS system enables health care professionals who access servers to be identified with certainty. For email exhanges, the CPS systems guarantees the sender's identity and capacity. The electronic signature gives legal value to the email. The system also enables confidential email. The health card system (CPS) contributes to making the health service efficient. Shared medical files, health care networks, health warning systems or electronic requests for reimbursement of health insurance expenses all use the CPS system. More than 300,000 health care professionals use it regularly. The freedom of movement of patients throughout Europe has led to the growth of exchanges and information sharing between health professionals in the States of the Union. More and more health professionals will be leaving their own countries to work in foreign countries in the future. It is essential that their freedom of movement is accompanied by the ability to prove their rights to practice.

  1. Baseline assessment of public health informatics competencies in two Hudson Valley health departments.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Diana J; Ascher, Marie T; Viola, Deborah; Visintainer, Paul F

    2007-01-01

    Information technology has the capability to improve the way public health is practiced. Realization of this potential is possible only with a workforce ready to utilize these technologies. This project team assessed informatics competencies of employees in two county departments of health. The goal was to determine the status quo in terms of informatics competencies by surveying current levels of proficiency and relevance, and identify areas of needed training. A survey was adapted from the recommendations of a Working Group document by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and administered to all employees in the two health departments. Respondents evaluated proficiency and relevance for each of 26 recommended competencies. A gap score was generated between these two measures; results were compared to the recommendations of the Working Group. The following data for each job level are presented: mean gap scores by competency class; the percentage of respondents demonstrating a gap in the competencies reported to be most relevant; and the percentage of respondents meeting the target recommendations of the Working Group. The percentage of respondents who reached the targets was low in higher-level staff. And overall, employees reported low levels of relevance for most of the competencies. The average public health employee does not feel that prescribed informatics competencies are relevant to their work. Before the public health system can take advantage of information technology, relevant employee skills should be identified or developed. There needs to be a shift in thinking that will recognize the promise of information technology in everyday work.

  2. Electronic Personal Health Record Use Among Nurses in the Nursing Informatics Community.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Kyungsook; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Wilson, Marisa L

    2015-07-01

    An electronic personal health record is a patient-centric tool that enables patients to securely access, manage, and share their health information with healthcare providers. It is presumed the nursing informatics community would be early adopters of electronic personal health record, yet no studies have been identified that examine the personal adoption of electronic personal health record's for their own healthcare. For this study, we sampled nurse members of the American Medical Informatics Association and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society with 183 responding. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors associated with electronic personal health record use. Overall, 72% were electronic personal health record users. Users tended to be older (aged >50 years), be more highly educated (72% master's or doctoral degrees), and hold positions as clinical informatics specialists or chief nursing informatics officers. Those whose healthcare providers used electronic health records were significantly more likely to use electronic personal health records (odds ratio, 5.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-25.61). Electronic personal health record users were significantly less concerned about privacy of health information online than nonusers (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.70) adjusted for ethnicity, race, and practice region. Informatics nurses, with their patient-centered view of technology, are in prime position to influence development of electronic personal health records. Our findings can inform policy efforts to encourage informatics and other professional nursing groups to become leaders and users of electronic personal health record; such use could help them endorse and engage patients to use electronic personal health records. Having champions with expertise in and enthusiasm for the new technology can promote the adoptionof electronic personal health records among healthcare providers as well as

  3. An informatics agenda for public health: summarized recommendations from the 2011 AMIA PHI Conference.

    PubMed

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Goodman, Kenneth W; Gotham, Ivan J; Holmes, John H; Lang, Lisa; Miner, Kathleen; Potenziani, David D; Richards, Janise; Turner, Anne M; Fu, Paul C

    2012-01-01

    The AMIA Public Health Informatics 2011 Conference brought together members of the public health and health informatics communities to revisit the national agenda developed at the AMIA Spring Congress in 2001, assess the progress that has been made in the past decade, and develop recommendations to further guide the field. Participants met in five discussion tracks: technical framework; research and evaluation; ethics; education, professional training, and workforce development; and sustainability. Participants identified 62 recommendations, which clustered into three key themes related to the need to (1) enhance communication and information sharing within the public health informatics community, (2) improve the consistency of public health informatics through common public health terminologies, rigorous evaluation methodologies, and competency-based training, and (3) promote effective coordination and leadership that will champion and drive the field forward. The agenda and recommendations from the meeting will be disseminated and discussed throughout the public health and informatics communities. Both communities stand to gain much by working together to use these recommendations to further advance the application of information technology to improve health.

  4. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection. PMID:27694648

  5. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  6. The new global health.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  7. The New Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365

  8. STARE-HI – Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Brender, J.; Talmon, J.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Ammenwerth, E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Improving the quality of reporting of evaluation studies in health informatics is an important requirement towards the vision of evidence-based health informatics. The STARE-HI – Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in health informatics, published in 2009, provides guidelines on the elements to be contained in an evaluation study report. Objectives To elaborate on and provide a rationale for the principles of STARE-HI and to guide authors and readers of evaluation studies in health informatics by providing explanatory examples of reporting. Methods A group of methodologists, researchers and editors prepared the present elaboration of the STARE-HI statement and selected examples from the literature. Results The 35 STARE-HI items to be addressed in evaluation papers describing health informatics interventions are discussed one by one and each is extended with examples and elaborations. Conclusion The STARE-HI statement and this elaboration document should be helpful resources to improve reporting of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies. Evaluation manuscripts adhering to the principles will enable readers of such papers to better place the studies in a proper context and judge their validity and generalizability, and thus in turn optimize the exploitation of the evidence contained therein. Limitations This paper is based on experiences of a group of editors, reviewers, authors of systematic reviews and readers of the scientific literature. The applicability of the details of these principles has to evolve as a function of their use in practice. PMID:24155788

  9. [Informatics system at the Croatian Institute of Health Insurance today and plans for future].

    PubMed

    Jezidzić, Hrvoje

    2005-01-01

    Basic information is provided on the informatics system at the Croatian Institute of Health Insurance (CIHI). The focus is on the newwork infrastructure, which connects 130 locations 24 hours on line and installed hardware and software equipment at CIHI. A modern network infrastructure makes technical basis of modern informatics system. Technical data on the safe and reliable communication system with FR telecommunication capacity are presented. UNIX servers at the headquaters and branch offices, INFORMIX database and the own application ZOROH provide a basis for core business. Active Directory, web pages www.hzzo-net.hr, Intranet and CIHI IT portal are the main parts of the modern CIHI office info subsystem. Basic information is given about the system for production and.distribution of health insurance cards--plastic cards with magnetic strip for basic and additional health insurance. Informatics Department of CIHI has issued more than 13,000,000 basic health insurance cards and over 1,500,000 additional health insurance cards. Data storage and reporting system as part of the CIHI informatics system is essential for analyzing and planning health insurance business. CIHI IT has created a modern reporting system with: (a) superior performance and power of analytical and reporting possibilities; (b) scalable and flexible platform; (c) proactive reporting (Web, SMS, WAP, e-mail, fax, voice); (d) web interface for users. The presentation is concluded with basic information on the current projects such as introduction of digital signature in CIHI and plans for the introduction of smart cards instead of plastic cards with magnetic strip. Today, CIHI IT plays the major role in the process of health system computerization in Croatia. CIHI is technically and personnel equipped for computerization of the entire health system. The informatics system of CIHI can serve as a backbone for the informatics health system in the future.

  10. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies.

  11. Design of a Community-Engaged Health Informatics Platform with an Architecture of Participation.

    PubMed

    Millery, Mari; Ramos, Wilson; Lien, Chueh; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Community-engaged health informatics (CEHI) applies information technology and participatory approaches to improve the health of communities. Our objective was to translate the concept of CEHI into a usable and replicable informatics platform that will facilitate community-engaged practice and research. The setting is a diverse urban neighborhood in New York City. The methods included community asset mapping, stakeholder interviews, logic modeling, analysis of affordances in open-source tools, elicitation of use cases and requirements, and a survey of early adopters. Based on synthesis of data collected, GetHealthyHeigths.org (GHH) was developed using open-source LAMP stack and Drupal content management software. Drupal's organic groups module was used for novel participatory functionality, along with detailed user roles and permissions. Future work includes evaluation of GHH and its impact on agency and service networks. We plan to expand GHH with additional functionality to further support CEHI by combining informatics solutions with community engagement to improve health.

  12. Recognition of health informatics in Australian standard classifications for research, occupation and education.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Gray, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Work on building a strong research base, a skilled workforce and an accredited learning and development system in Australian Health Informatics is not mature. This paper aims to explore how such work is supported at a fundamental level, that is, within formal systems for identifying fields of research, occupation and education in Australia. The researchers examined the treatment of Health Informatics and related terms in a range of relevant Australian standards. We found that Health Informatics has somewhat inappropriate recognition in the formal systems defining research in Australia, a tenuous presence in those describing education, and none in those describing occupations. We argue that our findings provide the evidence base for decisive action to benefit not only individuals but also the wider Australian community.

  13. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental health Noncommunicable diseases Mental health 3.5 Substance abuse Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH) Resources for the Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders 3.6 Road traffic injuries Road ...

  14. Health Informatics in the Classroom: An Empirical Study to Investigate Higher Education's Response to Healthcare Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashrafi, Noushin; Kuilboer, Jean-Pierre; Joshi, Chaitanya; Ran, Iris; Pande, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The explosive advances in information technology combined with the current climate for health care reform have intensified the need for skilled individuals who can develop, understand, and manage medical information systems in organizations. Health Informatics facilitates quality care at a reasonable cost by allowing access to the right data by…

  15. The informatics nurse specialist role in electronic health record usability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Crystal L; Seckman, Charlotte A

    2014-05-01

    Health information technology is revolutionizing the way we interact with health-related data. One example of this can be seen in the rising adoption rates of electronic health records by healthcare providers. Nursing plays a vital role in electronic health record adoption, not only because of their numbers but also their intimate understanding of workflow. The success of an electronic health record also relies on how usable the software is for clinicians, and a thorough usability evaluation is needed before implementing a system within an organization. Not all nurses have the knowledge and skills to perform extensive usability testing; therefore, the informatics nurse specialist plays a critical role in the process. This article will discuss core usability principles, provide a framework for applying these concepts, and explore the role of the informatics nurse specialist in electronic health record evaluation. Health information technology is fundamentally changing the clinical practice environment, and many nurses are seeking leadership positions in the field of informatics. As technology and software become more sophisticated, usability principles must be used under theguidance of the informatics nurse specialist to provide a relevant, robust, and well-designed electronic health record to address the needs of the busy clinician.

  16. On Determining Factors for Good Research in Biomedical and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective What are the determining factors for good research in medical informatics or, from a broader perspective, in biomedical and health informatics? Method From the many lessons learned during my professional career, I tried to identify a fair sampling of such factors. On the occasion of giving the IMIA Award of Excellence lecture during MedInfo 2013, they were presented for discussion. Results Sixteen determining factors (df) have been identified: early identification and promotion (df1), appropriate education (df2), stimulating persons and environments (df3), sufficient time and backtracking opportunities (df4), breadth of medical informatics competencies (df5), considering the necessary preconditions for good medical informatics research (df6), easy access to high-quality knowledge (df7), sufficient scientific career opportunities (df8), appropriate conditions for sustainable research (df9), ability to communicate and to solve problems (df10), as well as to convey research results (df11) in a highly inter- and multidisciplinary environment, ability to think for all and, when needed, taking the lead (df12), always staying unbiased (df13), always keeping doubt (df14), but also always trying to provide solutions (df15), and, finally, being aware that life is more (df16). Conclusions Medical Informatics is an inter- and multidisciplinary discipline “avant la lettre”. Compared to monodisciplinary research, inter- and multidisciplinary research does not only provide significant opportunities for solving major problems in science and in society. It also faces considerable additional challenges for medical informatics as a scientific field. The determining factors, presented here, are in my opinion crucial for conducting successful research and for developing a research career. Since medical informatics as a field has today become an important driving force for research progress, especially in biomedicine and health care, but also in fields like

  17. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, B. E.; Kharrazi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. Methods We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Results Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Conclusions Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, “Monitor Health,” “Diagnose & Investigate,” and “Evaluate.” Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice. PMID:26293869

  18. Importance of public health informatics: a survey of public health schools and graduate programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Richards, Janise

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of data, information, and informatics to public health practice. Forty public health academicians from 40 schools and graduate programs of public health were interviewed. All agreed that informatics was important to public health practice. A qualitative analysis of their comments revealed their beliefs on the importance of informatics skills and knowledge to the practice of public health. The resulting comment groups varied from "some skills are more important than others" to "need all the skills." Eight "importance" comment groups were formed: 1) skills for all professionals; 2) some skills more than others; 3) yes, they need all the skills; 4) skills to become better practitioners; 5) usefulness to practitioners; 6) communication with public; 7) they're [the public] are depending on us; and 8) the future.

  19. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.

  20. Consumer Health Informatics in the Context of Engaged Citizens and eHealth Services - A New CHI Meta Model.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Martin; Griebel, Lena; Becker, Kurt; Pobiruchin, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a relatively new and interdisciplinary field in Medical Informatics. It focuses on consumer- rather than professional-centered services. However, the definitions and understanding of a) what is a "consumer"? or b) what is health technology in the context of CHI? and c) what factors and actors influence the usage of eHealth services? vary widely. The CHI special interest group (SIG) - associated with the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology - conducted two workshops in 2015 to improve the common understanding on these topics. The workshop outcomes, the derived CHI-specific meta model and examples how to apply this model are presented in this paper. The model supports the definition of multi-actor contexts, as it not solely reflects the conventional patient-physician relationship but also allows for the description of second health market providers.

  1. Consumer Health Informatics: Promoting Patient Self-care Management of Illnesses and Health.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    Consumer health informatics (CHI) is propelling important changes for medical providers and the lives of patients through information and communications technology. Independently, medical consumers seek, collect, and use health information for decision making. However, when constructing a CHI-based medical platform, high technology must be applied in a fully understandable and usable format for both health care providers and consumers. This study examines the present status of CHI and its effect on medical consumers. For the development of CHI, we discuss the need for tailored health communications and capacity building with chronic patients at the medical center. First, empowerment is a key characteristic needed for medical consumer health care management. However, promoting patient self-care management of illnesses and health is necessary to create conjugation where cooperation with medical service providers is possible. Also, establishing a health care delivery system that will support cooperation is necessary. Second, tailored health communications can uniquely construct the health information of patients, which prevents unnecessary or excessive information from leading patients to confused and inappropriate decisions. Ultimately, through the present environment of health communication, the innovation of a consumer health care information system has become the tide of the times and the positive effect of improved health can be expected.

  2. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health.

  3. [Globalization, poverty and health].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between globalization, poverty and health, defining and presenting the main characteristics of contemporary globalization. It also establishes the characteristics of poverty today, both globally and regionally. Reviewing articles and world reports, it presents a set of evidence on the relationships between globalization and poverty, as well as their influence on health. Furthermore, it presents the opportunities offered by globalization, through a series of worldwide initiatives prompted by actions among countries under the aegis of the United Nations in general and the WHO in particular, in addition to intergovernmental alliances and coalitions and other civil society representatives.

  4. Emergence of a new consumer health informatics framework: introducing the healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Reid, Paulette; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare consumers are increasingly seeking reliable forms of health information on the Internet that can be used to support health related decision-making. Frameworks that have been developed and tested in the field of health informatics have attempted to describe the effects of the Internet upon the health care consumer and physician relationship. More recently, health care organizations are responding by providing information such as hospital wait lists or strategies for self-managing disease, and this information is being provided on organizational web-sites. The authors of this paper propose that current conceptualizations of the relationship between the Internet, physicians and patients are limited from a consumer informatics perspective and may need to be extended to include healthcare organizations.

  5. Using Design Principles to Foster Understanding of Complex Health Concepts in Consumer Informatics Tools

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rupananda; Mark, Jessica H.; Khan, Sharib; Kukafka, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Consumer health informatics tools can only be effective if patients comprehend their content. Optimal design may foster better patient comprehension and health literacy, which can improve health outcomes. We developed a patient-centric decision aid, Tailored Lifestyle Conversations (TLC), to help patients comprehend behavioral risks and set behavior change priorities for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. The TLC decision aid was developed using a design framework based on Gestalt Principles of Perception. Further iteration was informed by qualitative user feedback. Preliminary analysis showed that the TLC decision aid helped patients understand their risk and supported their decisions on health behavior change. We identified design elements that supported patient comprehension, and other elements that were not effective, to inform iterative revision. This paper describes an effective methodology for the development of consumer health informatics tools that includes grounding in design principles complemented by iterative revision based on user testing and feedback. PMID:21347027

  6. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  7. Patient Outcomes as Transformative Mechanisms to Bring Health Information Technology Industry and Research Informatics Closer Together.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fast pace of recent innovation within the health information technology and research informatics domains, there remains a large gap between research and academia, while interest in translating research innovations into implementations in the patient care settings is lacking. This is due to absence of common outcomes and performance measurement targets, with health information technology industry employing financial and operational measures and academia focusing on patient outcome concerns. The paper introduces methodology for and roadmap to introduction of common objectives as a way to encourage better collaboration between industry and academia using patient outcomes as a composite measure of demonstrated success from health information systems investments. Along the way, the concept of economics of health informatics, or "infonomics," is introduced to define a new way of mapping future technology investments in accordance with projected clinical impact.

  8. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  9. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  10. Meaningful use and meaningful curricula: a survey of health informatics programmes in the USA.

    PubMed

    Koong, Kai S; Ngafeeson, Madison N; Liu, Lai C

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the US government's Meaningful Use criteria carries with it many implications including the training curriculum of healthcare personnel. This study examines 108 health informatics degree programmes across the USA. First, the courses offered are identified and classified into generic classes. Next, these generic groupings are mapped to two important frameworks: the Learning to Manage Health Information (LMHI) academic framework; and the Meaningful Use criteria policy framework. Results suggest that while current curricula seemed acceptable in addressing Meaningful Use Stage 1 objective, there was insufficient evidence that these curricula could support Meaningful Use Stage 2 and Stage 3. These findings are useful to both curriculum developers and the healthcare industry. Curriculum developers in health informatics must match curriculum to the emerging healthcare policy goals and the healthcare industry must now recruit highly trained and qualified personnel to help achieve these new goals of data-capture, data-sharing and intelligence.

  11. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.

  12. Health Informatics: Developing a Masters Programme in Rwanda based on the IMIA Educational Recommendations and the IMIA Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Wright, Graham; Verbeke, Frank; Nyssen, Marc; Betts, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, the Regional e-Health Center of Excellence in Rwanda (REHCE) has run an MSc in Health Informatics programme (MSc HI). A programme review was commissioned in February 2014 after 2 cohorts of students completed the post-graduate certificate and diploma courses and most students had started preparatory activity for their master dissertation. The review developed a method for mapping course content on health informatics competences and knowledge units. Also the review identified and measured knowledge gaps and content redundancy. Using this method, we analyzed regulatory and programme documents combined with stakeholder interviews, and demonstrated that the existing MSc HI curriculum did not completely address the needs of the Rwandan health sector. Teaching strategies did not always match students' expectations. Based on a detailed Rwandan health informatics needs assessment, International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA)'s Recommendations on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics and the IMIA Health Informatics Knowledge Base, a new curriculum was developed and provided a better competences match for the specifics of healthcare in the Central African region. The new approved curriculum will be implemented in the 2014/2015 academic year and options for regional extension of the programme to Eastern DRC (Bukavu) and Burundi (Bujumbura) are being investigated.

  13. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Tang, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption. PMID:24904713

  14. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Tang, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption.

  15. Globalism and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of twenty-four-hour news media, local, state, and national agencies' warnings and with the explosive role of the Internet, people are more aware of global health concerns that may have significant consequences for the world's population. As international travel continues to increase, health care professionals around the world are…

  16. An Online Health Informatics Elective Course for Doctor of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Galt, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development and assessment of an online elective health informatics course and determine its potential for universal integration into doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. Design. A 2-credit hour online elective course was developed and offered to all PharmD students; voiced-over Powerpoint lectures were used to deliver content. Assessment. Assessment of student performance was measured using quantitative metrics via discussion questions, quizzes, written papers, and examinations. Qualitative findings were measured through discussion questions, a goal-setting classroom assessment technique, and an end-of-course reflection. Students report finding value in the course and recognizing how the knowledge gained could impact their future practice as pharmacists. Conclusion. An online course in health informatics can be an effective way to deliver content and provide a blueprint for continued integration of the content into curricula. PMID:25995516

  17. Health Informatics via Machine Learning for the Clinical Management of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, K. E.; Charlton, P.; Colopy, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To review how health informatics systems based on machine learning methods have impacted the clinical management of patients, by affecting clinical practice. Methods We reviewed literature from 2010-2015 from databases such as Pubmed, IEEE xplore, and INSPEC, in which methods based on machine learning are likely to be reported. We bring together a broad body of literature, aiming to identify those leading examples of health informatics that have advanced the methodology of machine learning. While individual methods may have further examples that might be added, we have chosen some of the most representative, informative exemplars in each case. Results Our survey highlights that, while much research is taking place in this high-profile field, examples of those that affect the clinical management of patients are seldom found. We show that substantial progress is being made in terms of methodology, often by data scientists working in close collaboration with clinical groups. Conclusions Health informatics systems based on machine learning are in their infancy and the translation of such systems into clinical management has yet to be performed at scale. PMID:26293849

  18. Design of a Community-Engaged Health Informatics Platform with an Architecture of Participation

    PubMed Central

    Millery, Mari; Ramos, Wilson; Lien, Chueh; Aguirre, Alejandra N.; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Community-engaged health informatics (CEHI) applies information technology and participatory approaches to improve the health of communities. Our objective was to translate the concept of CEHI into a usable and replicable informatics platform that will facilitate community-engaged practice and research. The setting is a diverse urban neighborhood in New York City. The methods included community asset mapping, stakeholder interviews, logic modeling, analysis of affordances in open-source tools, elicitation of use cases and requirements, and a survey of early adopters. Based on synthesis of data collected, GetHealthyHeigths.org (GHH) was developed using open-source LAMP stack and Drupal content management software. Drupal’s organic groups module was used for novel participatory functionality, along with detailed user roles and permissions. Future work includes evaluation of GHH and its impact on agency and service networks. We plan to expand GHH with additional functionality to further support CEHI by combining informatics solutions with community engagement to improve health. PMID:26958227

  19. Aligning public health and health informatics research strengths with national level research priorities in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammri, Riyad; Jradi, Huda; Da'ar, Omar B; Saddik, Basema; Alamry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the process of aligning the College of Public Health and Health Informatics research strengths at KSAU-HS with Saudi National Science Technology and Innovation Plan (NSTIP). Nineteen participants responded to a survey and reported on their research strengths, research goals, and research barriers. All 19 participants had academic faculty appointments at the assistant professor level. Five of the 19 participants, also had administrative level positions. A thematic content analysis was performed on the data. The comments were grouped into themes in a manner that reflected the objective of the exercise. Results show that although there are a variety of research strengths within the college, funding, staffing, bureaucracy, data access, and linkages with other healthcare organizations were barriers hindering research progress. This process has led the college to focus on two NSTIP-KACST national priority areas of 1) Information technology; and 2) Medical and Health related research. Future research will assess the outcome of the plan on the research agenda of the college.

  20. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  1. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations.

  2. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimison, Holly B.; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M.; Saranummi, Niilo

    2016-01-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations. PMID:26441408

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Health-Focused Personal Informatics Application with Support for Generalized Goal Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medynskiy, Yevgeniy

    2012-01-01

    The practice of health self-management offers behavioral and problem-solving strategies that can effectively promote responsibility for one's own wellbeing, improve one's health outcomes, and decrease the cost of health services. Personal informatics applications support health self-management by allowing their users to easily track…

  4. Pragmatic (trial) informatics: a perspective from the NIH Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Green, Beverly B; Laws, Reesa; Puro, Jon; Kahn, Michael G; Bauck, Alan; Smerek, Michelle; Van Eaton, Erik G; Zozus, Meredith; Ed Hammond, W; Stephens, Kari A; Simon, Greg E

    2017-03-14

    Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) are research investigations embedded in health care settings designed to increase the efficiency of research and its relevance to clinical practice. The Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory, initiated by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund in 2010, is a pioneering cooperative aimed at identifying and overcoming operational challenges to pragmatic research. Drawing from our experience, we present 4 broad categories of informatics-related challenges: (1) using clinical data for research, (2) integrating data from heterogeneous systems, (3) using electronic health records to support intervention delivery or health system change, and (4) assessing and improving data capture to define study populations and outcomes. These challenges impact the validity, reliability, and integrity of PCTs. Achieving the full potential of PCTs and a learning health system will require meaningful partnerships between health system leadership and operations, and federally driven standards and policies to ensure that future electronic health record systems have the flexibility to support research.

  5. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships.

  6. Integrating community-based participatory research and informatics approaches to improve the engagement and health of underserved populations

    PubMed Central

    Schaefbauer, Chris L; Campbell, Terrance R; Senteio, Charles; Siek, Katie A; Bakken, Suzanne; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We compare 5 health informatics research projects that applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches with the goal of extending existing CBPR principles to address issues specific to health informatics research. Materials and methods We conducted a cross-case analysis of 5 diverse case studies with 1 common element: integration of CBPR approaches into health informatics research. After reviewing publications and other case-related materials, all coauthors engaged in collaborative discussions focused on CBPR. Researchers mapped each case to an existing CBPR framework, examined each case individually for success factors and barriers, and identified common patterns across cases. Results Benefits of applying CBPR approaches to health informatics research across the cases included the following: developing more relevant research with wider impact, greater engagement with diverse populations, improved internal validity, more rapid translation of research into action, and the development of people. Challenges of applying CBPR to health informatics research included requirements to develop strong, sustainable academic-community partnerships and mismatches related to cultural and temporal factors. Several technology-related challenges, including needs to define ownership of technology outputs and to build technical capacity with community partners, also emerged from our analysis. Finally, we created several principles that extended an existing CBPR framework to specifically address health informatics research requirements. Conclusions Our cross-case analysis yielded valuable insights regarding CBPR implementation in health informatics research and identified valuable lessons useful for future CBPR-based research. The benefits of applying CBPR approaches can be significant, particularly in engaging populations that are typically underserved by health care and in designing patient-facing technology. PMID:26228766

  7. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR).

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Peer-reviewed journals remain important vehicles for knowledge transfer and dissemination in health informatics, yet, their format, processes and business models are changing only slowly. Up to the end of last century, it was common for individual researchers and scientific organizations to leave the business of knowledge transfer to professional publishers, signing away their rights to the works in the process, which in turn impeded wider dissemination. Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake of articles beyond the medical informatics community remain limited. In 1999, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR; http://www.jmir.org) was launched, featuring several innovations including 1) ownership and copyright retained by the authors, 2) electronic-only, "lean" non-for-profit publishing, 3) openly accessible articles with a reversed business model (author pays instead of reader pays), 4) technological innovations such as automatic XML tagging and reference checking, on-the-fly PDF generation from XML, etc., enabling wide distribution in various bibliographic and full-text databases. In the past 10 years, despite limited resources, the journal has emerged as a leading journal in health informatics, and is presently ranked the top journal in the medical informatics and health services research categories by impact factor. The paper summarizes some of the features of the Journal, and uses bibliometric and access data to compare the influence of the Journal on the discipline of medical informatics and other disciplines. While traditional medical informatics journals are primarily cited by other Medical Informatics journals (33%-46% of citations), JMIR papers are to a more often cited by "end-users" (policy, public health, clinical journals), which may be partly attributable to the "open access advantage".

  8. Steps in Moving Evidence-Based Health Informatics from Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Magrabi, Farah; Scott, Philip; Doupi, Persephone; Hypponen, Hannele; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate and promote the importance of applying a scientific process to health IT design and implementation, and of basing this on research principles and techniques. Methods A review by international experts linked to the IMIA Working Group on Technology Assessment and Quality Development. Results Four approaches are presented, linking to the creation of national professional expectations, adherence to research-based standards, quality assurance approaches to ensure safety, and scientific measurement of impact. Conclusions Solely marketing- and aspiration-based approaches to health informatics applications are no longer ethical or acceptable when scientifically grounded evidence-based approaches are available and in use. PMID:27895956

  9. The Future Impact of Healthcare Services Digitalization on Health Workforce: The Increasing Role of Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution is gradually transforming our society. What about the effects of digitalization and Internet of Things in healthcare? Among researchers two ideas are dominating, opposing each other. These arguments will be explored and analyzed. A mix-method approach combining literature review with the results from a focus group on eHealth impact on employment is used. Several experts from the WHO and from Health Professional Associations contributed for this analysis. Depending on the type of service it will entail reductions or more need of healthcare workers, yet whatever the scenario medical informatics will play an increasing role.

  10. Building a health informatics workforce in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hersh, William; Margolis, Alvaro; Quirós, Fernán; Otero, Paula

    2010-02-01

    Information and communication technology can be used to improve the quality and safety of health care and to lower costs. But in both developed and developing countries, there is an inadequate supply of skilled individuals who have the technical skills to use this technology to improve health care. Some studies project workforce needs of tens of thousands in English-speaking developed countries, but it is not known what size workforce will be required in the developing world. It is important to identify and develop the skills, training, and competencies-consistent with local cultures, languages, and health systems-that will be needed to realize the full benefits of these technologies. We present a framework for answering these questions and for developing estimates of the size and scope of the workforce that may be needed.

  11. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  12. Application of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge framework in integrating an educational EMR into health informatics education.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The discipline of health informatics is highly immersed in information technology, specifically health information systems. Students graduating from Bachelor degree programs in health informatics are expected to be familiar with a variety of systems upon entering the workforce. The adoption of systems like electronic medical records is on the rise across Canada, therefore it would be highly beneficial for students to have exposure to such systems in their coursework. While some individual instructors have done this to some extent on an ad hoc basis, formal strategies for EMR integration do not exist. A prominent framework for technology integration in learning that has been applied in many scientific disciplines is the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework. This paper describes how TPCK was used and applied as the guiding conceptual framework for exploring the integration of an educational EMR into undergraduate health informatics education.

  13. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  14. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable.

  15. Scale and context: issues in ontologies to link health- and bio-informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Rector, Alan L.; Rogers, Jeremy; Roberts, Angus; Wroe, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Bridging levels of scale and context are key problems for integrating Bio- and Health Informatics. Formal, logic-based ontologies using expressive formalisms are naturally "fractal" and provide new methods to support these aims. The basic notion of composition can be used to bridge scales; axioms can be used to carry implicit information; specific context markers can be included in definitions; and a hierarchy of semantic links can be used to represent subtle differences in point of view. Experience with OpenGALEN, the UK Drug Ontology and new experiments with the Gene Ontology and Foundational Model of Anatomy suggest that these are powerful tools provide practical solutions. PMID:12463902

  16. The e-Learning Effectiveness Versus Traditional Learning on a Health Informatics Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Zogas, Spyros; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Birbas, Konstantinos; Chondrocoukis, Gregory; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between e-Learning and traditional learning methods of a University course on Health Informatics domain. A pilot research took place among University students who divided on two learning groups, the e-learners and the traditional learners. A comparison of the examinations' marks for the two groups of students was conducted in order to find differences on students' performance. The study results reveal that the students scored almost the same marks independently of the learning procedure. Based on that, it can be assumed that the e-learning courses have the same effectiveness as the in-classroom learning sessions.

  17. Applied nursing informatics research - state-of-the-art methodologies using electronic health record data.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung In; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Westra, Bonnie L; Delaney, Connie W

    2014-01-01

    With the pervasive implementation of electronic health records (EHR), new opportunities arise for nursing research through use of EHR data. Increasingly, comparative effectiveness research within and across health systems is conducted to identify the impact of nursing for improving health, health care, and lowering costs of care. Use of EHR data for this type of research requires use of national and internationally recognized nursing terminologies to normalize data. Research methods are evolving as large data sets become available through EHRs. Little is known about the types of research and analytic methods for applied to nursing research using EHR data normalized with nursing terminologies. The purpose of this paper is to report on a subset of a systematic review of peer reviewed studies related to applied nursing informatics research involving EHR data using standardized nursing terminologies.

  18. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  19. Comprehensive Environmental Informatics System (CEIS) Integrating Crew and Vehicle Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems have been pursued as highly integrated systems that include smart sensors, diagnostic and prognostics software for assessments of real-time and life-cycle vehicle health information. Inclusive to such a system is the requirement to monitor the environmental health within the vehicle and the occupants of the vehicle. In this regard an enterprise approach to informatics is used to develop a methodology entitled, Comprehensive Environmental Informatics System (CEIS). The hardware and software technologies integrated into this system will be embedded in the vehicle subsystems, and maintenance operations, to provide both real-time and life-cycle health information of the environment within the vehicle cabin and of its occupants. This comprehensive information database will enable informed decision making and logistics management. One key element of the CEIS is interoperability for data acquisition and archive between environment and human system monitoring. With comprehensive components the data acquired in this system will use model based reasoning systems for subsystem and system level managers, advanced on-board and ground-based mission and maintenance planners to assess system functionality. Knowledge databases of the vehicle health state will be continuously updated and reported for critical failure modes, and routinely updated and reported for life cycle condition trending. Sufficient intelligence, including evidence-based engineering practices which are analogous to evidencebased medicine practices, will be included in the CEIS to result in more rapid recognition of off-nominal operation to enable quicker corrective actions. This will result from better information (rather than just data) for improved crew/operator situational awareness, which will produce significant vehicle and crew safety improvements, as well as increasing the chance for mission success, future mission planning as well as training. Other

  20. Transforming consumer health informatics through a patient work framework: connecting patients to context.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Rupa S; Holden, Richard J; Novak, Laurie L; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2015-01-01

    Designing patient-centered consumer health informatics (CHI) applications requires understanding and creating alignment with patients' and their family members' health-related activities, referred to here as 'patient work'. A patient work approach to CHI draws on medical social science and human factors engineering models and simultaneously attends to patients, their family members, activities, and context. A patient work approach extends existing approaches to CHI design that are responsive to patients' biomedical realities and personal skills and behaviors. It focuses on the embeddedness of patients' health management in larger processes and contexts and prioritizes patients' perspectives on illness management. Future research is required to advance (1) theories of patient work, (2) methods for assessing patient work, and (3) techniques for translating knowledge of patient work into CHI application design. Advancing a patient work approach within CHI is integral to developing and deploying consumer-facing technologies that are integrated with patients' everyday lives.

  1. Transforming consumer health informatics through a patient work framework: connecting patients to context

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Rupa S; Holden, Richard J; Novak, Laurie L; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2015-01-01

    Designing patient-centered consumer health informatics (CHI) applications requires understanding and creating alignment with patients’ and their family members’ health-related activities, referred to here as ‘patient work’. A patient work approach to CHI draws on medical social science and human factors engineering models and simultaneously attends to patients, their family members, activities, and context. A patient work approach extends existing approaches to CHI design that are responsive to patients’ biomedical realities and personal skills and behaviors. It focuses on the embeddedness of patients’ health management in larger processes and contexts and prioritizes patients’ perspectives on illness management. Future research is required to advance (1) theories of patient work, (2) methods for assessing patient work, and (3) techniques for translating knowledge of patient work into CHI application design. Advancing a patient work approach within CHI is integral to developing and deploying consumer-facing technologies that are integrated with patients’ everyday lives. PMID:25125685

  2. What Is Primary Care Informatics?

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Primary care informatics is an emerging academic discipline that remains undefined. The unique nature of primary care necessitates the development of its own informatics discipline. A definition of primary care informatics is proposed, which encompasses the distinctive nature of primary care. The core concepts and theory that should underpin it are described. Primary care informatics is defined as a science and as a subset of health informatics. The proposed definition is intended to focus the development of a generalizable core theory for this informatics subspecialty. PMID:12668690

  3. How to create awareness and ensure broad dissemination of health informatics standards.

    PubMed

    Williams, P

    1998-02-01

    There is a range of organisations with responsibility for information standards development within Australia. These include Standards Australia, which is formally linked to the International Organisation for Standards (ISO), the National Health Information Management Group, which deals with the government sector and several statutory organisations such as the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the National Centre for Classification in Health. The different constituencies involved with each of these organisations, the scope of healthcare informatics and the rate of organisational and technological change in the industry present a significant challenge in ensuring that the standard setting process is highly visible, responsive and capable of demonstrating its value through effective implementation. Creating awareness and ensuring broad dissemination of healthcare informatics standards is a key component in meeting this challenge. This can operate at a number of levels from strategic to operational. At the strategic level, it requires active engagement and commitment of the key decision-makers, both political and professional. This may require directly lobbying and promoting the benefits of standardisation to those decision-makers but can be achieved even more effectively by creating industry awareness and demand through carefully targeted presentations on the impact of standards to broader health industry forums. At the tactical level, the standards development medium itself can be used to engage and gain commitment from government, professionals, vendors and the health industry by operating as an inclusive, open and effective process. At the operational level, there is the opportunity for much more efficient use of technology to create awareness of both these processes and their outcomes. The establishment in Australia of a web enabled National Health Information Knowledge base built around ISO standards is one example of the type of development which

  4. Harnessing next-generation informatics for personalizing medicine: a report from AMIA's 2014 Health Policy Invitational Meeting.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Laura K; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Denny, Joshua C; Freimuth, Robert R; Overby, Casey L; Shah, Nigam; Martin, Ross D; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2016-03-01

    The American Medical Informatics Association convened the 2014 Health Policy Invitational Meeting to develop recommendations for updates to current policies and to establish an informatics research agenda for personalizing medicine. In particular, the meeting focused on discussing informatics challenges related to personalizing care through the integration of genomic or other high-volume biomolecular data with data from clinical systems to make health care more efficient and effective. This report summarizes the findings (n = 6) and recommendations (n = 15) from the policy meeting, which were clustered into 3 broad areas: (1) policies governing data access for research and personalization of care; (2) policy and research needs for evolving data interpretation and knowledge representation; and (3) policy and research needs to ensure data integrity and preservation. The meeting outcome underscored the need to address a number of important policy and technical considerations in order to realize the potential of personalized or precision medicine in actual clinical contexts.

  5. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  6. Rethinking the role and impact of health information technology: informatics as an interventional discipline.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Lussier, Yves; Foraker, Randi E; Embi, Peter J

    2016-03-29

    Recent advances in the adoption and use of health information technology (HIT) have had a dramatic impact on the practice of medicine. In many environments, this has led to the ability to achieve new efficiencies and levels of safety. In others, the impact has been less positive, and is associated with both: 1) workflow and user experience dissatisfaction; and 2) perceptions of missed opportunities relative to the use of computational tools to enable data-driven and precise clinical decision making. Simultaneously, the "pipeline" through which new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents are being developed and brought to the point-of-care or population health is challenged in terms of both cost and timeliness. Given the confluence of these trends, it can be argued that now is the time to consider new ways in which HIT can be used to deliver health and wellness interventions comparable to traditional approaches (e.g., drugs, devices, diagnostics, and behavioral modifications). Doing so could serve to fulfill the promise of what has been recently promoted as "precision medicine" in a rapid and cost-effective manner. However, it will also require the health and life sciences community to embrace new modes of using HIT, wherein the use of technology becomes a primary intervention as opposed to enabler of more conventional approaches, a model that we refer to in this commentary as "interventional informatics". Such a paradigm requires attention to critical issues, including: 1) the nature of the relationships between HIT vendors and healthcare innovators; 2) the formation and function of multidisciplinary teams consisting of technologists, informaticians, and clinical or scientific subject matter experts; and 3) the optimal design and execution of clinical studies that focus on HIT as the intervention of interest. Ultimately, the goal of an "interventional informatics" approach can and should be to substantially improve human health and wellness through the use of data

  7. Alumni's perception of public health informatics competencies: lessons from the Graduate Program of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fuad, Anis; Sanjaya, Guardian Yoki; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Rahmanti, Annisa Ristya; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning [1]. Unfortunately, limited reports exist concerning to the capacity building strategies to improve public health informatics workforce in limited-resources setting. In Indonesia, only three universities, including Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), offer master degree program on related public health informatics discipline. UGM started a new dedicated master program on Health Management Information Systems in 2005, under the auspice of the Graduate Program of Public Health at the Faculty of Medicine. This is the first tracer study to the alumni aiming to a) identify the gaps between curriculum and the current jobs and b) describe their perception on public health informatics competencies. We distributed questionnaires to 114 alumni with 36.84 % response rate. Despite low response rate, this study provided valuable resources to set up appropriate competencies, curriculum and capacity building strategies of public health informatics workforce in Indonesia.

  8. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions

    PubMed Central

    King, Samuel B.; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs. Methods: An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Results: Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Conclusions: Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Implications: Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself. PMID:25552939

  9. A Review of User-Centered Design for Diabetes-Related Consumer Health Informatics Technologies

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

  10. Moving from trust to trustworthiness: Experiences of public engagement in the Scottish Health Informatics Programme

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Mhairi; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Scottish Health Informatics Programme (SHIP) was a Scotland-wide research programme exploring ways of collecting, managing and analysing electronic patient records for health research. As part of the SHIP public engagement work stream, a series of eight focus groups and a stakeholder workshop were conducted to explore perceptions of the role, relevance and functions of trust (or trustworthiness) in relation to research practices. The findings demonstrate that the public’s relationships of trust and/or mistrust in science and research are not straightforward. This paper aims to move beyond simple descriptions of whether publics trust researchers, or in whom members of the public place their trust, and to explore more fully the bases of public trust/mistrust in science, what trust implies and equally what it means for research/researchers to be trustworthy. This has important implications for public engagement in interdisciplinary projects. PMID:28066123

  11. A review of user-centered design for diabetes-related consumer health informatics technologies.

    PubMed

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-07-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages.

  12. Building Comprehensive and Sustainable Health Informatics Institutions in Developing Countries: Moi University Experience.

    PubMed

    Were, Martin C; Siika, Abraham; Ayuo, Paul O; Atwoli, Lukoye; Esamai, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches for capacity building in Health Informatics (HI) in developing countries mostly focus on training, and often rely on support from foreign entities. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and multidimensional capacity-building framework by Lansang & Dennis, and its application for HI capacity building as implemented in a higher-education institution in Kenya. This framework incorporates training, learning-by-doing, partnerships, and centers of excellence. At Moi University (Kenya), the training dimensions include an accredited Masters in HI Program, PhD in HI, and HI short courses. Learning-by-doing occurs through work within MOH facilities at the AMPATH care and treatment program serving 3 million people. Moi University has formed strategic HI partnerships with Regenstrief Institute, Inc. (USA), University of Bergen (Norway), and Makerere University (Uganda), among others. The University has also created an Institute of Biomedical Informatics to serve as an HI Center of Excellence in the region. This Institute has divisions in Training, Research, Service and Administration. The HI capacity-building approach by Moi provides a model for adoption by other institutions in resource-limited settings.

  13. Perspectives on clinical informatics: integrating large-scale clinical, genomic, and health information for clinical care.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population.

  14. Perspectives on Clinical Informatics: Integrating Large-Scale Clinical, Genomic, and Health Information for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K.

    2013-01-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population. PMID:24465229

  15. Global health for a globally minded president.

    PubMed

    Daulaire, Nils

    2009-01-01

    President-elect Barack Obama can build on historic initiatives championed by his predecessor in global AIDS and malaria. These should serve as the platform for a more comprehensive and evidence-based set of activities aimed at addressing the major causes of ill health and instability in low-income countries. Obama should launch a new Global Family Health Action Plan aimed at saving the lives of six million children and women annually in impoverished nations. Existing policies driven by U.S. domestic ideological battles, particularly those relating to sexual and reproductive health, should be revised and brought into line with solid science and evidence from the field.

  16. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  17. Examining the Impact of Non-Technical Security Management Factors on Information Security Management in Health Informatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imam, Abbas H.

    2013-01-01

    Complexity of information security has become a major issue for organizations due to incessant threats to information assets. Healthcare organizations are particularly concerned with security owing to the inherent vulnerability of sensitive information assets in health informatics. While the non-technical security management elements have been at…

  18. Factors in the Development of Clinical Informatics Competence in Early Career Health Sciences Professionals in Australia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating how Australian health professionals may be developing and deploying essential clinical informatics capabilities in the first 5 years of their professional practice. It explores the experiences of four professionals in applying what they have learned formally and informally during their…

  19. A National Informatics Agenda for Nursing Education and Practice. Report to the Secretary of the Department of Health & Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice, Rockville, MD.

    Nursing informatics is a specialty whose activities center around information management and processing for the nursing profession. The Division of Nursing of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP) recognized a need to identify initiatives that would more…

  20. Consumer Health Informatics: The Application of ICT in Improving Patient-Provider Partnership for a Better Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Larweh, Benjamin Teye

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest concerning the potential of ICT solutions that are customized to consumers. This emerging discipline referred to as consumer health informatics (CHI) plays a major role in providing information to patients and the public, and facilitates the promotion of self-management. The concept of CHI has emerged out of the desire of most patients to shoulder responsibilities regarding their health and a growing desire of health practitioners to fully appreciate the potential of the patient. Aim To describe the role of ICT in improving the patient-provider partnership in consumer health informatics. Methods Systematic reviewing of literature, identification of reference sources and formulation of search strategies and manual search regarding the significance of developed CHI applications in healthcare delivery. Results New consumer health IT applications have been developed to be used on a variety of different platforms, including the Web, messaging systems, PDAs, and cell phones. These applications assists patients with self-management through reminders and prompts, delivery of real-time data on a patient’s health condition to patients and providers, web-based communication and personal electronic health information. Conclusion New tools are being developed for the purposes of providing information to patients and the public which has enhanced decision making in health matters and an avenue for clinicians and consumers to exchange health information for personal and public use. This calls for corroboration among healthcare organizations, governments and the ICT industry to develop new research and IT innovations which are tailored to the health needs of the consumer. PMID:25422724

  1. Global health and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno R; Brant, Luisa C C; Moraes, Diego N; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2014-11-01

    The modern definition of Global Health has expanded its scope beyond neglected diseases and low-income and underdeveloped countries. The current initiatives focus on improvement of health, reduction of disparities and protection against global threats, seeking for interaction with health practices, policies and systems. There has been a growing interest on Global Health research, given the epidemiological transition currently underway in low and mid-income countries and the increasing epidemiological importance of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases, to the detriment of infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. Various aspects-formerly neglected-of these diseases, such as epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and therapy, have been addressed in Global Health publications, leading to a better understanding of the importance of health as a public good, beyond borders. Scientific evidence supports broader initiatives in which governments, foundations and the civil society must share responsibilities and funding to achieve health equity, the main goal of Global Health.

  2. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action.

  3. Blog-based applications and health information: two case studies that illustrate important questions for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) research.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A

    2010-06-01

    Weblogs (blogs), together with podcasts and wikis are part of the larger body of next-generation communication applications dubbed "web 2.0." Within the specific area of health care, little attention has been devoted to understanding what applications are available to the lay public and how these are being used. In this study, a literature review on blogs and blogging practices was conducted, followed by case study analyses of two separate sites that use blogging tools to help patients and other lay web end-users record health-related experiences. This paper explores the diverse purposes for which blogging applications can be (or are being) used in relation to health and introduces the idea of "health goal-oriented" blogging. The discussion focuses on relevant informatics questions that arise with respect to the use of blogs and makes suggestions for subsequent research.

  4. What makes a good clinical app? Introducing the RCP Health Informatics Unit checklist.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Jeremy C; Thimbleby, Harold; Rastall, Paul; Hoogewerf, Jan; Wooldridge, Darren; Williams, John

    2015-12-01

    Doctors increasingly rely on medical apps running on smart phones or tablet computers to support their work. However, these apps vary hugely in the quality of their data input screens, internal data processing, the methods used to handle sensitive patient data and how they communicate their output to the user. Inspired by Donabedian's approach to assessing quality and the principles of good user interface design, the Royal College of Physicians' Health Informatics Unit has developed and piloted an 18-item checklist to help clinicians assess the structure, functions and impact of medical apps. Use of this checklist should help clinicians to feel more confident about using medical apps themselves, about recommending them to their staff or prescribing them for patients.

  5. The future of health IT innovation and informatics: a report from AMIA's 2010 policy meeting

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Julie J; Cusack, Caitlin M

    2012-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the short-term impact that widespread adoption of health information technology (health IT) will have on the healthcare system, there is a corresponding need to look at the long-term effects that extant policies may have on health IT system resilience, innovation, and related ethical, social/legal issues. The American Medical Informatics Association's 2010 Health Policy Conference was convened to further the national discourse on the issues surrounding these longer-term considerations. Conference participants self-selected into three broad categories: resilience in healthcare and health IT; ethical, legal, and social challenges; and innovation, adoption, and sustainability. The discussions about problem areas lead to findings focusing on the lack of encouragement for long-term IT innovation that may result from current health IT policies; the potential impact of uneven adoption of health IT based on the exclusions of the current financial incentives; the weaknesses of contingency and risk mitigation planning that threaten system resilience; and evolving standards developed in response to challenges relating to the security, integrity, and availability of electronic health information. This paper discusses these findings and also offers recommendations that address the interwoven topics of innovation, resilience, and adoption. The goal of this paper is to encourage public and private sector organizations that have a role in shaping health information policy to increase attention to developing a national strategy that assures that health IT innovation and resilience are not impeded by shorter-term efforts to implement current approaches emphasizing adoption and meaningful use of electronic health records. PMID:22037887

  6. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  7. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  8. A prototype informatics system integrating weather and health data to manage meningitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Yoksas, T.; Hayden, M.; Hopson, T.; Laing, A.; Lazo, J.; Warner, T.; Rice, J.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Hodgson, A.; Semazzi, F.; Mera, R.; Thomson, M.; Trzaska, S.; Lamptey, B.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation will describe progress in developing the informatics system that will support a newly funded project designed to integrate health and environmental data for health-related decision-making in Africa. This infromatics system supports a project in which the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and North Carolina State University in the United States, and the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana will build and implement a prototype decision-support system that integrates two- to 14-day weather forecasts and epidemiological data to provide actionable information that can be used to contain the spread of meningitis epidemics in Ghana. By applying a preliminary economic evaluation of this decision support system, we will also assess the potential benefit of using environmental data to improve public health outcomes, help prioritize continuing investment in meningitis management in Ghana and throughout the Meningitis Belt, and determine the appropriateness of extending the prototype to other diseases, nations, and continents. This effort is a small piece of an overall Google.org effort to develop an Earth-gauging System that will integrate environmental, health and development data into products that stakeholders and researchers can use to monitor variables, analyze trends and identify relationships among different variables. The Earth-gauging System will support the prediction of emerging threats, and provide the basis for an robust early-warning system that will improve health, food security, and development and conservation outcomes. For the informatics session, our presentation will focus on the projects' leveraging of current UCAR Unidata data management software to create and populate an archive of meteorological and epidemiological data. We will also describe strategies to extend the Unidata network for data distribution - which currently provides real-time access

  9. Clinical informatics in critical care.

    PubMed

    Martich, G Daniel; Waldmann, Carl S; Imhoff, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Health care information systems have the potential to enable better care of patients in much the same manner as the widespread use of the automobile and telephone did in the early 20th century. The car and phone were rapidly accepted and embraced throughout the world when these breakthroughs occurred. However, the automation of health care with use of computerized information systems has not been as widely accepted and implemented as computer technology use in all other sectors of the global economy. In this article, the authors examine the need, risks, and rewards of clinical informatics in health care as well as its specific relationship to critical care medicine.

  10. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-07-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act.

  11. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act. PMID:20648253

  12. [Informatics and health, from digitization to information and communication technologies (TIC)].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; de Kervasdoué, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Integrating the progress that has been made on a daily basis since it was jointly commissioned in 2013 by the French National Academy of Medicine (Biotechnology Committee XX, Prof Emmanuel-Alain Cabanis) and the Technologies Academy (Pr Jean de Kervasdoué), this report, covering such a vast subject, can only represent one step in a long process. Summarized here in a volume compatible with the Bulletin, it makes reference to the full report (52 pages ; 22 pages of text, 4 pages of references, a 20-page glossary for physicians, plus 522 figures spanning 6 pages), which is available on the Academy's website. The six chapters first define "health" (WHO) and "informatics" and provide a brief history. The first chapter, on technologies, is divided into "bad" news (cybercrime, ecological risks) and advances relevant to health. The next four chapters describe the contribution of digitization to patient management, ranging from "fragile" individuals (from the gamete to old age and dependency) to healthy subjects trained to work in hostile situations (scuba diving to space exploration), and finally research. The last chapter proposes 7 areas for progress: expansion of the national imaging and communications platforms, stimulation of the medical robotics industry, extension of telemedicine to all medical and surgical specialties, support for drug dispensing and therapeutic education, and foundation of a European portal for m-health certification, research prioritization according to multiyear health plans, and reinforcement of mathematic education, starting in primary school (see: "La main à la pâte" ("Going hands-on").

  13. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  14. Interprofessional Online Global Health Course

    PubMed Central

    Devraj, Radhika; Blankson, Faustina; Xin, Huaibo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The design and evaluation of an online global health course targeted for pharmacy and other undergraduates is presented. Design. Enrolled students represented nursing, health education, pharmacy and a variety of other disciplines. The course was designed as an entirely online one with no class meetings. The course consisted of eight modules addressing global health competencies and interprofessional education competencies. Readings, quizzes, study question and team projects were tailored to the goals of each module. Students worked in interprofessional teams for their team projects. Assessment. Assessments consisted of pre and post course perceptions and course evaluation. Rubrics were designed to evaluate team assignments and peer assessment of team participation. Conclusion. Course was successful in enhancing perceptions of global health knowledge and understanding of roles and responsibilities of various health disciplines in addressing challenges of global health. No changes in teamwork perceptions were documented after completing the course. The overall course structure was successful in meeting course goals. PMID:28090104

  15. Interprofessional Online Global Health Course.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Therese I; Devraj, Radhika; Blankson, Faustina; Xin, Huaibo

    2016-11-25

    Objective. The design and evaluation of an online global health course targeted for pharmacy and other undergraduates is presented. Design. Enrolled students represented nursing, health education, pharmacy and a variety of other disciplines. The course was designed as an entirely online one with no class meetings. The course consisted of eight modules addressing global health competencies and interprofessional education competencies. Readings, quizzes, study question and team projects were tailored to the goals of each module. Students worked in interprofessional teams for their team projects. Assessment. Assessments consisted of pre and post course perceptions and course evaluation. Rubrics were designed to evaluate team assignments and peer assessment of team participation. Conclusion. Course was successful in enhancing perceptions of global health knowledge and understanding of roles and responsibilities of various health disciplines in addressing challenges of global health. No changes in teamwork perceptions were documented after completing the course. The overall course structure was successful in meeting course goals.

  16. Interactive machine learning for health informatics: when do we need the human-in-the-loop?

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and health informatics is among the greatest challenges. The goal of ML is to develop algorithms which can learn and improve over time and can be used for predictions. Most ML researchers concentrate on automatic machine learning (aML), where great advances have been made, for example, in speech recognition, recommender systems, or autonomous vehicles. Automatic approaches greatly benefit from big data with many training sets. However, in the health domain, sometimes we are confronted with a small number of data sets or rare events, where aML-approaches suffer of insufficient training samples. Here interactive machine learning (iML) may be of help, having its roots in reinforcement learning, preference learning, and active learning. The term iML is not yet well used, so we define it as "algorithms that can interact with agents and can optimize their learning behavior through these interactions, where the agents can also be human." This "human-in-the-loop" can be beneficial in solving computationally hard problems, e.g., subspace clustering, protein folding, or k-anonymization of health data, where human expertise can help to reduce an exponential search space through heuristic selection of samples. Therefore, what would otherwise be an NP-hard problem, reduces greatly in complexity through the input and the assistance of a human agent involved in the learning phase.

  17. Reusable design: A proposed approach to Public Health Informatics system design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since it was first defined in 1995, Public Health Informatics (PHI) has become a recognized discipline, with a research agenda, defined domain-specific competencies and a specialized corpus of technical knowledge. Information systems form a cornerstone of PHI research and implementation, representing significant progress for the nascent field. However, PHI does not advocate or incorporate standard, domain-appropriate design methods for implementing public health information systems. Reusable design is generalized design advice that can be reused in a range of similar contexts. We propose that PHI create and reuse information design knowledge by taking a systems approach that incorporates design methods from the disciplines of Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction Design and other related disciplines. Discussion Although PHI operates in a domain with unique characteristics, many design problems in public health correspond to classic design problems, suggesting that existing design methods and solution approaches are applicable to the design of public health information systems. Among the numerous methodological frameworks used in other disciplines, we identify scenario-based design and participatory design as two widely-employed methodologies that are appropriate for adoption as PHI standards. We make the case that these methods show promise to create reusable design knowledge in PHI. Summary We propose the formalization of a set of standard design methods within PHI that can be used to pursue a strategy of design knowledge creation and reuse for cost-effective, interoperable public health information systems. We suggest that all public health informaticians should be able to use these design methods and the methods should be incorporated into PHI training. PMID:21333000

  18. Scenario-based User Testing to Guide Consumer Health Informatics Design

    PubMed Central

    Zayas-Cabán, Teresa; Marquard, Jenna L.; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Duffey, Noah; Evernden, Dana L.

    2009-01-01

    For consumer health informatics (CHI) interventions to successfully aid laypeople, the interventions must fit and support their health work. This paper outlines a scenario-based human factors assessment of a disease management CHI intervention. Two student users undertook a patient use case and another user followed a nurse use case. Each user completed pre-specified tasks over a ten-day trial, recorded challenges encountered while utilizing the intervention, and logged daily time spent on each task. Results show the scenario-based user testing approach helps effectively and systematically assess potential physical, cognitive, and macroergonomic challenges for end-users, rate the severity of the challenges, and identify mediation strategies for each challenge. In particular, scenario-based user testing aids in identifying challenges that would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect in a laboratory-based usability study. With this information, CHI interventions can be re-designed and/or supplemented, making the intervention more closely fit end-users’ work. PMID:20351947

  19. Trends in publication of nursing informatics research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations.

  20. Trends in Publication of Nursing Informatics Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Oh, Janet; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 741 journal articles on nursing informatics published in 7 biomedical/nursing informatics journals and 6 nursing journals from 2005 to 2013 to begin to understand publication trends in nursing informatics research and identify gaps. We assigned a research theme to each article using AMIA 2014 theme categories and normalized the citation counts using time from publication. Overall, nursing informatics research covered a broad spectrum of research topics in biomedical informatics and publication topics seem to be well aligned with the high priority research agenda identified by the nursing informatics community. The research themes with highest volume of publication were Clinical Workflow and Human Factors, Consumer Informatics and Personal Health Records, and Clinical Informatics, for which an increasing trend in publication was noted. Articles on Informatics Education and Workforce Development; Data Mining, NLP, Information Extraction; and Clinical Informatics showed steady and high volume of citations. PMID:25954387

  1. Origins of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1986-01-01

    Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s. PMID:3544507

  2. 'Sustainability' in global health.

    PubMed

    Yang, Alice; Farmer, Paul E; McGahan, Anita M

    2010-01-01

    'Sustainability' has become a central criterion used by funders - including foundations, governmental agencies and international agencies - in evaluating public health programmes. The criterion became important as a result of frustration with discontinuities in the provision of care. As a result of its application, projects that involve building infrastructure, training or relatively narrow objectives tend to receive support. In this article, we argue for a reconceptualisation of sustainability criteria in light of the idea that health is an investment that is itself sustaining and sustainable, and for the abandonment of conceptualisations of sustainability that focus on the consumable medical interventions required to achieve health. The implication is a tailoring of the time horizon for creating value that reflects the challenges of achieving health in a community. We also argue that funders and coordinating bodies, rather than the specialised health providers that they support, are best positioned to develop integrated programmes of medical interventions to achieve truly sustainable health outcomes.

  3. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap.

  4. Cognitive and learning sciences in biomedical and health instructional design: A review with lessons for biomedical informatics education.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Arocha, Jose F; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2009-02-01

    Theoretical and methodological advances in the cognitive and learning sciences can greatly inform curriculum and instruction in biomedicine and also educational programs in biomedical informatics. It does so by addressing issues such as the processes related to comprehension of medical information, clinical problem-solving and decision-making, and the role of technology. This paper reviews these theories and methods from the cognitive and learning sciences and their role in addressing current and future needs in designing curricula, largely using illustrative examples drawn from medical education. The lessons of this past work are also applicable, however, to biomedical and health professional curricula in general, and to biomedical informatics training, in particular. We summarize empirical studies conducted over two decades on the role of memory, knowledge organization and reasoning as well as studies of problem-solving and decision-making in medical areas that inform curricular design. The results of this research contribute to the design of more informed curricula based on empirical findings about how people learn and think, and more specifically, how expertise is developed. Similarly, the study of practice can also help to shape theories of human performance, technology-based learning, and scientific and professional collaboration that extend beyond the domain of medicine. Just as biomedical science has revolutionized health care practice, research in the cognitive and learning sciences provides a scientific foundation for education in biomedicine, the health professions, and biomedical informatics.

  5. Commercial off-the-shelf consumer health informatics interventions: recommendations for their design, evaluation and redesign

    PubMed Central

    Zayas-Cabán, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this paper is to describe the successful application of a use case-based evaluation approach to guide the effective design, evaluation and redesign of inexpensive, commercial, off-the-shelf consumer health informatics (CHI) interventions. Design Researchers developed four CHI intervention use cases representing two distinct patient populations (patients with diabetes with high blood pressure, post-bariatric surgery patients), two commercial off-the-shelf CHI applications (Microsoft HealthVault, Google Health), and related devices (blood pressure monitor, pedometer, weight scale). Three patient proxies tested each intervention for 10 days. Measurements The patient proxies recorded their challenges while completing use case tasks, rating the severity of each challenge based on how much it hindered their use of the intervention. Two independent evaluators categorized the challenges by human factors domain (physical, cognitive, macroergonomic). Results The use case-based approach resulted in the identification of 122 challenges, with 12% physical, 50% cognitive and 38% macroergonomic. Thirty-nine challenges (32%) were at least moderately severe. Nine of 22 use case tasks (41%) accounted for 72% of the challenges. Limitations The study used two patient proxies and addressed two specific patient populations and low-cost, off-the-shelf CHI interventions, which may not perfectly generalize to a larger number of proxies, actual patient populations, or other CHI interventions. Conclusion CHI designers can employ the use case-based evaluation approach to assess the fit of a CHI intervention with patients' health work, in the context of their daily activities and environment, which would be difficult or impossible to evaluate by laboratory-based studies. PMID:21727206

  6. Big Heart Data: Advancing Health Informatics through Data Sharing in Cardiovascular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R.; Young, Alistair A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be re-used beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data re-use, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  7. Big heart data: advancing health informatics through data sharing in cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A

    2015-07-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be reused beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data reuse, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases.

  8. Nanomedicine for global health.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Nathaniel; Lee, Bryan; Kim, Austin; Yang, Richard; Pan, Ricky; Lee, Dong-Keun; Chow, Edward K; Ho, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Despite modern advances, a broad range of disorders such as cancer and infectious diseases continually afflict the global population. Novel therapeutics are continuously being explored to address these challenges. Therefore, scalable, effective, and safe therapies that are readily accessible to third-world countries are of major interest. In this article, we discuss the potential advantages that the nanomedicine field may harness toward successful implementation against some of the major diseases of our generation.

  9. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  10. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  11. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Methods: Using the “Principlism” framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. Results: These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. Implications: The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies. PMID:25349543

  12. Accelerating the deployment of a health information technology and informatics workforce through education, training, research, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Nancy; Bloomrosen, Meryl

    2011-01-01

    Supported by stronger and more coordinated US federal funding and policies, driven by goals to deliver care more efficiently, and motivated to provide high quality care for an aging and more diverse population, public-private-sector organisations are redoubling efforts to implement information systems. Thus, there is a critical need to increase and broaden the pool of workers who can help organizations maximise the effectiveness of their investments in technology. There are in the US various current health informatics education and training initiatives and ongoing efforts to accelerate Health IT workforce development.

  13. Informatics Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…

  14. The Global Health Impact Index: Promoting Global Health.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people cannot access essential medicines they need for deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. There is good information on the need for drugs for these diseases but until now, no global estimate of the impact drugs are having on this burden. This paper presents a model measuring companies' key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs' consequences for global health (global-health-impact.org). It aggregates drugs' impacts in several ways-by disease, country and originator-company. The methodology can be extended across diseases as well as drugs to provide a more extensive picture of the impact companies' drugs are having on the global burden of disease. The study suggests that key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs are, together, ameliorating about 37% of the global burden of these diseases and Sanofi, Novartis, and Pfizer's drugs are having the largest effect on this burden. Moreover, drug impacts vary widely across countries. This index provides important information for policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, countries, and other stake-holders that can help increase access to essential medicines.

  15. Sequential incoherence in a multi-party synchronous computer mediated communication for an introductory Health Informatics course.

    PubMed

    Herskovic, Jorge R; Goodwin, J Caleb; Bozzo Silva, Pamela A; Willcockson, Irmgard; Franklin, Amy

    2010-11-13

    Online courses will play a key role in the high-volume Informatics education required to train the personnel that will be necessary to fulfill the health IT needs of the country. Online courses can cause feelings of isolation in students. A common way to address these feelings is to hold synchronous online "chats" for students. Conventional chats, however, can be confusing and impose a high extrinsic cognitive load on their participants that hinders the learning process. In this paper we present a qualitative analysis that shows the causes of this high cognitive load and our solution through the use of a moderated chat system.

  16. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  17. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  18. [Health of peacekeepers protection with perspective of global health].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Laixin; Tang, Shenglan; Cao, Jia

    2015-03-01

    Global health arisen recently, but it developed rapidly and attracted great attention from global researchers and institutions. China, as a member of United Nation, actively participated in many international peacekeeping activities. Health of peacekeepers is global health and it is important to consider and dealt with health of peacekeepers with conception of global health. This article reviewed and analyzed health problems and risk factors faced by peacekeepers,and provided suggestions to strategies to protect health of peacekeepers.

  19. An Organizational Informatics Analysis of Colorectal, Breast, and Cervical Cancer Screening Clinical Decision Support and Information Systems within Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Timothy Jay

    2012-01-01

    A study design has been developed that employs a dual modeling approach to identify factors associated with facility-level cancer screening improvement and how this is mediated by the use of clinical decision support. This dual modeling approach combines principles of (1) Health Informatics, (2) Cancer Prevention and Control, (3) Health Services…

  20. Museum Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Paul F.; Rayward, W. Boyd; Twidale, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses museum informatics that studies how information science and technology affect the museum environment. Examines digital technology; information organization and access; digitization, personal computers, and the Internet; data sharing; standards; social impacts of new technologies; collaboration; consortia; multimedia exhibits; virtual…

  1. Rural TeleHealth: Telemedicine, Distance Education and Informatics for Rural Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. Western Cooperative for Educational Communications.

    This document provides an overview of the various telecommunications and information technologies available for rural communities to use in their health care systems. The first section explains the principal technologies of telecommunications such as the telephone, computer networking, audiographics, and video. It describes transmission systems…

  2. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Jane R.; Fischer, Philip R.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M.; Pitt, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  3. The role of nursing informatics on promoting quality of health care and the need for appropriate education.

    PubMed

    Darvish, Asieh; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Keyhanian, Sara; Navidhamidi, Mojdeh

    2014-06-25

    In today's dynamic health systems, technology plays an important role in education and nursing work. So it seems necessary to study the role of nurses and highlight the need for appropriate information technology educational programs to integrate with the ever-increasing pace of technology. A review accompanied by an extensive literature search in databases and a library search focused on the keywords were used. The criteria used for selecting studies primarily focused on nursing informatics and the importance of expertise in the effective use of information technology in all aspects of the nursing profession. In a critical assessment of emerging technologies, the key elements of nursing informatics implementation were considered as healthcare promotion, advanced systems, internet and network. In view of the nature and the development of the information age, it is required to receive necessary IT training for all categories of nurses. Due to the fast development of technology, in order to effectively take advantage of information technology in nursing outcome and quality of health care and to empower nurses; educational arrangement is recommended to set short-term and long-term specialized courses focusing on four target groups: studying, working, graduate, senior undergraduate, and graduate doctoral. The result of this study is expected to assist educational providers with program development.

  4. The Role of Nursing Informatics on Promoting Quality of Health Care and the Need for Appropriate Education

    PubMed Central

    Darvish, Asieh; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Keyhanian, Sara; Navidhamidi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    In today’s dynamic health systems, technology plays an important role in education and nursing work. So it seems necessary to study the role of nurses and highlight the need for appropriate information technology educational programs to integrate with the ever-increasing pace of technology. A review accompanied by an extensive literature search in databases and a library search focused on the keywords were used. The criteria used for selecting studies primarily focused on nursing informatics and the importance of expertise in the effective use of information technology in all aspects of the nursing profession. In a critical assessment of emerging technologies, the key elements of nursing informatics implementation were considered as healthcare promotion, advanced systems, internet and network. In view of the nature and the development of the information age, it is required to receive necessary IT training for all categories of nurses. Due to the fast development of technology, in order to effectively take advantage of information technology in nursing outcome and quality of health care and to empower nurses; educational arrangement is recommended to set short-term and long-term specialized courses focusing on four target groups: studying, working, graduate, senior undergraduate, and graduate doctoral. The result of this study is expected to assist educational providers with program development. PMID:25363114

  5. Informatics competencies for healthcare professionals: the Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) Initiative model.

    PubMed

    Hebda, Toni L; Calderone, Terri L

    2012-01-01

    A growing awareness exists that informatics competencies are essential skills for healthcare professionals today, yet the development of these competencies lags behind the need. The Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) Initiative represents a comprehensive, interdisciplinary effort that is well suited to the integration of informatics into education, practice, administration, and research environments. This article briefly discusses the background and significance of the TIGER Initiative and why it may be used as a model to instill informatics among the healthcare professionals globally.

  6. Improving musculoskeletal health: global issues.

    PubMed

    Mody, Girish M; Brooks, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders are among the leading reasons why patients consult a family or primary health practitioner, take time off work and become disabled. Many of the MSK disorders are more common in the elderly. Thus, as the proportion of the elderly increases all over the world, MSK disorders will make a greater contribution to the global burden of disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that the spectrum of MSK disorders in developing countries is similar to that seen in industrialised countries, but the burden of disease tends to be higher due to a delay in diagnosis or lack of access to adequate health-care facilities for effective treatment. Musculoskeletal pain is very common in the community while fibromyalgia is being recognised as part of a continuum of chronic widespread pain rather than a narrowly defined entity. This will allow research to improve our understanding of pain in a variety of diffuse pain syndromes. The availability of newer more effective therapies has resulted in efforts to initiate therapy at an earlier stage of diseases. The new criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and the diagnosis of axial and peripheral involvement in spondyloarthritis, permit an earlier diagnosis without having to wait for radiological changes. One of the major health challenges is the global shortage of health workers, and based on current training of health workers and traditional models of care for service delivery, the global situation is unlikely to change in the near future. Thus, new models of care and strategies to train community health-care workers and primary health-care practitioners to detect and initiate the management of patients with MSK disorders at an earlier stage are required. There is also a need for prevention strategies with campaigns to educate and raise awareness among the entire population. Lifestyle interventions such as maintaining an ideal body weight to prevent obesity, regular exercises, avoidance of smoking and alcohol

  7. Don E. Detmer and the American Medical Informatics Association: An Appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Bates, David W.; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Greenwood, Karen; Safran, Charles; Steen, Elaine B.; Tang, Paul C.; Williamson, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Don E. Detmer has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) for the past five years, helping to set a course for the organization and demonstrating remarkable leadership as AMIA has evolved into a vibrant and influential professional association. On the occasion of Dr. Detmer's retirement, we fondly reflect on his professional life and his many contributions to biomedical informatics and, more generally, to health care in the U.S. and globally. PMID:19574463

  8. Informatic system for a global tissue–fluid biorepository with a graph theory–oriented graphical user interface

    PubMed Central

    Butler, William E.; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour–specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory–driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science. PMID:25317275

  9. Informatic system for a global tissue-fluid biorepository with a graph theory-oriented graphical user interface.

    PubMed

    Butler, William E; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour-specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory-driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science.

  10. Informatics: A Brief Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…

  11. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-09-23

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm.

  12. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm PMID:26673467

  13. Nursing informatics competencies: bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun, Helena; Vošner, Janez; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology is developing rapidly and it is incorporated in many health care processes, but in spite of that fact we can still notice that nursing informatics competencies had received limited attention in basic nursing education curricula in Europe and especially in Eastern European countries. The purpose of the present paper is to present the results of a bibliometric analysis of the nursing informatics competencies scientific literature production. We applied the bibliometrics analysis to the corpus of 332 papers found in SCOPUS, related to nursing informatics competencies. The results showed that there is a positive trend in the number of published papers per year, indicating the increased research interest in nursing informatics competencies. Despite the fact that the first paper was published in Denmark, the most prolific country regarding the research in nursing informatics competencies is United States as are their institutions and authors.

  14. An Approach for All in Pharmacy Informatics Education.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Flynn, Allen; Clauson, Kevin A; Seaton, Terry L; Breeden, Elizabeth

    2017-03-25

    Computerization is transforming health care. All clinicians are users of health information technology (HIT). Understanding fundamental principles of informatics, the field focused on information needs and uses, is essential if HIT is going to support improved patient outcomes. Informatics education for clinicians is a national priority. Additionally, some informatics experts are needed to bring about innovations in HIT. A common approach to pharmacy informatics education has been slow to develop. Meanwhile, accreditation standards for informatics in pharmacy education continue to evolve. A gap remains in the implementation of informatics education for all pharmacy students and it is unclear what expert informatics training should cover. In this article, we propose the first of two complementary approaches to informatics education in pharmacy: to incorporate fundamental informatics education into pharmacy curricula for all students. The second approach, to train those students interested in becoming informatics experts to design, develop, implement, and evaluate HIT, will be presented in a subsequent issue of the Journal.

  15. An Approach for All in Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Allen; Clauson, Kevin A.; Seaton, Terry L.; Breeden, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Computerization is transforming health care. All clinicians are users of health information technology (HIT). Understanding fundamental principles of informatics, the field focused on information needs and uses, is essential if HIT is going to support improved patient outcomes. Informatics education for clinicians is a national priority. Additionally, some informatics experts are needed to bring about innovations in HIT. A common approach to pharmacy informatics education has been slow to develop. Meanwhile, accreditation standards for informatics in pharmacy education continue to evolve. A gap remains in the implementation of informatics education for all pharmacy students and it is unclear what expert informatics training should cover. In this article, we propose the first of two complementary approaches to informatics education in pharmacy: to incorporate fundamental informatics education into pharmacy curricula for all students. The second approach, to train those students interested in becoming informatics experts to design, develop, implement, and evaluate HIT, will be presented in a subsequent issue of the Journal. PMID:28381898

  16. Knowledge for medicine and health care--laudation at the occasion of the honorary doctorate bestowed to Donald A. B. Lindberg by UMIT, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology in Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, Jan H

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Donald A. B. Lindberg, Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, received an honorary doctorate from UMIT, the University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology in Innsbruck, Tyrol. The celebration took place on September 28, 2004 at an academic event during a conference of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies of Medical Informatics, GMDS2004. Dr. Lindberg has been a pioneer in the field of computers in health care from the early 1960s onwards. In 1984 he became the Director of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, the world's largest fully computerized biomedical library. Dr. Lindberg has been involved in the early activities of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), among others being the chair of the Organizing Committee for MEDINFO 86 in Washington D.C. He was elected the first president of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), and served as an editor of Methods of Information in Medicine.

  17. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  18. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  19. Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current definitions of 'global health' lack specificity about the term 'global'. This debate presents and discusses existing definitions of 'global health' and a common problem inherent therein. It aims to provide a way forward towards an understanding of 'global health' while avoiding redundancy. The attention is concentrated on the dialectics of different concepts of 'global' in their application to malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. Further attention is payed to normative objectives attached to 'global health' definitions and to paradoxes involved in attempts to define the field. Discussion The manuscript identifies denotations of 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic'. A fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial' is presented and defined as 'links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world'. The rhetorical power of the denotations impacts considerably on the object of 'global health', exemplified in the context of malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. The 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic' house contradictions which can be overcome by the fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial'. The 'global-local-relationship' inherent in the proposed concept coheres with influential anthropological and sociological views despite the use of different terminology. At the same time, it may be assembled with other views on 'global' or amend apparently conflicting ones. The author argues for detaching normative objectives from 'global health' definitions to avoid so called 'entanglement-problems'. Instead, it is argued that the proposed concept constitutes an un-euphemistical approach to describe the inherently politicised field of 'global health'. Summary While global-as-worldwide and global-as-transcending-national-boundaries are misleading and produce redundancy with public and

  20. Improving global health education: development of a Global Health Competency Model.

    PubMed

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Biberman, Dorothy A; Weist, Elizabeth M; Buekens, Pierre; Bentley, Margaret E; Burke, Donald; Finnegan, John R; Flahault, Antoine; Frenk, Julio; Gotsch, Audrey R; Klag, Michael J; Rodriguez Lopez, Mario Henry; Nasca, Philip; Shortell, Stephen; Spencer, Harrison C

    2014-03-01

    Although global health is a recommended content area for the future of education in public health, no standardized global health competency model existed for master-level public health students. Without such a competency model, academic institutions are challenged to ensure that students are able to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) needed for successful performance in today's global health workforce. The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) sought to address this need by facilitating the development of a global health competency model through a multistage modified-Delphi process. Practitioners and academic global health experts provided leadership and guidance throughout the competency development process. The resulting product, the Global Health Competency Model 1.1, includes seven domains and 36 competencies. The Global Health Competency Model 1.1 provides a platform for engaging educators, students, and global health employers in discussion of the KSAs needed to improve human health on a global scale.

  1. Double Standards in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level. PMID:27781001

  2. Women in biomedical engineering and health informatics and its impact on gender representation for accepted publications at IEEE EMBC 2007.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Carolyn; Smith, Kathleen P; Percival, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The study of women within the professions of Engineering and Computer Science has consistently been found to demonstrate women as a minority within these professions. However none of that previous work has assessed publication behaviours based on gender. This paper presents research findings on gender distribution of authors of accepted papers for the IEEE Engineering and Medicine Society annual conference for 2007 (EMBC '07) held in Lyon, France. This information is used to present a position statement of the current state of gender representation for conference publication within the domain of biomedical engineering and health informatics. Issues in data preparation resulting from the lack of inclusion of gender in information gathered from accepted authors are presented and discussed.

  3. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path.

  4. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  5. Why “What Data Are Necessary for This Project?” and Other Basic Questions are Important to Address in Public Health Informatics Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.; Grannis, Shaun J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes. PMID:23569618

  6. Why "What Data Are Necessary for This Project?" and Other Basic Questions are Important to Address in Public Health Informatics Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Grannis, Shaun J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes.

  7. Control of the Public Health IT Physical Infrastructure: Findings From the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in information technology (IT) infrastructure in public health, there is still much that can be done to improve the adoption of IT in state and local health departments, by better understanding the impact of governance and control structures of physical infrastructure. Objective: To report out the current status of the physical infrastructure control of local health departments (LHDs) and to determine whether there is a significant association between an LHD's governance status and control of the physical infrastructure components. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included control of LHD physical infrastructure components. Predictors of interest included LHD governance category. Results: The majority of the control of the physical infrastructure components in LHDs resides in external entities. The type of governance structure of the LHD is significantly associated with the control of infrastructure. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to determine best practices in IT governance and control of physical infrastructure for public health. PMID:27684612

  8. Locating global health in social medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues.

  9. Biotechnology, biofortification, and global health.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ross M

    2005-12-01

    Deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A afflict over three billion people (more than 50% of the world's population), most of them women, infants, and children in resource-poor families in the developing world. This global crisis in nutritional health is the result of dysfunctional food systems that do not consistently supply enough of these essential nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of high-risk groups. Deficiencies of micronutrients result in increased morbidity and mortality rates, lost worker productivity, stagnated national development, permanent impairment of cognitive development in infants and children, and large economic costs and suffering to those societies affected. Because agricultural systems are the primary source of all micronutrients for all people, changes in agricultural policies and systems must be made that will ensure consistent and adequate supplies of all essential nutrients to all people. Additionally, the nutrition and health sectors must turn to agricultural interventions as a primary tool in their efforts to eliminate malnutrition from the world if they want to ensure sustainability. Biotechnological advances show great promise for improving the output of bioavailable micronutrients from agricultural systems that feed the poor. This paper reviews some of these opportunities and discusses the questions and concerns that should be raised when these technologies are used to improve the micronutrient status of vast numbers of people who are dependent on staple food crops for their sustenance. Further, important issues surrounding micronutrient bioavailability and plant food factors that affect it are discussed.

  10. Global warming and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.

  11. Climate Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  12. Medical informatics between technology, philosophy and science.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2004-01-01

    Medical (health) informatics occupies the central place in all the segments of modern medicine in the past thirty years--in practical work, education and scientific research. In all that, computers have taken over the most important role and are used intensively for the development of the health information systems. Following activities develop within the area of health informatics: health-documentation, health-statistics, health-informatics and biomedical scientific and professional information. The medical informatics as the separate medical discipline very quickly gets developed, both in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In our country, the medical informatics is a separate subject for the last ten years, regarding to the Medical curriculum at the biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina is in accordance with the project of the education related to Bologna declaration and the project EURO MEDICINA.

  13. A Study of Global Health Elective Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Christiana M.; Tran, Tony; Silverman, Melanie; Palfrey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To identify the effects of global health electives over a decade in a pediatric residency program. Methods: This was an anonymous email survey of the Boston Combined Residency alumni funded for global health electives from 2002 to 2011. A test for trend in binomial proportions and logistic regression were used to document associations between elective and participant characteristics and the effects of the electives. Qualitative data were also analyzed. Results: Of the 104 alumni with available email addresses, 69 (66%) responded, describing 94 electives. Elective products included 27 curricula developed, 11 conference presentations, and 7 academic publications. Thirty-two (46%) alumni continued global health work. Previous experience, previous travel to the site, number of global electives, and cumulative global elective time were associated with postresidency work in global health or with the underserved. Conclusions: Resident global electives resulted in significant scholarship and teaching and contributed to long-term career trajectories. PMID:28229096

  14. Global public health today: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  15. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  16. Health@Home: The Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Anne; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in a given physical environment. Design: We conducted a descriptive-exploratory study of the work of HIMH, involving 49 community-dwelling volunteers from a rural Midwestern community. Measurements: During in-person interviews, we collected data using semistructured questionnaires and photographs of artifacts used for HIMH. Results: The work of HIMH is largely the responsibility of a single individual, primarily engaged in the tasks of acquiring, managing, and organizing a diverse set of health information. Paper-based tools are most common, and residents develop strategies for storing information in the household environment aligned with anticipated use. Affiliative relationships, e.g., parent-child or spousal, within the household serve as the organization that gives rise to health information management practices. Synthesis of these findings led to identification of several storage strategies employed in HIMH. These strategies are labeled “just-in-time,” “just-because,” “just-in-case,” and “just-at-hand,” reflecting location of the artifacts of health information and anticipated urgency in the need to retrieve it. Conclusion: Laypeople develop and employ robust, complex strategies for managing health information in the home. Capitalizing on these strategies will complement and extend current consumer health innovations to provide functional support to people who face increasing demands to manage personal health information. PMID:16049230

  17. Using a Health Informatics System to Assess Effect of a Federal Cigarette Tax Increase on Readiness to Quit Among Low-Income Smokers, Louisiana, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Horswell, Ronald; Yi, Yong; Celestin, Michael D.; Jones, Krysten D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health informatics systems are a proven tool for tobacco control interventions. To address the needs of low-income groups, the Tobacco Control Initiative was established in partnership with the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division to provide cost-effective tobacco use cessation services through the health informatics system in the state public hospital system. Methods In this study we used a Web-based, result-reporting application to monitor and assess the effect of the 2009 federal cigarette tax increase. We assessed readiness to quit tobacco use before and after a cigarette tax increase among low-income tobacco users who were outpatients in a public hospital system. Results Overall, there was an increase in readiness to quit, from 22% during the first week of February to 33% during the first week of April, when the tax went into effect. Smokers who were female, 31 or older, African American, and assessed at a clinic visit in April were more likely to report readiness to quit than were men, those aged 30 or younger, those who were white, and those who were assessed at a clinic visit in February. Conclusion A health informatics system that efficiently tracks trends in readiness to quit can be used in combination with other strategies and thus optimize efforts to control tobacco use. Our data suggest that a cigarette tax increase affects smokers’ readiness to quit and provides an opportunity to intervene at the most beneficial time. PMID:24698530

  18. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power

    PubMed Central

    Marten, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health. PMID:26927595

  19. Identifying global health competencies to prepare 21st century global health professionals: report from the global health competency subcommittee of the consortium of universities for global health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lynda; Callender, Brian; Hall, Thomas L; Jogerst, Kristen; Torres, Herica; Velji, Anvar

    2014-12-01

    As universities increase their focus on global health-related professional education, the need for specific competencies and outcomes to guide curriculum development is urgent. To address this need, the chair of the Education Committee of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) appointed a Subcommittee to determine if there is a need for broad global health core competencies applicable across disciplines, and if so, what those competencies should be. Based on that work, this paper (a) discusses the benefits of developing interprofessional and discipline-specific global health competencies; (b) highlights themes that emerged from a preliminary review of existing related literature; and (c) reviews the process used to identify two levels of interprofessional global health competencies.

  20. PREPARING HEALTH PROFESSIONS VOLUNTEERS TO SERVE GLOBALLY.

    PubMed

    Carey, Rebekah E; Carter-Templeton, Heather; Paltzer, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Scant literature exists to describe the global health and collaboration competence of international healthcare professional volunteers. An educational program to prepare volunteers for short-term service in resource-poor settings was developed. Pre- and post- program competence and team collaboration levels were assessed in 18 healthcare professionals. A significant improvement (p < .05) occurred in global health competence after education. Formal educational preparation of international health volunteers can enhance their overall effectiveness when serving in resource-poor settings. Extensive resources for global health education are referenced.

  1. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that the global climate is warming, the process is accelerating, and that human activities are very likely (>90% probability) the main cause. This warming will have effects on ecosystems and human health, many of them adverse. Children will experience both the direct and indirect effects of climate change. Actions taken by individuals, communities, businesses, and governments will affect the magnitude and rate of global climate change and resultant health impacts. This technical report reviews the nature of the global problem and anticipated health effects on children and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health.

  2. Ethics and governance of global health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, J P

    2006-01-01

    Background A world divided by health inequalities poses ethical challenges for global health. International and national responses to health disparities must be rooted in ethical values about health and its distribution; this is because ethical claims have the power to motivate, delineate principles, duties and responsibilities, and hold global and national actors morally responsible for achieving common goals. Theories of justice are necessary to define duties and obligations of institutions and actors in reducing inequalities. The problem is the lack of a moral framework for solving problems of global health justice. Aim To study why global health inequalities are morally troubling, why efforts to reduce them are morally justified, how they should be measured and evaluated; how much priority disadvantaged groups should receive; and to delineate roles and responsibilities of national and international actors and institutions. Discussion and conclusions Duties and obligations of international and state actors in reducing global health inequalities are outlined. The ethical principles endorsed include the intrinsic value of health to well‐being and equal respect for all human life, the importance of health for individual and collective agency, the concept of a shortfall from the health status of a reference group, and the need for a disproportionate effort to help disadvantaged groups. This approach does not seek to find ways in which global and national actors address global health inequalities by virtue of their self‐interest, national interest, collective security or humanitarian assistance. It endorses the more robust concept of “human flourishing” and the desire to live in a world where all people have the capability to be healthy. Unlike cosmopolitan theory, this approach places the role of the nation‐state in the forefront with primary, though not sole, moral responsibility. Rather shared health governance is essential for delivering health equity

  3. Global health in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Laaser, Ulrich; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides. Review For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world. Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand. Civil society, as an indispensable activator of public health development, mainly represented by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is characterised by a high degree of fragmentation and lack of public accountability. The World Federation of Public Health Associations is used as an example of an NGO with a global mission and fostering regional cooperation as an indispensable intermediate level. The lack of a globally valid terminology of basic public health functions is prohibitive for coordinated global and regional efforts. Attempts to harmonise essential public health functions, services and operations are under way to facilitate communication and mutual understanding. Recommendations 1) Given the limited effects of the Millennium Development Goal agenda, the Post-2015 Development Goals should focus on integrated regional development. 2) A code of conduct for NGOs should be urgently developed for the health sector, and NGOs should be registered and accredited. 3) The harmonisation of the basic terminology for global public health essentials should be enhanced. PMID:24560267

  4. Innovation and technology for global public health.

    PubMed

    Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have been marked by the explosive development of innovative scientific, technological and business products and processes. Despite their immense impact on health globally, little has been accomplished in the field of global public health to incorporate, address and harness such innovations in practice. In order to meet the world's growing health needs, it is essential that global public health accepts and adapts to these innovations. Moreover, such innovations must be implemented equitably in ways that will best serve their intended recipients, without deepening health- and access-related disparities. This article will briefly discuss the wide array of technologies in the pipeline that will affect global public health practice, their impact on the field and on populations and the issues facing the field in adopting these innovations.

  5. Medicalization of global health 2: The medicalization of global mental health.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, 'global mental health' now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives.

  6. Global Health Governance at a Crossroads.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nora Y; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-06-21

    This review takes stock of the global health governance (GHG) literature. We address the transition from international health governance (IHG) to global health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and global public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG's major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health's multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the global economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a global public good); 6) global health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise.

  7. Global health politics: neither solidarity nor policy

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Claudio A.

    2014-01-01

    The global health agenda has been dominating the current global health policy debate. Furthermore, it has compelled countries to embrace strategies for tackling health inequalities in a wide range of public health areas. The article by Robert and colleagues highlights that although globalization has increased opportunities to share and spread ideas, there is still great asymmetry of power according to the countries’ economic and political development. It also emphasizes how policy diffusion from High Income Countries (HICs) to Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have had flaws at understanding their political, economic, and cultural backgrounds while they are pursuing knowledge translation. Achieving a fair global health policy diffusion of ideas would imply a call for a renewal on political elites worldwide at coping global health politics. Accordingly, moving towards fairness in disseminating global health ideas should be driven by politics not only as one of the social determinants of health, but the main determinant of health and well-being among—and within—societies. PMID:25114949

  8. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  9. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  10. Global warming and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Amofah, G K

    1996-08-01

    The paper looks at the phenomenon of global warming and its potential health effects and outlines a number of plausible response by the health sector in developing countries to its threat. It suggests that the health sector should facilitate an international effort at addressing this challenge, mainly through advocacy, epidemiological surveillance and awareness creation.

  11. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Gupta, Veer B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines. PMID:27854266

  12. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek K; Gupta, Veer B

    2016-11-15

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines.

  13. Medicalization of global health 2: the medicalization of global mental health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, ‘global mental health’ now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives. PMID:24848660

  14. Transforming global health with mobile technologies and social enterprises: global health and innovation conference.

    PubMed

    Kayingo, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    More than 2,000 people convened for the ninth annual Global Health and Innovation Conference at Yale University on April 21-22, 2012. Participants discussed the latest innovations, ideas in development, lessons learned, opportunities and challenges in global health activities. Several themes emerged, including the important role of frontline workers, strengthening health systems, leveraging social media, and sustainable and impact-driven philanthropy. Overall, the major outcome of the conference was the increased awareness of the potential of mobile technologies and social enterprises in transforming global health. Experts warned that donations and technological advances alone will not transform global health unless there are strong functioning health infrastructures and improved workforce. It was noted that there is a critical need for an integrated systems approach to global health problems and a need for scaling up promising pilot projects. Lack of funding, accountability, and sustainability were identified as major challenges in global health.

  15. Global Health Governance at a Crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nora Y.; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    This review takes stock of the global health governance (GHG) literature. We address the transition from international health governance (IHG) to global health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and global public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG’s major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health’s multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the global economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a global public good); 6) global health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise. PMID:24729828

  16. Ethical Issues in Pediatric Global Health.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lisa; Suresh, Gautham K; Lahey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to the priorities and decision-making of adults. Usually, parents/caregivers make the difficult healthcare decisions for their children based on the recommendations from the child's healthcare providers. In global health work, healthcare team members from different countries and cultures may guide healthcare decisions by parents and children, and as a result ethical assumptions may not be shared. As a result, ethical issues in pediatric global health are numerous and complex. Here we discuss critical ethical issues in global health at an individual and organizational level in hopes this supports optimized decision-making on behalf of children worldwide.

  17. Five Periods in Development of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Medical informatics, as scientific discipline, has to do with all aspects of understanding and promoting the effective organization, analysis, management, and use of information in health care. While the field of Medical informatics shares the general scope of these interests with some other health care specialities and disciplines, Medical (Health) informatics has developed its own areas of emphasis and approaches that have set it apart from other disciplines and specialities. For the last fifties of 20th century and some more years of 21st century, Medical informatics had the five time periods of characteristic development. In this paper author shortly described main scientific innovations and inventors who created development of Medical informatics. PMID:24648619

  18. Global Health Justice and the Right to Health.

    PubMed

    Widdows, Heather

    2015-12-01

    This paper reflects on Lawrence Gostin's Global Health Law. In so doing seeks to contribute to the debate about how global health justice is best conceived and achieved. Gostin's vision of global health is one which is communal and in which health is directly connected to other justice concerns. Hence the need for health-in-all policies, and the importance of focusing on basic and communal health goods rather than high-tech and individual ones. This paper asks whether this broadly communal vision of global health justice is best served by making the right to health central to the project. It explores a number of reasons why rights-talk might be problematic in the context of health justice; namely, structurally, rights are individual and state-centric and politically, they are oppositional and better suited to single-issue campaigns. The paper argues that stripping rights of their individualist assumptions is difficult, and perhaps impossible, and hence alternative approaches, such as those Gostin endorses based on global public goods and health security, might deliver much, perhaps most, global health goods, while avoiding the problems of rights-talk.

  19. Core content for the subspecialty of clinical informatics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Reed M; Overhage, J Marc; Steen, Elaine B; Munger, Benson S; Holmes, John H; Williamson, Jeffrey J; Detmer, Don E

    2009-01-01

    The Core Content for Clinical Informatics defines the boundaries of the discipline and informs the Program Requirements for Fellowship Education in Clinical Informatics. The Core Content includes four major categories: fundamentals, clinical decision making and care process improvement, health information systems, and leadership and management of change. The AMIA Board of Directors approved the Core Content for Clinical Informatics in November 2008.

  20. Global health-a circumpolar perspective.

    PubMed

    Chatwood, Susan; Bjerregaard, Peter; Young, T Kue

    2012-07-01

    Global health should encompass circumpolar health if it is to transcend the traditional approach of the "rich North" assisting the "poor South." Although the eight Arctic states are among the world's most highly developed countries, considerable health disparities exist among regions across the Arctic, as well as between northern and southern regions and between indigenous and nonindigenous populations within some of these states. While sharing commonalities such as a sparse population, geographical remoteness, harsh physical environment, and underdeveloped human resources, circumpolar regions in the northern hemisphere have developed different health systems, strategies, and practices, some of which are relevant to middle and lower income countries. As the Arctic gains prominence as a sentinel of global issues such as climate change, the health of circumpolar populations should be part of the global health discourse and policy development.

  1. Agile informatics: application of agile project management to the development of a personal health application.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeanhee; Pankey, Evan; Norris, Ryan J

    2007-10-11

    We describe the application of the Agile method-- a short iteration cycle, user responsive, measurable software development approach-- to the project management of a modular personal health record, iHealthSpace, to be deployed to the patients and providers of a large academic primary care practice.

  2. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  3. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  4. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  5. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  6. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... priorities are changing, and Fogarty is helping to train medical researchers around the globe to meet new ... discovery; the remaining two-thirds provide support to train research scientists in global health. Dr. Roger Glass, ...

  7. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    PubMed

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  8. Reducing global health inequalities. Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Kenneth; Soulsby, EJL

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes four UK reviews of socially stratified health inequalities that were undertaken during the past five decades. It describes the background of misplaced optimism and false hopes which characterized the UK's own record of health inequalities; the broken promises on debt cancellations which was the experience of developing countries. It describes why the UK's past leadership record in international health provides grounds for optimism for the future and for benefits for both developed and developing countries through the adoption of more collaborative approaches to global health than have characterized international relationships in the past. It recalls the enthusiasm generated in the UK, and internationally, by the establishment of the Global Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. It promotes the perception of health both as a global public good and as a developmental issue and why a focus on poverty is essential to the address of global health issues. It sees the designing of appropriate strategies and partnerships towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals as an important first step for achieving successful address to global public health issues. PMID:21816930

  9. Global mental health: Global strengths and strategies Task-shifting in a shifting health economy.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Melvin G; Merajver, Sofia D

    2011-09-01

    Global mental health challenges sit at the frontiers of health care worldwide. The frequency of mental health disorders is increasing, and represents a large portion of the global burden of human disease (DALYs). There are many impeding forces in delivering mental health care globally. The knowledge of what mental health and its diseased states are limits the ability to seek appropriate care. Limited training and experience among primary providers dilutes the capacity of systems for adequate care, support, and intervention. There are limited numbers of medical personnel worldwide to attend to individuals afflicted by mental health disorders. The challenges of global mental health are the capacity of the global systems to enhance knowledge and literacy surrounding mental health disorders, enhance and expand ways of identifying and treating mental health disorders effectively at an early stage in its course. Much has been written about the epidemiology of mental health disorders globally followed by discussions of the need for improvements in programs that will improve the lot of the mentally ill. Task shifting involves the engaging of human resources, generally nonprofessional, in the care of mental health disorders. Engaging traditional healers and community health workers in the identification and management of mental health disorders is a very strong potential opportunity for task shifting care in mental health. In doing so it will be necessary to study the concept of mental health literacy of traditional healers and health workers in a process of mutual alignment of purpose founded on evidence based research.

  10. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  11. Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Patricia A; Meek, Laura A; Dumit, Joe

    2013-05-01

    The One Health approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal and ecosystem health, encourages collaboration between diverse disciplines to address complex health problems. The advantages and challenges posed by these interdisciplinary collaborations are described in this review. Learning networks where diverse participants can openly share processes, best practices, and case studies are discussed as a strategy for conducting transdisciplinary One Health research and tackling complex global health problems. The 11 papers in this special issue are also introduced as they illustrate how a One Health approach can be applied to better understand and control zoonotic pathogens, engage community stakeholders in One Health research and utilize wildlife species, most notably sea otters and birds, as sentinels of ecosystem health. Collaboration is rarely without complications; however, drawing on these insights may benefit the process of operationalizing the One Health approach to address today's global health challenges.

  12. Role of students in global health delivery.

    PubMed

    Finch, Thomas H; Chae, Sae-Rom; Shafaee, Maryam N; Siegel, Karen R; Ali, Mohammed K; Tomei, Rachelle; Panjabi, Rajesh; Kishore, Sandeep P

    2011-01-01

    What role do students have in global health activities? On one hand, students have much to offer, including innovative ideas, fresh knowledge and perspective, and inspiring energy. At the same time, students lack technical credentials and may drain resources from host communities. Here, we examine the dynamic, contemporary roles of students in global health activities, including health delivery. We focus on 3 themes that guide engagement: (1) fostering an enabling policy environment (eg, toward greater health equity); (2) understanding and working within the local context and governments' needs; and (3) leading bidirectional partnerships. We next study the implications of short-term exposure and long-term engagement programs. We conclude with 4 recommendations on how to better equip students to engage in the next frontier of global health education and future action.

  13. Improving global health care through diversity.

    PubMed

    Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-10-01

    One of the major challenges facing the nursing profession is the globalization of nursing education, research, and practice. The word diversity is derived from the Latin word divertere meaning being different or having differences. Diversity in nursing practice means providing competent care to clients from different cultures, conducting research in multi-cultural settings, and implementing educational programs to diverse populations. Key principles and practices that provide a framework for diverse relationships in nursing practice, research, and education must be driven by a professional commitment in building a global community that is inclusive, respectful, and dedicated to global health care for all. Through international collaborations and individual and collective partnerships, nurses can build bridges between and among national health care systems, strengthen the international health care infrastructure, broaden health care delivery systems, and improve the quality of health care for all.

  14. Thinking big about global health.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ingfei

    2006-02-24

    The Gates Foundation is funding high-risk research into new ways to improve health in developing countries, but ensuring that the fruits of these studies reach the people who need them most may be the biggest challenge of all.

  15. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  16. China's distinctive engagement in global health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peilong; Guo, Yan; Qian, Xu; Tang, Shenglan; Li, Zhihui; Chen, Lincoln

    2014-08-30

    China has made rapid progress in four key domains of global health. China's health aid deploys medical teams, constructs facilities, donates drugs and equipment, trains personnel, and supports malaria control mainly in Africa and Asia. Prompted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, China has prioritised the control of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases and other health-related risks. In governance, China has joined UN and related international bodies and has begun to contribute to pooled multilateral funds. China is both a knowledge producer and sharer, offering lessons based on its health accomplishments, traditional Chinese medicine, and research and development investment in drug discovery. Global health capacity is being developed in medical universities in China, which also train foreign medical students. China's approach to global health is distinctive; different from other countries; and based on its unique history, comparative strength, and policies driven by several governmental ministries. The scope and depth of China's global engagement are likely to grow and reshape the contours of global health.

  17. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-05-03

    Health geography has emerged from under the "shadow of the medical" to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  18. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-31

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

  19. Globalization and health: results and options.

    PubMed

    Cornia, G A

    2001-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the emergence and consolidation of an economic paradigm which emphasizes domestic deregulation and the removal of barriers to international trade and finance. If properly managed, such an approach can lead to perceptible gains in health status. Where markets are non-exclusionary, regulatory institutions strong and safety nets in place, globalization enhances the performance of countries with a good human and physical infrastructure but narrow domestic markets. Health gains in China, Costa Rica, the East Asian "tiger economies" and Viet Nam can be attributed in part to their growing access to global markets, savings and technology. However, for most of the remaining countries, many of them in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, globalization has not lived up to its promises due to a combination of poor domestic conditions, an unequal distribution of foreign investments and the imposition of new conditions further limiting the access of their exports to the OECD markets. In these developing countries, the last twenty years have brought about a slow, unstable and unequal pattern of growth and stagnation in health indicators. Autarky is not the answer to this situation, but neither is premature, unconditional and unselective globalization. Further unilateral liberalization is unlikely to help them to improve their economic performance and health conditions. For them, a gradual and selective integration into the world economy linked to the removal of asymmetries in global markets and to the creation of democratic institutions of global governance is preferable to instant globalization.

  20. Globalization and health: results and options.

    PubMed Central

    Cornia, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the emergence and consolidation of an economic paradigm which emphasizes domestic deregulation and the removal of barriers to international trade and finance. If properly managed, such an approach can lead to perceptible gains in health status. Where markets are non-exclusionary, regulatory institutions strong and safety nets in place, globalization enhances the performance of countries with a good human and physical infrastructure but narrow domestic markets. Health gains in China, Costa Rica, the East Asian "tiger economies" and Viet Nam can be attributed in part to their growing access to global markets, savings and technology. However, for most of the remaining countries, many of them in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, globalization has not lived up to its promises due to a combination of poor domestic conditions, an unequal distribution of foreign investments and the imposition of new conditions further limiting the access of their exports to the OECD markets. In these developing countries, the last twenty years have brought about a slow, unstable and unequal pattern of growth and stagnation in health indicators. Autarky is not the answer to this situation, but neither is premature, unconditional and unselective globalization. Further unilateral liberalization is unlikely to help them to improve their economic performance and health conditions. For them, a gradual and selective integration into the world economy linked to the removal of asymmetries in global markets and to the creation of democratic institutions of global governance is preferable to instant globalization. PMID:11584731

  1. Rating the Raters: Legal Exposure of Trustmark Authorities in the Context of Consumer Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    There are three areas of potential legal exposure for an organization such as a trustmark authority involved in e-health quality rating. First, an e-health provider may make a complaint about negative or impliedly negative ratings rendered by the ratings body (false negative). Typically, a negative ratings complaint would rely on defamation or product disparagement causes of action. In some cases such complaints could be defended on the basis of absence of malice (US). Second, the rating body might render a positive rating on e-health data that a third party allegedly relied upon and suffered injury (false positive). While the primary cause of action would be against the e-health data provider, questions may arise as to the possible liability of the trustmark authority. For example, some US liability exposure is possible based on cases involving the potential liability of product warrantors, trade associations, and certifiers or endorsers. Third, a ratings body may face public law liability for its own web misfeasance. Several risk management approaches are possible and would not necessarily be mutually exclusive. These approaches will require careful investigation to assess their risk reduction potential and, in some cases, the introduction of legislation. PMID:11720941

  2. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives.

  3. [Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health. InformAzione (InformAction) is the title of the last OISG report (Italian observatory on Global Health), dedicated to information and education, the essential bases for a conscious action aimed at decreasing inequalities. Increasing the investments in information, education and interventions oriented to global health may broaden the number of aware and informed citizens, able to start a dialogue, to make pressures to increase the interventions in favor of those in need.

  4. Applying new thinking from the linked and emerging fields of digital identity and privacy to information governance in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John; Booth, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Recent work in the emerging field of network or digital identity suggests a new approach to the design of informatics systems, in which the individual becomes the guardian of their own personal data, and is assisted in controlling access to it by an infrastructure that is aware of roles, such as 'doctor', and relationships, such as 'doctor-patient'.For these purposes, an 'identity' is defined as the history of a relationship between two entities, and thus encompasses not only name and address but also data that would usually be regarded as part of an electronic patient or health record. This paper presents a description of how such a true person-centric architecture might work, and shows how it can be seen as an evolution of current plans in the NHS for a national patient data spine. One application, the electronic transmission of prescriptions, is described in detail. Other applications, both within and without the healthcare field, are described in outline. The implementation of such a person-centric system requires a modest degree of technical innovation, but significant change in organisational and business models. It is suggested that there is a need for one or more not-for-profit trusts, each with a remit to act as host for an individual's digital identity, and as the individual's true agent. Service providers - such as healthcare organisations - will pay the trust for provision of authentication, and for the storage and transmission of a patient's data; the trust in turn will pay implementation partners, such as smart card issuers and providers of communication channels, acting on behalf of the individual.

  5. Global atmospheric change and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, W.T.

    1991-12-01

    On November 6-7, 1989, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a Conference on Global Atmospheric Change and Human Health. Since this conference, presented papers have been transformed and revised as articles that address several potential impacts on human health of global warming. Coming when it did, this was a very important conference. At the present time, there is still much uncertainty about whether or not global warming is occurring and, if it is, what effect it will have no human health. All the participants in this conference recognized this uncertainty and addressed potential impacts on human health if surface temperatures continue to rise and greater amounts of shorter wavelength ultraviolet (UV) radiation continue to reach the earth's surface as a result of depletion of the ozone layer. Because global warming and ozone depletion will occur over many decades, adverse impacts on human health and the environment may not be reversible. In short, we are in the midst of a huge geophysical experiment with global climate, and we will not know what the outcome will be for many years.

  6. Making Mental Health a Global Priority.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Patricio V; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    At a conference in April in Washington, D.C., the World Bank Group (WBG), together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners kick-started a call to action to governments, international partners, health professionals, and others to find solutions to a rising global mental health problem. Our authors write that mental disorders account for 30 percent of the non-fatal disease burden worldwide and 10 percent of overall disease burden, including death and disability, and that the global cost-estimated to be approximately $2.5 trillion in 2010-is expected to rise to $6 trillion by 2030.

  7. Strategic Implications of Global Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Ascariasis (roundworm), Trichurasis (whipworm), Hookworm , Schistosomiasis (snail fever), Lymphatic Filiarasis (elephantiasis), Trachoma, Onchocerciasis... hookworm -related cognitive disorders severely undermine the ability of children to attend school, while such illnesses as river blindness and...associated with a rare form of bladder cancer. • Poor Maternal Health/Newborn Mortality. Hookworm -caused anemia linked with premature births, low

  8. Knowledge networks for global public health.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Maria Dulce F; Fiereck, Kirk J; Parker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The challenges posed by a globalised world have made it imperative for society to search for solutions to emerging issues and to develop new ways of looking at old problems. Current discussions about global public health demand a shift in paradigms and the strategic positioning of public health within broader policy discussions that will enable it to influence political and action agendas. Critical to responding to these challenges is the generation, transmission and dissemination of new knowledge to create value. Recognising the cutting-edge role of knowledge, as a new form of capital that drives innovation and transforms society, the formation of knowledge networks is viewed as a strategy for developing a shared intellectual, conceptual and ethical infrastructure for the field of global public health. These knowledge networks are envisioned as a vehicle for sharing diverse perspectives, encouraging debate and sustaining alternative ways of thinking about and responding to the challenges that confront global public health today and in the future.

  9. Health Information Technology and Care Coordination: The Next Big Opportunity for Informatics?

    PubMed

    Bates, D W

    2015-08-13

    The costs of care in the U.S. are very high, in part because canre is relatively uncoordinated. To begin to address this and other issues, health care reform was passed, including the notion of accountable care. Under acountable care arrangements, providers are at risk for the costs of the care they provide to groups of patients. Evaluation of costs has made it clear that a large proportion of these costs are in the post-acute setting, and also that many specific problems such as adverse events and unnecessary readmissions occur following transitions. However, the electronic health records of today do not provide a great deal of assistance with the coordination of care, and even the best organizations have relatively primitive systems with respect to care coordination, even though communication is absolutely central to better coordination of care and health information technology (HIT) is a powerful lever for improving communication. This paper identifies specific gaps in care coordination today, presents a framework for better coordinating care using HIT, then describes how specific technologies can be leveraged. Also discussed are the need to build and test specific interventions to improve HIT-related care coordination tools, and the key policy steps needed to accomplish this.

  10. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  11. Global contraceptive use improves health.

    PubMed

    Ross, J A

    1988-01-01

    Over 40% of all cohabiting women, in Asia and Latin America, are using contraceptives, most of them modern methods. In many countries, upper order births are disappearing, and rural birth rates in some regions have fallen nearly as much as urban ones. The average family size is diminishing sharply. It is close to 2 children in Thailand, and below 2 throughout urban China. 4/5 of the developing world's population live in only 17 countries, in which contraceptive use has risen from 41% to 52% of couples in 10 years. Moreover, family planning programs affect the overall health of the population: fewer births have meant fewer maternal deaths, and fewer orphans, fewer infant and child deaths, fewer high-risk births (especially at short intervals and upper parities), fewer children left unimmunized, and fewer unserved by the health services. The extent of this quiet social revolution has its limits. Mainly in the 50 struggling countries of sub-Saharan Africa, most of them with weak health ministries, as well as, among the largest 8 countries, Nigeria and Pakistan, which have changed little. But both are reactivating their family planning programs, and the concentration of 2/3 of the developing world's population in 8 large countries means that only 8 administrations can control the course of vital rates. The consequence of the great transformation induced by contraceptive use has begun to give developing world's women control over their own child bearing, adding freedom to their lives. Nevertheless, if the contraceptive revolution has enormously advanced the cause of international health, it still has a long way to go.

  12. Global ovarian cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to broadly review the scientific literature and summarize the most up-to-date findings on ovarian cancer health disparities worldwide and in the United States (U.S.). Methods The present literature on disparities in ovarian cancer was reviewed. Original research and relevant review articles were included. Results Ovarian cancer health disparities exist worldwide and in the U.S. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affect African American women at all stages of the disease, from presentation through treatment, and ultimately increased mortality and decreased survival, compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased mortality is likely to be explained by unequal access to care and non-standard treatment regimens frequently administered to African American women, but may also be attributed to genetic susceptibility, acquired co-morbid conditions and increased frequency of modifiable risk factors, albeit to substantially lesser extent. Unequal access to care is, in turn, largely a consequence of lower socioeconomic status and lack of private health insurance coverage among the African American population. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for policy changes aimed at facilitating equal access to quality medical care. At the same time, further research is necessary to fully resolve racial disparities in ovarian cancer. PMID:23266352

  13. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  14. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health…

  15. NASH: A global health problem.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Arun J

    2011-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health problem both in the Western world and in the East. This is mainly due to the high prevalence of the disease and its effects on the individual with NAFLD. In the USA, it is estimated that approximately a third of the general population has NAFLD. Increasing age, obesity and the presence of multiple features of metabolic syndrome, especially diabetes, are associated with a higher probability of having non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the individual with NAFLD, excess hepatic fat is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular events, abnormal resting electrocardiography and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have been corroborated in studies in teenagers as well as adults. There is also an increase in cardiovascular mortality, especially in those with NASH. In addition, there is an increased risk of death from a variety of non-hepatocellular cancers. From a liver perspective, NAFLD is associated with a 15-20% risk of progression to cirrhosis. The disease progresses more rapidly in those with diabetes, increasing age and obesity. The PNPLA3 gene mutation at position 148 is associated with not only steatosis, but with the likelihood of having steatohepatitis and increased inflammation and fibrosis. Once cirrhosis develops, the liver disease decompensates at the rate of 3-4% per year. NASH-related cirrhosis is a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer. All of these factors indicate that NAFLD is a common condition that has significant adverse health consequences for those who are afflicted. It is therefore a major public health hazard throughout the world.

  16. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  17. Health Informatics Can Avoid Committing Symbolic Violence by Recognizing and Supporting Generic Decision-making Competencies.

    PubMed

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn; Dowie, Jack

    2015-01-01

    'Symbolic violence' is committed, however well-intentionally, by the imposition of particular conceptualizations of what information, in what form and quality, is needed in order to make an 'informed choice' and hence - by questionable segue - a high quality decision. The social and cultural forms of relevant cognitive capital possessed by those who fail, because of their low general literacy, professionally-set knowledge tests of functional health literacy, are being ignored. Failing to recognise and exploit a particular form of functional decision literacy, in fact leads to symbolic violence being experienced by individuals at any and all levels of general literacy. It leads many to adopt the same range of avoidant and other undesirable strategies within healthcare situations observed in those of low basic literacy. The alternative response we propose exploits the alternative generic decision literacy which comes in the form of the ability to access and use the decision-relevant resources provided for many consumer services and products on comparison websites and magazines. The methodology is the simple form of multi-criteria analysis in which the products' ratings on multiple criteria are combined with criterion weights (supplied by the site) to produce scores and 'best buys' and 'good value for money' verdicts. Our alternative approach extends this approach to healthcare options and permits the incorporation of personal criterion weights in furtherance of person-centred care. Health informaticians, especially those in the decision support field, should build on this widespread generic competence. The fact that it is generic, far from implying context insensitivity, can be seen as a necessary basis for achieving context-sensitivity and sensitivisation at the level of the individual person as they experience a lifelong sequence of healthcare decisions.

  18. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed

    Dollar, D

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries.

  19. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  20. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  1. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  2. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains.

  3. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children’s Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children’s Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto. PMID:27170907

  4. Is global warming harmful to health?

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2000-08-01

    Projections from computer models predict that global warming will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global warming, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global warming and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global warming can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global warming on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global warming.

  5. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  6. Why US Health Care Should Think Globally.

    PubMed

    Ruchman, Samuel G; Singh, Prabhjot; Stapleton, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Why should health care systems in the United States engage with the world's poorest populations abroad while tremendous inequalities in health status and access are pervasive domestically? Traditionally, three arguments have bolstered global engagement: (1) a moral obligation to ensure opportunities to live, (2) a duty to protect against health threats, and (3) a desire to protect against economic downturns precipitated by health crises. We expand this conversation, arguing that US-based clinicians, organizational stewards, and researchers should engage with and learn from low-resource settings' systems and products that deliver high-quality, cost-effective, inclusive care in order to better respond to domestic inequities. Ultimately, connecting "local" and "global" efforts will benefit both populations and is not a sacrifice of one for the other.

  7. An informatics system to support knowledge management in the health sector--the South African National Health Knowledge Network.

    PubMed

    Louw, J A; Seebregts, C J; Makgoba, W M; Fouché, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of a South African national health knowledge network. The methodology is in essence based on the principles of knowledge management and the drivers of a system of innovation. The knowledge network, SA HealthInfo, aims to provide a one-stop interactive forum/resource, for quality-controlled and evidence-based health research information, to a wide spectrum of users, at various levels of aggregation, with the necessary security arrangements and facilities for interaction among users to promote explicit (codified) and tacit knowledge flow. It will therefore stimulate the process of innovation within the South African health system.

  8. [Historical evolution and chinese definition of global health].

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyou; Liang, Xiaohui; Mao, Zongfu; Sun, Jikuan; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yuanli; Ren, Minghui

    2015-03-01

    Under the background of globalization, public health issues are becoming more and more complicated. In the international arena, global health has gradually replaced international health and "global public health" as one of the dominant terms in the field of public health. However, until now, there is no unified understanding and definition for the concept of global health domestically and internationally. In this article, various foreign experts 'views and domestic experts' opinions about the concept of global health are collected and solicited, in order to generalize appropriate Chinese definition of global health of China.

  9. Strategies for addressing global environmental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Davis, E Ann

    2008-10-01

    While each region of the world faces unique public health challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations in Asia constitute a significant global public health challenge. Environmental threats to health are widespread and are increasing as nations in the region undergo rapid industrial development. One of the major predictors of ill health is poverty. Regional poverty puts large populations at risk for ill health, which exacerbates poverty and increases the exposure risk to environmental factors, such as pollution and disease. Patterns of illness have changed dramatically in the last century, and will continue to change in this century. Chemical toxicants in the environment, poverty, and little or no access to health care are all factors contributing to life-threatening diseases. Therefore, it is vital that we develop a better understanding of the mechanisms and interactions between nutrition, infectious disease, environmental exposures, and genetic predisposition in order to develop better prevention methods.

  10. National health expenditures: a global analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Govindaraj, R.; Musgrove, P.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the background research to the World development report 1993: investing in health, an effort was made to estimate public, private and total expenditures on health for all countries of the world. Estimates could be found for public spending for most countries, but for private expenditure in many fewer countries. Regressions were used to predict the missing values of regional and global estimates. These econometric exercises were also used to relate expenditure to measures of health status. In 1990 the world spent an estimated US$ 1.7 trillion (1.7 x 10(12) on health, or $1.9 trillion (1.9 x 10(12)) in dollars adjusted for higher purchasing power in poorer countries. This amount was about 60% public and 40% private in origin. However, as incomes rise, public health expenditure tends to displace private spending and to account for the increasing share of incomes devoted to health. PMID:7923542

  11. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  12. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  13. Digital Libraries and Recent Medical Informatics Research. Findings from the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2001.

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, E; Knaup, P; Maier, C; Mludek, V; Singer, R; Skonetzki, S; Wolff, A C; Haux, R; Kulikowski, C

    2001-05-01

    The Yearbook of Medical Informatics is published annually by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and contains a selection of recent excellent papers on medical informatics research (http://www.med.uni-heidelberg.de/mi/yearbook/index.htm). The special topic of the just published Yearbook 2001 is "Digital Libraries and Medicine". Digital libraries have changed dramatically and will continue to change the way we work with medical knowledge. The selected papers present recent research and new results on digital libraries. As usual, the Yearbook 2001 also contains a variety of papers on other subjects relevant to medical informatics, such as Electronic Patient Records, Health Information Systems, Health and Clinical Management, Decision Support Systems, Education, as well as Image and Signal Processing. This paper will briefly introduce the contributions covering digital libraries and will show how medical informatics research contributes to this important topic.

  14. The coming globalization of health care.

    PubMed

    Berlow, B A; Trigg, D H

    1997-01-01

    In Phase One of the global economy, international marketing of goods was paramount. In Phase Two, the marketing of services is becoming an increasingly important force. And one of the industries best positioned to profit from the globalization of services is U.S. health care. For years, a small number of providers with international reputations has catered to foreign patients. But the competition for this potentially lucrative market is on the verge of exploding. It's been estimated that the number of foreign patients visiting the U.S. for health care will quadruple in the next few years. How is this new global phenomenon unfolding, who are the potential players in the market, and what obstacles and opportunities exist? Is it so preposterous to imagine Egyptians undergoing heart bypasses in Boston? The fact is, it's already starting to happen.

  15. Medicalization of global health 1: has the global health agenda become too medicalized?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Medicalization analyses have roots in sociology and have critical usefulness for understanding contemporary health issues including the ‘post-2015 global health agenda’. Medicalization is more complex than just ‘disease mongering’ – it is a process and not only an outcome; has both positive and negative elements; can be partial rather than complete; and is often sought or challenged by patients or others in the health field. It is understood to be expanding rather than contracting, plays out at the level of interaction or of definitions and agenda-setting, and is said to be largely harmful and costly to individuals and societies. Medicalization of global health issues would overemphasise the role of health care to health; define and frame issues in relation to disease, treatment strategies, and individual behaviour; promote the role of medical professionals and models of care; find support in industry or other advocates of technologies and pharmaceuticals; and discount social contexts, causes, and solutions. In subsequent articles, three case studies are explored, which critically examine predominant issues on the global health agenda: global mental health, non-communicable disease, and universal health coverage. A medicalization lens helps uncover areas where the global health agenda and its framing of problems are shifted toward medical and technical solutions, neglecting necessary social, community, or political action. PMID:24848659

  16. Implementing the global health security agenda: lessons from global health and security programs.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Suman M; Franz, David R

    2015-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) describes a vision for a world that is safe and secure from infectious disease threats; it underscores the importance of developing the international capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to pandemic agents. In February 2014, the United States committed to support the GHSA by expanding and intensifying ongoing efforts across the US government. Implementing these goals will require interagency coordination and harmonization of diverse health security elements. Lessons learned from the Global Health Initiative (GHI), the President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program underscore that centralized political, technical, and fiscal authority will be key to developing robust, sustainable, and integrated global health security efforts across the US government. In this article, we review the strengths and challenges of GHI, PEPFAR, and CTR and develop recommendations for implementing a unified US global health security program.

  17. The World Health Organization and Global Health Governance: post-1990.

    PubMed

    Lidén, J

    2014-02-01

    This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization.

  18. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). The current HR(2005) contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever) required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005) call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010. PMID:21143824

  19. Global health promotion models: enlightenment or entrapment?

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, S; McKeown, K; Williams, J

    1997-12-01

    This paper suggests that there is a tendency for health promotion to be located within models that consider health to be a product of a range of forces, with practice itself assumed to comprise a similarly wide range of activities. This paper develops a critique of this tendency that is essentially accommodating, all embracing and 'neutral'. It is argued that this leads to the masking of tensions between the conflicting values contained within the different elements of the models. We suggest that for health promoters, this is neither conceptually appropriate nor practically sensible. These notions are developed in five main stages. We start by defining some of the key concepts in the piece, e.g. the nature of a 'model' and examples of 'global' models. We then examine some of the general reasons why global models are favoured, with respect to the emergence of the UK's strategy for health, The Health of the Nation. The third stage of the discussion identifies and considers, within the British context, professional and governmental factors perceived to have driven this choice. The fourth aspect of the paper will introduce a critique of the use of global modelling. The paper concludes by critically questioning this evolving relationship, and suggests that it will be essentially conservative and unproductive. We end by reviewing the implications for practice and suggesting a useful way forward.

  20. Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks—addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD), maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis—I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them. The first is problem definition: generating consensus on what the problem is and how it should be addressed. The second is positioning: portraying the issue in ways that inspire external audiences to act. The third is coalition-building: forging alliances with these external actors, particularly ones outside the health sector. The fourth is governance: establishing institutions to facilitate collective action. Research indicates that global health networks that effectively tackle these challenges are more likely to garner support to address the conditions that concern them. In addition to the effectiveness of networks, I also consider their legitimacy, identifying reasons both to affirm and to question their right to exert power.

  1. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  2. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries. PMID:11584730

  3. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahdoot, Samantha; Pacheco, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperature is causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes across the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as climate change, are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security. Children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters, increased heat stress, decreased air quality, altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections, and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. Prompt implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies will protect children against worsening of the problem and its associated health effects. This technical report reviews the nature of climate change and its associated child health effects and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health.

  4. Family health nursing: a response to the global health challenges.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul; Duffy, Tim; Johnston, Brian; Banks, Pauline; Harkess-Murphy, Eileen; Martin, Colin R

    2013-02-01

    The European Family Health Nursing Project is a revitalized World Health Organization initiative led by the University of the West of Scotland. Partner countries include Armenia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. European Union Lifelong Learning funding was received in 2011 to facilitate a consistency of approach in the development of a definition of family health nursing, required core competencies and capabilities, and consequent education and training requirements. Global health challenges have informed the development of the project: increasingly aging populations, the increasing incidence in noncommunicable diseases that are currently the main cause of death, and the significant progress made in the way health systems have developed to meet the demands in relation to access and equality of health services. Governments and policy makers should develop a health workforce based on the principles of teamwork and interdisciplinarity while recognizing the core contribution of the "specialist generalist" role in the primary care setting.

  5. Global health and domestic policy - What motivated the development of the German Global Health Strategy?

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Clemens, Timo; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-11-26

    In 2013, the German government published its national Global Health Strategy, outlining principles and focal topics for German engagement in global health. We asked the question of why Germany has decided to establish a national policy framework for global health at this point in time, and how the development process has taken place. The ultimate goal of this study was to achieve better insights into the respective health and foreign policy processes at the national level. This article reports on the results of semi-structured interviews with those actors that were responsible for initiating and drafting the German Global Health Strategy (GGHS). Our study shows that a series of external developments, stakeholders, and advocacy efforts created an environment conducive to the creation of the strategic document. In addition, a number of internal considerations, struggles, and capacities played a decisive role during the development phase of the GGHS. Understanding these factors better can not only provide substantial insights into global health related policy processes in Germany, but also contribute to the general discourse on the role of the nation state in global health governance.

  6. Public engagement on global health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emma RM; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues. PMID:18492256

  7. The Informatics Opportunities at the Intersection of Patient Safety and Clinical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Kilbridge, Peter M.; Classen, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Health care providers have a basic responsibility to protect patients from accidental harm. At the institutional level, creating safe health care organizations necessitates a systematic approach. Effective use of informatics to enhance safety requires the establishment and use of standards for concept definitions and for data exchange, development of acceptable models for knowledge representation, incentives for adoption of electronic health records, support for adverse event detection and reporting, and greater investment in research at the intersection of informatics and patient safety. Leading organizations have demonstrated that health care informatics approaches can improve safety. Nevertheless, significant obstacles today limit optimal application of health informatics to safety within most provider environments. The authors offer a series of recommendations for addressing these challenges. PMID:18436896

  8. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperatures are causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes in the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as "climate change," are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security, and children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include: physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters; increased heat stress; decreased air quality; altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections; and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. The social foundations of children's mental and physical health are threatened by the specter of far-reaching effects of unchecked climate change, including community and global instability, mass migrations, and increased conflict. Given this knowledge, failure to take prompt, substantive action would be an act of injustice to all children. A paradigm shift in production and consumption of energy is both a necessity and an opportunity for major innovation, job creation, and significant, immediate associated health benefits. Pediatricians have a uniquely valuable role to play in the societal response to this global challenge.

  9. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  10. Virtue in medicine reconsidered: individual health and global health.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon; Upshur, Ross

    2013-01-01

    One hundred years after the Flexner Report recommended major changes to medical education, an international panel has released a vision of medical education for the 21st century. Two major features of this detailed report that were not adequately articulated or developed were (1) the values that underpin care of individual patients and how these could be sustained and promoted, and (2) the values required to promote global health at a time when health disparities are widening. After reviewing the timeless scientific and humanistic foundations of clinical medicine that are essential for the care of individuals, we consider the role of virtue both in relation to individual patient care and in promoting an ethical framework for population health within a cosmopolitan global health perspective, and suggest that many organs of society should contribute to promoting such progress.

  11. Building Global Health Through a Center-Without-Walls: The Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  12. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  13. Global health funding and economic development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

    2012-04-10

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  14. Global health funding and economic development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  15. Crossing the chasm: information technology to biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Brenda G; Balke, C William; Umberger, Gloria H; Talbert, Jeffery; Canales, Denise Niles; Steltenkamp, Carol L; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Accelerating the translation of new scientific discoveries to improve human health and disease management is the overall goal of a series of initiatives integrated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) "Roadmap for Medical Research." The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program is, arguably, the most visible component of the NIH Roadmap providing resources to institutions to transform their clinical and translational research enterprises along the goals of the Roadmap. The CTSA program emphasizes biomedical informatics as a critical component for the accomplishment of the NIH's translational objectives. To be optimally effective, emerging biomedical informatics programs must link with the information technology platforms of the enterprise clinical operations within academic health centers.This report details one academic health center's transdisciplinary initiative to create an integrated academic discipline of biomedical informatics through the development of its infrastructure for clinical and translational science infrastructure and response to the CTSA mechanism. This approach required a detailed informatics strategy to accomplish these goals. This transdisciplinary initiative was the impetus for creation of a specialized biomedical informatics core, the Center for Biomedical Informatics (CBI). Development of the CBI codified the need to incorporate medical informatics including quality and safety informatics and enterprise clinical information systems within the CBI. This article describes the steps taken to develop the biomedical informatics infrastructure, its integration with clinical systems at one academic health center, successes achieved, and barriers encountered during these efforts.

  16. Crossing the Chasm: Information Technology to Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Brenda G.; Balke, C. William; Umberger, Gloria H.; Talbert, Jeffery; Canales, Denise Niles; Steltenkamp, Carol L.; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating the translation of new scientific discoveries to improve human health and disease management is the overall goal of a series of initiatives integrated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Roadmap for Medical Research.” The Clinical and Translational Research Award (CTSA) program is, arguably, the most visible component of the NIH Roadmap providing resources to institutions to transform their clinical and translational research enterprises along the goals of the Roadmap. The CTSA program emphasizes biomedical informatics as a critical component for the accomplishment of the NIH’s translational objectives. To be optimally effective, emerging biomedical informatics programs must link with the information technology (IT) platforms of the enterprise clinical operations within academic health centers. This report details one academic health center’s transdisciplinary initiative to create an integrated academic discipline of biomedical informatics through the development of its infrastructure for clinical and translational science infrastructure and response to the CTSA mechanism. This approach required a detailed informatics strategy to accomplish these goals. This transdisciplinary initiative was the impetus for creation of a specialized biomedical informatics core, the Center for Biomedical Informatics (CBI). Development of the CBI codified the need to incorporate medical informatics including quality and safety informatics and enterprise clinical information systems within the CBI. This paper describes the steps taken to develop the biomedical informatics infrastructure, its integration with clinical systems at one academic health center, successes achieved, and barriers encountered during these efforts. PMID:21383632

  17. Overview of the American College of Rheumatology's Electronic Health Record-Enabled Registry: The Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Melissa; Johansson, Tracy; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    The Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness (RISE) Registry was developed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) to serve US rheumatologists for the significant challenges of a rapidly changing healthcare environment. More than 400 rheumatologists have sent data from more than 3 million encounters of more than 650,000 patients as of August 11, 2016, through their electronic medical records (EMRs), with no additional work or interference with workflow on the part of the rheumatologists. RISE includes patients with all diagnoses seen by participating rheumatologists, at no cost to the rheumatologist.

  18. Health in global context; beyond the social determinants of health?

    PubMed Central

    Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The rise of the social determinants of health (SDH) discourse on the basis of statistical evidence that correlates ill health to SDH and pictures causal pathways in comprehensive theoretical frameworks led to widespread awareness that health and health disparities are the outcome of complex pathways of interconnecting SDH. In this paper we explore whether and how SDH frameworks can be translated to effectively inform particular national health policies. To this end we identified major challenges for this translation followed by reflections on ways to overcome them. Most important challenges affecting adequate translation of these frameworks into concrete policy and intervention are 1) overcoming the inclination to conceptualize SDH as mere barriers to health behavior to be modified by lifestyle interventions by addressing them as structural factors instead; 2) obtaining sufficient in-depth insight in and evidence for the exact nature of the relationship between SDs and health; 3) to adequately translate the general determinants and pathways into explanations for ill health and limited access to health care in local settings; 4) to develop and implement policies and other interventions that are adjusted to those local circumstances. We conclude that to transform generic SDH models into useful policy tools and to prevent them to transform in SDH themselves, in depth understanding of the unique interplay between local, national and global SDH in a local setting, gathered by ethnographic research, is needed to be able to address structural SD in the local setting and decrease health inequity.

  19. The Global Role of the World Health Organization

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Yach, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century global health landscape requires effective global action in the face of globalization of trade, travel, information, human rights, ideas, and disease. The new global health era is more plural, comprising a number of key actors, and requiring more coordination of effort, priorities and investments. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays an essential role in the global governance of health and disease; due to its core global functions of establishing, monitoring and enforcing international norms and standards, and coordinating multiple actors toward common goals. Global health governance requires WHO leadership and effective implementation of WHO’s core global functions to ensure better effectiveness of all health actors, but achieving this global mission could be hampered by narrowing activities and budget reallocations from core global functions. PMID:24729827

  20. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values. PMID:17578570

  1. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-06-19

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values.

  2. The hitchhiker's guide to global health blogging.

    PubMed

    Frischtak, Helena; Sinha, Pranay

    2013-01-01

    Social media use in modern medicine is fraught with ethical dilemmas and risks of unprofessional behavior. This essay surveys the existing literature on the possibilities and pitfalls of social media use by health-care professionals and concludes that non-engagement with social media is not an option. A mindful approach, not vague guidelines or long checklists, will foster a generation of physicians comfortable using online platforms for education and reflection. The use of social media during global health experiences abroad has been largely ignored in the literature and presents special challenges. With a view to starting a reflective dialogue on this subject, this essay identifies some ethically nebulous aspects of global health blogging. The discussion focuses on physician and student blogging, but these principles should apply to other online platforms as well and should prove valuable for health-care professionals who are engaged in developing guidelines, educating medical students and resident physicians, or in sharing their experiences and insights on the internet.

  3. Who should pay for global health, and how much?

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis R; Coker, Richard; Cook, Alex R

    2013-01-01

    Roman Carrasco and colleagues propose a "cap and trade" system for global health involving a cost-effectiveness criterion and a DALY global credit market, mirroring global carbon emission permits trading markets to mitigate climate change.

  4. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... page please turn Javascript on. Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians ...

  5. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    PubMed

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  6. Global health: chronic diseases and other emergent issues in global health.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Anwar, Shahela; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    Infectious diseases have had a decisive and rapid impact on shaping and changing health policy. Noncommunicable diseases, while not garnering as much interest or importance over the past 20 years, have been affecting public health around the world in a steady and critical way, becoming the leading cause of death in developed and developing countries. This article discusses emergent issues in global health related to noncommunicable diseases and conditions, with focus on defining the unique epidemiologic features and relevant programmatic, health systems, and policy responses concerning noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, accidents and injuries, urbanization, climate change, and disaster preparedness.

  7. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  8. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to

  9. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health.

  10. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue. PMID:23088820

  11. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-10-22

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  12. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy. PMID:17519005

  13. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  14. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  15. Global public goods for health: weaknesses and opportunities in the global health system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suerie; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2017-04-01

    Since at least the 1990s, there has been growing recognition that societies need global public goods (GPGs) in order to protect and promote public health. While the term GPG is sometimes used loosely to denote that which is 'good' for the global public, we restrict our use of the term to its technical definition (goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption) for its useful analytical clarity. Examples of important GPGs for health include standards and guidelines, research on the causes and treatment of disease, and comparative evidence and analysis. While institutions for providing public goods are relatively well developed at the national level - being clearly recognized as a responsibility of sovereign states - institutional arrangements to do so remain fragmented and thin at the global level. For example, the World Health Organization, mandated to provide many GPGs, is not appropriately financed to do so. Three steps are needed to better govern the financing and provision of GPGs for health: first, improved data to develop a clearer picture of how much money is currently going to providing which types of GPGs; second, a legitimate global political process to decide upon priority missing GPGs, followed by estimates of total amounts needed; and third, financing streams for GPGs from governments and private sources, to be channeled through new or existing institutions. Financing should go toward fully financing some GPGs, complementing or supplementing existing national or international financing for others, or deploying funds to make potential GPGs less 'excludable' by putting them into the public domain. As globalization deepens the degree of interdependence between countries and as formerly low-income economies advance, there may be less relative need for development assistance to meet basic health care needs, and greater relative need to finance GPGs. Strengthening global arrangements for GPGs today is a worthy investment for improved global

  16. Using integrated bio-physiotherapy informatics in home health-care settings: A qualitative analysis of a point-of-care decision support system.

    PubMed

    Canally, Culum; Doherty, Sean; Doran, Diane M; Goubran, Rafik A

    2015-06-01

    The growing need to gain efficiencies within a home care setting has prompted home care practitioners to focus on health informatics to address the needs of an aging clientele. The remote and heterogeneous nature of the home care environment necessitates the use of non-intrusive client monitoring and a portable, point-of-care graphical user interface. Using a grounded theory approach, this article examines the simulated use of a graphical user interface by practitioners in a home care setting to explore the salient features of monitoring the activity of home care clients. The results demonstrate the need for simple, interactive displays that can provide large amounts of geographical and temporal data relating to patient activity. Additional emerging themes from interviews indicate that home care professionals would use a graphical user interface of this type for patient education and goal setting as well as to assist in the decision-making process of home care practitioners.

  17. Prediction of global distribution of insect pest species in relation to climate by using an ecological informatics method.

    PubMed

    Gevrey, Muriel; Worner, S P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this work was to predict the worldwide distribution of two pest species-Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the Mediterranean fruit fly, and Lymantria dispar (L.), the gypsy moth-based on climatic factors. The distribution patterns of insect pests have most often been investigated using classical statistical models or ecoclimatic assessment models such as CLIMEX. In this study, we used an artificial neural network, the multilayer perceptron, trained using the backpropagation algorithm, to model the distribution of each species. The data matrix used to model the distribution of each species was divided into three data sets to (1) develop and train the model, (2) validate the model and prevent over-fitting, and (3) test each model on novel data. The percentage of correct predictions of the global distribution of each species was high for Mediterranean fruit fly for the three data sets giving 95.8, 81.5, and 80.6% correct predictions, respectively, and 96.8, 84.3, and 81.5 for the gypsy moth. Kappa statistics used to test the level of significance of the results were highly significant (in all cases P < 0.0001). A sensitivity analysis applied to each model based on the calculation of the derivatives of each of a large number of input variables showed that the variables that contributed most to explaining the distribution of C. capitata were annual average temperature and annual potential evapotranspiration. For L. dispar, the average minimum temperature and minimum daylength range were the main explanatory variables. The ANN models and methods developed in this study offer powerful additional predictive approaches in invasive species research.

  18. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order.

  19. Redefining global health-care delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jim Yong; Farmer, Paul; Porter, Michael E

    2013-09-21

    Initiatives to address the unmet needs of those facing both poverty and serious illness have expanded significantly over the past decade. But many of them are designed in an ad-hoc manner to address one health problem among many; they are too rarely assessed; best practices spread slowly. When assessments of delivery do occur, they are often narrow studies of the cost-effectiveness of a single intervention rather than the complex set of them required to deliver value to patients and their families. We propose a framework for global health-care delivery and evaluation by considering efforts to introduce HIV/AIDS care to resource-poor settings. The framework introduces the notion of care delivery value chains that apply a systems-level analysis to the complex processes and interventions that must occur, across a health-care system and over time, to deliver high-value care for patients with HIV/AIDS and cooccurring conditions, from tuberculosis to malnutrition. To deliver value, vertical or stand-alone projects must be integrated into shared delivery infrastructure so that personnel and facilities are used wisely and economies of scale reaped. Two other integrative processes are necessary for delivering and assessing value in global health: one is the alignment of delivery with local context by incorporating knowledge of both barriers to good outcomes (from poor nutrition to a lack of water and sanitation) and broader social and economic determinants of health and wellbeing (jobs, housing, physical infrastructure). The second is the use of effective investments in care delivery to promote equitable economic development, especially for those struggling against poverty and high burdens of disease. We close by reporting our own shared experience of seeking to move towards a science of delivery by harnessing research and training to understand and improve care delivery.

  20. Global health post-2015: the case for universal health equity

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Set in 2000, with a completion date of 2015, the deadline for the Millennium Development Goals is approaching, at which time a new global development infrastructure will become operational. Unsurprisingly, the discussions on goals, topics, priorities and monitoring and evaluation are gaining momentum. But this is a critical juncture. Over a decade of development programming offers a unique opportunity to reflect on its structure, function and purpose in a contemporary global context. This article examines the topic from an analytical health perspective and identifies universal health equity as an operational and analytical priority to encourage attention to the root causes of unnecessary and unfair illness and disease from the perspectives of those for whom the issues have most direct relevance. PMID:23561031

  1. Global health post-2015: the case for universal health equity.

    PubMed

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia

    2013-04-03

    Set in 2000, with a completion date of 2015, the deadline for the Millennium Development Goals is approaching, at which time a new global development infrastructure will become operational. Unsurprisingly, the discussions on goals, topics, priorities and monitoring and evaluation are gaining momentum. But this is a critical juncture. Over a decade of development programming offers a unique opportunity to reflect on its structure, function and purpose in a contemporary global context. This article examines the topic from an analytical health perspective and identifies universal health equity as an operational and analytical priority to encourage attention to the root causes of unnecessary and unfair illness and disease from the perspectives of those for whom the issues have most direct relevance.

  2. Guiding the design of evaluations of innovations in health informatics: a framework and a case study of the SMArt SHARP evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand.

  3. Health biotechnology innovation on a global stage.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Ray, Monali; Kapoor, Andrew; Daar, Abdallah S

    2011-02-01

    With increasing globalization, infectious diseases are spreading faster than ever before, creating an urgent need for international collaboration. The rise of emerging economies has changed the traditional collaborative landscape and provided opportunities for more diverse models of collaboration involving developing countries, including North-South, South-South and North-South-South partnerships. Here, we discuss how developing countries can partner with other nations to address their shared health problems and to promote innovation. We look specifically at what drives collaborations and at the challenges that exist for them, and we propose actions that can strengthen these partnerships.

  4. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  5. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  6. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  7. Translational informatics: an industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health. PMID:22237867

  8. The future of biomedical informatics: a perspective from academia.

    PubMed

    Shortliffe, Edward H

    2012-01-01

    Academic biomedical informatics has achieved great successes through research contributions over several decades, now reflected in a thriving commercial marketplace for electronic health records and other informatics tools. That very success, coupled with changes in the ability of governments to support research at past levels, is forcing a reconsideration of the directions and emphases for faculty members in informatics academic units. This paper discusses those forces and proposes areas of emphasis that will strengthen the academic discipline as it evolves in the years ahead. The focus is on the role of academic informaticians as practitioners of informatics, as researchers, and as educators.

  9. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities – through conventional ‘vertical-programming’ approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. Methods We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). Results According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. Conclusions This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund’s Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced

  10. Synthetic biology, patenting, health and global justice.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Henk

    2013-09-01

    The legal and moral issues that synthetic biology (SB) and its medical applications are likely to raise with regard to intellectual property (IP) and patenting are best approached through the lens of a theoretical framework highlighting the "co-construction" or "co-evolution" of patent law and technology. The current situation is characterized by a major contest between the so-called IP frame and the access-to-knowledge frame. In SB this contest is found in the contrasting approaches of Craig Venter's chassis school and the BioBricks school. The stakes in this contest are high as issues of global health and global justice are implied. Patents are not simply to be seen as neutral incentives, but must also be judged on their effects for access to essential medicines, a more balanced pattern of innovation and the widest possible social participation in innovative activity. We need moral imagination to design new institutional systems and new ways of practising SB that meet the new demands of global justice.

  11. Community Health Nursing through a Global Lens.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Norma; Dallwig, Amber; Abbott, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Nursing (N456) is a required senior clinical course in the undergraduate nursing curriculum at the University of Michigan in which students learn to assess and address the health of populations and communities. In 2012, we began our efforts to internationalize the curriculum using a globally engaged nursing education framework. Our goal is for all students to have an intercultural learning experience understanding that all students are unable to travel internationally. Therefore, this intercultural learning was implemented through a range of experiences including actual immersion, virtual activities (videoconferencing) and interventions with local vulnerable populations. Grants were obtained to provide immersion experiences in Quito, Ecuador and New Delhi, India. Several technologies were initiated with partner nursing schools in Leogane, Haiti and New Delhi, India. Weekly videoconferencing utilizing BlueJeans software and exchange of knowledge through the Knowledge Gateway facilitated intercultural exchange of knowledge and culture. Local clinical groups work with a variety of vulnerable populations. A private blog was developed for all sections to share community assessment data from local and international communities. Qualitative evaluation data was collected for local and international students to begin to assess cultural competence and student learning. Analysis of data documented increased awareness of culture and identified the many positive benefits of interaction with a global partner.

  12. The growing impact of globalization for health and public health practice.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, public health policy and practice have been increasingly challenged by globalization, even as global financing for health has increased dramatically. This article discusses globalization and its health challenges from a vantage of political science, emphasizing increased global flows (of pathogens, information, trade, finance, and people) as driving, and driven by, global market integration. This integration requires a shift in public health thinking from a singular focus on international health (the higher disease burden in poor countries) to a more nuanced analysis of global health (in which health risks in both poor and rich countries are seen as having inherently global causes and consequences). Several globalization-related pathways to health exist, two key ones of which are described: globalized diseases and economic vulnerabilities. The article concludes with a call for national governments, especially those of wealthier nations, to take greater account of global health and its social determinants in all their foreign policies.

  13. Global Health Education in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowships.

    PubMed

    Siddharthan, Trishul; North, Crystal M; Attia, Engi F; Christiani, David C; Checkley, William; West, T Eoin

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship programs in the United States offer global health training opportunities. Formal, integrated global health programs within pulmonary and critical care fellowships are relatively new but are built on principles and ideals of global health that focus on the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and social justice. Although core competencies consistent with these overarching themes in global health education have not been formalized for pulmonary and critical care trainees, relevant competency areas include clinical knowledge, international research training, cultural competency, and clinical and research capacity building. Existing global health education in U.S. pulmonary and critical care medicine training programs can generally be classified as one of three different models: integrated global health tracks, global health electives, and additional research years. Successful global health education programs foster partnerships and collaborations with international sites that emphasize bidirectional exchange. This bidirectional exchange includes ongoing, equitable commitments to mutual opportunities for training and professional development, including a focus on the particular knowledge and skill sets critical for addressing the unique priorities of individual countries. However, barriers related to the availability of mentorship, funding, and dedicated time exist to expanding global health education in pulmonary and critical care medicine. The implementation of global health training within pulmonary and critical care medicine programs requires continued optimization, but this training is essential to prepare the next generation of physicians to address the global aspects of respiratory disease and critical illness.

  14. Climate change: impacts on and implications for global health.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Michael E; Hess, Jeremy J

    2008-11-01

    The most severe consequences of climate change will accrue to the poorest people in the poorest countries, despite their own negligible contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, global health efforts in those same countries have grown dramatically. However, the emerging scientific consensus about climate change has not yet had much influence on the routine practice and strategies of global health. We review here the anticipated types and global distribution of health impacts of climate change, discuss relevant aspects of current global interventions for health in low-income countries, and consider potential elements of a framework for appropriately and efficiently mainstreaming global climate change-mitigation and -adaptation strategies into the ongoing enterprise of global health. We propose a collaborative learning initiative involving four areas: (1) increased awareness among current global health practitioners of climate change and its potential impacts for the most disadvantaged, (2) strengthening of the evidence base, (3) incorporation now of climate change-mitigation and -adaptation concerns into design of ongoing global health programs, and (4) alignment of current global health program targets and methods with larger frameworks for climate change and sustainable development. The great vulnerability to climate change of populations reached by current global health efforts should prompt all concerned with global health to take a leading role in advocating for climate change mitigation in their own countries.

  15. Time to go global: a consultation on global health competencies for postgraduate doctors

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, Sarah C.; Shortall, Clare; van Schalkwyk, May CI; Merriel, Abi; Ellis, Jayne; Obolensky, Lucy; Casanova Dias, Marisa; Watson, Jessica; Brown, Colin S.; Hall, Jennifer; Pettigrew, Luisa M.; Allen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Globalisation is having profound impacts on health and healthcare. We solicited the views of a wide range of stakeholders in order to develop core global health competencies for postgraduate doctors. Methods Published literature and existing curricula informed writing of seven global health competencies for consultation. A modified policy Delphi involved an online survey and face-to-face and telephone interviews over three rounds. Results Over 250 stakeholders participated, including doctors, other health professionals, policymakers and members of the public from all continents of the world. Participants indicated that global health competence is essential for postgraduate doctors and other health professionals. Concerns were expressed about overburdening curricula and identifying what is ‘essential’ for whom. Conflicting perspectives emerged about the importance and relevance of different global health topics. Five core competencies were developed: (1) diversity, human rights and ethics; (2) environmental, social and economic determinants of health; (3) global epidemiology; (4) global health governance; and (5) health systems and health professionals. Conclusions Global health can bring important perspectives to postgraduate curricula, enhancing the ability of doctors to provide quality care. These global health competencies require tailoring to meet different trainees' needs and facilitate their incorporation into curricula. Healthcare and global health are ever-changing; therefore, the competencies will need to be regularly reviewed and updated. PMID:27241136

  16. Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

  17. Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Birbeck, Gretchen L; Wiysonge, Charles S; Mills, Edward J; Frenk, Julio J; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jha, Prabhat

    2013-10-16

    Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes.

  18. Integrating problem-based learning in a nursing informatics curriculum.

    PubMed

    Demiris, George; Zierler, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    In recent years employers in health care organizations have been recognizing the need for nurses to enter the workforce with a set of informatics competencies. Numerous nursing informatics programs have been established worldwide. The challenge becomes to explore innovative tools that will equip nurses with the appropriate skills to utilize information technology to improve health care quality and patient safety and redesign health care services. This paper presents the introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) modules into an existing nursing informatics curriculum, the Clinical Informatics and Patient Centered Technologies Master program at the School of Nursing, University of Washington. Additionally, we discuss recommendations and challenges associated with the integration of PBL in nursing informatics graduate education including the need for facilitators, flexible technology platforms, promotion and documentation of group work, faculty training and supervision by a program committee.

  19. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem.

  20. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  1. Boreal forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions.

  2. Regulatory underpinnings of Global Health security: FDA's roles in preventing, detecting, and responding to global health threats.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Brooke; Bond, Katherine C; Maher, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, health officials from around the world announced the Global Health Security Agenda, a critical effort to strengthen national and global systems to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats and to foster stronger collaboration across borders. With its increasing global roles and broad range of regulatory responsibilities in ensuring the availability, safety, and security of medical and food products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is engaged in a range of efforts in support of global health security. This article provides an overview of FDA's global health security roles, focusing on its responsibilities related to the development and use of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for preventing, detecting, and responding to global infectious disease and other public health emergency threats. The article also discusses several areas-antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and supply chain integrity-in which FDA's global health security roles continue to evolve and extend beyond MCMs and, in some cases, beyond traditional infectious disease threats.

  3. Creating an Online Global Health Course and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Brent A.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Hai-Jew, Shalin; Caby, Zachary; Werick, Mary

    2011-01-01

    As a college course, global public health covers topics that affect individuals' welfare and thus should be accessible to the public, providing information to help people make informed decisions about their health. This article discusses the creation of DMP 844: Global Health, a graduate-level course in the College of Veterinary Medicine's…

  4. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept…

  5. A Research-Based Narrative Assignment for Global Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on novel approaches to classroom-based global health education despite the growing popularity of this topic in health professional curricula. The purpose of the following paper is to (1) describe the rationale underlying the use of a research-based narrative assignment for global health education, and (2) describe…

  6. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  7. Bringing Global Health Home: The Case of Global to Local in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam; Siddiqui, Fareeha

    The article describes the experience of testing successful global health interventions in the cities of SeaTac and Tukwila, Washington-2 very diverse, underserved communities outside of Seattle that experience significant health disparities compared with surrounding areas in King County. Topics covered include an overview of the partnership that established Global to Local, the process of engaging Seattle-based global health institutions in identifying global health strategies to test, identifying communities experiencing health disparities that might benefit from global health-inspired interventions, engaging those local communities to understand the perceived drivers of poor health outcomes, tailoring global interventions to the local context, launching programs, and the successes and challenges that have emerged throughout this process. Global health strategies that were tested and are reported on in the article include the use of community health workers to support chronic disease prevention and management, partnering with and building the capacity of local organizations and institutions, linking public health and primary care by addressing the social determinants of health in a primary care and community setting, and using mobile phones to transform practices for managing type 2 diabetes. The paper concludes that based on the early learnings of this approach, there is value in looking to tested and proven global health strategies to address health disparities in underserved communities in the United States and calls for further exploration of this approach by other actors.

  8. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  9. [Medical informatics--today and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Dezelić, Gjuro

    2007-09-01

    The status of medical informatics, a comparatively new biomedical discipline beginning to develop in the second half of the 20th century, is described at the transition into the 21st century. The appearance of new information and communication technologies, among which Internet nas special importance, was a major impulse to the development of medical informatics in its different fields. Health information systems are integrating, while at the same time, by distribution of their parts, they become available to the individual healthcare user. These processes put the problems of interoperability and standardization into the focus of contemporary medical informatics. The electronic health record is recognized as a key instrument of modern healthcare systems, and its development and implementation are being planned at many places. Whereas the research and application of medical decision support systems are stagnating, new disciplines have emerged such as telemedicine, cybermedicine and bioinformatics. The perspectives of the future development of medical informatics are described. In the appendix, a chronology of the development of medical informatics from its beginning to the present time is given.

  10. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  11. Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

    2011-01-01

    Context: Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. Methods: In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Findings: Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. Conclusions: The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. PMID:21933277

  12. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740

  13. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  14. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  15. Poverty and reproductive health: global overview.

    PubMed

    Ketting, E

    1997-01-01

    This article opens by tabulating selected family planning (FP) indicators from the 24 poorest countries (those with a gross national product (GNP) of up to $300 per capita). Consideration of what is poverty and who are the poor concludes that poverty is hard to define but that is it a combination of low income, low life expectancy, illiteracy, and low educational levels; that is, the result of a denial of choices and opportunities. The poorest countries by this criteria differ somewhat from the poorest chosen according to GNP, but most are located in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of national data is complicated by the fact that huge differences exist between rich and poor within countries. The poorest countries have the lowest use of FP, the most restrictive abortion laws, high incidences of mortality associated with unsafe abortion, and high maternal mortality rates. International population and FP assistance is embarrassingly low and unfairly allocated. International assistance must be increased to break the cycle of poverty and improve reproductive health. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that improvement of reproductive health for the impoverished is a basic condition for human development and reduction of global inequity. In its policy statement on this topic, the IPPF recommends that local FP associations 1) constantly reevaluate how to maximize their impact on the most vulnerable, 2) be pioneers in the field of sexual and reproductive health, 3) reassess priorities in light of diminishing donor funding, 4) become advocates for increased resources and to further the work they are undertaking, and 5) strengthen collaboration with other development agencies working in the field.

  16. What is biomedical informatics?

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Smith, Jack W; Johnson, Todd R

    2010-02-01

    Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically-grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine.

  17. Global citizenship is key to securing global health: the role of higher education.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Lee; Perry, Lane; Wadsworth, Daniel; Stoner, Krystina R; Tarrant, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Despite growing public awareness, health systems are struggling under the escalating burden of non-communicable diseases. While personal responsibility is crucial, alone it is insufficient. We argue that one must place themselves within the broader/global context to begin to truly understand the health implications of personal choices. Global citizenship competency has become an integral part of the higher education discourse; this discourse can and should be extended to include global health. A global citizen is someone who is (1) aware of global issues, (2) socially responsible, and (3) civically engaged. From this perspective, personal health is not solely an individual, self-serving act; rather, the consequences of our lifestyle choices and behaviors have far-reaching implications. This paper will argue that, through consciously identifying global health within the constructs of global citizenship, institutions of higher education can play an instrumental role in fostering civically engaged students capable of driving social change.

  18. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263

  19. Global obstetric medicine: Collaborating towards global progress in maternal health

    PubMed Central

    Ateka-Barrutia, Oier; Rojas-Suarez, Jose Antonio; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Castillo, Eliana; Lombaard, Hennie; Magee, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the nature of maternal mortality and morbidity is shifting from direct obstetric causes to an increasing proportion of indirect causes due to chronic conditions and ageing of the maternal population. Obstetric medicine can address an important gap in the care of women by broadening its scope to include colleagues, communities and countries that do not yet have established obstetric medicine training, education and resources. We present the concept of global obstetric medicine by highlighting three low- and middle-income country experiences as well as an example of successful collaboration. The article also discusses ideas and initiatives to build future partnerships within the global obstetric medicine community. PMID:27512469

  20. Information empowerment: predeparture resource training for students in global health.

    PubMed

    Rana, Gurpreet K

    2014-04-01

    The Taubman Health Sciences Library (THL) collaborates with health sciences schools to provide information skills instruction for students preparing for international experiences. THL enhances students' global health learning through predeparture instruction for students who are involved in global health research, clinical internships, and international collaborations. This includes teaching international literature searching skills, providing country-specific data sources, building awareness of relevant mobile resources, and encouraging investigation of international news. Information skills empower creation of stronger global partnerships. Use of information resources has enhanced international research and training experiences, built lifelong learning foundations, and contributed to the university's global engagement. THL continues to assess predeparture instruction.

  1. Future-proofing global health: Governance of priorities.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Belinda; Cohen, I Glenn; Davies, Sara E; Gostin, Lawrence O; Hill, Peter S; Mankad, Aditi; Phelan, Alexandra L

    2017-03-08

    The year 2015 was a significant anniversary for global health: 15 years since the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals and the creation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, followed two years later by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. 2015 was also the 10-year anniversary of the adoption of the International Health Regulations (May 2005) and the formal entering into force of the Framework Convention on the Tobacco Control (February 2005). The anniversary of these frameworks and institutions illustrates the growth and contribution of 'global' health diplomacy. Each initiative has also revealed on-going issues with compliance, sustainable funding and equitable attention in global health governance. In this paper, we present four thematic challenges that will continue to challenge prioritisation within global health governance into the future unless addressed: framing and prioritising within global health governance; identifying stakeholders of the global health community; understanding the relationship between health and behaviour; and the role of governance and regulation in supporting global health.

  2. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  3. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  4. Health Care Transformation Through Collaboration on Open-Source Informatics Projects: Integrating a Medical Applications Platform, Research Data Repository, and Patient Summarization

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Wattanasin, Nich; Sittig, Dean F; Murphy, Shawn N

    2013-01-01

    Background The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) program seeks to conquer well-understood challenges in medical informatics through breakthrough research. Two SHARP centers have found alignment in their methodological needs: (1) members of the National Center for Cognitive Informatics and Decision-making (NCCD) have developed knowledge bases to support problem-oriented summarizations of patient data, and (2) Substitutable Medical Apps, Reusable Technologies (SMART), which is a platform for reusable medical apps that can run on participating platforms connected to various electronic health records (EHR). Combining the work of these two centers will ensure wide dissemination of new methods for synthesized views of patient data. Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is an NIH-funded clinical research data repository platform in use at over 100 sites worldwide. By also working with a co-occurring initiative to SMART-enabling i2b2, we can confidently write one app that can be used extremely broadly. Objective Our goal was to facilitate development of intuitive, problem-oriented views of the patient record using NCCD knowledge bases that would run in any EHR. To do this, we developed a collaboration between the two SHARPs and an NIH center, i2b2. Methods First, we implemented collaborative tools to connect researchers at three institutions. Next, we developed a patient summarization app using the SMART platform and a previously validated NCCD problem-medication linkage knowledge base derived from the National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Finally, to SMART-enable i2b2, we implemented two new Web service “cells” that expose the SMART application programming interface (API), and we made changes to the Web interface of i2b2 to host a “carousel” of SMART apps. Results We deployed our SMART-based, NDF-RT-derived patient summarization app in this SMART-i2b2 container. It displays a problem-oriented view of

  5. "Globalized public health." A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The current phase of globalization represents a "double-edged sword" challenge facing public health practitioners and health policy makers. The first "edge" throws light on two constructs in the field of public health: global health (formerly international health) and globalized public health. The second "edge" is that of global governance, and raises the question, "how can we construct public health regulations that adequately respond to both global and local complexities related to the two constructs mentioned earlier (global health and globalized public health)?" The two constructs call for the development of norms that will assure sustained population-wide health improvement and these two constructs have their own conceptual tools and theoretical models that permit a better understanding of them. In this paper, we introduce the "globalized public health" construct and we present an interactive comprehensive framework for critically analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health. "Globalized public health", simultaneously a theoretical model and a conceptual framework, concerns the transformation of the field of public health in the sociohistorical context of globalization. The model is the fruit of an original theoretical research study conducted from 2005 to 2008 ("contextualized research," Gibbons' Mode II of knowledge production), founded on a QUAL-quant sequential mixed-method design. This research also reflects our political and ideological position, fuelled with aspirations of social democracy and cosmopolitical values. It is profoundly anchored in the pragmatic approach to globalization, looking to "reconcile" the market and equity. The model offers several features to users: (1) it is transdisciplinary; (2) it is interactive (CD-ROM); (3) it is nonlinear (nonlinear interrelations between the contextual globalization and the field of public health); (4) it is synchronic/diachronic (a double-crossed perspective permits

  6. Toward a national framework for the secondary use of health data: an American Medical Informatics Association White Paper.

    PubMed

    Safran, Charles; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Hammond, W Edward; Labkoff, Steven; Markel-Fox, Suzanne; Tang, Paul C; Detmer, Don E; Expert Panel

    2007-01-01

    Secondary use of health data applies personal health information (PHI) for uses outside of direct health care delivery. It includes such activities as analysis, research, quality and safety measurement, public health, payment, provider certification or accreditation, marketing, and other business applications, including strictly commercial activities. Secondary use of health data can enhance health care experiences for individuals, expand knowledge about disease and appropriate treatments, strengthen understanding about effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, support public health and security goals, and aid businesses in meeting customers' needs. Yet, complex ethical, political, technical, and social issues surround the secondary use of health data. While not new, these issues play increasingly critical and complex roles given current public and private sector activities not only expanding health data volume, but also improving access to data. Lack of coherent policies and standard "good practices" for secondary use of health data impedes efforts to strengthen the U.S. health care system. The nation requires a framework for the secondary use of health data with a robust infrastructure of policies, standards, and best practices. Such a framework can guide and facilitate widespread collection, storage, aggregation, linkage, and transmission of health data. The framework will provide appropriate protections for legitimate secondary use.

  7. History, Structure and Agency in Global Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Benatar, Solomon R.

    2017-01-01

    Ilona Kickbusch’s thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and processes of multilateralism that are premised on the continued reproduction of the ecologically myopic and socially unsustainable market civilization model of capitalist development that currently prevails in the world economy. This model drives net financial flows from poor to rich countries and from the poor to the affluent and super wealthy individuals. By contrast, we suggest that significant progress in global health requires a profound and socially just restructuring of global power, greater global solidarity and the "development of sustainability."

  8. Human Health and Global Security. Relevance to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornfeld, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Programs in human health and global security should be incorporated into medical school curricula. Information about nuclear arms proliferation and unmet human health needs will help physicians exert a critical leadership role. (SK)

  9. Global Health: A Pivotal Moment Of Opportunity And Peril.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Friedman, Eric A

    2017-01-01

    A growing tide of populism in Europe and the United States, combined with other factors, threatens the solidarity upon which the global health movement is based. The highest-profile example of the turn toward populism is US president-elect Donald Trump, whose proposals would redefine US engagement in global health, development, and environmental efforts. In this challenging landscape, three influential global institutions-the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank-are undergoing leadership transitions. This new global health leadership should prioritize global health security, including antimicrobial resistance, health system strengthening, and action on mass migration and climate change. They will need to work as a team, leveraging the World Health Organization's technical competence and mandate to set health norms and standards, the United Nations' political clout, and the World Bank's economic strength. Human rights, including principles of equality, participation, and accountability, should be their foremost guide, such as holding a United Nations special session on health inequities and advancing the Framework Convention on Global Health. The need for predictable and innovative financing and high ethical standards to prevent conflicts of interest can further guide global health leaders.

  10. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    PubMed

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  11. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

  12. Observations Illustrating the Use of Health Informatics to Link Public Health Immunization Registries and Pharmacies to Increase Adult Immunization Rates and Improve Population Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Michael; Altstadter, Brandy; Popovich, Lara Hargraves

    2016-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act encourages health information exchange between clinical care and public health through Meaningful Use measures. Meaningful Use specifically identifies objectives to support a number of public health programs including immunizations, cancer registries, syndromic surveillance, and disease case reports. The objective is to improve public and population health. Stage 2 of Meaningful Use focused on compliance to sending of information to public health. The next phase focuses on bi-directional information exchange to support immunization intelligence and to empower providers, pharmacists, and the consumer. The HITECH Act Stage 2 initiative provided incentive and motivation for healthcare providers to encourage their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) vendors to implement data exchanges with public health, with the expected result being timely awareness of health risks. The empowerment nugget in the HITECH Act is not in the compliance reporting to public health. The nugget is the ability for a provider to receive relevant information on the patient or consumer currently in front of them or to those they will connect to through their outreach efforts. The ability for public health to retain current immunization records of individuals from a variety of providers supports their program goals to increase immunization rates and mitigate the risk of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD). The ability for providers to receive at the point of service more complete immunization histories integrated with decision support enhances their delivery of care, thereby reducing the risk of VPD to their patients. Indirectly payers benefit through healthcare cost savings and when the focus is expanded from a health model to a business model, there are significant return on investment (ROI) opportunities that exponentially increase the value of a bi-directional immunization data exchange. This paper will provide

  13. Observations Illustrating the Use of Health Informatics to Link Public Health Immunization Registries and Pharmacies to Increase Adult Immunization Rates and Improve Population Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Altstadter, Brandy; Popovich, Lara Hargraves

    2016-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act encourages health information exchange between clinical care and public health through Meaningful Use measures. Meaningful Use specifically identifies objectives to support a number of public health programs including immunizations, cancer registries, syndromic surveillance, and disease case reports. The objective is to improve public and population health. Stage 2 of Meaningful Use focused on compliance to sending of information to public health. The next phase focuses on bi-directional information exchange to support immunization intelligence and to empower providers, pharmacists, and the consumer. The HITECH Act Stage 2 initiative provided incentive and motivation for healthcare providers to encourage their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) vendors to implement data exchanges with public health, with the expected result being timely awareness of health risks. The empowerment nugget in the HITECH Act is not in the compliance reporting to public health. The nugget is the ability for a provider to receive relevant information on the patient or consumer currently in front of them or to those they will connect to through their outreach efforts. The ability for public health to retain current immunization records of individuals from a variety of providers supports their program goals to increase immunization rates and mitigate the risk of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD). The ability for providers to receive at the point of service more complete immunization histories integrated with decision support enhances their delivery of care, thereby reducing the risk of VPD to their patients. Indirectly payers benefit through healthcare cost savings and when the focus is expanded from a health model to a business model, there are significant return on investment (ROI) opportunities that exponentially increase the value of a bi-directional immunization data exchange. This paper will provide

  14. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet.

  15. Global Warming and Its Health Impact.

    PubMed

    Rossati, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and, although too complex to be quantified, a link has even been established between climate and civil violence. Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Pathogens transmitted by vectors are particularly sensitive to climate change because they spend a good part of their life cycle in a cold-blooded host invertebrate whose temperature is similar to the environment. A warmer climate presents more favorable conditions for the survival and the completion of the life cycle of the vector, going as far as to speed it up

  16. Pharmacy informatics in controlled substances research.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ling; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Na, Paul J; Leff, Michelle; Contoreggi, Carlo

    2008-11-06

    Pharmacies have become essential components in support of clinical research. Their operations become highly complex when preponderance of prescriptions is composed of controlled substances. Application of informatics will result in more efficient operations. We present the Pharmacy Information Management System (PIMS) that includes a set of decision support systems to address the pharmacy challenges and is integrated into our electronic health record system.

  17. Optimizing Clinical Research Participant Selection with Informatics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua

    2015-11-01

    Clinical research participants are often not reflective of real-world patients due to overly restrictive eligibility criteria. Meanwhile, unselected participants introduce confounding factors and reduce research efficiency. Biomedical informatics, especially Big Data increasingly made available from electronic health records, offers promising aids to optimize research participant selection through data-driven transparency.

  18. Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Global Health (PGH-7) Measure

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Christopher B.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Pratiwadi, Ramya; Moon, JeanHee; Teneralli, Rachel E.; Minton, Jo M.; Tucker, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a practical, efficient, and valid pediatric global health measure that would be useful for clinical, quality improvement, and research applications. Methods Using the PROMIS mixed-methods approach for item bank development, we identified an item pool that was well understood by children as young as age 8 years, and tested its psychometric properties in an internet panel sample of 3,635 children 8–17 years-old and 1,807 parents of children 5–17 years-old. Results The final version of the pediatric global health measure included 7 items assessing general, physical, mental, and social health. Four of these items had the same wording as the PROMIS adult global health measure. Internal consistency was 0.88 for the child-report form and 0.84 for the parent form; both had excellent test-retest reliability. The measures showed factor invariance across age categories. There was no differential item functioning by age, gender, race, or ethnicity. Because the measure includes the general health rating question, it is possible to estimate the pediatric global health scale using this widely used single item. Conclusions The PROMIS Pediatric Global Health measure is a brief and reliable 7-item summary assessment of a child’s self-reported health. Future work will attempt to statistically link this pediatric form with the PROMIS adult global health measures to create a single global health metric that can be used across the life course. PMID:24264804

  19. Image informatics in systems biology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2005-02-01

    Digital optical microscopy, coupled with parallel processing and a large arsenal of labeling techniques, offers tremendous values to localize, identify, and characterize cells and molecules. This generates many image informatics challenges in requiring new algorithms and tools to extract, classify, correlate, and model image features and content from massive amounts of cellular and molecular images acquired. Image informatics aims to fill this gap. Coupling automated microscopy and image analysis with biostatistical and data mining techniques to provide a system biologic approach in studying the cells, the basic unit of life, potentially leads to many exciting applications in life and health sciences. In this presentation, we describe certain new system biology applications enabled by image informatics technology.

  20. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  1. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Kyle; Kvale, Mark N; Lin, Jue; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Fang, Lynn; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; McGuire, William B; Miles, Sunita; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil; Schaefer, Catherine; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-08-01

    The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis.

  2. [Medical informatics education at the Medical School in Tuzla].

    PubMed

    Sabanović, Zekerijah; Mujcinagić, Alija

    2004-01-01

    Medical informatics is a specific and interdisciplinary science which involves many participants of the health system like: patients, physicians, nurses, managers, administrators, computer experts, students, with the different level of education and understanding, different approaches and expectations. Education of medical informatics requests organization solutions of high quality and necessary equipment for its realization. Educational programs are also limited by student's basic knowledge of informatics from secondary schools. For assessment of this knowledge we have conducted special designed questionnaire at the first year of undergraduate study which results confirm our thesis that great number of students entered the faculty with the lack of basic knowledge from informatics area. In this paper was presented level of organization and education of medical informatics at the Medical faculty and University Clinical Center of Tuzla, with its characteristics through which this system has been passed since 1990.

  3. Global Health Education in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Lydia C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this Review is to characterize content related to global health in didactic and experiential curricula of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States. The review was completed through a systematic website search of 133 US PharmD programs accredited or currently in the process of obtaining accreditation to identify global health dual degrees, minors/concentrations, required and elective courses, and experiential opportunities. Programs’ course catalogs were referenced as needed to find more specific course listings/descriptions. More than 50 programs offered an elective course related to global health; eight had a required course; eight offered a minor or certification for global health; three offered dual degrees in pharmacy and global health. Fourteen institutions had a center for global health studies on campus. More than 50 programs offered experiential education opportunities in global health including international advanced pharmacy practice experiences or medical mission trips. Inclusion of and focus on global health-related topics in US PharmD programs was widely varied. PMID:27293238

  4. Global Health Education in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lydia C; DiPietro Mager, Natalie A

    2016-05-25

    The objective of this Review is to characterize content related to global health in didactic and experiential curricula of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States. The review was completed through a systematic website search of 133 US PharmD programs accredited or currently in the process of obtaining accreditation to identify global health dual degrees, minors/concentrations, required and elective courses, and experiential opportunities. Programs' course catalogs were referenced as needed to find more specific course listings/descriptions. More than 50 programs offered an elective course related to global health; eight had a required course; eight offered a minor or certification for global health; three offered dual degrees in pharmacy and global health. Fourteen institutions had a center for global health studies on campus. More than 50 programs offered experiential education opportunities in global health including international advanced pharmacy practice experiences or medical mission trips. Inclusion of and focus on global health-related topics in US PharmD programs was widely varied.

  5. Globalization and health: a framework for analysis and action.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D; Drager, N; Beaglehole, R; Lipson, D

    2001-01-01

    Globalization is a key challenge to public health, especially in developing countries, but the linkages between globalization and health are complex. Although a growing amount of literature has appeared on the subject, it is piecemeal, and suffers from a lack of an agreed framework for assessing the direct and indirect health effects of different aspects of globalization. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the linkages between economic globalization and health, with the intention that it will serve as a basis for synthesizing existing relevant literature, identifying gaps in knowledge, and ultimately developing national and international policies more favourable to health. The framework encompasses both the indirect effects on health, operating through the national economy, household economies and health-related sectors such as water, sanitation and education, as well as more direct effects on population-level and individual risk factors for health and on the health care system. Proposed also is a set of broad objectives for a programme of action to optimize the health effects of economic globalization. The paper concludes by identifying priorities for research corresponding with the five linkages identified as critical to the effects of globalization on health.

  6. Globalization and health: a framework for analysis and action.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, D.; Drager, N.; Beaglehole, R.; Lipson, D.

    2001-01-01

    Globalization is a key challenge to public health, especially in developing countries, but the linkages between globalization and health are complex. Although a growing amount of literature has appeared on the subject, it is piecemeal, and suffers from a lack of an agreed framework for assessing the direct and indirect health effects of different aspects of globalization. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the linkages between economic globalization and health, with the intention that it will serve as a basis for synthesizing existing relevant literature, identifying gaps in knowledge, and ultimately developing national and international policies more favourable to health. The framework encompasses both the indirect effects on health, operating through the national economy, household economies and health-related sectors such as water, sanitation and education, as well as more direct effects on population-level and individual risk factors for health and on the health care system. Proposed also is a set of broad objectives for a programme of action to optimize the health effects of economic globalization. The paper concludes by identifying priorities for research corresponding with the five linkages identified as critical to the effects of globalization on health. PMID:11584737

  7. The Medical Informatics Program at the National University of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lun, K C; Leong, T Y; Ong, K; Raghavan, R; Pung, H K

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Informatics Program at the National University of Singapore was established in September 1996 with a $4 million joint funding from the National Science and Technology Board and the Ministry of Education. The primary aims of the research program are to undertake upstream basic research in medical informatics and to build a critical mass of medical informatics expertise to meet long-term research goals and to effect technology transfer to the health sector of Singapore. Research projects fall into five groups: Clinical Decision Systems, Health Information Systems, Biomedical Datamining Systems, Medical Education Systems and Medical Networking, Applications Development and Integration Systems.

  8. Australian Medical Students' Association Global Health Essay Competition - Global climate change, geo-engineering and human health.

    PubMed

    Boyages, Costa S

    2013-10-07

    Rio+20's proposed Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to redefine the course of international action on climate change. They recognise that environmental health is inextricably linked with human health, and that environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in safeguarding global health. Competition entrants were asked to discuss ways of making global health a central component of international sustainable development initiatives and environmental policy, using one or two concrete examples

  9. Conceptual model for partnership and sustainability in global health.

    PubMed

    Leffers, Jeanne; Mitchell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Although nursing has a long history of service to the global community, the profession lacks a theoretical and empirical base for nurses to frame their global practice. A study using grounded theory methodology to investigate partnership and sustainability for global health led to the development of a conceptual model. Interviews were conducted with 13 global health nurse experts. Themes from the interviews were: components for engagement, mutual goal setting, cultural bridging, collaboration, capacity building, leadership, partnership, ownership, and sustainability. Next, the identified themes were reviewed in the literature in order to evaluate their conceptual relationships. Finally, careful comparison of the interview transcripts and the supporting literature led to the Conceptual Framework for Partnership and Sustainability in Global Health Nursing. The model posits that engagement and partnership must precede any planning and intervention in order to create sustainable interventions. This conceptual framework will offer nurses important guidance for global health nursing practice.

  10. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  11. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-27

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  12. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of these interventions through a collaborative care model in low resource settings. While there are a number of barriers to scaling up this evidence, for eg, the finances needed to train and deploy community based workers and the lack of agency for people with schizophrenia, the experiences of some upper middle income countries show that sustained political commitment, allocation of transitional financial resources to develop community services, a commitment to an integrated approach with a strong role for community based institutions and providers, and a progressive realization of coverage are the key ingredients for scale up of services for schizophrenia. PMID:26245942

  13. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine.

  14. Multi-Sensory Informatics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katai, Zoltan; Toth, Laszlo; Adorjani, Alpar Karoly

    2014-01-01

    A recent report by the joint Informatics Europe & ACM Europe Working Group on Informatics Education emphasizes that: (1) computational thinking is an important ability that all people should possess; (2) informatics-based concepts, abilities and skills are teachable, and must be included in the primary and particularly in the secondary school…

  15. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    PubMed

    Cox, Raymond L

    2004-04-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora.

  16. Preparing Nursing Home Data from Multiple Sites for Clinical Research – A Case Study Using Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Richard D.; Handler, Steven M.; Karp, Jordan F.; Perera, Subashan; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A potential barrier to nursing home research is the limited availability of research quality data in electronic form. We describe a case study of converting electronic health data from five skilled nursing facilities to a research quality longitudinal dataset by means of open-source tools produced by the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) collaborative. Methods: The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS), drug dispensing, and fall incident data from five SNFs were extracted, translated, and loaded into version 4 of the OHDSI common data model. Quality assurance involved identifying errors using the Achilles data characterization tool and comparing both quality measures and drug exposures in the new database for concordance with externally available sources. Findings: Records for a total 4,519 patients (95.1%) made it into the final database. Achilles identified 10 different types of errors that were addressed in the final dataset. Drug exposures based on dispensing were generally accurate when compared with medication administration data from the pharmacy services provider. Quality measures were generally concordant between the new database and Nursing Home Compare for measures with a prevalence ≥ 10%. Fall data recorded in MDS was found to be more complete than data from fall incident reports. Conclusions: The new dataset is ready to support observational research on topics of clinical importance in the nursing home including patient-level prediction of falls. The extraction, translation, and loading process enabled the use of OHDSI data characterization tools that improved the quality of the final dataset. PMID:27891528

  17. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  18. Quantum Approach to Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenholm, Stig; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2005-08-01

    An essential overview of quantum information Information, whether inscribed as a mark on a stone tablet or encoded as a magnetic domain on a hard drive, must be stored in a physical object and thus made subject to the laws of physics. Traditionally, information processing such as computation occurred in a framework governed by laws of classical physics. However, information can also be stored and processed using the states of matter described by non-classical quantum theory. Understanding this quantum information, a fundamentally different type of information, has been a major project of physicists and information theorists in recent years, and recent experimental research has started to yield promising results. Quantum Approach to Informatics fills the need for a concise introduction to this burgeoning new field, offering an intuitive approach for readers in both the physics and information science communities, as well as in related fields. Only a basic background in quantum theory is required, and the text keeps the focus on bringing this theory to bear on contemporary informatics. Instead of proofs and other highly formal structures, detailed examples present the material, making this a uniquely accessible introduction to quantum informatics. Topics covered include: * An introduction to quantum information and the qubit * Concepts and methods of quantum theory important for informatics * The application of information concepts to quantum physics * Quantum information processing and computing * Quantum gates * Error correction using quantum-based methods * Physical realizations of quantum computing circuits A helpful and economical resource for understanding this exciting new application of quantum theory to informatics, Quantum Approach to Informatics provides students and researchers in physics and information science, as well as other interested readers with some scientific background, with an essential overview of the field.

  19. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  20. Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 – Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    The year 2016 could turn out to be a turning point for global health, new political realities and global insecurities will test governance and financing mechanisms in relation to both people and planet. But most importantly political factors such as the global power shift and "the rise of the rest" will define the future of global health. A new mix of health inequity and security challenges has emerged and the 2015 humanitarian and health crises have shown the limits of existing systems. The global health as well as the humanitarian system will have to prove their capacity to respond and reform. The challenge ahead is deeply political, especially for the rising political actors. They are confronted with the consequences of a model of development that has neglected sustainability and equity, and was built on their exploitation. Some direction has been given by the path breaking international conferences in 2015. Especially the agreement on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris agreement on climate change will shape action. Conceptually, we will need a different understanding of global health and its ultimate goals - the health of people can no longer be seen separate from the health of the planet and wealth measured by parameters of growth will no longer ensure health PMID:27285512

  1. The Role of Health Education Specialists in Supporting Global Health and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Davis, Thomas M.; Beric, Bojana; Devlin, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge and skills for global health program design, implementation and monitoring is an expectation for practicing public health professionals. Major health education professional organizations including American Association for Health Education (AAHE), Society of Public Health Education (SOPHE) and International Union for Health Promotion and…

  2. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda.

  3. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda. PMID:26270018

  4. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health.

  5. A survey of informatics approaches to whole-exome and whole-genome clinical reporting in the electronic health record

    PubMed Central

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Amendola, Laura; Aronson, Samuel J.; Garraway, Levi; Gray, Stacy; Grundmeier, Robert W.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Jarvik, Gail; Karavite, Dean; Lebo, Matthew; Plon, Sharon E.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Weck, Karen E.; White, Peter S.; Yang, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Genome-scale clinical sequencing is being adopted more broadly in medical practice. The National Institutes of Health developed the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) program to guide implementation and dissemination of best practices for the integration of sequencing into clinical care. This study describes and compares the state of the art of incorporating whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing results into the electronic health record, including approaches to decision support across the six current CSER sites. Methods The CSER Medical Record Working Group collaboratively developed and completed an in-depth survey to assess the communication of genome-scale data into the electronic health record. We summarized commonalities and divergent approaches. Results Despite common sequencing platform (Illumina) adoptions, there is a great diversity of approaches to annotation tools and workflow, as well as to report generation. At all sites, reports are human-readable structured documents available as passive decision support in the electronic health record. Active decision support is in early implementation at two sites. Conclusion The parallel efforts across CSER sites in the creation of systems for report generation and integration of reports into the electronic health record, as well as the lack of standardized approaches to interfacing with variant databases to create active clinical decision support, create opportunities for cross-site and vendor collaborations. PMID:24071794

  6. Global Governance for Health: how to motivate political change?

    PubMed

    McNeill, D; Ottersen, O P

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we address a central theme that was discussed at the Durham Health Summit: how can politics be brought back into global health governance and figure much more prominently in discussions around policy? We begin by briefly summarizing the report of the Lancet - University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health: 'The Political Origins of Health Inequity' Ottersen et al. In order to provide compelling evidence of the central argument, the Commission selected seven case studies relating to, inter alia, economic and fiscal policy, food security, and foreign trade and investment agreements. Based on an analysis of these studies, the report concludes that the problems identified are often due to political choices: an unwillingness to change the global system of governance. This raises the question: what is the most effective way that a report of this kind can be used to motivate policy-makers, and the public at large, to demand change? What kind of moral or rational argument is most likely to lead to action? In this paper we assess the merits of various alternative perspectives: health as an investment; health as a global public good; health and human security; health and human development; health as a human right; health and global justice. We conclude that what is required in order to motivate change is a more explicitly political and moral perspective - favouring the later rather than the earlier alternatives just listed.

  7. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  8. Understanding change in global health policy: ideas, discourse and networks.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    How is radical change in global health policy possible? Material factors such as economics or human resources are important, but ideational factors such as ideas and discourse play an important role as well. In this paper, I apply a theoretical framework to show how discourse made it possible for public and private actors to fundamentally change their way of working together--to shift from international public and private interactions to global health partnerships (GHPs)--and in the process create a new institutional mechanism for governing global health. Drawing on insights from constructivist analysis, I demonstrate how discourse justified, legitimised, communicated and coordinated ideas about the practice of GHPs through a concentrated network of partnership pioneers. As attention from health policy analysts turns increasingly to ideational explanations for answers to global health problems, this paper contributes to the debate by showing how, precisely, discourse makes change possible.

  9. Politics or Technocracy – What Next for Global Health?

    PubMed Central

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Politics play a central part in determining health and development outcomes as Gorik Ooms highlights in his recent commentary. As health becomes more global and more politicized the need grows to better understand the inherently political processes at all levels of governance, such as ideological positions, ideas, value judgments, and power. I agree that global health research should strengthen its contribution to generating such knowledge by drawing more on political science, such research is gaining ground. Even more important is – as Ooms indicates – that global health scholars better understand their own role in the political process. It is time to acknowledge that expert-based technocratic approaches are no less political. We will need to reflect and analyse the role of experts in global health governance to a greater extent and in that context explore the links between politics, expertise and democracy. PMID:26927593

  10. Neoliberal Optimism: Applying Market Techniques to Global Health.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yuyang

    2016-09-23

    Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.

  11. Global health diplomacy, 'smart power', and the new world order.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Both the theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy, including systems of hard and soft power, are undergoing paradigm shifts, with an increasing number of innovative actors and strategies contributing to international relations outcomes in the 'New World Order'. Concurrently, global health programmes continue to ascend the political spectrum in scale, scope and influence. This concatenation of circumstances has demanded a re-examination of the existing and potential effectiveness of global health programmes in the 'smart power' context, based on adherence to a range of design, implementation and assessment criteria, which may simultaneously optimise their humanitarian, foreign policy and diplomatic effectiveness. A synthesis of contemporary characteristics of 'global health diplomacy' and 'global health as foreign policy', grouped by common themes and generated in the context of related field experiences, are presented in the form of 'Top Ten' criteria lists for optimising both diplomatic and foreign policy effectiveness of global health programmes, and criteria are presented in concert with an examination of implications for programme design and delivery. Key criteria for global health programmes that are sensitised to both diplomatic and foreign policy goals include visibility, sustainability, geostrategic considerations, accountability, effectiveness and alignment with broader policy objectives. Though diplomacy is a component of foreign policy, criteria for 'diplomatically-sensitised' versus 'foreign policy-sensitised' global health programmes were not always consistent, and were occasionally in conflict, with each other. The desirability of making diplomatic and foreign policy criteria explicit, rather than implicit, in the context of global health programme design, delivery and evaluation are reflected in the identified implications for (1) international security, (2) programme evaluation, (3) funding and resource allocation decisions, (4) approval

  12. Global health diplomacy for obesity prevention: lessons from tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-07-01

    To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.

  13. Developing a global health practitioner: time to act?

    PubMed

    McKimm, Judy; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Although many health issues transcend national boundaries and require international co-operation, global health is rarely an integral part of the medical curriculum. While medical schools have a social responsibility to train healthcare professionals to serve local communities, the internationalisation of medical education (e.g. international medical students, export of medical curricula or medical schools) makes it increasingly difficult to define it as 'local'. It is therefore necessary to produce practitioners who can practice medicine in an ever-changing and unpredictable world. These practitioners must be clinically and culturally competent as well as able to use their global knowledge and experience to improve health and well-being, irrespective of where they eventually practice medicine. Global health practitioners are tomorrow's leaders, change agents and members of effective multiprofessional teams and so need to be aware of the environmental, cultural, social and political factors that impact on health, serving as advocates of people's rights to access resources, education and healthcare. This article addresses some of the difficulties of developing global health practitioners, offering suggestions for a global health curriculum. It also acknowledges that creating a global health practitioner requires international collaboration and shared resources and practices and places the onus of social accountability on academic leaders.

  14. Global health educational engagement - a tale of two models.

    PubMed

    Rassiwala, Jasmine; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Kupershtok, Mania; Castillo, Frank M; Evert, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Global health learning experiences for medical students sit at the intersection of capacity building, ethics, and education. As interest in global health programs during medical school continues to rise, Northwestern University Alliance for International Development, a student-led and -run organization at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, has provided students with the opportunity to engage in two contrasting models of global health educational engagement.Eleven students, accompanied by two Northwestern physicians, participated in a one-week trip to Matagalpa, Nicaragua, in December 2010. This model allowed learning within a familiar Western framework, facilitated high-volume care, and focused on hands-on experiences. This approach aimed to provide basic medical services to the local population.In July 2011, 10 other Feinberg students participated in a four-week program in Puerto Escondido, Mexico, which was coordinated by Child Family Health International, a nonprofit organization that partners with native health care providers. A longer duration, homestays, and daily language classes hallmarked this experience. An intermediary, third-party organization served to bridge the cultural and ethical gap between visiting medical students and the local population. This program focused on providing a holistic cultural experience for rotating students.Establishing comprehensive global health curricula requires finding a balance between providing medical students with a fulfilling educational experience and honoring the integrity of populations that are medically underserved. This article provides a rich comparison between two global health educational models and aims to inform future efforts to standardize global health education curricula.

  15. RAS - Target Identification - Informatics

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Informatics lab group develops tools to track and analyze “big data” from the RAS Initiative, as well as analyzes data from external projects. By integrating internal and external data, this group helps improve understanding of RAS-driven cancers.

  16. Towards defining interprofessional competencies for global health education: drawing on educational frameworks and the experience of the UW-Madison Global Health Institute.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lori DiPrete

    2014-12-01

    The experience and lessons to date from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Global Health Institute's global health programs, considered together with more recently published competency frameworks related to global health practice, can provide important insights into the development of a core set of interprofessional competencies for global health that can be used across disciplines and professions.

  17. Assessing and Comparing Global Health Competencies in Rehabilitation Students

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Globalization is contributing to changes in health outcomes and healthcare use in many ways, including health professionals' practices. The objective of this study was to assess and compare global health competencies in rehabilitation students. Method. Online cross-sectional survey of physiotherapy and occupational therapy students from five universities within Ontario. We used descriptive statistics to analyze students' perceived knowledge, skills, and learning needs in global health. We used Chi-square tests, with significance set at P < 0.05, to compare results across professions. Results. One hundred and sixty-six students completed the survey. In general, both physiotherapy and occupational therapy students scored higher on the “relationship between work and health,” “relationship between income and health,” and “socioeconomic position (SEP) and impact on health” and lower on “Access to healthcare for low income nations,” “mechanisms for why racial and ethnic disparities exist,” and “racial stereotyping and medical decision making.” Occupational therapy students placed greater importance on learning concerning social determinants of health (P = 0.03). Conclusion. This paper highlights several opportunities for improvement in global health education for rehabilitation students. Educators and professionals should consider developing strategies to address these needs and provide more global health opportunities in rehabilitation training programs. PMID:24381763

  18. Promoting global population health while constraining the environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Butler, C D

    2011-01-01

    Populations today face increasing health risks from human-induced regional and global environmental changes and resultant ecological nonsustainability. Localized environmental degradation that has long accompanied population growth, industrialization, and rising consumerism has now acquired a global and often systemic dimension (e.g., climate change, disrupted nitrogen cycling, biodiversity loss). Thus, the economic intensification and technological advances that previously contributed to health gains have now expanded such that humanity's environmental (and ecological) footprint jeopardizes global population health. International data show, in general, a positive correlation of a population's health with level of affluence and size of per-person footprint. Yet, beyond a modest threshold, larger footprints afford negligible health gain and may impair health (e.g., via the rise of obesity). Furthermore, some lower-income countries have attained high levels of health. Many changes now needed to promote ecological (and social) sustainability will benefit local health. Continued improvement of global health could thus coexist with an equitably shared global environmental footprint.

  19. A Progressively Realizable Right to Health and Global Governance.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Norman

    2015-12-01

    A moral right to health or health care is a special instance of a right to fair equality of opportunity. Nation-states generally have the capabilities to specify the entitlements of such a right and to raise the resources needed to satisfy those entitlements. Can these functions be replicated globally, as a global right to health or health care requires? The suggestion that "better global governance" is needed if such a global right is to be claimed requires that these two central capabilities be present. It is unlikely that nation-states would concede these two functions to a form of global governance, for doing so would seriously compromise the authority that is generally included in sovereignty. This claim is a specification of what is often recognized as the "sovereignty problem." The argument of this paper is not an "impossibility" claim, but a best guess about whether the necessary conditions for better global governance that supports a global right to health or health care can be achieved.

  20. Nursing Informatics Beyond 2020; An Interactive Workshop Exploring Our Futures.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    This interactive workshop will reflect on and update participants' views on possible future scenarios for the development of health and nursing informatics. The NI2006 Post Congress Conference discussed the future nature and scope of nursing informatics, nursing and healthcare, as viewed from likely developments between 2006 and 2020 [1]. Brief synposes from the NI2006 conference will be presented, with summaries of speakers' views on changes and progress since. Workshop participants will discuss major themes and changes, with a view to updating views on possible futures for nursing, healthcare and informatics.

  1. Gap analysis of biomedical informatics graduate education competencies.

    PubMed

    Ritko, Anna L; Odlum, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Graduate training in biomedical informatics (BMI) is evolving rapidly. BMI graduate programs differ in informatics domain, delivery method, degrees granted, as well as breadth and depth of curricular competencies. Using the current American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) definition of BMI core competencies as a framework, we identified and labeled course offerings within graduate programs. From our qualitative analysis, gaps between defined competencies and curricula emerged. Topics missing from existing graduate curricula include community health, translational and clinical research, knowledge representation, data mining, communication and evidence-based practice.

  2. Gap Analysis of Biomedical Informatics Graduate Education Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Ritko, Anna L.; Odlum, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Graduate training in biomedical informatics (BMI) is evolving rapidly. BMI graduate programs differ in informatics domain, delivery method, degrees granted, as well as breadth and depth of curricular competencies. Using the current American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) definition of BMI core competencies as a framework, we identified and labeled course offerings within graduate programs. From our qualitative analysis, gaps between defined competencies and curricula emerged. Topics missing from existing graduate curricula include community health, translational and clinical research, knowledge representation, data mining, communication and evidence-based practice. PMID:24551403

  3. Globalization and Health at the United States–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the impact of globalization on the making of health policy. Globalization is understood as economic interdependence among nations. The North American Free Trade Agreement is used as a marker to assess the effects of economic interdependence on binational health cooperation along the United States–Mexico border. Methods. We observed participants and conducted in-depth interviews with policymakers, public health specialists, representatives of professional organizations, and unions. Results. Globalization has not promoted binational health policy cooperation. Barriers that keep US and Mexican policymakers apart prevail while health problems that do not recognize international borders go unresolved. Conclusions. If international health problems are to be solved, political, cultural, and social interdependence need to be built with the same impetus by which policymakers promote international trade. PMID:14652325

  4. The role of psychosomatic medicine in global health care.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Amy M; Bonilla, Pedro; Grover, Matthew W; Meyer, Fremonta; Riselli, Carleen; White, Laura

    2011-02-01

    This article reviews the principles and skills involved with psychosomatic medicine and their potential ability to improve global health care. New awareness of the escalating global public health impact of noncommunicable diseases, including chronic medical conditions and mental disorders, has stimulated interest in determining how best to organize health services. Home to the biopsychosocial model, the field of psychosomatic medicine is well-suited to inform such efforts by virtue of its emphasis on cross-disciplinary collaboration and specialized knowledge at the interface of medicine and psychiatry that takes into account individual and contextual influences on health. Consistent with the principles of psychosomatic medicine, promising strategies to improve global health care include integrating mental health care into primary care, applying the chronic care model in programs aimed at enhancing disease self-management, and using innovative models such as Internet-based therapy and telemedicine to increase access to quality care.

  5. Microfinance: untapped potential for global health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak B

    2014-11-01

    Microfinance has recently come under criticism for not meeting its potential for poverty reduction and its exploitation by for-profit entities. Access to finance still remains limited for many of the world’s poor. This re-examination of microfinance should not impede its proliferation and development into a tool to improve health for the underserved. There are significant returns on microfinance investments in health at the household level. Microfinance that allows the consumption of goods and services that can improve health can also lead to increased savings and productivity making it a financially viable and powerful tool for both health improvement and development.

  6. A Plea for Global Health Action Bottom-Up

    PubMed Central

    Laaser, Ulrich; Dorey, Stephen; Nurse, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This opinion piece focuses on global health action by hands-on bottom-up practice: initiation of an organizational framework and securing financial efficiency are – however – essential, both clearly a domain of well-trained public health professionals. Examples of action are cited in the four main areas of global threats: planetary climate change, global divides and inequity, global insecurity and violent conflicts, and global instability and financial crises. In conclusion, a stable health systems policy framework would greatly enhance success. However, such organizational framework dries out if not linked to public debates channeling fresh thoughts and controversial proposals: the structural stabilization is essential but has to serve not to dominate bottom-up activities. In other words, a horizontal management is required, a balanced equilibrium between bottom-up initiative and top-down support. Last but not least, rewarding voluntary and charity work by public acknowledgment is essential. PMID:27843892

  7. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-08-06

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example 'poverty eradication,' can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term 'global health' is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on 'global health' should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions.

  8. A global travelers' electronic health record template standard for personal health records.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chuan; Detmer, Don E; Shabbir, Syed-Abdul; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Jian, Wen-Shan; Mihalas, George I; Shortliffe, Edward H; Tang, Paul; Haux, Reinhold; Kimura, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Tourism as well as international business travel creates health risks for individuals and populations both in host societies and home countries. One strategy to reduce health-related risks to travelers is to provide travelers and relevant caregivers timely, ongoing access to their own health information. Many websites offer health advice for travelers. For example, the WHO and US Department of State offer up-to-date health information about countries relevant to travel. However, little has been done to assure travelers that their medical information is available at the right place and time when the need might arise. Applications of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilizing mobile phones for health management are promising tools both for the delivery of healthcare services and the promotion of personal health. This paper describes the project developed by international informaticians under the umbrella of the International Medical Informatics Association. A template capable of becoming an international standard is proposed. This application is available free to anyone who is interested. Furthermore, its source code is made open.

  9. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Bettcher, D. W.; Yach, D.; Guindon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization. PMID:10885181

  10. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, D W; Yach, D; Guindon, G E

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization.

  11. Center for Global Health announces grants to support portable technologies

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Center for Global Health announced grants that will support the development and validation of low-cost, portable technologies. These technologies have the potential to improve early detection, diagnosis, and non-invasive or minimally invasive treatm

  12. Pediatric Global Health Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Michael B; Gladding, Sophia P; Suchdev, Parminder S; Howard, Cynthia R

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of diseases erroneously thought by many to be contained by borders or eliminated by vaccines have highlighted the need for proper training of all residents in global health. Beyond infectious diseases, all pediatricians should know how to care for other conditions in global child health, ranging from malnutrition to the nuances of care for immigrant and refugee children. The call for broader education for pediatric residents in global health has been increasing over the last decade, with all major pediatric organizations underscoring its importance in statement and action. Herein, the current status of global child health education in pediatric residency training in the United States is summarized, highlighting where it has been, where it is now, and where it should go next.

  13. Globalization and Health: developing the journal to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Labonté, Ronald; Larkan, Fiona; Vallières, Frédérique; Bergin, Niamh

    2016-03-09

    Founded in 2005, Globalization and Health was the first open access global health journal. The journal has since expanded the field, and its influence, with the number of downloaded papers rising 17-fold, to over 4 million. Its ground-breaking papers, leading authors -including a Nobel Prize winner- and an impact factor of 2.25 place it among the top global health journals in the world. To mark the ten years since the journal's founding, we, members of the current editorial board, undertook a review of the journal's progress over the last decade. Through the application of an inductive thematic analysis, we systematically identified themes of research published in the journal from 2005 to 2014. We identify key areas the journal has promoted and consider these in the context of an existing framework, identify current gaps in global health research and highlight areas we, as a journal, would like to see strengthened.

  14. Private actors, global health and learning the lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Youde, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance.

  15. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  16. Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity.

  17. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    PubMed

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy.

  18. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  19. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-06-19

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH): broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace.

  20. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH): broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace. PMID:17578569

  1. A Short History of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621

  2. A short history of medical informatics in bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-02-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal "Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med", indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period.

  3. New study program: Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Simić, Diana; Božikov, Jadranka; Vondra, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Paper presents an overview of the EU funded Project of Curriculum Development for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics named MEDINFO to be introduced in Croatia. The target group for the program is formed by professionals in any of the areas of medicine, IT professionals working on applications of IT for health and researchers and teachers in medical informatics. In addition to Croatian students, the program will also provide opportunity for enrolling students from a wider region of Southeast Europe. Project partners are two faculties of the University of Zagreb - Faculty of Organization and Informatics from Varaždin and School of Medicine, Andrija Štampar School of Public Health from Zagreb with the Croatian Society for Medical Informatics, Croatian Chamber of Economy, and Ericsson Nikola Tesla Company as associates.

  4. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all. PMID:20849605

  5. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.

    PubMed

    Martens, Pim; Akin, Su-Mia; Maud, Huynen; Mohsin, Raza

    2010-09-17

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.

  6. Regulatory Underpinnings of Global Health Security: FDA's Roles in Preventing, Detecting, and Responding to Global Health Threats

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Katherine C.; Maher, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, health officials from around the world announced the Global Health Security Agenda, a critical effort to strengthen national and global systems to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats and to foster stronger collaboration across borders. With its increasing global roles and broad range of regulatory responsibilities in ensuring the availability, safety, and security of medical and food products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is engaged in a range of efforts in support of global health security. This article provides an overview of FDA's global health security roles, focusing on its responsibilities related to the development and use of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for preventing, detecting, and responding to global infectious disease and other public health emergency threats. The article also discusses several areas—antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and supply chain integrity—in which FDA's global health security roles continue to evolve and extend beyond MCMs and, in some cases, beyond traditional infectious disease threats. PMID:25254912

  7. Rethinking global health challenges: towards a 'global compact' for reducing the burden of chronic disease.