Science.gov

Sample records for global health informatics

  1. Global health informatics education.

    PubMed

    Hovenga, E J

    2000-01-01

    Health informatics education has evolved since the 1960s with a strong research foundation primarily in medical schools across the USA and Europe. By 1989 health informatics education was provided in some form by at least 20 countries representing five continents. This continues to progress, in Europe with the help of a number of special projects, via the integration of informatics into pre registration health professional courses, undergraduate and post graduate course work and research degree programs. Each program is unique in terms or content and structure reflecting the many foundation disciplines which contribute or are incorporated in the health informatics discipline. Nursing informatics education is not as widespread. Indeed the evidence suggests a poor uptake of informatics by this profession. Advances in computer based educational technologies are making innovative modes of educational delivery possible and are facilitating a shift towards learner centred, flexible and life long learning. Greater cooperation between Universities is recommended. PMID:10947666

  2. History of health informatics: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cesnik, Branko; Kidd, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    In considering a 'history' of Health Informatics it is important to be aware that the discipline encompasses a wide array of activities, products, research and theories. Health Informatics is as much a result of evolution as planned philosophy, having its roots in the histories of information technology and medicine. The process of its growth continues so that today's work is tomorrow's history. A 'historical' discussion of the area is its history to date, a report rather than a summation. As well as its successes, the history of Health Informatics is populated with visionary promises that have failed to materialise despite the best intentions. For those studying the subject or working in the field, the experiences of others' use of Information Technologies for the betterment of health care can provide a necessary perspective. This chapter starts by noting some of the major events and people that form a technological backdrop to Health Informatics and ends with some thoughts on the future. This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The history of computing * The beginnings of the health informatics discipline.

  3. Health Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Marie; Brittain, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Identifies current trends and issues in health informatics with examples of applications, particularly in English-speaking countries. Topics include health systems, professionals, and patients; consumer health information; electronic medical records; nursing; privacy and confidentiality; finding and using information; the Internet; e-mail;…

  4. Health informatics.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, M; Webb, A; Goldschmidt, A

    2001-01-01

    Health informatics is the development and assessment of methods and systems for the acquisition, processing and interpretation of patient data with the help of knowledge from scientific research. This definition implies that health informatics is not tied to the application of computers but more generally to the entire management of information in healthcare. The focus is the patient and the process of care. The apparent information overload and the imperfection of medical decision making motivate the use of information systems for medical decision support. Health informatics provides tools to control processes in healthcare, acquire medical knowledge and communicate information between all people and organisations involved with healthcare. Although the development of medical information systems may often lag behind the available possibilities, the technological state of the current medical information systems is better than it is generally held to be. Health informatics should help healthcare professionals to provide better and more cost-effective care and enable healthcare systems to be more efficient and to adapt better to our patients' needs. Health informatics may reshape the way we deliver care to meet the demands of the future.

  5. Building the Foundations of an Informatics Agenda for Global Health - 2011 Workshop Report

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muzna; Kratz, Mary; Medeiros, Donna; Pina, Jamie; Richards, Janise; Zhang, Xiaohui; Fraser, Hamish; Bailey, Christopher; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening the capacity of public health systems to protect and promote the health of the global population continues to be essential in an increasingly connected world. Informatics practices and principles can play an important role for improving global health response capacity. A critical step is to develop an informatics agenda for global health so that efforts can be prioritized and important global health issues addressed. With the aim of building a foundation for this agenda, the authors developed a workshop to examine the evidence in this domain, recognize the gaps, and document evidence-based recommendations. On 21 August 2011, at the 2011 Public Health Informatics Conference in Atlanta, GA, USA, a four-hour interactive workshop was conducted with 85 participants from 15 countries representing governmental organizations, private sector companies, academia, and non-governmental organizations. The workshop discussion followed an agenda of a plenary session - planning and agenda setting - and four tracks: Policy and governance; knowledge management, collaborative networks and global partnerships; capacity building; and globally reusable resources: metrics, tools, processes, templates, and digital assets. Track discussions examined the evidence base and the participants’ experience to gather information about the current status, compelling and potential benefits, challenges, barriers, and gaps for global health informatics as well as document opportunities and recommendations. This report provides a summary of the discussions and key recommendations as a first step towards building an informatics agenda for global health. Attention to the identified topics and issues is expected to lead to measurable improvements in health equity, health outcomes, and impacts on population health. We propose the workshop report be used as a foundation for the development of the full agenda and a detailed roadmap for global health informatics activities based on further

  6. Capacity building in e-health and health informatics: a review of the global vision and informatics educational initiatives of the American Medical Informatics Association.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    2010-01-01

    Substantial global and national commitment will be required for current healthcare systems and health professional practices to become learning care systems utilizing information and communications technology (ICT) empowered by informatics. To engage this multifaceted challenge, a vision is required that shifts the emphasis from silos of activities toward integrated systems. Successful systems will include a set of essential elements, e.g., a sufficient ICT infrastructure, evolving health care processes based on evidence and harmonized to local cultures, a fresh view toward educational preparation, sound and sustained policy support, and ongoing applied research and development. Increasingly, leaders are aware that ICT empowered by informatics must be an integral part of their national and regional visions. This paper sketches out the elements of what is needed in terms of objectives and some steps toward achieving them. It summarizes some of the progress that has been made to date by the American and International Medical Informatics Associations working separately as well as collaborating to conceptualize informatics capacity building in order to bring this vision to reality in low resource nations in particular.

  7. Accelerating the Global Workforce Demand for Nurse Informaticians: Advanced Health Informatics Certification (AHIC).

    PubMed

    Gadd, Cynthia; Delaney, Connie W; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Greenwood, Karen; Williamson, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in professional recognition of nursing informatics vary by country but examples exist of training programs moving from curriculum-based education to competency based frameworks to produce highly skilled nursing informaticians. This panel will discuss a significant credentialing project in the United States that should further enhance professional recognition of highly skilled nurses matriculating from NI programs as well as nurses functioning in positions where informatics-induced transformation is occurring. The panel will discuss the professionalization of health informatics by describing core content, training requirements, education needs, and administrative framework applicable for the creation of an Advanced Health Informatics Certification (AHIC). PMID:27332309

  8. Health Informatics: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, Jennifer; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature related to health informatics and health information management. Provides examples covering types of information, library and information services outcomes, training of informatics professionals, areas of application, the impact of evidence based medicine, professional issues, integrated information systems, and the needs of the…

  9. What’s Past is Prologue: A Scoping Review of Recent Public Health and Global Health Informatics Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.; Pina, Jamie; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Richards, Janise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To categorize and describe the public health informatics (PHI) and global health informatics (GHI) literature between 2012 and 2014. Methods: We conducted a semi-systematic review of articles published between January 2012 and September 2014 where information and communications technologies (ICT) was a primary subject of the study or a main component of the study methodology. Additional inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to filter PHI and GHI articles from the larger biomedical informatics domain. Articles were identified using MEDLINE as well as personal bibliographies from members of the American Medical Informatics Association PHI and GHI working groups. Results: A total of 85 PHI articles and 282 GHI articles were identified. While systems in PHI continue to support surveillance activities, we identified a shift towards support for prevention, environmental health, and public health care services. Furthermore, articles from the U.S. reveal a shift towards PHI applications at state and local levels. GHI articles focused on telemedicine, mHealth and eHealth applications. The development of adequate infrastructure to support ICT remains a challenge, although we identified a small but growing set of articles that measure the impact of ICT on clinical outcomes. Discussion: There is evidence of growth with respect to both implementation of information systems within the public health enterprise as well as a widening of scope within each informatics discipline. Yet the articles also illuminate the need for more primary research studies on what works and what does not as both searches yielded small numbers of primary, empirical articles. Conclusion: While the body of knowledge around PHI and GHI continues to mature, additional studies of higher quality are needed to generate the robust evidence base needed to support continued investment in ICT by governmental health agencies. PMID:26392846

  10. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. PMID:26338399

  11. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

  12. What is health informatics?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, F

    2001-10-01

    Health informatics is a relatively recent jargon term for a subject that may be of great interest to health services researchers and policy makers. Most countries with highly developed health systems are investing heavily in computer hardware and software in the expectation of higher quality for lower costs. Recent systematic reviews have indeed demonstrated the health benefits of a range of electronic tools, particularly in the areas of prevention and therapeutic monitoring. However, there remains a relative lack of published evaluations of informatics tools and methods. Uncritical adoption of new systems based on the pressures of technological push continue to discredit policy makers who have had to commit significant resources despite inadequate information on what can be realistically expected from a proposed system. There are great opportunities for researchers interested in evaluation to fill the vacuum left by informaticists who are too busy writing their next line of code.

  13. Coalescing medical systems: a challenge for health informatics in a global world.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, Andrew; Vaughan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As globalisation advances, patients in many nations increasingly access diverse medical systems including Western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Homeopathy and Ayervedic medicine. The trend toward co-existence of medical systems presents challenges for health informatics including the need to develop standards that can encompass the diversity required, the need to develop software applications that effectively inter-operate across diverse systems and the need to support patients when evaluating competing systems. This article advances the notion that the challenges can most effectively be met with the development of informatics approaches that do not assume the superiority of one medical system over another. Argument visualization to support patient decision making in selecting an appropriate medical system is presented as an application that exemplifies this stance. PMID:21191169

  14. Coalescing medical systems: a challenge for health informatics in a global world.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, Andrew; Vaughan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As globalisation advances, patients in many nations increasingly access diverse medical systems including Western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Homeopathy and Ayervedic medicine. The trend toward co-existence of medical systems presents challenges for health informatics including the need to develop standards that can encompass the diversity required, the need to develop software applications that effectively inter-operate across diverse systems and the need to support patients when evaluating competing systems. This article advances the notion that the challenges can most effectively be met with the development of informatics approaches that do not assume the superiority of one medical system over another. Argument visualization to support patient decision making in selecting an appropriate medical system is presented as an application that exemplifies this stance.

  15. Globalising health informatics: the role of GIScience.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hamish; Nicholas, Nick; Georgiou, Andrew; Johnson, Julie; Travaglia, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Health systems globally are undergoing significant changes. New systems are emerging in developing countries where there were previously limited healthcare options, existing systems in emerging and developed economies are under significant resource pressures and population dynamics are creating significant pressures for change. As health systems expand and intensify, information quality and timeliness will be central to their sustainability and continuity. Information collection and transfer across diverse systems and international borders already presents a significant challenge for health system operations and logistics. Geographic information science (giscience) has the potential to support and enhance health informatics in the coming decades as health information transfers become increasingly important. In this article we propose a spatially enabled approach to support and increasingly globalised health informatics environment. In a world where populations are ageing and urbanising and health systems are linked to economic and social policy shifts, knowing where patients, diseases, health care workers and facilities are located becomes central to those systems operational capacities. In this globalising environment, health informatics needs to be spatially enabled informatics.

  16. Driving the Profession of Health Informatics: The Australasian College of Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Christopher; Veil, Klaus; Williams, Peter; Cording, Andrew; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Grain, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Across the world, bodies representing health informatics or promoting health informatics are either societies of common interest or universities with health informatics courses/departments. Professional colleges in Health Informatics (similar to the idea of professional colleges in other health fields) are few and far between. The Australasian College of Health Informatics has been in existence since 2001, and has an increasing membership of nearly 100 fellows and members, acting as a national focal point for the promotion of Health Informatics in Australasia. Describing the activities of the college, this article demonstrates a need for increasing professionalization of Health informatics beyond the current structures.

  17. Massive Open Online Course for Health Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper outlines a new method of teaching health informatics to large numbers of students from around the world through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Methods The Health Informatics Forum is one of examples of MOOCs through a social networking site for educating health informatics students and professionals. It is running a MOOC for students from around the world that uses creative commons licenced content funded by the US government and developed by five US universities. The content is delivered through narrated lectures with slides that can be viewed online with discussion threads on the forum for class interactions. Students can maintain a professional profile, upload photos and files, write their own blog posts and post discussion threads on the forum. Results The Health Informatics Forum MOOC has been accessed by 11,316 unique users from 127 countries from August 2, 2012 to January 24, 2014. Most users accessed the MOOC via a desktop computer, followed by tablets and mobile devices and 55% of users were female. Over 400,000 unique users have now accessed the wider Health Informatics Forum since it was established in 2008. Conclusions Advances in health informatics and educational technology have both created a demand for online learning material in health informatics and a solution for providing it. By using a MOOC delivered through a social networking platform it is hoped that high quality health informatics education will be able to be delivered to a large global audience of future health informaticians without cost. PMID:24872906

  18. Establishing a national resource: a health informatics collection to maintain the legacy of health informatics development.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beverley; Roberts, Jean; Cooper, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This case study report of the establishment of a national repository of multi-media materials describes the creation process, the challenges faced in putting it into operation and the opportunities for the future. The initial resource has been incorporated under standard library and knowledge management practices. A collaborative action research method was used with active experts in the domain to determine the requirements and priorities for further development. The National Health Informatics Collection (NatHIC) is now accessible and the further issues are being addressed by inclusion in future University and NHS strategic plans. Ultimately the Collection will link with other facilities that contribute to the description and maintenance of effective informatics in support of health globally. The issues raised about the National Health Informatics Collection as established in the UK have resonance with the challenges of capturing the overall historic development of an emerging discipline in any country.

  19. Clinical health informatics education for a 21st Century World.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw Teng; Gray, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * health informatics competencies in medical, nursing and allied clinical health professions * health informatics learning cultures and just-in-time health informatics training in clinical work settings * major considerations in selecting or developing health informatics education and training programs for local implementation * using elearning effectively to meet the objectives of health informatics education. PMID:20407180

  20. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  1. The Scope and Direction of Health Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    Health Informatics (HI) is a dynamic discipline based upon the medical sciences, information sciences, and cognitive sciences. Its domain is can broadly be defined as medical information management. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this domain, discuss the current "state of the art" , and indicate the likely growth areas for health informatics. The sources of information utilized in this paper are selected publications from the literature of Health Informatics, HI 5300: Introduction to Health Informatics, which is a course from the Department of Health Informatics at the University of Texas Houston Health Sciences Center, and the author's personal experience in practicing telemedicine and implementing an electronic medical record at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The conclusion is that the direction of Health Informatics is in the direction of data management, transfer, and representation via electronic medical records and the Internet.

  2. The scope and direction of health informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Patrick J.

    2002-01-01

    Health Informatics (HI) is a dynamic discipline based on the medical sciences, information sciences, and cognitive sciences. Its domain can broadly be defined as medical information management. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this domain, discuss the current "state of the art," and indicate the likely growth areas for health informatics. The sources of information used in this paper are selected publications from the literature of Health Informatics, HI 5300: Introduction to Health Informatics, which is a course from the Department of Health Informatics at the University of Texas Houston Health Sciences Center, and the author's personal experience in practicing telemedicine and implementing an electronic medical record at the NASA-Johnson Space Center. The conclusion is that the direction of Health Informatics is in the direction of data management, transfer, and representation via electronic medical records and the Internet.

  3. Health informatics 3.0.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Dipak

    2011-01-01

    Web 3.0 promises us smart computer services that will interact with each other and leverage knowledge about us and our immediate context to deliver prioritised and relevant information to support decisions and actions. Healthcare must take advantage of such new knowledge-integrating services, in particular to support better co-operation between professionals of different disciplines working in different locations, and to enable well-informed co-operation between clinicians and patients. To grasp the potential of Web 3.0 we will need well-harmonised semantic resources that can richly connect virtual teams and link their strategies to real-time and tailored evidence. Facts, decision logic, care pathway steps, alerts, education need to be embedded within components that can interact with multiple EHR systems and services consistently. Using Health Informatics 3.0 a patient's current situation could be compared with the outcomes of very similar patients (from across millions) to deliver personalised care recommendations. The integration of EHRs with biomedical sciences ('omics) research results and predictive models such as the Virtual Physiological Human could help speed up the translation of new knowledge into clinical practice. The mission, and challenge, for Health Informatics 3.0 is to enable healthy citizens, patients and professionals to collaborate within a knowledge-empowered social network in which patient specific information and personalised real-time evidence are seamlessly interwoven.

  4. A National Agenda for Public Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Yasnoff, William A.; Overhage, J. Marc; Humphreys, Betsy L.; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. PMID:11687561

  5. Health informatics competencies - underpinning e-health.

    PubMed

    Grain, Heather; Hovenga, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread consensus that we have an urgent need to improve our workforce capacity in all aspects associated with the skills and knowledge required for successful e-health and health informatics developments, associated change management and systems implementation strategies. Such activities aim to support various health reform policy initiatives. This paper considers the work being undertaken by many researchers around the globe to define the range of skills and knowledge requirements to suit this purpose. A number of requirements and areas of specialisation are detailed. This is followed by descriptions for competencies in general and more specifically descriptions of a set of high level agreed Health Informatics competencies. Collectively these competencies provide a suitable framework useful for the formal recognition of Health Informatics, including e-health, as a nationally recognised study discipline. Nationally agreed competencies for this discipline enables all education and training efforts to be consistently implemented and to fit with the Australian Qualifications Framework covering both the Vocational Education and Training (VET) and Higher Education sectors.

  6. Scientific papers for health informatics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Samáris Ramiro; Duarte, Jacy Marcondes; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    From the hypothesis that the development of scientific papers, mainly in interdisciplinary areas such as Health Informatics, may bring difficulties to the author, as had its communicative efficacy decreased or compromising their approval for publication; we aim to make considerations on the main items to good players making this kind of text. The scientific writing has peculiarities that must be taken into consideration when it writes: general characteristics, such as simplicity and objectivity, and characteristics of each area of knowledge, such as terminology, formatting and standardization. The research methodology adopted is bibliographical. The information was based on literature review and the authors' experience, teachers and assessors of scientific methodology in peer review publications in the area. As a result, we designed a checklist of items to be checked before submission of a paper to a scientific publication vehicle in order to contribute to the promotion of research, facilitating the publication and increase its capacity in this important area of knowledge.

  7. Nursing Informatics: Decades of Contribution to Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Mæland Knudsen, Lina Merete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In this paper we present a contemporary understanding of "nursing informatics" and relate it to applications in three specific contexts, hospitals, community health, and home dwelling, to illustrate achievements that contribute to the overall schema of health informatics. Methods We identified literature through database searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. Database searching was complemented by one author search and hand searches in six relevant journals. The literature review helped in conceptual clarification and elaborate on use that are supported by applications in different settings. Results Conceptual clarification of nursing data, information and knowledge has been expanded to include wisdom. Information systems and support for nursing practice benefits from conceptual clarification of nursing data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. We introduce three examples of information systems and point out core issues for information integration and practice development. Conclusions Exploring interplays of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, nursing informatics takes a practice turn, accommodating to processes of application design and deployment for purposeful use by nurses in different settings. Collaborative efforts will be key to further achievements that support task shifting, mobility, and ubiquitous health care. PMID:23882413

  8. [Informatics in the Croatian health care system].

    PubMed

    Kern, Josipa; Strnad, Marija

    2005-01-01

    Informatization process of the Croatian health care system started relatively early. Computer processing of data of persons not covered by health insurance started in 1968 in Zagreb. Remetinec Health Center served as a model of computer data processing (CDP) in primary health care and Sveti Duh General Hospital in inpatient CDP, whereas hospital administration and health service were first introduced to Zagreb University Hospital Center and Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital. At Varazdin Medical Center CDP for health care services started in 1970. Several registries of chronic diseases have been established: cancer, psychosis, alcoholism, and hospital registries as well as pilot registries of lung tuberculosis patients and diabetics. Health statistics reports on healthcare services, work accidents and sick-leaves as well as on hospital mortality started to be produced by CDP in 1977. Besides alphanumeric data, the modern information technology (IT) can give digital images and signals. Communication in health care system demands a standardized format of all information, especially for telemedicine. In 2000, Technical Committee for Standardization in Medical Informatics was founded in Croatia, in order to monitor the activities of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and Comite Européen de Normalisation (CEN), and to implement their international standards in the Croatian standardization procedure. The HL7 Croatia has also been founded to monitor developments in the communication standard HL7. So far, the Republic of Croatia has a number of acts regulating informatization in general and consequently the informatization of the health care system (Act on Personal Data Confidentiality, Act on Digital Signature, Act of Standardization) enacted. The ethical aspect of data security and data protection has been covered by the Code of Ethics for medical informaticians. It has been established by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA

  9. Consumer Health Informatics: Health Information Technology for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimison, Holly Brugge; Sher, Paul Phillip

    1995-01-01

    Explains consumer health informatics and describes the technology advances, the computer programs that are currently available, and the basic research that addresses both the effectiveness of computer health informatics and its impact on the future direction of health care. Highlights include commercial computer products for consumers and…

  10. Telehealth and the global health network in the 21st century. From homecare to public health informatics.

    PubMed

    Kun, L G

    2001-03-01

    The Information Era we live in has created new challenges and opportunities. This age of information highways has an economic price, which has not been properly evaluated. Detailed studies are needed to prove the cost and medical effectiveness of these technologies as well as its effects in the quality of life. Our society's future may depend on it. People are living longer, discoveries in genetics and in information technology are not only helping produce newer drugs faster but also providing the opportunity to exploit new areas such as disease prevention. These technologies provide a variety of opportunities to address public health challenges such as universal access for the uneducated, counter-bioterrorism, telemedicine, distance education, and home care. These opportunities present new challenges such as: surveillance, privacy/confidentiality/security of personal information which will affect all of our lives. No strategy has been presented publicly (yet) addressing (neither) the benefits (n)or the pitfalls of such technologies. From an economic point of view it is an imperative necessity to understand the importance of the Information Technology Infrastructure (ITI) and what it is. The investments in creating and maintaining this ITI will not come from a single application area such as healthcare, but rather from a combination of sources such as electronic commerce, banking, financial, manufacturing, entertainment, travelling, weather forecasting, pharmaceuticals, education, defence and many other 'industries' or application areas.

  11. Telehealth and the global health network in the 21st century. From homecare to public health informatics.

    PubMed

    Kun, L G

    2001-03-01

    The Information Era we live in has created new challenges and opportunities. This age of information highways has an economic price, which has not been properly evaluated. Detailed studies are needed to prove the cost and medical effectiveness of these technologies as well as its effects in the quality of life. Our society's future may depend on it. People are living longer, discoveries in genetics and in information technology are not only helping produce newer drugs faster but also providing the opportunity to exploit new areas such as disease prevention. These technologies provide a variety of opportunities to address public health challenges such as universal access for the uneducated, counter-bioterrorism, telemedicine, distance education, and home care. These opportunities present new challenges such as: surveillance, privacy/confidentiality/security of personal information which will affect all of our lives. No strategy has been presented publicly (yet) addressing (neither) the benefits (n)or the pitfalls of such technologies. From an economic point of view it is an imperative necessity to understand the importance of the Information Technology Infrastructure (ITI) and what it is. The investments in creating and maintaining this ITI will not come from a single application area such as healthcare, but rather from a combination of sources such as electronic commerce, banking, financial, manufacturing, entertainment, travelling, weather forecasting, pharmaceuticals, education, defence and many other 'industries' or application areas. PMID:11226613

  12. Informatics at the National Institues of Health

    PubMed Central

    Hendee, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical informatics, imaging, and engineering are major forces driving the knowledge revolutions that are shaping the agendas for biomedical research and clinical medicine in the 21st century. These disciplines produce the tools and techniques to advance biomedical research, and continually feed new technologies and procedures into clinical medicine. To sustain this force, an increased investment is needed in the physics, biomedical science, engineering, mathematics, information science, and computer science undergirding biomedical informatics, engineering, and imaging. This investment should be made primarily through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). However, the NIH is not structured to support such disciplines as biomedical informatics, engineering, and imaging that cross boundaries between disease- and organ-oriented institutes. The solution to this dilemma is the creation of a new institute or center at the NIH devoted to biomedical imaging, engineering, and informatics. Bills are being introduced into the 106th Congress to authorize such an entity. The pathway is long and arduous, from the introduction of bills in the House and Senate to the realization of new opportunities for biomedical informatics, engineering, and imaging at the NIH. There are many opportunities for medical informaticians to contribute to this realization. PMID:10428000

  13. Root Cause Analysis and Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard W; Despotou, George

    2016-01-01

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is the most widely used system analysis tool for investigating safety related incidents in healthcare. This contribution reviews RCA techniques, using a Health Informatics example, and discusses barriers to their successful uptake by healthcare organisations. It is concluded that a critical assessment to examine the uptake and evaluate the success of RCA, and other safety related techniques, within healthcare is long overdue. PMID:27350485

  14. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for healthcare professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in healthcare (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for healthcare professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, healthcare management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http:www.imia.org/wg1). PMID:10992757

  15. Directions and opportunities in health informatics in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K

    1994-06-01

    The social changes, and changes in perceptions of the effectiveness of health care in British Columbia have resulted in a large number of recommendations in the report of the British Columbia Royal Commission on Health Care and Costs. Many of these recommendations have implications for health informatics. The British Columbia Government, in outlining a response, foresees a major change in the emphases of health care, which will involve four major areas of health informatics: network evolution, automation of the patient record, outcome- and other quality-related databases, and consumer health education. These themes are discussed, in the light of the opinions of academics, health care providers, and the health-informatics industry. The themes must be intercalated into the health informatics curriculum, to equip graduates for the challenges of B.C.'s changing health care system.

  16. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics / medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http://www.imia.org/wg1). PMID:15718686

  17. Informatics critical to public health surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, Samuel W.; Lillibridge, Scott R.

    2003-09-01

    Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health by effective response management and coordination. As new pressures for early detection of disease outbreaks have arisen, particularly for outbreaks of possible bioterrorism (BT) origin, and as electronic health data have become increasingly available, so has the demand for public health situation awareness systems. Although these systems are valuable for early warning of public health emergencies, there remains the cost of developing and managing such large and complex systems and of investigating inevitable false alarms. Whether these systems are dependable and cost effective enough and can demonstrate a significant and indispensable role in detection or prevention of mass casualty events of BT origin remains to be proven. This article will focus on the complexities of design, analysis, implementation and evaluation of public health surveillance and situation awareness systems and, in some cases, will discuss the key technologies being studied in Center for Biosecurity Informatics Research at University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston.

  18. Perspectives on Information Science and Health Informatics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F., Ed.; Ball, Marion J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theoretical discussion of what information science can contribute to the health professions addresses questions of definition and describes application and knowledge models for the emerging profession of informatics. A review of existing programs includes curriculum models and provides details on informatics programs emphasizing information…

  19. Developing a Capstone Course within a Health Informatics Program

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, Gary; Cata, Teuta; Cole, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing development of a health informatics capstone program in a Midwest university from the hiring of a program coordinator to the development of a capstone course, through initial student results. University health informatics programs require a strong academic program to be successful but also require a spirited program coordinator to manage resources and organize an effective capstone course. This is particularly true of health informatics master's programs that support health industry career fields, whereby employers can locate and work with a pool of qualified applicants. The analysis of students’ logs confirms that students’ areas of focus and concern are consistent with course objectives and company work requirements during the work-study portion of the student capstone project. The article further discusses lessons learned and future improvements to be made in the health informatics capstone course. PMID:22783150

  20. An Interdisciplinary Online Course in Health Care Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To design an interdisciplinary course in health care informatics that enables students to: (1) understand how to incorporate technology into the provision of safe, effective and evidence-based health care; (2) make decisions about the value and ethical application of specific technologies; and (3) appreciate the perspectives and roles of patients and providers when using technology in care. Design An online, interdisciplinary elective course using a distributive learning model was created. Standard courseware was used to manage teaching and to facilitate student/instructor interactions. Interactive, multimedia lectures were developed using Internet communication software. Assessment Upon completion of the course, students demonstrated competency in identifying, analyzing, and applying informatics appropriately in diverse health settings. Conclusion Online education using multimedia software technology is effective in teaching students about health informatics and providing an innovative opportunity for interdisciplinary learning. In light of the growing need for efficient health care informatics training, additional study of this methodology is warranted. PMID:17619643

  1. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  2. Health informatics and the delivery of care to older people.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sabine; Hägglund, Maria

    2009-07-20

    In the light of an aging society, effective delivery of healthcare will be more dependent on different technological solutions supporting the decentralization of healthcare, higher patient involvement and increased societal demands. The aim of this article is therefore, to describe the role of health informatics in the care of elderly people and to give an overview of the state of the art in this field. Based on a review of the existing scientific literature, 29 review articles from the last 15 years and 119 original articles from the last 5 years were selected and further analysed. Results show that review articles cover the fields of information technology in the home environment, integrated health information systems, public health systems, consumer health informatics and non-technology oriented topics such as nutrition, physical behaviour, medication and the aging process in general. Articles presenting original data can be divided into 5 major clusters: information systems and decision support, consumer health informatics, emerging technologies, home telehealth, and informatics methods. Results show that health informatics in elderly care is an expanding field of interest but we still do lack knowledge about the elderly person's needs of technology and how it should best be designed. Surprisingly, few studies cover gender differences related to technology use. Further cross-disciplinary research is needed that relates informatics and technology to different stages of the aging process and that evaluates the effects of technical solutions. PMID:19487092

  3. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yueyi I.

    2012-01-01

    Improving healthcare quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of healthcare reform. Informatics is crucial in tackling this challenge. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates adaptation and “meaningful use (MU)” of health information technology. In this review, we will highlight several areas in which informatics can make significant contributions, with a focus on radiology. We also discuss informatics related to the increasing imperatives of state and local regulations (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives. PMID:22771052

  4. Cardiovascular Health Informatics: Risk Screening and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Craig J.; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S.; Poon, Carmen C. Y.; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  5. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  6. Integrating Electronic Health Record Competencies into Undergraduate Health Informatics Education.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Griffith, Janessa; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on our findings arising from a qualitative, interview study of students' experiences in an undergraduate health informatics program. Our findings suggest that electronic health record competencies need to be integrated into an undergraduate curriculum. Participants suggested that there is a need to educate students about the use of the EHR, followed by best practices around interface design, workflow, and implementation with this work culminating in students spearheading the design of the technology as part of their educational program of study. PMID:27577461

  7. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  8. Health professionals' views of informatics education: findings from the AMIA 1999 spring conference.

    PubMed

    Staggers, N; Gassert, C A; Skiba, D J

    2000-01-01

    Health care leaders emphasize the need to include information technology and informatics concepts in formal education programs, yet integration of informatics into health educational programs has progressed slowly. The AMIA 1999 Spring Congress was held to address informatics educational issues across health professions, including the educational needs in the various health professions, goals for health informatics education, and implementation strategies to achieve these goals. This paper presents the results from AMIA work groups focused on informatics education for non-informatics health professionals. In the categories of informatics needs, goals, and strategies, conference attendees suggested elements in these areas: educational responsibilities for faculty and students, organizational responsibilities, core computer skills and informatics knowledge, how to learn informatics skills, and resources required to implement educational strategies. PMID:11062228

  9. Theoretical Foundations for Evidence-Based Health Informatics: Why? How?

    PubMed

    Scott, Philip J; Georgiou, Andrew; Hyppönen, Hannele; Craven, Catherine K; Rigby, Michael; Brender McNair, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    A scientific approach to health informatics requires sound theoretical foundations. Health informatics implementation would be more effective if evidence-based and guided by theories about what is likely to work in what circumstances. We report on a Medinfo 2015 workshop on this topic jointly organized by the EFMI Working Group on Assessment of Health Information Systems and the IMIA Working Group on Technology Assessment and Quality Development. We discuss the findings of the workshop and propose an approach to consolidate empirical knowledge into testable middle-range theories. PMID:27577457

  10. Consumer health informatics: a consensus description and commentary from American Medical Informatics Association members.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, T. K.; Chang, B. L.; Brown, S.; Kukafka, R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although interest in Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) has increased, a consensus definition of CHI does not yet exist. PURPOSE: To conduct a hypothesis-generating survey of AMIA members regarding definition and research agenda for CHI. METHODS: We solicited participation among AMIA members in an Internet-based survey focusing on issues related to a definition of CHI. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five AMIA members responded. Participants indicated a broad spectrum of topics important to CHI including "self-help for disease management" and "patient access to their own medical records." CHI research was felt to rely heavily on public health methods such as epidemiology and outcomes research, a paradigm shift from traditional medical informatics. Responses indicated a perceived lack of funding and need for further research in CHI. CONCLUSIONS: A working definition should emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of CHI, include consumer input into CHI design, and focus on public health approaches to evaluation. PMID:11825193

  11. The Question Concerning Narration of Self in Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Botin, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Narration is central, even crucial, when it comes to embracing the whole individual, continuity of care, and responsible (ethical) handling of the technological construction of the self that takes place in health informatics. This paper will deal with the role of narratives in the construction of health informatics platforms and how different voices should have space for speech on these platforms. Theoretically the paper takes an outset in the actant model for narratives by the French-Lithuanian theorist of linguistics and literature A.-J. Greimas and post-phenomenological readings of human-technology interactions. The main assumption is that certain interactions and voices are absent from the construction of health informatics platforms, because regarded as outside the text of computational and medical practice and expertise. This has implications for what concerns meaning and understanding regarding both the actual users (physicians and medical staff) and excluded users (patients and citizens). PMID:26262544

  12. Evaluating consumer informatics: learning from health campaign research.

    PubMed

    Logan, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests that some conceptual models used in health communication campaigns as well as the "uses and gratifications" approach might be successfully integrated into the evaluation of consumer informatics. These models and tools are especially pertinent when the desired outcomes of media health interventions are therapeutic changes in public knowledge, motivations, attitudes and patient behavior PMID:15360992

  13. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  14. Education for Health Information Professionals: Perspectives from Health Informatics in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Prudence W.; Roderer, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    While interest and activity in health informatics continues to increase worldwide, concerns about the most appropriate educational preparation for practice also arise. Health informatics is an interdisciplinary field that pursues effective use of data, information and knowledge to support effective decision making; in the health field, those…

  15. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology. PMID:22832993

  16. The synergism of Health Information Science/Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Protti, D J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to review the status of Health Information Science (Health Informatics) as reported in the literature; to suggest a taxonomy to integrate the many varied concepts being discussed under the rubric of Health Information Science; and to propose a framework into which research can be classified and potential research hypotheses generated. It is suggested that such a framework is needed if generalizations are to be made to the end that the knowledge produced from research efforts may be cumulative with that from other studies. A framework for research is needed if the field is to become an established academic discipline; whether or not it takes on the mantel of a "science" is another matter.

  17. Using the Internet to Teach Health Informatics: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Alec; Gillies, John

    2001-01-01

    Background It is becoming increasingly important for health professionals to have an understanding of health informatics. Education in this area must support not only undergraduate students but also the many workers who graduated before informatics education was available in the undergraduate program. To be successful, such a program must allow currently-employed students with significant work and family commitments to enroll. Objectives The aim was to successfully create and teach a distance program in health informatics for the New Zealand environment. Methods Our students are primarily health professionals in full time employment. About 50% are doctors, about 25% nurses, and the rest include dentists, physiotherapists, and medical managers. Course material was delivered via the World Wide Web and CD-ROM. Communication between students and faculty, both synchronous and asynchronous, was carried out via the Internet. Results We have designed and taught a postgraduate Diploma of Health Informatics program using the Internet as a major communication medium. The course has been running since July 1998 and the first 10 students graduated in July 2000. About 45 students are currently enrolled in the course; we have had a dropout rate of 15% and a failure rate of 5%. Comparable dropout figures are hard to obtain, but a recent review has suggested that failure-to-complete rates of 30% to 33% may be expected. Conclusions Internet technology has provided an exciting educational challenge and opportunity. Providing a web-based health informatics course has not been without its frustrations and problems, including software compatibility issues, bandwidth limitations, and the rapid change in software and hardware. Despite these challenges, the use of Internet technology has been interesting for both staff and students, and a worthwhile alternative for delivering educational material and advice to students working from their own homes. PMID:11720968

  18. Next generation neonatal health informatics with Artemis.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Carolyn; Catley, Christina; James, Andrew; Padbury, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a platform to enable processing of currently uncharted high frequency, high fidelity, synchronous data from medical devices. Such a platform would support the next generation of informatics solutions for neonatal intensive care. We present Artemis, a platform for real-time enactment of clinical knowledge as it relates to multidimensional data analysis and clinical research. Through specific deployment examples at two different neonatal intensive care units, we demonstrate that Artemis supports: 1) instantiation of clinical rules; 2) multidimensional analysis; 3) distribution of services for critical care via cloud computing; and 4) accomplishing 1 through 3 using current technology without a negative impact on patient care. PMID:21893725

  19. Health Informatics and E-health Curriculum for Clinical Health Profession Degrees.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen; Choo, Dawn; Butler-Henderson, Kerryn; Whetton, Sue; Maeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The project reported in this paper models a new approach to making health informatics and e-health education widely available to students in a range of Australian clinical health profession degrees. The development of a Masters level subject uses design-based research to apply educational quality assurance practices which are consistent with university qualification frameworks, and with clinical health profession education standards; at the same time it gives recognition to health informatics as a specialised profession in its own right. The paper presents details of (a) design with reference to the Australian Qualifications Framework and CHIA competencies, (b) peer review within a three-university teaching team, (c) external review by experts from the professions, (d) cross-institutional interprofessional online learning, (e) methods for evaluating student learning experiences and outcomes, and (f) mechanisms for making the curriculum openly available to interested parties. The project has sought and found demand among clinical health professionals for formal health informatics and e-health education that is designed for them. It has helped the educators and organisations involved to understand the need for nuanced and complementary health informatics educational offerings in Australian universities. These insights may aid in further efforts to address substantive and systemic challenges that clinical informatics faces in Australia.

  20. Towards Implementing a Global Competency-Based Nursing and Clinical Informatics Curriculum: Applying the TIGER Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Ursula; Ball, Marion; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Chang, Polun; Wilson, Marisa; Anderson, Christel

    2016-01-01

    This workshop will review the history of the TIGER initiative in order to set the framework for an understanding of international informatics competencies. We will include a description of clinical nursing informatics programs in 37 countries as well as the results of a recent survey of nursing competencies in order to further discussions of internationally agreed-upon competency definitions. These two surveys will provide the basis for developing a consensus regarding the integration of core competencies into informatics curriculum developments. Expected outcomes include building consensus on core competencies and developing plans toward implementing intra- and inter-professional informatics competencies across disciplines globally. PMID:27332333

  1. Convergent Evolution of Health Information Management and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C. J.; Abrams, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  2. Globalization and global health.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1999-01-01

    Along with the positive or negative consequences of the globalization of health, we can consider global health as a goal, responding to human rights and to common interests. History tells us that after the "microbial unification" of the world, which began in 1492, over three centuries elapsed before the recognition of common risks and attempts to cope with them in a cross-boundary effort. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the struggle against epidemics united countries, world health became a common goal, and considerable results were achieved. However, in recent decades the notion of health as a cornerstone of economic development has been replaced by the idea that public health and health services are an obstacle to the wealth of nations. Meanwhile, new common threats are growing: among them, the exacerbation of old infections and emergence of new ones, the impact of environmental changes, drug traffic on a world scale, and destructive and self-destructive violence. New and stronger empirical motives relate the interests of peoples to universal rights and to global health. The author concludes with some proposals for policies.

  3. Investigating Informatics Activity, Control, and Training Needs in Large, Medium, and Small Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Ryan; Yang, Biru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A recent National Association of City & County Health Officials survey shed light on informatics workforce development needs. Local health departments (LHDs) of various jurisdictional sizes and control over informatics may differ on training needs and activity. Understanding the precise nature of this variation will allow stakeholders to appropriately develop workforce development tools to advance the field. Objective: To understand the informatics training needs for LHDs of different jurisdictional sizes. Methods: Survey responses were analyzed by comparing training needs and LHD population size. Results: Larger health departments consistently reported having greater informatics-related capacity and informatics-related training needs. Quantitative data analysis was identified as a primary need for large LHDs. In addition, LHDs that report higher control of informatics/information technology were able to engage in more informatics activities. Conclusion: Smaller LHDs need additional resources to improve informatics-related capacity and engagement with the field. PMID:27684621

  4. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics. First Revision.

    PubMed

    Mantas, John; Ammenwerth, Elske; Demiris, George; Hasman, Arie; Haux, Reinhold; Hersh, William; Hovenga, Evelyn; Lun, K C; Marin, Heimar; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Wright, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on revising the existing international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), particularly international activities in educating BMHI specialists and the sharing of courseware. Method: An IMIA task force, nominated in 2006, worked on updating the recommendations' first version. These updates have been broadly discussed and refined by members of IMIA's National Member Societies, IMIA's Academic Institutional Members and by members of IMIA's Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education. Results and Conclusions: The IMIA recommendations center on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (e.g. physicians, nurses, BMHI professionals), 2) type of specialization in BMHI (IT users, BMHI specialists), and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, doctorate). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role a) as IT user and b) as BMHI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in BMHI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in BMHI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in BMHI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high-quality BMHI education. It supports information

  5. Challenges in Improving Health Care by Use of Health Informatics Technology.

    PubMed

    Botin, Lars; Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the complementary role of Techno-Anthropological methodologies in relation to classical quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The chapter addresses the importance of evidencing the problems in health informatics and how these problems are framed in order to find appropriate solutions. It is the claim that problem based learning approaches (PBL) and inter-disciplinary teamwork is paramount in order to meet the current challenges of development and implementation of health informatics in the health care system. The triple aim of providing better health, better care at lower cost on a societal level is complemented by similar aims on an institutional and individual level in order to frame health informatics on a more holistic level. In order to achieve this goal we have to embrace concepts like co-creation and co-construction with users and actors. The aim of the chapter is condensed in methodological recommendations for Techno-Anthropological work in health informatics contexts.

  6. Big Data: Are Biomedical and Health Informatics Training Programs Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W.; Ganesh, A. U. Jai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The growing volume and diversity of health and biomedical data indicate that the era of Big Data has arrived for healthcare. This has many implications for informatics, not only in terms of implementing and evaluating information systems, but also for the work and training of informatics researchers and professionals. This article addresses the question: What do biomedical and health informaticians working in analytics and Big Data need to know? Methods We hypothesize a set of skills that we hope will be discussed among academic and other informaticians. Results The set of skills includes: Programming - especially with data-oriented tools, such as SQL and statistical programming languages; Statistics - working knowledge to apply tools and techniques; Domain knowledge - depending on one’s area of work, bioscience or health care; and Communication - being able to understand needs of people and organizations, and articulate results back to them. Conclusions Biomedical and health informatics educational programs must introduce concepts of analytics, Big Data, and the underlying skills to use and apply them into their curricula. The development of new coursework should focus on those who will become experts, with training aiming to provide skills in “deep analytical talent” as well as those who need knowledge to support such individuals. PMID:25123740

  7. Introducing guidelines for good evaluation practice in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Brender, Jytte; Ammenwerth, Elske; Talmon, Jan; de Keizer, Nicolette; Rigby, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Good evaluation practice guidelines have been developed through a consensus making process by a core team and the health informatics community. A set of 60 issues has been identified that is relevant for planning, implementation and execution of an evaluation study in the health informatics domain. These issues cover all phases of an evaluation study: Study exploration, first study design, operationalization of methods, detailed study design, execution and finalization of an evaluation study. Issues of risk management and project control are also addressed in the guidelines. Through application of these guidelines the general validity and generalization of evaluation studies are likely to be increased, since these guidelines aim at avoiding a number of omissions, pitfalls and risks. PMID:19745455

  8. Public Health Staff Development Needs in Informatics: Findings From a National Survey of Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Kelley; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Public health practice is information-intensive and information-driven. Public health informatics is a nascent discipline, and most public health practitioners lack necessary skills in this area. Objective: To describe the staff development needs of local health departments (LHDs) related to informatics. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included LHDs' specific staff development needs related to informatics. Predictors of interest included jurisdiction size and governance type. Results: Areas of workforce development and improvement in informatics staff of LHDs included using and interpreting quantitative data, designing and running reports from information systems, using and interpreting qualitative data, using statistical or other analytical software, project management, and using geographical information systems. Significant variation in informatics training needs exists depending on the size of the LHD population and governance type. Conclusion: Substantial training needs exist for LHDs across many areas of informatics ranging from very basic to specialized skills and are related to the size of LHD population and governance type. PMID:27684619

  9. Public Health Platforms: An Emerging Informatics Approach to Health Professional Learning and Development.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen

    2016-04-26

    Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public healthThe landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector.

  10. Public Health Platforms: An Emerging Informatics Approach to Health Professional Learning and Development

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public health The landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector. PMID:27190977

  11. Public Health Platforms: An Emerging Informatics Approach to Health Professional Learning and Development.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen

    2016-04-26

    Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public healthThe landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector. PMID:27190977

  12. Developing an evidence-based public health informatics course*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinyu; Xie, Yue; Pan, Xuequn; Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Whipple, Jessica; Azadbakht, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the need to develop a public health informatics (PHI) introductory course and determine contents of such a course. Methods Community assessments employing focus group interviews and an online survey were utilized to determine course need and content. Results Results revealed a need to provide PHI training to graduate public health students and suggested broad course content requirements. Results indicated lack of awareness of libraries and librarians as sources of public health information. Conclusions A graduate PHI course was developed and delivered. Additionally, implementation of a subject guide increased the library's profile. PMID:26512219

  13. The Brazilian health informatics and information policy: building the consensus.

    PubMed

    Leão, Beatriz F; Costa, Cláudio G; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Bandarra, Ernani B; Gonçalves, Sibele F; Bretas Jr, Nilo; Ferla, Alcindo

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of the Brazilian Health Information Policy. The Introduction gives an overview of the health informatics scenario in the country and the motivation for the definition of a national policy for the area. The process adopted and the strategies to reach consensus among the different players of the healthcare arena are discussed. The interface with the national health card project and the standards already established are also depicted. The current document and the strategies so far proposed are presented with their respective time table and goals. At the end, a comparison with other national initiatives is drawn. PMID:15361004

  14. The informatics of health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Masys, D R

    1996-01-01

    Health care in the United States has entered a period of economic upheaval. Episodic, fee-for-service care financed by indemnity insurance is being replaced by managed care financed by fixed-price, capitated health plans. The resulting focus on reducing costs, especially in areas where there is competition fueled by oversupply of health services providers and facilities, poses new threats to the livelihood of medical libraries and medical librarians but also offers new opportunities. Internet services, consumer health education, and health services research will grow in importance, and organizational mergers will provide librarians with opportunities to assume new roles within their organizations. PMID:8938325

  15. Optimizing Digital Health Informatics Interventions Through Unobtrusive Quantitative Process Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gude, Wouter T; van der Veer, Sabine N; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Coiera, Enrico; Peek, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Health informatics interventions such as clinical decision support (CDS) and audit and feedback (A&F) are variably effective at improving care because the underlying mechanisms through which these interventions bring about change are poorly understood. This limits our possibilities to design better interventions. Process evaluations can be used to improve this understanding by assessing fidelity and quality of implementation, clarifying causal mechanisms, and identifying contextual factors associated with variation in outcomes. Coiera describes the intervention process as a series of stages extending from interactions to outcomes: the "information value chain". However, past process evaluations often did not assess the relationships between those stages. In this paper we argue that the chain can be measured quantitatively and unobtrusively in digital interventions thanks to the availability of electronic data that are a by-product of their use. This provides novel possibilities to study the mechanisms of informatics interventions in detail and inform essential design choices to optimize their efficacy. PMID:27577453

  16. A review of analytics and clinical informatics in health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Federal investment in health information technology has incentivized the adoption of electronic health record systems by physicians and health care organizations; the result has been a massive rise in the collection of patient data in electronic form (i.e. "Big Data"). Health care systems have leveraged Big Data for quality and performance improvements using analytics-the systematic use of data combined with quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to make decisions. Analytics have been utilized in various aspects of health care including predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, home health monitoring, finance, and resource allocation. Visual analytics is one example of an analytics technique with an array of health care and research applications that are well described in the literature. The proliferation of Big Data and analytics in health care has spawned a growing demand for clinical informatics professionals who can bridge the gap between the medical and information sciences.

  17. Unobtrusive sensing and wearable devices for health informatics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Ding, Xiao-Rong; Poon, Carmen Chung Yan; Lo, Benny Ping Lai; Zhang, Heye; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-05-01

    The aging population, prevalence of chronic diseases, and outbreaks of infectious diseases are some of the major challenges of our present-day society. To address these unmet healthcare needs, especially for the early prediction and treatment of major diseases, health informatics, which deals with the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval, and use of health information, has emerged as an active area of interdisciplinary research. In particular, acquisition of health-related information by unobtrusive sensing and wearable technologies is considered as a cornerstone in health informatics. Sensors can be weaved or integrated into clothing, accessories, and the living environment, such that health information can be acquired seamlessly and pervasively in daily living. Sensors can even be designed as stick-on electronic tattoos or directly printed onto human skin to enable long-term health monitoring. This paper aims to provide an overview of four emerging unobtrusive and wearable technologies, which are essential to the realization of pervasive health information acquisition, including: (1) unobtrusive sensing methods, (2) smart textile technology, (3) flexible-stretchable-printable electronics, and (4) sensor fusion, and then to identify some future directions of research.

  18. Characterizing Consumer Health Informatics in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Kutun, Tugba; Föller-Nord, Miriam; Wetter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (ConsHI) involves patients in health care through ICT, with Low and Middle Income Countries recently entering the field. Compelling successes and complete failures call for the identification of success factors. Of 1092 automatically retrieved articles, 85 were classified as ConsHI. Their service characteristics and the economic and societal factors of the countries of origin were classified. Descriptive statistics were applied in the search for clusters of features that together appear as driving factors. Most factors (financial endowment, number of languages spoken etc) showed no or paradoxical effects. Societal maturity and low population density appear as enabling factors. PMID:26262275

  19. Clinical Research Informatics and Electronic Health Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, M. M.; Rusincovitch, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The goal of this survey is to discuss the impact of the growing availability of electronic health record (EHR) data on the evolving field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI), which is the union of biomedical research and informatics. Results Major challenges for the use of EHR-derived data for research include the lack of standard methods for ensuring that data quality, completeness, and provenance are sufficient to assess the appropriateness of its use for research. Areas that need continued emphasis include methods for integrating data from heterogeneous sources, guidelines (including explicit phenotype definitions) for using these data in both pragmatic clinical trials and observational investigations, strong data governance to better understand and control quality of enterprise data, and promotion of national standards for representing and using clinical data. Conclusions The use of EHR data has become a priority in CRI. Awareness of underlying clinical data collection processes will be essential in order to leverage these data for clinical research and patient care, and will require multi-disciplinary teams representing clinical research, informatics, and healthcare operations. Considerations for the use of EHR data provide a starting point for practical applications and a CRI research agenda, which will be facilitated by CRI’s key role in the infrastructure of a learning healthcare system. PMID:25123746

  20. Public health informatics: a CDC course for public health program managers.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P. W.; Yasnoff, W. A.; Wilhoite, W.

    1998-01-01

    Information science and technology are critical to the modern practice of public health. Yet today's public health professionals generally have no formal training in public health informatics--the application of information science and technology to public health practice and research. Responding to this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently developed, tested, and delivered a new training course in public health informatics. The course was designed for experienced public health program managers and included sessions on general informatics principles and concepts; key information systems issues and information technologies; and management issues as they relate to information technology projects. This course has been enthusiastically received both at the state and federal levels. We plan to develop an abbreviated version for health officers, administrators, and other public health executives. PMID:9929264

  1. Developing Informatics Tools and Strategies for Consumer-centered Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Logan, Robert; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising approaches to supporting health communication, and identifies challenges plus direction for future research and development. The authors' recommendations emphasize the need for drawing upon communication and social science theories of information behavior, reaching out to consumers via a range of traditional and novel formats, gaining better understanding of the public's health information needs, and developing informatics solutions for tailoring resources to users' needs and competencies. This article was written as a scholarly outreach and leadership project by members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Consumer Health Informatics Working Group. PMID:18436895

  2. Developing informatics tools and strategies for consumer-centered health communication.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Logan, Robert; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising approaches to supporting health communication, and identifies challenges plus direction for future research and development. The authors' recommendations emphasize the need for drawing upon communication and social science theories of information behavior, reaching out to consumers via a range of traditional and novel formats, gaining better understanding of the public's health information needs, and developing informatics solutions for tailoring resources to users' needs and competencies. This article was written as a scholarly outreach and leadership project by members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Consumer Health Informatics Working Group.

  3. Towards Evidence Based Usability in Health Informatics?

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W

    2015-01-01

    In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still lacking. This paper underlines the need for evidence based HIT design and provides a definition of evidence based usability practice as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions in design of interactive systems in health by applying usability engineering and usability design principles that have proven their value in practice. Current issues that hamper evidence based usability practice are highlighted and steps needed to achieve evidence are presented.

  4. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community.

  5. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community. PMID:26153003

  6. Management and Evaluation of a Pan-Canadian Graduate Training Program in Health Informatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Marilynne; Lau, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Eight Canadian universities partnered to establish a Collaborative Health Informatics PhD/Postdoc Strategic Training Program (CHPSTP). The 6-year goal was to increase research capacity in health informatics in Canada. Three cohorts of 20 trainees participated in the training, which included online Research Learning Experiences, annual face-to-face…

  7. Evidence-based patient choice and consumer health informatics in the Internet age.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, G; Jadad, A R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we explore current access to and barriers to health information for consumers. We discuss how computers and other developments in information technology are ushering in the era of consumer health informatics, and the potential that lies ahead. It is clear that we witness a period in which the public will have unprecedented ability to access information and to participate actively in evidence-based health care. We propose that consumer health informatics be regarded as a whole new academic discipline, one that should be devoted to the exploration of the new possibilities that informatics is creating for consumers in relation to health and health care issues.

  8. Evidence-based Patient Choice and Consumer health informatics in the Internet age

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we explore current access to and barriers to health information for consumers. We discuss how computers and other developments in information technology are ushering in the era of consumer health informatics , and the potential that lies ahead. It is clear that we witness a period in which the public will have unprecedented ability to access information and to participate actively in evidence-based health care. We propose that consumer health informatics be regarded as a whole new academic discipline, one that should be devoted to the exploration of the new possibilities that informatics is creating for consumers in relation to health and health care issues. PMID:11720961

  9. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  10. Transformation of health care through innovative use of information technology: challenges for health and medical informatics education.

    PubMed

    Haux, R; Swinkels, W; Ball, M; Knaup, P; Lun, K C

    1998-06-01

    Information storage and processing continues to become increasingly important for health care, and offers enormous potential to be realised in the delivery of health care. Therefore, it is imperative that all health care professionals should learn skills and gain knowledge in the field of health informatics, or medical informatics, respectively. Working Group 1, Health and Medical Informatics Education, of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA WG1) seeks to advance the knowledge of how these skills are taught in courses for the various health care professions around the world, and includes physicians, nurses, administrators, and specialists in medical informatics. IMIA WG1 held its 6th International Conference on Health and Medical Education in Newcastle, Australia, in August 1997. The theme of the conference was 'Transformation of Healthcare through Innovative Use of Information Technology'. This special issue of the International Journal of Medical Informatics on Health and Medical Informatics Education contains selected papers presented at the conference. In addition to the central topic, Educating Health Care Professionals in Medical Informatics the topics telematics, distance education and computer based training were also discussed at the conference. PMID:9726487

  11. The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. Workshop Context: During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Recommendations and Conclusion: Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health. PMID:25848630

  12. Global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  13. STAT-HI: A Socio-Technical Assessment Tool for Health Informatics Implementations

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Philip J; Briggs, James S

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a socio-technical assessment tool (STAT-HI) for health informatics implementations. We explore why even projects allegedly using sound methodologies repeatedly fail to give adequate attention to socio-technical issues, and we present an initial draft of a structured assessment tool for health informatics implementation that encapsulates socio-technical good practice. Further work is proposed to enrich and validate the proposed instrument. This proposal was presented for discussion at a meeting of the UK Faculty of Health Informatics in December 2009. PMID:21603280

  14. Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.

    PubMed

    Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI.

  15. Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.

    PubMed

    Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI. PMID:25000031

  16. A Systematic Approach to Using Case Studies in Health Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Kagolovsky, Yuri; Brillinger, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of health informatics (HI) projects necessitates a solid base of skills and knowledge in a variety of different fields. Case studies are an excellent way to introduce this complexity without overwhelming students. This paper makes a contribution to HI education by presenting a systematic approach to introducing HI concepts to future health informatics professionals (HIPs) and to health care professionals and administrators who need a solid grounding to participate in HI projects. PMID:20351869

  17. Faculty and organizational characteristics associated with informatics/health information technology adoption in DNP programs.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Cathy R; Meek, Julie A; Walker, Patricia Hinton

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics/health information technology are key components of graduate nursing education and an accreditation requirement, yet little is known about the extent to which doctor of nursing practice (DNP) curricula include these content domains. The purpose of this descriptive study was to elicit perceptions of DNP program directors relative to (a) whether and how the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN's) Essential IV standard has been met in their DNP programs; (b) whether the Technology Informatics Guiding Educational Reform Initiative Foundation's Phase II competencies have been integrated in their programs; and (c) the faculty and organizational characteristics associated with the adoption of the AACN's Essential IV. In 2011, an electronic survey was sent to all 138 DNP program directors identified on the AACN Web site with an 81.2% response rate. Findings include variation in whether and how programs have integrated informatics/health information technology content, a lack of informatics-certified and/or master's-prepared faculty, and a perceived lack of faculty awareness of informatics curricular guidelines. DNP program director and dean awareness and support of faculty informatics education, use of informatics competency guidelines, and national policy and stimulus funding support are recommended to promote curricular inclusion and the engagement of nurses in strong informatics practices.

  18. HCFA's health care quality improvement program: the medical informatics challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, J B; Hayes, R P; Pates, R D; Elward, K S; Ballard, D J

    1996-01-01

    The peer-review organizations (PROs) were created by Congress in 1984 to monitor the cost and quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. In order to do this, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) contracted with the PROs through a series of contracts referred to as "Scopes of Work." Under the Fourth Scope of Work, the HCFA initiated the Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) in 1990, as an application of the principles of continuous quality improvement. Since then, the PROs have participated with health care providers in cooperative projects to improve the quality of primarily inpatient care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. Through HCFA-supplied administrative data and clinical data abstracted from patient records, the PROs have been able to identify opportunities for improvements in patient care. In May 1995, the HCFA proposed a new Fifth Scope of Work, which will shift the focus of HCQIP from inpatient care projects to projects in outpatient and managed care settings. This article describes the HCQIP process, the types of data used by the PROs to conduct cooperative projects with health care providers, and the informatics challenges in improving the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:8750387

  19. A repository of codes of ethics and technical standards in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Hamman W; Zaïane, Osmar R

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository.

  20. A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Zaïane, Osmar R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository. PMID:25422725

  1. Health Informatics Competencies, Workforce and the DNP: Why Connect These 'Dots'?

    PubMed

    Brixey, Juliana J

    2016-01-01

    This panel will provide the perspectives of nurse informatics experts on the development of informatics education integrating health information technology (HIT) and immersive simulation. The panel will also address student and provider access to the electronic health record (EHR) for educational purposes. This panel examines the education and preparation of students and practicing nurses to meaningfully use EHRs. The target audience is clinicians, educators, trainers, students and those interested in the meaningful use of EHRs and achievement of the Informatics competencies defined by AACN and TIGER. PMID:27332329

  2. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... repository Reports Country statistics Map gallery Standards Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Monitoring health for the SDGs ... relevant web pages on the theme. Monitoring the health goal: indicators of overall progress Mortality and global ...

  3. Clinical Microbiology Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. PMID:25278581

  4. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future.

  5. The next generation Internet and health care: a civics lesson for the informatics community.

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Internet provides one of the most compelling examples of the way in which government research investments can, in time, lead to innovations of broad social and economic impact. This paper reviews the history of the Internet's evolution, emphasizing in particular its relationship to medical informatics and to the nation's health-care system. Current national research programs are summarized and the need for more involvement by the informatics community and by federal health-care agencies is emphasized. PMID:9929176

  6. Audacious goals for health and biomedical informatics in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Greenes, R A; Lorenzi, N M

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Scientific Symposium of the American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI) was devoted to developing visions for the future of health care and biomedicine and a strategic agenda for health and biomedical informatics in support of those visions. This symposium focus was prompted by the many major changes currently underway in health care delivery, education, and research, as well as in our health and biomedical enterprises, and by the constantly increasing role of information technology in both shaping and enabling these changes. The three audacious goals developed for 2008 are a virtual health care databank, a national health care knowledge base, and a personal clinical health record.

  7. Requirements for Realizing the Full Potential of Informatics in the Field of Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenstrom, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper proposes a zero concept, health-oriented approach to applying informatics to two health care problems: first, the lack of easily understood and used terminology linking health problems and interventions to the concept of "health"; and second, the lack of a unifying principle on which to base all aspects of health care. (DB)

  8. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Social Science Biostatistics and Informatics Community Health Environmental Health Epidemiology Global Health Health Policy and Management Health Promotion and Communication Maternal and Child Health ...

  9. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to

  10. The 13 world congress on medical and health informatics, Cape Town, South Africa: Partnerships for effective e-Health solutions.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrew

    2011-01-24

    The 13(th) World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics (Medinfo) was held in 2010 between 12 and 15 September in Cape Town, South Africa. This triennial international gathering is the official conference of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and brings together leading health informatics leaders, scientists, clinicians, researchers, vendors, developers and government and health care planners from around the globe. The conference attracted 905 submissions and resulted in a program that included 260 oral presentations, 349 posters presentations and 21 scientific demonstrations representing contributions from 58 countries. The Medinfo program covered all aspects of health informatics from traditional areas, such as hospital information systems, patient registries, nursing informatics, data integration, standards, interoperability issues and decision support, to innovative topics, such as translational bioinformatics, text mining, intelligent data analysis, emerging technologies, quality, social networking, workflow and organizational issues. The outgoing President of the IMIA, Professor Reinhold Haux, presented on health informatics challenges into the future, reinforcing that today and in the future, health care has to be considered as part of a continuous and coordinated life-time journey and not just as episodes of disease. Medical informatics has a key role to play in this paradigm shift. The new IMIA President, Professor Antoine Geissbuhler, was announced at the closing ceremony. The next Medinfo congress will take place in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013.

  11. The New Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365

  12. The new global health.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  13. Electronic Personal Health Record Use Among Nurses in the Nursing Informatics Community.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Kyungsook; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Wilson, Marisa L

    2015-07-01

    An electronic personal health record is a patient-centric tool that enables patients to securely access, manage, and share their health information with healthcare providers. It is presumed the nursing informatics community would be early adopters of electronic personal health record, yet no studies have been identified that examine the personal adoption of electronic personal health record's for their own healthcare. For this study, we sampled nurse members of the American Medical Informatics Association and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society with 183 responding. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors associated with electronic personal health record use. Overall, 72% were electronic personal health record users. Users tended to be older (aged >50 years), be more highly educated (72% master's or doctoral degrees), and hold positions as clinical informatics specialists or chief nursing informatics officers. Those whose healthcare providers used electronic health records were significantly more likely to use electronic personal health records (odds ratio, 5.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-25.61). Electronic personal health record users were significantly less concerned about privacy of health information online than nonusers (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.70) adjusted for ethnicity, race, and practice region. Informatics nurses, with their patient-centered view of technology, are in prime position to influence development of electronic personal health records. Our findings can inform policy efforts to encourage informatics and other professional nursing groups to become leaders and users of electronic personal health record; such use could help them endorse and engage patients to use electronic personal health records. Having champions with expertise in and enthusiasm for the new technology can promote the adoptionof electronic personal health records among healthcare providers as well as

  14. Electronic Personal Health Record Use Among Nurses in the Nursing Informatics Community.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Kyungsook; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Wilson, Marisa L

    2015-07-01

    An electronic personal health record is a patient-centric tool that enables patients to securely access, manage, and share their health information with healthcare providers. It is presumed the nursing informatics community would be early adopters of electronic personal health record, yet no studies have been identified that examine the personal adoption of electronic personal health record's for their own healthcare. For this study, we sampled nurse members of the American Medical Informatics Association and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society with 183 responding. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors associated with electronic personal health record use. Overall, 72% were electronic personal health record users. Users tended to be older (aged >50 years), be more highly educated (72% master's or doctoral degrees), and hold positions as clinical informatics specialists or chief nursing informatics officers. Those whose healthcare providers used electronic health records were significantly more likely to use electronic personal health records (odds ratio, 5.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-25.61). Electronic personal health record users were significantly less concerned about privacy of health information online than nonusers (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.70) adjusted for ethnicity, race, and practice region. Informatics nurses, with their patient-centered view of technology, are in prime position to influence development of electronic personal health records. Our findings can inform policy efforts to encourage informatics and other professional nursing groups to become leaders and users of electronic personal health record; such use could help them endorse and engage patients to use electronic personal health records. Having champions with expertise in and enthusiasm for the new technology can promote the adoptionof electronic personal health records among healthcare providers as well as

  15. An informatics agenda for public health: summarized recommendations from the 2011 AMIA PHI Conference

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kenneth W; Gotham, Ivan J; Holmes, John H; Lang, Lisa; Miner, Kathleen; Potenziani, David D; Richards, Janise; Turner, Anne M; Fu, Paul C

    2012-01-01

    The AMIA Public Health Informatics 2011 Conference brought together members of the public health and health informatics communities to revisit the national agenda developed at the AMIA Spring Congress in 2001, assess the progress that has been made in the past decade, and develop recommendations to further guide the field. Participants met in five discussion tracks: technical framework; research and evaluation; ethics; education, professional training, and workforce development; and sustainability. Participants identified 62 recommendations, which clustered into three key themes related to the need to (1) enhance communication and information sharing within the public health informatics community, (2) improve the consistency of public health informatics through common public health terminologies, rigorous evaluation methodologies, and competency-based training, and (3) promote effective coordination and leadership that will champion and drive the field forward. The agenda and recommendations from the meeting will be disseminated and discussed throughout the public health and informatics communities. Both communities stand to gain much by working together to use these recommendations to further advance the application of information technology to improve health. PMID:22395299

  16. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection. PMID:27694648

  17. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection.

  18. Informatics in the service of health, a look to the future.

    PubMed

    Moehr, J R

    1998-06-01

    The paper attempts a balanced look at the directions of health informatics required in the future. In a high level review of impediments to health and health care a number of issues are identified that may be amenable to improvement by contributions from health informatics. Attention is drawn to the improvement of the collection and dissemination of knowledge in addition to the analysis of morbid conditions as a focus for health informatics. On this basis a review of the current state of health information systems is undertaken. The importance of adaptable user interfaces for end users and systems personnel, privacy and confidentiality protection, and linkage among clinical support systems and knowledge repositories is stressed. These improvements hinge on advancements in medical concept representation. Canadian contributions to these developments, particularly the instigation of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are briefly reviewed.

  19. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  20. Geo-spatial Informatics in International Public Health Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Madeleine J; Honey, Michelle L L; Krzyzanowski, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This poster describes results of an undergraduate nursing informatics experience. Students applied geo-spatial methods to community assessments in two urban regions of New Zealand and the United States. Students used the Omaha System standardized language to code their observations during a brief community assessment activity and entered their data into a mapping program developed in Esri ArcGIS Online, a geographic information system. Results will be displayed in tables and maps to allow comparison among the communities. The next generation of nurses can employ geo-spatial informatics methods to contribute to innovative community assessment, planning and policy development.

  1. Geo-spatial Informatics in International Public Health Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Madeleine J; Honey, Michelle L L; Krzyzanowski, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This poster describes results of an undergraduate nursing informatics experience. Students applied geo-spatial methods to community assessments in two urban regions of New Zealand and the United States. Students used the Omaha System standardized language to code their observations during a brief community assessment activity and entered their data into a mapping program developed in Esri ArcGIS Online, a geographic information system. Results will be displayed in tables and maps to allow comparison among the communities. The next generation of nurses can employ geo-spatial informatics methods to contribute to innovative community assessment, planning and policy development. PMID:27332443

  2. STARE-HI – Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Brender, J.; Talmon, J.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Ammenwerth, E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Improving the quality of reporting of evaluation studies in health informatics is an important requirement towards the vision of evidence-based health informatics. The STARE-HI – Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in health informatics, published in 2009, provides guidelines on the elements to be contained in an evaluation study report. Objectives To elaborate on and provide a rationale for the principles of STARE-HI and to guide authors and readers of evaluation studies in health informatics by providing explanatory examples of reporting. Methods A group of methodologists, researchers and editors prepared the present elaboration of the STARE-HI statement and selected examples from the literature. Results The 35 STARE-HI items to be addressed in evaluation papers describing health informatics interventions are discussed one by one and each is extended with examples and elaborations. Conclusion The STARE-HI statement and this elaboration document should be helpful resources to improve reporting of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies. Evaluation manuscripts adhering to the principles will enable readers of such papers to better place the studies in a proper context and judge their validity and generalizability, and thus in turn optimize the exploitation of the evidence contained therein. Limitations This paper is based on experiences of a group of editors, reviewers, authors of systematic reviews and readers of the scientific literature. The applicability of the details of these principles has to evolve as a function of their use in practice. PMID:24155788

  3. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies. PMID:27274022

  4. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies.

  5. Medical legal partnership and health informatics impacting child health: Interprofessional innovations.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Downs, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic differences in health are closely related to degrees of social and economic disadvantage. Poverty-induced hardships such as food insecurity, utility shut-offs, and substandard housing, all have the potential to negatively impact the health of families. In an effort to better address social determinants of health in pediatric primary health care settings using the Medical Legal Partnership (MLP) model of health care delivery, an interprofessional team of investigators came together to design an innovative process for using computerized clinical decision support to identify health-harming legal and social needs, improve the delivery of appropriate physician counseling, and streamline access to legal and social service professionals when non-medical remedies are required. This article describes the interprofessional nature of the MLP model itself, illustrates the work that was done to craft this innovative health informatics approach to implementing MLP, and demonstrates how pediatricians, social workers and attorneys may work together to improve child health outcomes.

  6. Optimising Health Informatics Outcomes--Getting Good Evidence to Where it Matters.

    PubMed

    Rigby, M

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine about the paper "Evidence-based Health informatics: How do we know what we know?", written by Elske Ammenwerth [1]. Health informatics uses and applications have crept up on health systems over half a century, starting as simple automation of large-scale calculations, but now manifesting in many cases as rule- and algorithm-based creation of composite clinical analyses and 'black box' computation of clinical aspects, as well as enablement of increasingly complex care delivery modes and consumer health access. In this process health informatics has very largely bypassed the rules of precaution, proof of effectiveness, and assessment of safety applicable to all other health sciences and clinical support systems. Evaluation of informatics applications, compilation and recognition of the importance of evidence, and normalisation of Evidence Based Health Informatics, are now long overdue on grounds of efficiency and safety. Ammenwerth has now produced a rigorous analysis of the current position on evidence, and evaluation as its lifeblood, which demands careful study then active promulgation. Decisions based on political aspirations, 'modernisation' hopes, and unsupported commercial claims must cease - poor decisions are wasteful and bad systems can kill. Evidence Based Health Informatics should be promoted, and expected by users, as rigorously as Cochrane promoted Effectiveness and Efficiency, and Sackett promoted Evidence Based Medicine - both of which also were introduced retrospectively to challenge the less robust and partially unsafe traditional 'wisdom' in vogue. Ammenwerth's analysis gives the necessary material to promote that mission.

  7. Optimising Health Informatics Outcomes--Getting Good Evidence to Where it Matters.

    PubMed

    Rigby, M

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine about the paper "Evidence-based Health informatics: How do we know what we know?", written by Elske Ammenwerth [1]. Health informatics uses and applications have crept up on health systems over half a century, starting as simple automation of large-scale calculations, but now manifesting in many cases as rule- and algorithm-based creation of composite clinical analyses and 'black box' computation of clinical aspects, as well as enablement of increasingly complex care delivery modes and consumer health access. In this process health informatics has very largely bypassed the rules of precaution, proof of effectiveness, and assessment of safety applicable to all other health sciences and clinical support systems. Evaluation of informatics applications, compilation and recognition of the importance of evidence, and normalisation of Evidence Based Health Informatics, are now long overdue on grounds of efficiency and safety. Ammenwerth has now produced a rigorous analysis of the current position on evidence, and evaluation as its lifeblood, which demands careful study then active promulgation. Decisions based on political aspirations, 'modernisation' hopes, and unsupported commercial claims must cease - poor decisions are wasteful and bad systems can kill. Evidence Based Health Informatics should be promoted, and expected by users, as rigorously as Cochrane promoted Effectiveness and Efficiency, and Sackett promoted Evidence Based Medicine - both of which also were introduced retrospectively to challenge the less robust and partially unsafe traditional 'wisdom' in vogue. Ammenwerth's analysis gives the necessary material to promote that mission. PMID:26179640

  8. Informatics and Telematics in Health. Present and Potential Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This report focuses on technical issues associated with informatics--a term covering all aspects of the development and operations of information systems, the supporting computer methodology and technology, and the supporting telecommunications links. The first of six chapters discusses the purpose of the report together with basic assumptions…

  9. Informatics, evidence-based care, and research; implications for national policy: a report of an American Medical Informatics Association health policy conference.

    PubMed

    Bloomrosen, Meryl; Detmer, Don E

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased level of activity in the biomedical and health informatics world (e-prescribing, electronic health records, personal health records) that, in the near future, will yield a wealth of available data that we can exploit meaningfully to strengthen knowledge building and evidence creation, and ultimately improve clinical and preventive care. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2008 Health Policy Conference was convened to focus and propel discussions about informatics-enabled evidence-based care, clinical research, and knowledge management. Conference participants explored the potential of informatics tools and technologies to improve the evidence base on which providers and patients can draw to diagnose and treat health problems. The paper presents a model of an evidence continuum that is dynamic, collaborative, and powered by health informatics technologies. The conference's findings are described, and recommendations on terminology harmonization, facilitation of the evidence continuum in a "wired" world, development and dissemination of clinical practice guidelines and other knowledge support strategies, and the role of diverse stakeholders in the generation and adoption of evidence are presented.

  10. Recognition of health informatics in Australian standard classifications for research, occupation and education.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Gray, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Work on building a strong research base, a skilled workforce and an accredited learning and development system in Australian Health Informatics is not mature. This paper aims to explore how such work is supported at a fundamental level, that is, within formal systems for identifying fields of research, occupation and education in Australia. The researchers examined the treatment of Health Informatics and related terms in a range of relevant Australian standards. We found that Health Informatics has somewhat inappropriate recognition in the formal systems defining research in Australia, a tenuous presence in those describing education, and none in those describing occupations. We argue that our findings provide the evidence base for decisive action to benefit not only individuals but also the wider Australian community.

  11. Health Informatics in the Classroom: An Empirical Study to Investigate Higher Education's Response to Healthcare Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashrafi, Noushin; Kuilboer, Jean-Pierre; Joshi, Chaitanya; Ran, Iris; Pande, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The explosive advances in information technology combined with the current climate for health care reform have intensified the need for skilled individuals who can develop, understand, and manage medical information systems in organizations. Health Informatics facilitates quality care at a reasonable cost by allowing access to the right data by…

  12. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Altuwaijri

    2007-01-01

    The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

  13. On Determining Factors for Good Research in Biomedical and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective What are the determining factors for good research in medical informatics or, from a broader perspective, in biomedical and health informatics? Method From the many lessons learned during my professional career, I tried to identify a fair sampling of such factors. On the occasion of giving the IMIA Award of Excellence lecture during MedInfo 2013, they were presented for discussion. Results Sixteen determining factors (df) have been identified: early identification and promotion (df1), appropriate education (df2), stimulating persons and environments (df3), sufficient time and backtracking opportunities (df4), breadth of medical informatics competencies (df5), considering the necessary preconditions for good medical informatics research (df6), easy access to high-quality knowledge (df7), sufficient scientific career opportunities (df8), appropriate conditions for sustainable research (df9), ability to communicate and to solve problems (df10), as well as to convey research results (df11) in a highly inter- and multidisciplinary environment, ability to think for all and, when needed, taking the lead (df12), always staying unbiased (df13), always keeping doubt (df14), but also always trying to provide solutions (df15), and, finally, being aware that life is more (df16). Conclusions Medical Informatics is an inter- and multidisciplinary discipline “avant la lettre”. Compared to monodisciplinary research, inter- and multidisciplinary research does not only provide significant opportunities for solving major problems in science and in society. It also faces considerable additional challenges for medical informatics as a scientific field. The determining factors, presented here, are in my opinion crucial for conducting successful research and for developing a research career. Since medical informatics as a field has today become an important driving force for research progress, especially in biomedicine and health care, but also in fields like

  14. Development of competency-based on-line public health informatics tutorials: accessing and using on-line public health data and information.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Frances; Malpas, Constance; Kukafka, Rita

    2003-01-01

    In response to training and information needs of the public health workforce, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, in collaboration with the Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University and the New York Academy of Medicine, is developing a series of on-line, interactive tutorials in public health informatics. The goal is to teach public health practitioners how to locate, use, and disseminate data and information on the Internet, while imparting basic informatics principles. Course content is based on Public Health Informatics Competencies, and evaluation will be performed by measuring changes in self-efficacy and knowledge as well as determining user satisfaction.

  15. Beyond information access: Support for complex cognitive activities in public health informatics tools.

    PubMed

    Sedig, Kamran; Parsons, Paul; Dittmer, Mark; Ola, Oluwakemi

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals work with a variety of information sources to carry out their everyday activities. In recent years, interactive computational tools have become deeply embedded in such activities. Unlike the early days of computational tool use, the potential of tools nowadays is not limited to simply providing access to information; rather, they can act as powerful mediators of human-information discourse, enabling rich interaction with public health information. If public health informatics tools are designed and used properly, they can facilitate, enhance, and support the performance of complex cognitive activities that are essential to public health informatics, such as problem solving, forecasting, sense-making, and planning. However, the effective design and evaluation of public health informatics tools requires an understanding of the cognitive and perceptual issues pertaining to how humans work and think with information to perform such activities. This paper draws on research that has examined some of the relevant issues, including interaction design, complex cognition, and visual representations, to offer some human-centered design and evaluation considerations for public health informatics tools. PMID:23569645

  16. Beyond information access: Support for complex cognitive activities in public health informatics tools

    PubMed Central

    Sedig, Kamran; Parsons, Paul; Dittmer, Mark; Ola, Oluwakemi

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals work with a variety of information sources to carry out their everyday activities. In recent years, interactive computational tools have become deeply embedded in such activities. Unlike the early days of computational tool use, the potential of tools nowadays is not limited to simply providing access to information; rather, they can act as powerful mediators of human-information discourse, enabling rich interaction with public health information. If public health informatics tools are designed and used properly, they can facilitate, enhance, and support the performance of complex cognitive activities that are essential to public health informatics, such as problem solving, forecasting, sense-making, and planning. However, the effective design and evaluation of public health informatics tools requires an understanding of the cognitive and perceptual issues pertaining to how humans work and think with information to perform such activities. This paper draws on research that has examined some of the relevant issues, including interaction design, complex cognition, and visual representations, to offer some human-centered design and evaluation considerations for public health informatics tools. PMID:23569645

  17. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health. PMID:22413171

  18. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health.

  19. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.

  20. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  1. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first. PMID:15847699

  2. Consumer Health Informatics in the Context of Engaged Citizens and eHealth Services - A New CHI Meta Model.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Martin; Griebel, Lena; Becker, Kurt; Pobiruchin, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a relatively new and interdisciplinary field in Medical Informatics. It focuses on consumer- rather than professional-centered services. However, the definitions and understanding of a) what is a "consumer"? or b) what is health technology in the context of CHI? and c) what factors and actors influence the usage of eHealth services? vary widely. The CHI special interest group (SIG) - associated with the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology - conducted two workshops in 2015 to improve the common understanding on these topics. The workshop outcomes, the derived CHI-specific meta model and examples how to apply this model are presented in this paper. The model supports the definition of multi-actor contexts, as it not solely reflects the conventional patient-physician relationship but also allows for the description of second health market providers. PMID:27332268

  3. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  4. Responsibility for global health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen; DeCamp, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    There are several reasons for the current prominence of global health issues. Among the most important is the growing awareness that some risks to health are global in scope and can only be countered by global cooperation. In addition, human rights discourse and, more generally, the articulation of a coherent cosmopolitan ethical perspective that acknowledges the importance of all persons, regardless of where they live, provide a normative basis for taking global health seriously as a moral issue. In this paper we begin the task of translating the vague commitment to doing something to improve global health into a coherent set of more determinate obligations. One chief conclusion of our inquiry is that the responsibilities of states regarding global health are both more determinate and more extensive than is usually assumed. We also argue, however, that institutional innovation will be needed to achieve a more comprehensive, fair distribution of concrete responsibilities regarding global health and to provide effective mechanisms for holding various state and nonstate actors accountable for fulfilling them.

  5. Electronic Health Records and Meaningful Use in Local Health Departments: Updates From the 2015 NACCHO Informatics Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) are evolving the scope of operations, practices, and outcomes of population health in the United States. Local health departments (LHDs) need adequate health informatics capacities to handle the quantity and quality of population health data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain an updated view using the most recent data to identify the primary storage of clinical data, status of data for meaningful use, and characteristics associated with the implementation of EHRs in LHDs. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, which used a stratified random sampling design of LHD populations. Oversampling of larger LHDs was conducted and sampling weights were applied. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Forty-two percent of LHDs indicated the use of an EHR system compared with 58% that use a non-EHR system for the storage of primary health data. Seventy-one percent of LHDs had reviewed some or all of the current systems to determine whether they needed to be improved or replaced, whereas only 6% formally conducted a readiness assessment for health information exchange. Twenty-seven percent of the LHDs had conducted informatics training within the past 12 months. LHD characteristics statistically associated with having an EHR system were having state or centralized governance, not having created a strategic plan related to informatics within the past 2 years throughout LHDs, provided informatics training in the past 12 months, and various levels of control over decisions regarding hardware allocation or acquisition, software selection, software support, and information technology budget allocation. Conclusion: A focus on EHR implementation in public health is pertinent to examining the impact of public health programming and interventions for the positive change in population health. PMID:27684614

  6. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  7. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  8. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  9. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  10. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, Practise and Adoption Among Health Care Professionals for Informatics/Computerised Technology Systems.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Kavitha; Munuswamy, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    This proposed study will be conducted in Telangana and Tamil Nadu states in India. Mapping of Health care Professionals by a web-based Delphi technique followed by Focus Group Discussion and Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, Practise and Adoption among Health Care Professionals for informatics/computerised technology systems by using structured questionnaire for knowledge and practice and for Attitudes toward Computers in Healthcare (P.A.T.C.H.) Scale will be used to collect the data. This study results will create evidence on present and relevant informatics/computerized technology systems needs and help the research team to develop informatics competencies list and design an online or offline skill up gradation programs for health professionals in India according to their diverse roles in the health care system. The researcher team believes these results will have National relevance to the current focus areas of Government of India and to strengthen the Health Informatics Program offered in IIPH, Hyderabad.

  11. Globalism and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of twenty-four-hour news media, local, state, and national agencies' warnings and with the explosive role of the Internet, people are more aware of global health concerns that may have significant consequences for the world's population. As international travel continues to increase, health care professionals around the world are…

  12. Beyond information retrieval and electronic health record use: competencies in clinical informatics for medical education.

    PubMed

    Hersh, William R; Gorman, Paul N; Biagioli, Frances E; Mohan, Vishnu; Gold, Jeffrey A; Mejicano, George C

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the 21st century will increasingly interact in diverse ways with information systems, requiring competence in many aspects of clinical informatics. In recent years, many medical school curricula have added content in information retrieval (search) and basic use of the electronic health record. However, this omits the growing number of other ways that physicians are interacting with information that includes activities such as clinical decision support, quality measurement and improvement, personal health records, telemedicine, and personalized medicine. We describe a process whereby six faculty members representing different perspectives came together to define competencies in clinical informatics for a curriculum transformation process occurring at Oregon Health & Science University. From the broad competencies, we also developed specific learning objectives and milestones, an implementation schedule, and mapping to general competency domains. We present our work to encourage debate and refinement as well as facilitate evaluation in this area.

  13. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.

  14. Global health and justice.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, James

    2005-10-01

    In Australia, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland, the average life expectancy is now greater than 80 years. But in Angola, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe, the average life expectancy is less than 40 years. The situation is even worse than these statistics suggest because average figures tend to mask inequalities within countries. What are we to make of a world with such inequal health prospects? What does justice demand in terms of global health? To address these problems, I characterize justice at the local level, at the domestic or social level, and at the international or global level. Because social conditions, structures, and institutions have such a profound influence on the health of populations, I begin by focusing attention on the relationship between social justice and health prospects. Then I go on to discuss health prospects and the problem of global justice. Here I distinguish two views: a cosmopolitan view and a political view of global justice. In my account of global justice, I modify and use the political view that John Rawls developed in The Law of Peoples. I try to show why an adequate political account must include three duties: a duty not to harm, a duty to reconstruct international arrangements, and a duty to assist.

  15. Health Informatics: Developing a Masters Programme in Rwanda based on the IMIA Educational Recommendations and the IMIA Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Wright, Graham; Verbeke, Frank; Nyssen, Marc; Betts, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, the Regional e-Health Center of Excellence in Rwanda (REHCE) has run an MSc in Health Informatics programme (MSc HI). A programme review was commissioned in February 2014 after 2 cohorts of students completed the post-graduate certificate and diploma courses and most students had started preparatory activity for their master dissertation. The review developed a method for mapping course content on health informatics competences and knowledge units. Also the review identified and measured knowledge gaps and content redundancy. Using this method, we analyzed regulatory and programme documents combined with stakeholder interviews, and demonstrated that the existing MSc HI curriculum did not completely address the needs of the Rwandan health sector. Teaching strategies did not always match students' expectations. Based on a detailed Rwandan health informatics needs assessment, International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA)'s Recommendations on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics and the IMIA Health Informatics Knowledge Base, a new curriculum was developed and provided a better competences match for the specifics of healthcare in the Central African region. The new approved curriculum will be implemented in the 2014/2015 academic year and options for regional extension of the programme to Eastern DRC (Bukavu) and Burundi (Bujumbura) are being investigated. PMID:26262106

  16. The Health Informatics Center of Acadiana--informing health policymaking in post-Katrina/Rita Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Caillouet, L Philip

    2007-01-01

    A "healthy communities" initiative in Louisiana led to creation of the Health Informatics Center of Acadiana(HICA) at The University of Louisiana at Lafayette, in the south central United States. Since hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated the Louisiana coast in 2005, HICA's role has taken on heightened significance. HICA identifies vulnerable populations, documents their risk factors, and evaluates interventions intended to improve community health. HICA collaborates with the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals and the Lafayette Community Health Consortium (LCHC), the latter formed for coordination among local healthcare providers and agencies. Both HICA and LCHC were created when "Bonne Santé à Lafayette!"--a locally developed community health improvement plan--was implemented. This paper reports on methods and experiences of HICA and LCHC, offering these as models for addressing community concerns elsewhere. Of special interest is the discussion of Louisiana HABITS, a consumer survey methodology that HICA has developed to measure healthcare access barriers, to provide information that healthcare organizations and governments need to implement workable business strategy and public policy.

  17. Consortium for oral health-related informatics: improving dental research, education, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stark, Paul C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M; Walji, Muhammad F; Stewart, Denice C L; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R; Willis, George P; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come.

  18. Consortium for oral health-related informatics: improving dental research, education, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stark, Paul C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M; Walji, Muhammad F; Stewart, Denice C L; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R; Willis, George P; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come. PMID:20930236

  19. Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics: Improving Dental Research, Education, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Paul C.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M.; Walji, Muhammad F.; Stewart, Denice C.L.; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R.; Willis, George P.; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come. PMID:20930236

  20. West Midlands Health Informatics Network: A Perspective on Education and Training Needs.

    PubMed

    Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N; Ola, Bolanle; Davies, David; Rowland, Martin; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2015-01-01

    The growth of health informatics as a discipline has led to an increase in networks of people with similar interests for discussion, learning and sharing. Alongside these community networks, education and training are gaining interest, with more career opportunities and general public seeking information. This paper highlights the experience of the West Midlands Health Informatics Network and efforts in better understanding the educational and training needs of its members. The findings from the survey conducted reveal that while the interest in this field is high among network members, the awareness of opportunities for training and learning professionally as well as personally, remains low. The areas and levels of interest in the region should help support the creation and availability of resources.

  1. Health informatics and information system: an integrated evidence-base tool for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Elham, Maserat; Nasraran, Zali; Reza, Zali Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    Application of health informatics, especially for screening process of colorectal cancer, is a most effective and cost efficient method for monitoring, management and prevention of disease. Information systems have capability for sharing and integration of information among the many stakeholders involved in colorectal cancer control (participant, family physician, specialist, hospitals, laboratories, and pharmacist). In this paper, we provide comprehensive survey applications and functions of health informatics and information systems in preventing colorectal cancer and management of screening process. Furthermore, we cover different models, infrastructures and standards for reporting and distribution of information at the international level, with due attention to security and privacy issues. The information furnished in this article was collected from valid medical databases by medical librarians.

  2. Multi-dimensional knowledge translation: enabling health informatics capacity audits using patient journey models.

    PubMed

    Catley, Christina; McGregor, Carolyn; Percival, Jennifer; Curry, Joanne; James, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-dimensional approach to knowledge translation, enabling results obtained from a survey evaluating the uptake of Information Technology within Neonatal Intensive Care Units to be translated into knowledge, in the form of health informatics capacity audits. Survey data, having multiple roles, patient care scenarios, levels, and hospitals, is translated using a structured data modeling approach, into patient journey models. The data model is defined such that users can develop queries to generate patient journey models based on a pre-defined Patient Journey Model architecture (PaJMa). PaJMa models are then analyzed to build capacity audits. Capacity audits offer a sophisticated view of health informatics usage, providing not only details of what IT solutions a hospital utilizes, but also answering the questions: when, how and why, by determining when the IT solutions are integrated into the patient journey, how they support the patient information flow, and why they improve the patient journey. PMID:19162956

  3. Globalization and health.

    PubMed

    Walt, G

    2001-01-01

    Globalization means different things to different people; a general definition is the increasing movement of information, material and people across borders. It can be considered in terms of five conflicting but inter-relating themes, economic transformation; new patterns of trade; an increasing poverty gap associated with widening health inequalities; the revolution in electronic communication; and the growing role of non-state actors, such as non-governmental organizations and transnational corporations, in global governance. Globalization is both an opportunity and a threat, but it is not inexorable. Successful action against its undesirable aspects is possible.

  4. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Tang, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption.

  5. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  6. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors. PMID:23215931

  7. Integrating Governance of Research Informatics and Health Care IT Across an Enterprise: Experiences from the Trenches

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J.; Tachinardi, Umberto; Lussier, Yves; Starren, Justin; Silverstein, Jonathan

    Advances in health information technology and biomedical informatics have laid the groundwork for significant improvements in healthcare and biomedical research. For instance, Electronic Health Records can help improve the delivery of evidence-based care, enhance quality, and contribute to discoveries and evidence generation. Despite this promise, there are many challenges to achieving the vision and missions of our healthcare and research enterprises. Given the challenges inherent in doing so, institutions are increasingly moving to establish dedicated leadership and governance models charged with designing, deploying and leveraging various information resources to advance research and advanced care activities at AHCs. Some institutions have even created a new leadership position to oversee such activities, such as the Chief Research Information Officer. This panel will include research informatics leaders discussing their experiences from the proverbial trenches as they work to operationalize such cross-mission governance models. Panelists will start by providing an overview their respective positions and environments, discuss their experiences, and share lessons learned through their work at the intersection of clinical and translational research informatics and Health IT. PMID:24303236

  8. Health Informatics via Machine Learning for the Clinical Management of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, K. E.; Charlton, P.; Colopy, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To review how health informatics systems based on machine learning methods have impacted the clinical management of patients, by affecting clinical practice. Methods We reviewed literature from 2010-2015 from databases such as Pubmed, IEEE xplore, and INSPEC, in which methods based on machine learning are likely to be reported. We bring together a broad body of literature, aiming to identify those leading examples of health informatics that have advanced the methodology of machine learning. While individual methods may have further examples that might be added, we have chosen some of the most representative, informative exemplars in each case. Results Our survey highlights that, while much research is taking place in this high-profile field, examples of those that affect the clinical management of patients are seldom found. We show that substantial progress is being made in terms of methodology, often by data scientists working in close collaboration with clinical groups. Conclusions Health informatics systems based on machine learning are in their infancy and the translation of such systems into clinical management has yet to be performed at scale. PMID:26293849

  9. Design of a Community-Engaged Health Informatics Platform with an Architecture of Participation

    PubMed Central

    Millery, Mari; Ramos, Wilson; Lien, Chueh; Aguirre, Alejandra N.; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Community-engaged health informatics (CEHI) applies information technology and participatory approaches to improve the health of communities. Our objective was to translate the concept of CEHI into a usable and replicable informatics platform that will facilitate community-engaged practice and research. The setting is a diverse urban neighborhood in New York City. The methods included community asset mapping, stakeholder interviews, logic modeling, analysis of affordances in open-source tools, elicitation of use cases and requirements, and a survey of early adopters. Based on synthesis of data collected, GetHealthyHeigths.org (GHH) was developed using open-source LAMP stack and Drupal content management software. Drupal’s organic groups module was used for novel participatory functionality, along with detailed user roles and permissions. Future work includes evaluation of GHH and its impact on agency and service networks. We plan to expand GHH with additional functionality to further support CEHI by combining informatics solutions with community engagement to improve health. PMID:26958227

  10. Vaccines and global health.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V S

    2011-10-12

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, 'New vaccines for global health', was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, 'Accelerating vaccine development', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Health-Focused Personal Informatics Application with Support for Generalized Goal Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medynskiy, Yevgeniy

    2012-01-01

    The practice of health self-management offers behavioral and problem-solving strategies that can effectively promote responsibility for one's own wellbeing, improve one's health outcomes, and decrease the cost of health services. Personal informatics applications support health self-management by allowing their users to easily track…

  12. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  13. Turning electronic health record data into meaningful information using SQL and nursing informatics.

    PubMed

    Moerbe, Miriam; Kelemen, Arpad

    2014-08-01

    The combination of nursing informatics knowledge with SQL code writing in an electronic health record is a powerful partnership to obtain meaningful information and improve healthcare. The purpose of this project is to use SQL and nursing informatics to identify the underpinnings and scope of present-on-patient-admission pressure ulcer documentation incongruence within the inpatient medical-surgical unit of a rural hospital. Project results reveal a 76% incidence rate of incongruent nurse and physician documentation of pressure ulcers as present on admission. However, the scope of such incongruence affects only 3% for the inpatient population. The high incidence rate of nurse-documented present-on-admission pressure ulcers without a physician diagnoses indicates a potential for lost rural hospital reimbursement and risk to patient care.

  14. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations.

  15. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimison, Holly B.; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M.; Saranummi, Niilo

    2016-01-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations. PMID:26441408

  16. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations. PMID:26441408

  17. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR).

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Peer-reviewed journals remain important vehicles for knowledge transfer and dissemination in health informatics, yet, their format, processes and business models are changing only slowly. Up to the end of last century, it was common for individual researchers and scientific organizations to leave the business of knowledge transfer to professional publishers, signing away their rights to the works in the process, which in turn impeded wider dissemination. Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake of articles beyond the medical informatics community remain limited. In 1999, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR; http://www.jmir.org) was launched, featuring several innovations including 1) ownership and copyright retained by the authors, 2) electronic-only, "lean" non-for-profit publishing, 3) openly accessible articles with a reversed business model (author pays instead of reader pays), 4) technological innovations such as automatic XML tagging and reference checking, on-the-fly PDF generation from XML, etc., enabling wide distribution in various bibliographic and full-text databases. In the past 10 years, despite limited resources, the journal has emerged as a leading journal in health informatics, and is presently ranked the top journal in the medical informatics and health services research categories by impact factor. The paper summarizes some of the features of the Journal, and uses bibliometric and access data to compare the influence of the Journal on the discipline of medical informatics and other disciplines. While traditional medical informatics journals are primarily cited by other Medical Informatics journals (33%-46% of citations), JMIR papers are to a more often cited by "end-users" (policy, public health, clinical journals), which may be partly attributable to the "open access advantage". PMID:20841900

  18. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR).

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Peer-reviewed journals remain important vehicles for knowledge transfer and dissemination in health informatics, yet, their format, processes and business models are changing only slowly. Up to the end of last century, it was common for individual researchers and scientific organizations to leave the business of knowledge transfer to professional publishers, signing away their rights to the works in the process, which in turn impeded wider dissemination. Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake of articles beyond the medical informatics community remain limited. In 1999, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR; http://www.jmir.org) was launched, featuring several innovations including 1) ownership and copyright retained by the authors, 2) electronic-only, "lean" non-for-profit publishing, 3) openly accessible articles with a reversed business model (author pays instead of reader pays), 4) technological innovations such as automatic XML tagging and reference checking, on-the-fly PDF generation from XML, etc., enabling wide distribution in various bibliographic and full-text databases. In the past 10 years, despite limited resources, the journal has emerged as a leading journal in health informatics, and is presently ranked the top journal in the medical informatics and health services research categories by impact factor. The paper summarizes some of the features of the Journal, and uses bibliometric and access data to compare the influence of the Journal on the discipline of medical informatics and other disciplines. While traditional medical informatics journals are primarily cited by other Medical Informatics journals (33%-46% of citations), JMIR papers are to a more often cited by "end-users" (policy, public health, clinical journals), which may be partly attributable to the "open access advantage".

  19. Powerful concepts in global health

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health. PMID:25674576

  20. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  1. The Future Impact of Healthcare Services Digitalization on Health Workforce: The Increasing Role of Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution is gradually transforming our society. What about the effects of digitalization and Internet of Things in healthcare? Among researchers two ideas are dominating, opposing each other. These arguments will be explored and analyzed. A mix-method approach combining literature review with the results from a focus group on eHealth impact on employment is used. Several experts from the WHO and from Health Professional Associations contributed for this analysis. Depending on the type of service it will entail reductions or more need of healthcare workers, yet whatever the scenario medical informatics will play an increasing role. PMID:27577470

  2. Understanding public health informatics competencies for mid-tier public health practitioners: a web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Dunn, Kim; Juo, Hsin-Hsuan; Danko, Rick; Johnson, Drew; Mas, Francisco Soto; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2012-03-01

    The literature suggests that there is a need for measuring public health informatics (PHI) competency to further understand whether current educational modules and modalities meet the needs of PHI practitioners and researchers to perform their jobs more effectively, particularly for mid-tier practitioners that constitute the majority of public health workers in the USA. The present study seeks to update current knowledge of the perceptions and experiences of PHI competencies proposed by the U.S. Council on Linkage in Public Health specifically for mid-tier PH practitioners and researchers. The results were collected and analyzed by using a Web-based survey (WBS) method administered among both practitioners and researchers. Researchers first compiled a draft list of candidate competency set by incorporating existing competency areas provided by: 1) the Council on Linkage; and by 2) those proposed by the USA's Centers for Disease Control CDC Public Health Informatics Work Group. Nine sets of competency statements with 120 competency items and demographic information of respondents were included in the WBS. The online survey instruments were pilot-tested accordingly to incorporate feedback from respondents of the pilot. Fifty-six subjects were recruited from PH experts who were: 1) members of the Health Informatics Information Technology (HIIT) group of American Public Health Association; and, 2) members from the Community of Science (COS) Website who were the first authors published in the PHI field from PubMed. The sample included diverse backgrounds of PHI workers. They expressed an increased need for training to improve their PHI competencies. Respondents agreed that four competency sets should be adequately represented, including Leadership and System Thinking Skills (82%), followed by Financial Planning and Management Skills (79%), Community Dimensions of Practice Skills (77%), and Policy Development/Program Planning Skills (63%). The findings parallel current

  3. Understanding public health informatics competencies for mid-tier public health practitioners: a web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Dunn, Kim; Juo, Hsin-Hsuan; Danko, Rick; Johnson, Drew; Mas, Francisco Soto; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2012-03-01

    The literature suggests that there is a need for measuring public health informatics (PHI) competency to further understand whether current educational modules and modalities meet the needs of PHI practitioners and researchers to perform their jobs more effectively, particularly for mid-tier practitioners that constitute the majority of public health workers in the USA. The present study seeks to update current knowledge of the perceptions and experiences of PHI competencies proposed by the U.S. Council on Linkage in Public Health specifically for mid-tier PH practitioners and researchers. The results were collected and analyzed by using a Web-based survey (WBS) method administered among both practitioners and researchers. Researchers first compiled a draft list of candidate competency set by incorporating existing competency areas provided by: 1) the Council on Linkage; and by 2) those proposed by the USA's Centers for Disease Control CDC Public Health Informatics Work Group. Nine sets of competency statements with 120 competency items and demographic information of respondents were included in the WBS. The online survey instruments were pilot-tested accordingly to incorporate feedback from respondents of the pilot. Fifty-six subjects were recruited from PH experts who were: 1) members of the Health Informatics Information Technology (HIIT) group of American Public Health Association; and, 2) members from the Community of Science (COS) Website who were the first authors published in the PHI field from PubMed. The sample included diverse backgrounds of PHI workers. They expressed an increased need for training to improve their PHI competencies. Respondents agreed that four competency sets should be adequately represented, including Leadership and System Thinking Skills (82%), followed by Financial Planning and Management Skills (79%), Community Dimensions of Practice Skills (77%), and Policy Development/Program Planning Skills (63%). The findings parallel current

  4. A case for using grid architecture for state public health informatics: the Utah perspective

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for designing and implementing the next-generation of public health information systems using grid computing concepts and tools. Our attempt is to evaluate all grid types including data grids for sharing information and computational grids for accessing computational resources on demand. Public health is a broad domain that requires coordinated uses of disparate and heterogeneous information systems. System interoperability in public health is limited. The next-generation public health information systems must overcome barriers to integration and interoperability, leverage advances in information technology, address emerging requirements, and meet the needs of all stakeholders. Grid-based architecture provides one potential technical solution that deserves serious consideration. Within this context, we describe three discrete public health information system problems and the process by which the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) and the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah in the United States has approached the exploration for eventual deployment of a Utah Public Health Informatics Grid. These three problems are: i) integration of internal and external data sources with analytic tools and computational resources; ii) provide external stakeholders with access to public health data and services; and, iii) access, integrate, and analyze internal data for the timely monitoring of population health status and health services. After one year of experience, we have successfully implemented federated queries across disparate administrative domains, and have identified challenges and potential solutions concerning the selection of candidate analytic grid services, data sharing concerns, security models, and strategies for reducing expertise required at a public health agency to implement a public health grid. PMID:19545428

  5. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  6. A coherent approach to health informatics education: results of the Dutch curriculum project.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, S; Aarts, J

    2000-01-01

    From the beginning a coherent approach to health informatics education has been aimed for in our project to develop learning materials. The features are the thematic approach of the contents, the interrelationship of the modules and the didactical approach embedded in the learning materials. Following results have been achieved. Learning materials have been developed for the following themes: healthcare policy and management, delivery of professional care (specific for nursing and allied health), more generic themes such as electronic patient record, clinical decision making, classification and coding of healthcare data and knowledge based systems. Software made available by private companies has been selected for use in the learning modules. In specific cases the available software products did not match the criteria to support the learning materials. In these cases model applications have been developed that can be considered as forerunners for systems in practical use. Already some companies have expressed interest to adapt our home grown products for use in clinical practice. The modules are based on a model curriculum that has been developed by Aarts et al in 1995. New developments in healthcare have prompted modification of the contents of a few modules. For example, a module has been redefined to cover the important issue of logistics in healthcare. The module on patient education has been adapted to take into account the resources available on the Internet. Also, new insights in the effectiveness of computer-based patient education have been taken into account. The module on informatics for disabled persons has been focussed on computer-based aids and is being linked to the EU-project "Impact" aimed at increasing knowledge about assistive technology. However, the model curriculum has proved to be reasonable robust as a base for our project to develop learning materials for health informatics.

  7. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  8. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  9. The e-Learning Effectiveness Versus Traditional Learning on a Health Informatics Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Zogas, Spyros; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Birbas, Konstantinos; Chondrocoukis, Gregory; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between e-Learning and traditional learning methods of a University course on Health Informatics domain. A pilot research took place among University students who divided on two learning groups, the e-learners and the traditional learners. A comparison of the examinations' marks for the two groups of students was conducted in order to find differences on students' performance. The study results reveal that the students scored almost the same marks independently of the learning procedure. Based on that, it can be assumed that the e-learning courses have the same effectiveness as the in-classroom learning sessions. PMID:27350479

  10. The e-Learning Effectiveness Versus Traditional Learning on a Health Informatics Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Zogas, Spyros; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Birbas, Konstantinos; Chondrocoukis, Gregory; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between e-Learning and traditional learning methods of a University course on Health Informatics domain. A pilot research took place among University students who divided on two learning groups, the e-learners and the traditional learners. A comparison of the examinations' marks for the two groups of students was conducted in order to find differences on students' performance. The study results reveal that the students scored almost the same marks independently of the learning procedure. Based on that, it can be assumed that the e-learning courses have the same effectiveness as the in-classroom learning sessions.

  11. Medical informatics: an essential tool for health sciences research in acute care.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W; Smith, Vernon D; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms -- "sniffers", administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  12. Internet for teaching and learning introductory health informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, D. J.; Moehr, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Internet resources seem attractive for teaching and learning. But are they usable and useful in their present form? We explored Internet, in particular its World Wide Web (WWW) resources, in a course on "Medical Methodology" (HINF270) for students of health information science. This course offers a systematic overview of the methodological principles of clinical care. Its broad scope and low depth makes this course a reasonable model to explore the limits of WWW resources. During the course, students wrote summaries of individual lectures. After critiquing and appropriate corrections, the texts were edited with Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) and augmented with links to WWW resources. Grading based on the papers, on their improvements through HTML and WWW, and on the provision of information on the search experience were incentives to use WWW. A formal questionnaire, administered on-line on a voluntary basis, concluded the investigation. Results show: 1) Even under considerable pressure to use WWW, libraries remain the reference source of choice for research; 2) Internet provides entertainment appeal even though practical utility is currently limited; 3) Technological proficiency with HTML and search engines is perceived as an asset; 4) Varying availability of Internet resources, uncertain and varying quality of sources, and limited specificity of research results are the major disadvantages of WWW. The teaching implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:8563341

  13. The public health informatics infrastructure: anticipating its role in cancer.

    PubMed

    Shortliffe, Edward H; Sondik, Edward J

    2006-09-01

    Cancer information and surveillance, historically conducted with manual data collection and submission, are viewed increasingly as inherently dependent on the effective application of information science. One challenge is to use information technology (IT) in a manner that improves cancer-related decision-making and ultimately the quality of care that is offered to patients with cancer. In this article we begin by envisioning a future view of IT-supported surveillance and care that can be made available for application in cancer and its management. We then ask what barriers need to be overcome and what forces are at work that may help us in our efforts to effect the necessary changes. Our future vision for surveillance and information, although appealing and widely shared, requires major cultural change, financial investment, and logistical planning. Competition in the medical marketplace, coupled with fiscal pressures affecting providers and health systems, suggests that leadership for regional and national coordination will need to come from elsewhere-and likely from governments. PMID:16841254

  14. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  15. Comprehensive Environmental Informatics System (CEIS) Integrating Crew and Vehicle Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems have been pursued as highly integrated systems that include smart sensors, diagnostic and prognostics software for assessments of real-time and life-cycle vehicle health information. Inclusive to such a system is the requirement to monitor the environmental health within the vehicle and the occupants of the vehicle. In this regard an enterprise approach to informatics is used to develop a methodology entitled, Comprehensive Environmental Informatics System (CEIS). The hardware and software technologies integrated into this system will be embedded in the vehicle subsystems, and maintenance operations, to provide both real-time and life-cycle health information of the environment within the vehicle cabin and of its occupants. This comprehensive information database will enable informed decision making and logistics management. One key element of the CEIS is interoperability for data acquisition and archive between environment and human system monitoring. With comprehensive components the data acquired in this system will use model based reasoning systems for subsystem and system level managers, advanced on-board and ground-based mission and maintenance planners to assess system functionality. Knowledge databases of the vehicle health state will be continuously updated and reported for critical failure modes, and routinely updated and reported for life cycle condition trending. Sufficient intelligence, including evidence-based engineering practices which are analogous to evidencebased medicine practices, will be included in the CEIS to result in more rapid recognition of off-nominal operation to enable quicker corrective actions. This will result from better information (rather than just data) for improved crew/operator situational awareness, which will produce significant vehicle and crew safety improvements, as well as increasing the chance for mission success, future mission planning as well as training. Other

  16. Current Challenge in Consumer Health Informatics: Bridging the Gap between Access to Information and Information Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Laurence; Verhoef, John; Xie, Bo; Te'eni, Dov; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The number of health-related websites has proliferated over the past few years. Health information consumers confront a myriad of health related resources on the internet that have varying levels of quality and are not always easy to comprehend. There is thus a need to help health information consumers to bridge the gap between access to information and information understanding—i.e. to help consumers understand health related web-based resources so that they can act upon it. At the same time health information consumers are becoming not only more involved in their own health care but also more information technology minded. One way to address this issue is to provide consumers with tailored information that is contextualized and personalized e.g. directly relevant and easily comprehensible to the person's own health situation. This paper presents a current trend in Consumer Health Informatics which focuses on theory-based design and development of contextualized and personalized tools to allow the evolving consumer with varying backgrounds and interests to use online health information efficiently. The proposed approach uses a theoretical framework of communication in order to support the consumer's capacity to understand health-related web-based resources. PMID:20419038

  17. Usability and accessibility in consumer health informatics current trends and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Larry; Lide, Bettijoyce; Lowry, Svetlana; Massett, Holly A; O'Connell, Trisha; Preece, Jennifer; Quesenbery, Whitney; Shneiderman, Ben

    2011-05-01

    It is a truism that, for innovative eHealth systems to have true value and impact, they must first and foremost be usable and accessible by clinicians, consumers, and other stakeholders. In this paper, current trends and future challenges in the usability and accessibility of consumer health informatics will be described. Consumer expectations of their healthcare providers and healthcare records in this new era of consumer-directed care will be explored, and innovative visualizations, assistive technologies, and other ways that healthcare information is currently being provided and/or shared will be described. Challenges for ensuring the usability of current and future systems will also be discussed. An innovative model for conducting systematic, timely, user-centered research on consumer-facing websites at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the ongoing efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to promote health information technology (HIT) usability standards and evaluation criteria will also be presented.

  18. What Is Primary Care Informatics?

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Primary care informatics is an emerging academic discipline that remains undefined. The unique nature of primary care necessitates the development of its own informatics discipline. A definition of primary care informatics is proposed, which encompasses the distinctive nature of primary care. The core concepts and theory that should underpin it are described. Primary care informatics is defined as a science and as a subset of health informatics. The proposed definition is intended to focus the development of a generalizable core theory for this informatics subspecialty. PMID:12668690

  19. Harnessing next-generation informatics for personalizing medicine: a report from AMIA's 2014 Health Policy Invitational Meeting.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Laura K; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Denny, Joshua C; Freimuth, Robert R; Overby, Casey L; Shah, Nigam; Martin, Ross D; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2016-03-01

    The American Medical Informatics Association convened the 2014 Health Policy Invitational Meeting to develop recommendations for updates to current policies and to establish an informatics research agenda for personalizing medicine. In particular, the meeting focused on discussing informatics challenges related to personalizing care through the integration of genomic or other high-volume biomolecular data with data from clinical systems to make health care more efficient and effective. This report summarizes the findings (n = 6) and recommendations (n = 15) from the policy meeting, which were clustered into 3 broad areas: (1) policies governing data access for research and personalization of care; (2) policy and research needs for evolving data interpretation and knowledge representation; and (3) policy and research needs to ensure data integrity and preservation. The meeting outcome underscored the need to address a number of important policy and technical considerations in order to realize the potential of personalized or precision medicine in actual clinical contexts.

  20. Global health education consortium: 20 years of leadership in global health and global health education.

    PubMed

    Velji, Anvar

    2011-06-01

    The Global Health Education Consortium (GHEC) is a group of universities and institutions committed to improving the health and human rights of underserved populations worldwide through improved education and training of the global health workforce. In the early 1990s, GHEC brought together many of the global health programs in North America to improve competencies and curricula in global health as well as to involve member institutions in health policy, development issues, and delivery of care in the inner cities, marginalized areas, and abroad.

  1. Convergent evolution of health information management and health informatics: a perspective on the future of information professionals in health care.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C J; Dixon, B E; Abrams, K

    2015-01-01

    Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  2. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  3. Geospatial resources for supporting data standards, guidance and best practice in health informatics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The 1980s marked the occasion when Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was broadly introduced into the geo-spatial community through the establishment of a strong GIS industry. This technology quickly disseminated across many countries, and has now become established as an important research, planning and commercial tool for a wider community that includes organisations in the public and private health sectors. The broad acceptance of GIS technology and the nature of its functionality have meant that numerous datasets have been created over the past three decades. Most of these datasets have been created independently, and without any structured documentation systems in place. However, search and retrieval systems can only work if there is a mechanism for datasets existence to be discovered and this is where proper metadata creation and management can greatly help. This situation must be addressed through support mechanisms such as Web-based portal technologies, metadata editor tools, automation, metadata standards and guidelines and collaborative efforts with relevant individuals and organisations. Engagement with data developers or administrators should also include a strategy of identifying the benefits associated with metadata creation and publication. Findings The establishment of numerous Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs), and other Internet resources, is a testament to the recognition of the importance of supporting good data management and sharing practices across the geographic information community. These resources extend to health informatics in support of research, public services and teaching and learning. This paper identifies many of these resources available to the UK academic health informatics community. It also reveals the reluctance of many spatial data creators across the wider UK academic community to use these resources to create and publish metadata, or deposit their data in repositories for sharing. The Go

  4. Alumni's perception of public health informatics competencies: lessons from the Graduate Program of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fuad, Anis; Sanjaya, Guardian Yoki; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Rahmanti, Annisa Ristya; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning [1]. Unfortunately, limited reports exist concerning to the capacity building strategies to improve public health informatics workforce in limited-resources setting. In Indonesia, only three universities, including Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), offer master degree program on related public health informatics discipline. UGM started a new dedicated master program on Health Management Information Systems in 2005, under the auspice of the Graduate Program of Public Health at the Faculty of Medicine. This is the first tracer study to the alumni aiming to a) identify the gaps between curriculum and the current jobs and b) describe their perception on public health informatics competencies. We distributed questionnaires to 114 alumni with 36.84 % response rate. Despite low response rate, this study provided valuable resources to set up appropriate competencies, curriculum and capacity building strategies of public health informatics workforce in Indonesia. PMID:23920850

  5. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action.

  6. Rethinking the role and impact of health information technology: informatics as an interventional discipline.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Lussier, Yves; Foraker, Randi E; Embi, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the adoption and use of health information technology (HIT) have had a dramatic impact on the practice of medicine. In many environments, this has led to the ability to achieve new efficiencies and levels of safety. In others, the impact has been less positive, and is associated with both: 1) workflow and user experience dissatisfaction; and 2) perceptions of missed opportunities relative to the use of computational tools to enable data-driven and precise clinical decision making. Simultaneously, the "pipeline" through which new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents are being developed and brought to the point-of-care or population health is challenged in terms of both cost and timeliness. Given the confluence of these trends, it can be argued that now is the time to consider new ways in which HIT can be used to deliver health and wellness interventions comparable to traditional approaches (e.g., drugs, devices, diagnostics, and behavioral modifications). Doing so could serve to fulfill the promise of what has been recently promoted as "precision medicine" in a rapid and cost-effective manner. However, it will also require the health and life sciences community to embrace new modes of using HIT, wherein the use of technology becomes a primary intervention as opposed to enabler of more conventional approaches, a model that we refer to in this commentary as "interventional informatics". Such a paradigm requires attention to critical issues, including: 1) the nature of the relationships between HIT vendors and healthcare innovators; 2) the formation and function of multidisciplinary teams consisting of technologists, informaticians, and clinical or scientific subject matter experts; and 3) the optimal design and execution of clinical studies that focus on HIT as the intervention of interest. Ultimately, the goal of an "interventional informatics" approach can and should be to substantially improve human health and wellness through the use of data

  7. Rethinking the role and impact of health information technology: informatics as an interventional discipline.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Lussier, Yves; Foraker, Randi E; Embi, Peter J

    2016-03-29

    Recent advances in the adoption and use of health information technology (HIT) have had a dramatic impact on the practice of medicine. In many environments, this has led to the ability to achieve new efficiencies and levels of safety. In others, the impact has been less positive, and is associated with both: 1) workflow and user experience dissatisfaction; and 2) perceptions of missed opportunities relative to the use of computational tools to enable data-driven and precise clinical decision making. Simultaneously, the "pipeline" through which new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents are being developed and brought to the point-of-care or population health is challenged in terms of both cost and timeliness. Given the confluence of these trends, it can be argued that now is the time to consider new ways in which HIT can be used to deliver health and wellness interventions comparable to traditional approaches (e.g., drugs, devices, diagnostics, and behavioral modifications). Doing so could serve to fulfill the promise of what has been recently promoted as "precision medicine" in a rapid and cost-effective manner. However, it will also require the health and life sciences community to embrace new modes of using HIT, wherein the use of technology becomes a primary intervention as opposed to enabler of more conventional approaches, a model that we refer to in this commentary as "interventional informatics". Such a paradigm requires attention to critical issues, including: 1) the nature of the relationships between HIT vendors and healthcare innovators; 2) the formation and function of multidisciplinary teams consisting of technologists, informaticians, and clinical or scientific subject matter experts; and 3) the optimal design and execution of clinical studies that focus on HIT as the intervention of interest. Ultimately, the goal of an "interventional informatics" approach can and should be to substantially improve human health and wellness through the use of data

  8. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions

    PubMed Central

    King, Samuel B.; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs. Methods: An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Results: Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Conclusions: Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Implications: Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself. PMID:25552939

  9. A Review of User-Centered Design for Diabetes-Related Consumer Health Informatics Technologies

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

  10. Perspectives on clinical informatics: integrating large-scale clinical, genomic, and health information for clinical care.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population.

  11. Building Comprehensive and Sustainable Health Informatics Institutions in Developing Countries: Moi University Experience.

    PubMed

    Were, Martin C; Siika, Abraham; Ayuo, Paul O; Atwoli, Lukoye; Esamai, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches for capacity building in Health Informatics (HI) in developing countries mostly focus on training, and often rely on support from foreign entities. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and multidimensional capacity-building framework by Lansang & Dennis, and its application for HI capacity building as implemented in a higher-education institution in Kenya. This framework incorporates training, learning-by-doing, partnerships, and centers of excellence. At Moi University (Kenya), the training dimensions include an accredited Masters in HI Program, PhD in HI, and HI short courses. Learning-by-doing occurs through work within MOH facilities at the AMPATH care and treatment program serving 3 million people. Moi University has formed strategic HI partnerships with Regenstrief Institute, Inc. (USA), University of Bergen (Norway), and Makerere University (Uganda), among others. The University has also created an Institute of Biomedical Informatics to serve as an HI Center of Excellence in the region. This Institute has divisions in Training, Research, Service and Administration. The HI capacity-building approach by Moi provides a model for adoption by other institutions in resource-limited settings.

  12. Perspectives on Clinical Informatics: Integrating Large-Scale Clinical, Genomic, and Health Information for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K.

    2013-01-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population. PMID:24465229

  13. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals. PMID:25276514

  14. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  15. Factors in the development of clinical informatics competence in early career health sciences professionals in Australia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny

    2011-03-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating how Australian health professionals may be developing and deploying essential clinical informatics capabilities in the first 5 years of their professional practice. It explores the experiences of four professionals in applying what they have learned formally and informally during their university education and during workplace learning and training. This study is based on a broad review of the literature on clinical informatics education and training; its findings support international analyses and suggest that new strategic efforts among stakeholders in the healthcare system are required to make progress in building workforce capacity in this field, in Australia and elsewhere.

  16. Consumer Health Informatics: The Application of ICT in Improving Patient-Provider Partnership for a Better Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Larweh, Benjamin Teye

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest concerning the potential of ICT solutions that are customized to consumers. This emerging discipline referred to as consumer health informatics (CHI) plays a major role in providing information to patients and the public, and facilitates the promotion of self-management. The concept of CHI has emerged out of the desire of most patients to shoulder responsibilities regarding their health and a growing desire of health practitioners to fully appreciate the potential of the patient. Aim To describe the role of ICT in improving the patient-provider partnership in consumer health informatics. Methods Systematic reviewing of literature, identification of reference sources and formulation of search strategies and manual search regarding the significance of developed CHI applications in healthcare delivery. Results New consumer health IT applications have been developed to be used on a variety of different platforms, including the Web, messaging systems, PDAs, and cell phones. These applications assists patients with self-management through reminders and prompts, delivery of real-time data on a patient’s health condition to patients and providers, web-based communication and personal electronic health information. Conclusion New tools are being developed for the purposes of providing information to patients and the public which has enhanced decision making in health matters and an avenue for clinicians and consumers to exchange health information for personal and public use. This calls for corroboration among healthcare organizations, governments and the ICT industry to develop new research and IT innovations which are tailored to the health needs of the consumer. PMID:25422724

  17. Integrating Genome-based Informatics to Modernize Global Disease Monitoring, Information Sharing, and Response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric W.; Detter, Chris; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Harmsen, Dag; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hewson, Roger; Heymann, David L.; Johansson, Karin; Ijaz, Kashef; Keim, Paul S.; Koopmans, Marion; Kroneman, Annelies; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Lund, Ole; Palm, Daniel; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Sobel, Jeremy; Schlundt, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases of pathogen genomes that would ensure more efficient detection, prevention, and control of endemic, emerging, and other infectious disease outbreaks worldwide. PMID:23092707

  18. Factors in the Development of Clinical Informatics Competence in Early Career Health Sciences Professionals in Australia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating how Australian health professionals may be developing and deploying essential clinical informatics capabilities in the first 5 years of their professional practice. It explores the experiences of four professionals in applying what they have learned formally and informally during their…

  19. Health Informatics in Developing Countries: Going beyond Pilot Practices to Sustainable Implementations: A Review of the Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Almerares, Alfredo; Mayan, John Charles; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán; Otero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Information technology is an essential tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care, and to reduce healthcare costs. There is a scarcity of large sustainable implementations in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to review the challenges faced by developing countries to achieve sustainable implementations in health informatics and possible ways to address them. Methods In this non-systematic review of the literature, articles were searched using the keywords medical informatics, developing countries, implementation, and challenges in PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE. The authors, after reading the literature, reached a consensus to classify the challenges into six broad categories. Results The authors describe the problems faced by developing countries arising from the lack of adequate infrastructure and the ways these can be bypassed; the fundamental need to develop nationwide e-Health agendas to achieve sustainable implementations; ways to overcome public uncertainty with respect to privacy and security; the difficulties shared with developed countries in achieving interoperability; the need for a trained workforce in health informatics and existing initiatives for its development; and strategies to achieve regional integration. Conclusions Central to the success of any implementation in health informatics is knowledge of the challenges to be faced. This is even more important in developing countries, where uncertainty and instability are common. The authors hope this article will assist policy makers, healthcare managers, and project leaders to successfully plan their implementations and make them sustainable, avoiding unexpected barriers and making better use of their resources. PMID:24627813

  20. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  1. Examining the Impact of Non-Technical Security Management Factors on Information Security Management in Health Informatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imam, Abbas H.

    2013-01-01

    Complexity of information security has become a major issue for organizations due to incessant threats to information assets. Healthcare organizations are particularly concerned with security owing to the inherent vulnerability of sensitive information assets in health informatics. While the non-technical security management elements have been at…

  2. Advancing the framework: use of health data--a report of a working conference of the American Medical Informatics Association.

    PubMed

    Bloomrosen, Meryl; Detmer, Don

    2008-01-01

    The fields of health informatics and biomedical research increasingly depend on the availability of aggregated health data. Yet, despite over fifteen years of policy work on health data issues, the United States (U.S.) lacks coherent policy to guide users striving to navigate the ethical, political, technical, and economic challenges associated with health data use. In 2007, building on more than a decade of previous work, the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) convened a panel of experts to stimulate discussion about and action on a national framework for health data use. This initiative is being carried out in the context of rapidly accelerating advances in the fields of health informatics and biomedical research, many of which are dependent on the availability of aggregated health data. Use of these data poses complex challenges that must be addressed by public policy. This paper highlights the results of the meeting, presents data stewardship as a key building block in the national framework, and outlines stewardship principles for the management of health information. The authors also introduce a taxonomy developed to focus definitions and terminology in the evolving field of health data applications. Finally, they identify areas for further policy analysis and recommend that public and private sector organizations elevate consideration of a national framework on the uses of health data to a top priority.

  3. Blog-based applications and health information: two case studies that illustrate important questions for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) research.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A

    2010-06-01

    Weblogs (blogs), together with podcasts and wikis are part of the larger body of next-generation communication applications dubbed "web 2.0." Within the specific area of health care, little attention has been devoted to understanding what applications are available to the lay public and how these are being used. In this study, a literature review on blogs and blogging practices was conducted, followed by case study analyses of two separate sites that use blogging tools to help patients and other lay web end-users record health-related experiences. This paper explores the diverse purposes for which blogging applications can be (or are being) used in relation to health and introduces the idea of "health goal-oriented" blogging. The discussion focuses on relevant informatics questions that arise with respect to the use of blogs and makes suggestions for subsequent research.

  4. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. PMID:22827320

  5. The future of health IT innovation and informatics: a report from AMIA's 2010 policy meeting

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Julie J; Cusack, Caitlin M

    2012-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the short-term impact that widespread adoption of health information technology (health IT) will have on the healthcare system, there is a corresponding need to look at the long-term effects that extant policies may have on health IT system resilience, innovation, and related ethical, social/legal issues. The American Medical Informatics Association's 2010 Health Policy Conference was convened to further the national discourse on the issues surrounding these longer-term considerations. Conference participants self-selected into three broad categories: resilience in healthcare and health IT; ethical, legal, and social challenges; and innovation, adoption, and sustainability. The discussions about problem areas lead to findings focusing on the lack of encouragement for long-term IT innovation that may result from current health IT policies; the potential impact of uneven adoption of health IT based on the exclusions of the current financial incentives; the weaknesses of contingency and risk mitigation planning that threaten system resilience; and evolving standards developed in response to challenges relating to the security, integrity, and availability of electronic health information. This paper discusses these findings and also offers recommendations that address the interwoven topics of innovation, resilience, and adoption. The goal of this paper is to encourage public and private sector organizations that have a role in shaping health information policy to increase attention to developing a national strategy that assures that health IT innovation and resilience are not impeded by shorter-term efforts to implement current approaches emphasizing adoption and meaningful use of electronic health records. PMID:22037887

  6. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  7. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  8. A prototype informatics system integrating weather and health data to manage meningitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Yoksas, T.; Hayden, M.; Hopson, T.; Laing, A.; Lazo, J.; Warner, T.; Rice, J.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Hodgson, A.; Semazzi, F.; Mera, R.; Thomson, M.; Trzaska, S.; Lamptey, B.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation will describe progress in developing the informatics system that will support a newly funded project designed to integrate health and environmental data for health-related decision-making in Africa. This infromatics system supports a project in which the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and North Carolina State University in the United States, and the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana will build and implement a prototype decision-support system that integrates two- to 14-day weather forecasts and epidemiological data to provide actionable information that can be used to contain the spread of meningitis epidemics in Ghana. By applying a preliminary economic evaluation of this decision support system, we will also assess the potential benefit of using environmental data to improve public health outcomes, help prioritize continuing investment in meningitis management in Ghana and throughout the Meningitis Belt, and determine the appropriateness of extending the prototype to other diseases, nations, and continents. This effort is a small piece of an overall Google.org effort to develop an Earth-gauging System that will integrate environmental, health and development data into products that stakeholders and researchers can use to monitor variables, analyze trends and identify relationships among different variables. The Earth-gauging System will support the prediction of emerging threats, and provide the basis for an robust early-warning system that will improve health, food security, and development and conservation outcomes. For the informatics session, our presentation will focus on the projects' leveraging of current UCAR Unidata data management software to create and populate an archive of meteorological and epidemiological data. We will also describe strategies to extend the Unidata network for data distribution - which currently provides real-time access

  9. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-07-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act. PMID:20648253

  10. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act. PMID:20648253

  11. Contemporary issues in medicine--medical informatics and population health: report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges established the Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP) to set forth program-level learning objectives that medical school deans and faculties can use as guides in reviewing their medical student education programs (initial phase), and to suggest strategies that they might employ in implementing agreed-upon changes in those programs (implementation phase). The publication of MSOP Report I in 1998 concluded the initial phase of the project by presenting 30 program-level learning objectives that represent a consensus within the medical education community on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students should possess before graduation from medical school. Report II, published here, is the work of two expert panels that focus on the two interrelated topics of medical informatics and population health for which Report I developed learning objectives. The Medical Informatics Panel identified five roles played by physicians--lifelong learner, clinician, educator-communicator, researcher, and manager--in which medical informatics plays a vital part, and defined one or more informatics learning objectives important for each role (e.g., the successful medical school graduate, in his or her role as a clinician, should be able to retrieve patient-specific information from a clinical information system). The panel then identified ways that schools might implement educational programs to address the various informatics learning objectives and to eventually embed informatics experiences throughout the curriculum rather than relying on an informatics course to achieve some or all of the objectives. The Population Health Perspective Panel developed a consensus definition of "population health perspective" (PHP); chose four types of populations to discuss (e.g., the geographic community); reviewed pressures for and against the implementation of a PHP in the curriculum (e.g., the cross-disciplinary nature of the topic is a barrier

  12. [Informatics and health, from digitization to information and communication technologies (TIC)].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; de Kervasdoué, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Integrating the progress that has been made on a daily basis since it was jointly commissioned in 2013 by the French National Academy of Medicine (Biotechnology Committee XX, Prof Emmanuel-Alain Cabanis) and the Technologies Academy (Pr Jean de Kervasdoué), this report, covering such a vast subject, can only represent one step in a long process. Summarized here in a volume compatible with the Bulletin, it makes reference to the full report (52 pages ; 22 pages of text, 4 pages of references, a 20-page glossary for physicians, plus 522 figures spanning 6 pages), which is available on the Academy's website. The six chapters first define "health" (WHO) and "informatics" and provide a brief history. The first chapter, on technologies, is divided into "bad" news (cybercrime, ecological risks) and advances relevant to health. The next four chapters describe the contribution of digitization to patient management, ranging from "fragile" individuals (from the gamete to old age and dependency) to healthy subjects trained to work in hostile situations (scuba diving to space exploration), and finally research. The last chapter proposes 7 areas for progress: expansion of the national imaging and communications platforms, stimulation of the medical robotics industry, extension of telemedicine to all medical and surgical specialties, support for drug dispensing and therapeutic education, and foundation of a European portal for m-health certification, research prioritization according to multiyear health plans, and reinforcement of mathematic education, starting in primary school (see: "La main à la pâte" ("Going hands-on").

  13. HCFA documentation guidelines and the need for discrete data: a golden opportunity for applied health informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Taragin, M. I.; Lauer, M.; Savir, M.; Sivan, E.; Siesel, D.; Aufgang, B.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The medical community is shocked by the complexity of the documentation now required to support the Medicare billing codes. This situation represents an opportunity for Electronic Medical Records that use discrete data to become a central factor at the point of care by fulfilling these stringent documentation specifications. METHODS: This empirical study explores whether a discrete data EMR has the ability to generate automatically a report describing what billing code is consistent with the documentation recorded. We tested this hypothesis on HBOC Pathways SMR by attempting to create algorithms that reflected the HCFA guidelines. We validated this process using historical records from the Cleveland Clinic. RESULTS: All the data elements required by HCFA were available as discrete data. Using algorithms, the billing code consistent with the documentation of the health care encounter could be automatically generated. CONCLUSIONS: EMRs using discrete data can substantially reduce the burden placed on health care providers by HCFA's new documentation guidelines. This benefit creates a window of opportunity for health informatics to become an integral tool in the provision of health care. Using EMRs for billing purposes can help achieve the loftier goal of using EMRs for quality improvement. PMID:9929300

  14. Global health for nursing...and nursing for global health.

    PubMed

    Merry, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    This article draws on the literature to present a conceptualization of global health (GH) that corresponds with the discipline of nursing and defines the contributions of nursing to GH. The author's perspective is that "health" should be defined and considered holistically to reflect the fact that GH involves more than the eradication of disease and that health as a fundamental right of every human being must be made explicit. "Global" refers to the supraterritorial links among the social determinants of health located at points anywhere on earth within a whole-world context. The focus of GH is the supraterritorial determinants and its ultimate objective is health equity for all nations and all people. The contributions of nurses are advocacy, healing and alleviating suffering through caring, and increasing nursing capacity globally. To truly advance the GH agenda, a new world order is needed, one in which political decision-making is guided by our shared humanity. PMID:23448073

  15. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests. PMID:23358336

  16. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests.

  17. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap. PMID:21896361

  18. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap.

  19. Reusable design: A proposed approach to Public Health Informatics system design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since it was first defined in 1995, Public Health Informatics (PHI) has become a recognized discipline, with a research agenda, defined domain-specific competencies and a specialized corpus of technical knowledge. Information systems form a cornerstone of PHI research and implementation, representing significant progress for the nascent field. However, PHI does not advocate or incorporate standard, domain-appropriate design methods for implementing public health information systems. Reusable design is generalized design advice that can be reused in a range of similar contexts. We propose that PHI create and reuse information design knowledge by taking a systems approach that incorporates design methods from the disciplines of Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction Design and other related disciplines. Discussion Although PHI operates in a domain with unique characteristics, many design problems in public health correspond to classic design problems, suggesting that existing design methods and solution approaches are applicable to the design of public health information systems. Among the numerous methodological frameworks used in other disciplines, we identify scenario-based design and participatory design as two widely-employed methodologies that are appropriate for adoption as PHI standards. We make the case that these methods show promise to create reusable design knowledge in PHI. Summary We propose the formalization of a set of standard design methods within PHI that can be used to pursue a strategy of design knowledge creation and reuse for cost-effective, interoperable public health information systems. We suggest that all public health informaticians should be able to use these design methods and the methods should be incorporated into PHI training. PMID:21333000

  20. Anthropologists in Global Health Experiments.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Pool, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Can global health experiments be part of more flexible systems of knowledge generation, where different bodies of knowledge come together to provide understanding not only of the outcomes of new interventions but also of the mechanisms through which they affect people's well-being and health? Building past work in which they tried to transform how global health experiments are carried out and inspired by the articles in this special issue, the authors of this commentary argue that strategic collaboration is needed to break the hegemony of randomized controlled trials in designing global health technologies. More open-ended experiments are possible if anthropologists team up with innovative researchers in biomedicine to develop new conceptual models and to adopt novel observational techniques and 'smart' trials that incorporate ethnography to unravel complex interactions between local biologies, attributes of health systems, social infrastructures, and users' everyday lives. PMID:27618222

  1. Nanomedicine for global health.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Nathaniel; Lee, Bryan; Kim, Austin; Yang, Richard; Pan, Ricky; Lee, Dong-Keun; Chow, Edward K; Ho, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Despite modern advances, a broad range of disorders such as cancer and infectious diseases continually afflict the global population. Novel therapeutics are continuously being explored to address these challenges. Therefore, scalable, effective, and safe therapies that are readily accessible to third-world countries are of major interest. In this article, we discuss the potential advantages that the nanomedicine field may harness toward successful implementation against some of the major diseases of our generation.

  2. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  3. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  4. Origins of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1986-01-01

    Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s. PMID:3544507

  5. [Informatics and health, from digitization to information and communication technologies (TIC)].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; de Kervasdoué, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Integrating the progress that has been made on a daily basis since it was jointly commissioned in 2013 by the French National Academy of Medicine (Biotechnology Committee XX, Prof Emmanuel-Alain Cabanis) and the Technologies Academy (Pr Jean de Kervasdoué), this report, covering such a vast subject, can only represent one step in a long process. Summarized here in a volume compatible with the Bulletin, it makes reference to the full report (52 pages ; 22 pages of text, 4 pages of references, a 20-page glossary for physicians, plus 522 figures spanning 6 pages), which is available on the Academy's website. The six chapters first define "health" (WHO) and "informatics" and provide a brief history. The first chapter, on technologies, is divided into "bad" news (cybercrime, ecological risks) and advances relevant to health. The next four chapters describe the contribution of digitization to patient management, ranging from "fragile" individuals (from the gamete to old age and dependency) to healthy subjects trained to work in hostile situations (scuba diving to space exploration), and finally research. The last chapter proposes 7 areas for progress: expansion of the national imaging and communications platforms, stimulation of the medical robotics industry, extension of telemedicine to all medical and surgical specialties, support for drug dispensing and therapeutic education, and foundation of a European portal for m-health certification, research prioritization according to multiyear health plans, and reinforcement of mathematic education, starting in primary school (see: "La main à la pâte" ("Going hands-on"). PMID:26259292

  6. Big Heart Data: Advancing Health Informatics through Data Sharing in Cardiovascular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R.; Young, Alistair A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be re-used beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data re-use, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  7. Big heart data: advancing health informatics through data sharing in cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A

    2015-07-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be reused beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data reuse, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  8. Computing Health Quality Measures Using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shawn N

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) is a Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for expressing computable Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Creating tools to process HQMF queries in clinical databases will become increasingly important as the United States moves forward with its Health Information Technology Strategic Plan to Stages 2 and 3 of the Meaningful Use incentive program (MU2 and MU3). Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is one of the analytical databases used as part of the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC)’s Query Health platform to move toward this goal. Objective Our goal is to integrate i2b2 with the Query Health HQMF architecture, to prepare for other HQMF use-cases (such as MU2 and MU3), and to articulate the functional overlap between i2b2 and HQMF. Therefore, we analyze the structure of HQMF, and then we apply this understanding to HQMF computation on the i2b2 clinical analytical database platform. Specifically, we develop a translator between two query languages, HQMF and i2b2, so that the i2b2 platform can compute HQMF queries. Methods We use the HQMF structure of queries for aggregate reporting, which define clinical data elements and the temporal and logical relationships between them. We use the i2b2 XML format, which allows flexible querying of a complex clinical data repository in an easy-to-understand domain-specific language. Results The translator can represent nearly any i2b2-XML query as HQMF and execute in i2b2 nearly any HQMF query expressible in i2b2-XML. This translator is part of the freely available reference implementation of the QueryHealth initiative. We analyze limitations of the conversion and find it covers many, but not all, of the complex temporal and logical operators required by quality measures. Conclusions HQMF is an expressive language for defining quality measures, and it will be important to understand and implement for CQM computation, in both meaningful use and population

  9. Global health--multiple definitions, single goal.

    PubMed

    Marušić, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a wealth of research on and attention of both the public and the researchers about global health, there is still some controversy and uncertainty about the real meaning of the term "global health". In a multidisciplinary and intersectorial field such as global health, common definition is important for clear and effective communication among all involved in global health.

  10. Academic freedom and global health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Donald

    2012-02-01

    There is a tension between the preservation of academic freedom and the economic context in which the university currently finds itself. This tension embodies serious threats to global health as a result of three overlapping phenomena which impede the production and diffusion of valuable knowledge about health. These phenomena, the privatisation, commercialisation and instrumentalisation of knowledge are identified and examined in this paper in relation to human rights and international morality.

  11. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Methods: Using the “Principlism” framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. Results: These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. Implications: The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies. PMID:25349543

  12. The Global Health Impact Index: Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people cannot access essential medicines they need for deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. There is good information on the need for drugs for these diseases but until now, no global estimate of the impact drugs are having on this burden. This paper presents a model measuring companies’ key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs’ consequences for global health (global-health-impact.org). It aggregates drugs’ impacts in several ways–by disease, country and originator-company. The methodology can be extended across diseases as well as drugs to provide a more extensive picture of the impact companies’ drugs are having on the global burden of disease. The study suggests that key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs are, together, ameliorating about 37% of the global burden of these diseases and Sanofi, Novartis, and Pfizer’s drugs are having the largest effect on this burden. Moreover, drug impacts vary widely across countries. This index provides important information for policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, countries, and other stake-holders that can help increase access to essential medicines. PMID:26657064

  13. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization. PMID:15770290

  14. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  15. [Health of peacekeepers protection with perspective of global health].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Laixin; Tang, Shenglan; Cao, Jia

    2015-03-01

    Global health arisen recently, but it developed rapidly and attracted great attention from global researchers and institutions. China, as a member of United Nation, actively participated in many international peacekeeping activities. Health of peacekeepers is global health and it is important to consider and dealt with health of peacekeepers with conception of global health. This article reviewed and analyzed health problems and risk factors faced by peacekeepers,and provided suggestions to strategies to protect health of peacekeepers. PMID:26268861

  16. Informatics Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…

  17. Global health: governance and policy development.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today.

  18. What is missing in health informatics standardization for pHealth?

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Oemig, Frank; Gonzáles, Carolina; López, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Health systems turn everywhere, but with different speed, from organization-centered to personalized eHealth or pHealth, i.e. ubiquitous care delivery independent of time and location of the resources involved. As interoperability is an important issue in such distributed, fully integrated, intelligent and individualized environment, pHealth solutions have to comply with advanced architectural solutions based on international standards. Representing concepts and their interrelations, such architectural framework perspectives' system architecture, domains, and development process can be described by the domains' ontologies. Therefore, advanced interoperability approaches have to refer to ontology principles, finally resulting in ontology-driven approaches to semantically interoperable and sustainable health information systems. The paper investigates functional requirements, interoperability levels, architectural approaches to pHealth systems, thereby analyzing and classifying related existing or emerging standards.

  19. Five periods in development of medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-02-01

    Medical informatics, as scientific discipline, has to do with all aspects of understanding and promoting the effective organization, analysis, management, and use of information in health care. While the field of Medical informatics shares the general scope of these interests with some other health care specialities and disciplines, Medical (Health) informatics has developed its own areas of emphasis and approaches that have set it apart from other disciplines and specialities. For the last fifties of 20th century and some more years of 21st century, Medical informatics had the five time periods of characteristic development. In this paper author shortly described main scientific innovations and inventors who created development of Medical informatics.

  20. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Jane R.; Fischer, Philip R.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M.; Pitt, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  1. Global Health Simulation During Residency.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Jane R; Fischer, Philip R; Arteaga, Grace M; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M; Pitt, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  2. Sequential incoherence in a multi-party synchronous computer mediated communication for an introductory Health Informatics course.

    PubMed

    Herskovic, Jorge R; Goodwin, J Caleb; Bozzo Silva, Pamela A; Willcockson, Irmgard; Franklin, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Online courses will play a key role in the high-volume Informatics education required to train the personnel that will be necessary to fulfill the health IT needs of the country. Online courses can cause feelings of isolation in students. A common way to address these feelings is to hold synchronous online "chats" for students. Conventional chats, however, can be confusing and impose a high extrinsic cognitive load on their participants that hinders the learning process. In this paper we present a qualitative analysis that shows the causes of this high cognitive load and our solution through the use of a moderated chat system. PMID:21346988

  3. EGY: Progress Toward a Global Earth and Space Science Informatics Commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    The series of International Polar Years leading up to the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-1958 taught scientists that the free and open exchange of data be-tween nations was cost effective and scientifically beneficial. The IGY also led to the de-velopment of a world-wide network of data centers that have facilitated and fostered re-search begun in the IGY. We now have achieved an unparalleled ability to acquire data and have attained a good understanding of traditional regions - the troposphere, the mag-netosphere, and other such "spheres". Much of the new and important science is presently coming from the study of the boundaries between these regions and of coupling between geophysical domains. The past 15 years have seen the development of many cost effec-tive ways to acquire, store, and exchange data. We have the potential to expand the ex-change of data by allowing working scientists to access and manipulate data from large interdisciplinary data centers as well as from small, previously isolated, research groups. The key to this technology requires adoption of a few communitydeveloped standards for data storage and description to form an "Informatics Commons." It has been agreed that for the 50th anniversary of IGY, scientific societies should promote the establishment of a system of Virtual Observatories. This can provide a forward impetus to geophysics in this century similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The Electronic Geo-physical Year (eGY) concept embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., oceanographic, seismic, atmospheric, geomagnetic, gravity, ionospheric, magnetospheric, etc.) and is helping organize them into a series of virtual geophysical observatories "de-ployed" in cyberspace. This concept implies access to all available data through the Internet and World Wide Web, taking advantage of existing networking hardware and software technologies (e.g., Internet, XML, Service- Oriented Architectures, Web 2

  4. Informatics in Infection Control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael Y; Trick, William E

    2016-09-01

    Informatics tools are becoming integral to routine infection control activities. Informatics has the potential to improve infection control outcomes in surveillance, prevention, and connections with public health. Surveillance activities include fully or semiautomated surveillance of infections, surveillance of device use, and hospital/ward outbreak investigation. Prevention activities include awareness of multidrug-resistant organism carriage on admission, enhanced interfacility communication, identifying inappropriate infection precautions, reducing device use, and antimicrobial stewardship. Public health activities include electronic communicable disease reporting, syndromic surveillance, and regional outbreak detection. The challenge for infection control personnel is in translating the knowledge gained from electronic surveillance systems into action.

  5. An Organizational Informatics Analysis of Colorectal, Breast, and Cervical Cancer Screening Clinical Decision Support and Information Systems within Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Timothy Jay

    2012-01-01

    A study design has been developed that employs a dual modeling approach to identify factors associated with facility-level cancer screening improvement and how this is mediated by the use of clinical decision support. This dual modeling approach combines principles of (1) Health Informatics, (2) Cancer Prevention and Control, (3) Health Services…

  6. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  7. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm. PMID:26673467

  8. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm PMID:26673467

  9. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm.

  10. Macropsychology, policy, and global health.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2014-11-01

    In this article I argue for the development of a macro perspective within psychology, akin to that found in macroeconomics. Macropsychology is the application of psychology to factors that influence the settings and conditions of our lives. As policy concerns the strategic allocation of resources—who gets what and why?—it should be an area of particular interest for macropsychology. I review ways in which psychology may make a contribution to policy within the field of global health. Global health emphasizes human rights, equity, social inclusion, and empowerment; psychology has much to contribute to these areas, both at the level of policy and practice. I review the sorts of evidence and other factors that influence policymakers, along with the content, process, and context of policymaking, with a particular focus on the rights of people with disabilities in the low- and middle-income countries of Africa and Asia. These insights are drawn from collaborations with a broad range of practitioners, governments, United Nations agencies, civil society organizations, the private sector and researchers. Humanitarian work psychology is highlighted as an example of a new area of psychology that embraces some of the concerns of macropsychology. The advent of "big data" presents psychology with an opportunity to ask new types of questions, and these should include "understanding up," or how psychological factors can contribute to human well-being, nationally and globally.

  11. Neurosurgery clinical registry data collection utilizing Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside and electronic health records at the University of Rochester.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Christine A; Miranpuri, Amrendra S

    2015-12-01

    In a population health-driven health care system, data collection through the use of clinical registries is becoming imperative to continue to drive effective and efficient patient care. Clinical registries rely on a department's ability to collect high-quality and accurate data. Currently, however, data are collected manually with a high risk for error. The University of Rochester's Department of Neurosurgery in conjunction with the university's Clinical and Translational Science Institute has implemented the integrated use of the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) informatics framework with the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) databases. PMID:26621414

  12. Progress with Formalization in Medical Informatics?

    PubMed Central

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The prevailing view of medical informatics as a primarily subservient discipline in health care is challenged. Developments in both general informatics and medical informatics are described to identify desirable properties of modeling languages and tools needed to solve key problems in the application field. For progress in medical informatics, it is considered essential to develop far more formal modeling languages, modeling techniques, and tools. A major aim of this development should be to expel ambiguity from concepts essential to medicine, positioning medical informatics “at the heart of health care.” PMID:11230381

  13. Rural TeleHealth: Telemedicine, Distance Education and Informatics for Rural Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. Western Cooperative for Educational Communications.

    This document provides an overview of the various telecommunications and information technologies available for rural communities to use in their health care systems. The first section explains the principal technologies of telecommunications such as the telephone, computer networking, audiographics, and video. It describes transmission systems…

  14. Leveraging "big data" to enhance the effectiveness of "one health" in an era of health informatics.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2015-12-01

    Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. The major obstacles to control zoonoses include insensitive systems and unreliable data. Intelligent handling of the cost effective big data can accomplish the goals of one health to detect disease trends, outbreaks, pathogens and causes of emergence in human and animals.

  15. A near miss: the importance of context in a public health informatics project in a New Zealand case study.

    PubMed

    Wells, Stewart; Bullen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the near failure of an information technology (IT) system designed to support a government-funded, primary care-based hepatitis B screening program in New Zealand. Qualitative methods were used to collect data and construct an explanatory model. Multiple incorrect assumptions were made about participants, primary care workflows and IT capacity, software vendor user knowledge, and the health IT infrastructure. Political factors delayed system development and it was implemented untested, almost failing. An intensive rescue strategy included system modifications, relaxation of data validity rules, close engagement with software vendors, and provision of intensive on-site user support. This case study demonstrates that consideration of the social, political, technological, and health care contexts is important for successful implementation of public health informatics projects. PMID:18579835

  16. The Role of Nursing Informatics on Promoting Quality of Health Care and the Need for Appropriate Education

    PubMed Central

    Darvish, Asieh; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Keyhanian, Sara; Navidhamidi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    In today’s dynamic health systems, technology plays an important role in education and nursing work. So it seems necessary to study the role of nurses and highlight the need for appropriate information technology educational programs to integrate with the ever-increasing pace of technology. A review accompanied by an extensive literature search in databases and a library search focused on the keywords were used. The criteria used for selecting studies primarily focused on nursing informatics and the importance of expertise in the effective use of information technology in all aspects of the nursing profession. In a critical assessment of emerging technologies, the key elements of nursing informatics implementation were considered as healthcare promotion, advanced systems, internet and network. In view of the nature and the development of the information age, it is required to receive necessary IT training for all categories of nurses. Due to the fast development of technology, in order to effectively take advantage of information technology in nursing outcome and quality of health care and to empower nurses; educational arrangement is recommended to set short-term and long-term specialized courses focusing on four target groups: studying, working, graduate, senior undergraduate, and graduate doctoral. The result of this study is expected to assist educational providers with program development. PMID:25363114

  17. Don E. Detmer and the American Medical Informatics Association: An Appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Bates, David W.; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Greenwood, Karen; Safran, Charles; Steen, Elaine B.; Tang, Paul C.; Williamson, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Don E. Detmer has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) for the past five years, helping to set a course for the organization and demonstrating remarkable leadership as AMIA has evolved into a vibrant and influential professional association. On the occasion of Dr. Detmer's retirement, we fondly reflect on his professional life and his many contributions to biomedical informatics and, more generally, to health care in the U.S. and globally. PMID:19574463

  18. Museum Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Paul F.; Rayward, W. Boyd; Twidale, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses museum informatics that studies how information science and technology affect the museum environment. Examines digital technology; information organization and access; digitization, personal computers, and the Internet; data sharing; standards; social impacts of new technologies; collaboration; consortia; multimedia exhibits; virtual…

  19. The need for leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Stephen R; Raymond, Susan U; Greenberg, Henry M

    2007-11-01

    Globalisation has brought with it many advances in health, but also a new range of challenges. There is a need to move from "nation-focused" (international) public health to global public health--and the terminology we use here matters. Global public health leadership requires that respect be shown to evidence, especially that about the changing nature of disease worldwide. The Australian medical and research communities have a significant opportunity to provide global public health leadership. PMID:17949335

  20. The need for leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Stephen R; Raymond, Susan U; Greenberg, Henry M

    2007-11-01

    Globalisation has brought with it many advances in health, but also a new range of challenges. There is a need to move from "nation-focused" (international) public health to global public health--and the terminology we use here matters. Global public health leadership requires that respect be shown to evidence, especially that about the changing nature of disease worldwide. The Australian medical and research communities have a significant opportunity to provide global public health leadership.

  1. Global Mental Health: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    In this introductory paper to the Global Mental Health volume, the inception and development of the filed in the last 15 years is reviewed, placing an emphasis on a series of pivotal turning points. A critical delivery strategy, task-shifting is briefly described, as well as the fundamental principles of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy being adapted and delivered in low-resource settings. Nine case studies by the trainees, supervisors, or local providers from India, the United States, Haiti, Israel, Colombia, and Kenya, presented in this volume, illustrate the prevention and treatment processes or in-depth assessment of "psychological distress" as locally defined and expressed. PMID:27532521

  2. Forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, S; Brando, P; Hartmann, H

    2015-08-21

    Humans rely on healthy forests to supply energy, building materials, and food and to provide services such as storing carbon, hosting biodiversity, and regulating climate. Defining forest health integrates utilitarian and ecosystem measures of forest condition and function, implemented across a range of spatial scales. Although native forests are adapted to some level of disturbance, all forests now face novel stresses in the form of climate change, air pollution, and invasive pests. Detecting how intensification of these stresses will affect the trajectory of forests is a major scientific challenge that requires developing systems to assess the health of global forests. It is particularly critical to identify thresholds for rapid forest decline, because it can take many decades for forests to restore the services that they provide. PMID:26293952

  3. Global health priorities - priorities of the wealthy?

    PubMed

    Ollila, Eeva

    2005-04-22

    Health has gained importance on the global agenda. It has become recognized in forums where it was once not addressed. In this article three issues are considered: global health policy actors, global health priorities and the means of addressing the identified health priorities. I argue that the arenas for global health policy-making have shifted from the public spheres towards arenas that include the transnational for-profit sector. Global health policy has become increasingly fragmented and verticalized. Infectious diseases have gained ground as global health priorities, while non-communicable diseases and the broader issues of health systems development have been neglected. Approaches to tackling the health problems are increasingly influenced by trade and industrial interests with the emphasis on technological solutions. PMID:15847685

  4. Improving Global Health Education: Development of a Global Health Competency Model

    PubMed Central

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Biberman, Dorothy A.; Weist, Elizabeth M.; Buekens, Pierre; Bentley, Margaret E.; Burke, Donald; Finnegan, John R.; Flahault, Antoine; Frenk, Julio; Gotsch, Audrey R.; Klag, Michael J.; Lopez, Mario Henry Rodriguez; Nasca, Philip; Shortell, Stephen; Spencer, Harrison C.

    2014-01-01

    Although global health is a recommended content area for the future of education in public health, no standardized global health competency model existed for master-level public health students. Without such a competency model, academic institutions are challenged to ensure that students are able to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) needed for successful performance in today's global health workforce. The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) sought to address this need by facilitating the development of a global health competency model through a multistage modified-Delphi process. Practitioners and academic global health experts provided leadership and guidance throughout the competency development process. The resulting product, the Global Health Competency Model 1.1, includes seven domains and 36 competencies. The Global Health Competency Model 1.1 provides a platform for engaging educators, students, and global health employers in discussion of the KSAs needed to improve human health on a global scale. PMID:24445206

  5. Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current definitions of 'global health' lack specificity about the term 'global'. This debate presents and discusses existing definitions of 'global health' and a common problem inherent therein. It aims to provide a way forward towards an understanding of 'global health' while avoiding redundancy. The attention is concentrated on the dialectics of different concepts of 'global' in their application to malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. Further attention is payed to normative objectives attached to 'global health' definitions and to paradoxes involved in attempts to define the field. Discussion The manuscript identifies denotations of 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic'. A fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial' is presented and defined as 'links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world'. The rhetorical power of the denotations impacts considerably on the object of 'global health', exemplified in the context of malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. The 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic' house contradictions which can be overcome by the fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial'. The 'global-local-relationship' inherent in the proposed concept coheres with influential anthropological and sociological views despite the use of different terminology. At the same time, it may be assembled with other views on 'global' or amend apparently conflicting ones. The author argues for detaching normative objectives from 'global health' definitions to avoid so called 'entanglement-problems'. Instead, it is argued that the proposed concept constitutes an un-euphemistical approach to describe the inherently politicised field of 'global health'. Summary While global-as-worldwide and global-as-transcending-national-boundaries are misleading and produce redundancy with public and

  6. Informatic system for a global tissue–fluid biorepository with a graph theory–oriented graphical user interface

    PubMed Central

    Butler, William E.; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour–specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory–driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science. PMID:25317275

  7. Informatic system for a global tissue-fluid biorepository with a graph theory-oriented graphical user interface.

    PubMed

    Butler, William E; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour-specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory-driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science.

  8. Informatic system for a global tissue-fluid biorepository with a graph theory-oriented graphical user interface.

    PubMed

    Butler, William E; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour-specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory-driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science. PMID:25317275

  9. Double Standards in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level. PMID:27781001

  10. Informatics: A Brief Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…

  11. Knowledge for medicine and health care--laudation at the occasion of the honorary doctorate bestowed to Donald A. B. Lindberg by UMIT, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology in Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, Jan H

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Donald A. B. Lindberg, Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, received an honorary doctorate from UMIT, the University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology in Innsbruck, Tyrol. The celebration took place on September 28, 2004 at an academic event during a conference of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies of Medical Informatics, GMDS2004. Dr. Lindberg has been a pioneer in the field of computers in health care from the early 1960s onwards. In 1984 he became the Director of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, the world's largest fully computerized biomedical library. Dr. Lindberg has been involved in the early activities of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), among others being the chair of the Organizing Committee for MEDINFO 86 in Washington D.C. He was elected the first president of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), and served as an editor of Methods of Information in Medicine.

  12. Nursing informatics competencies: bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun, Helena; Vošner, Janez; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology is developing rapidly and it is incorporated in many health care processes, but in spite of that fact we can still notice that nursing informatics competencies had received limited attention in basic nursing education curricula in Europe and especially in Eastern European countries. The purpose of the present paper is to present the results of a bibliometric analysis of the nursing informatics competencies scientific literature production. We applied the bibliometrics analysis to the corpus of 332 papers found in SCOPUS, related to nursing informatics competencies. The results showed that there is a positive trend in the number of published papers per year, indicating the increased research interest in nursing informatics competencies. Despite the fact that the first paper was published in Denmark, the most prolific country regarding the research in nursing informatics competencies is United States as are their institutions and authors.

  13. Global women's health--a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease and public health issues affecting girls and women throughout their lives is significantly greater in resource-poor settings. These women and girls suffer from high rates of maternal mortality, obstetric fistulas, female genital cutting, HIV/AIDS, malaria in pregnancy, and cervical cancer. Although the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are being met in some nations, the majority of the goals will not be reached by 2015. In addition, insufficient attention is given to non-communicable and chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, obesity, and chronic respiratory diseases. A life-course approach that includes improvements in earlier-life factors such as diet and exercise is necessary to improve women's long-term health outcomes. Innovative diagnostic tools and treatment strategies along with cost-effective health service delivery systems are needed to make a significant impact on women's and girls' health worldwide. PMID:25083886

  14. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  15. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  16. Increasing Women in Leadership in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Reif, Lindsey K.; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women’s health. In this article, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  17. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path.

  18. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  19. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  20. Towards an Integrative Cognitive-Socio-Technical Approach in Health Informatics: Analyzing Technology-Induced Error Involving Health Information Systems to Improve Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Borycki, E.M; Kushniruk, A.W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to argue for an integration of cognitive and socio-technical approaches to assessing the impact of health information systems. Historically, health informatics research has examined the cognitive and socio-technical aspects of health information systems separately. In this paper we argue that evaluations of health information systems should consider aspects related to cognition as well as socio-technical aspects including impact on workflow (i.e. an integrated view). Using examples from the study of technology-induced error in healthcare, we argue for the use of simulations to evaluate the cognitive-socio-technical impacts of health information technology [36]. Implications of clinical simulations and analysis of cognitive-social-technical impacts are discussed within the context of the system development life cycle to improve health information system design, implementation and evaluation. PMID:21594010

  1. Promoting Usability in Organizations with a New Health Usability Model: Implications for Nursing Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Staggers, Nancy; Rodney, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Usability issues with products such as Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are of global interest to nursing informaticists. Although improvements in patient safety, clinical productivity and effectiveness are possible when usability principles and practices are in place, most organizations do not embrace usability. This paper presents a new Health Usability Maturity Model consisting of 5 phases: unrecognized, preliminary, implemented, integrated and strategic. Within each level various aspects are discussed including focus on users, management, education, resources, processes and infrastructure. Nurse informaticists may use this new model as a guide for assessing their organization’s level of usability and transitioning to the next level. Using tactics outlined here, nurse informaticists may also serve as catalysts for change and lead efforts to improve the user experience in organizations across industry, academe and healthcare settings. PMID:24199128

  2. Locating global health in social medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues. PMID:24819951

  3. Locating global health in social medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues.

  4. Global warming and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.

  5. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    PubMed

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  6. Control of the Public Health IT Physical Infrastructure: Findings From the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in information technology (IT) infrastructure in public health, there is still much that can be done to improve the adoption of IT in state and local health departments, by better understanding the impact of governance and control structures of physical infrastructure. Objective: To report out the current status of the physical infrastructure control of local health departments (LHDs) and to determine whether there is a significant association between an LHD's governance status and control of the physical infrastructure components. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included control of LHD physical infrastructure components. Predictors of interest included LHD governance category. Results: The majority of the control of the physical infrastructure components in LHDs resides in external entities. The type of governance structure of the LHD is significantly associated with the control of infrastructure. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to determine best practices in IT governance and control of physical infrastructure for public health. PMID:27684612

  7. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  8. Making sense of the global health crisis: policy narratives, conflict, and global health governance.

    PubMed

    Ney, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Health has become a policy issue of global concern. Worried that the unstructured, polycentric, and pluralist nature of global health governance is undermining the ability to serve emergent global public health interests, some commentators are calling for a more systematic institutional response to the "global health crisis." Yet global health is a complex and uncertain policy issue. This article uses narrative analysis to explore how actors deal with these complexities and how uncertainties affect global health governance. By comparing three narratives in terms of their basic assumptions, the way they define problems as well as the solutions they propose, the analysis shows how the unstructured pluralism of global health policy making creates a wide scope of policy conflict over the global health crisis. This wide scope of conflict enables effective policy-oriented learning about global health issues. The article also shows how exclusionary patterns of cooperation and competition are emerging in health policy making at the global level. These patterns threaten effective learning by risking both polarization of the policy debate and unanticipated consequences of health policy. Avoiding these pitfalls, the analysis suggests, means creating global health governance regimes that promote openness and responsiveness in deliberation about the global health crisis.

  9. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power

    PubMed Central

    Marten, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health. PMID:26927595

  10. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that the global climate is warming, the process is accelerating, and that human activities are very likely (>90% probability) the main cause. This warming will have effects on ecosystems and human health, many of them adverse. Children will experience both the direct and indirect effects of climate change. Actions taken by individuals, communities, businesses, and governments will affect the magnitude and rate of global climate change and resultant health impacts. This technical report reviews the nature of the global problem and anticipated health effects on children and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health.

  11. Ethics and governance of global health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, J P

    2006-01-01

    Background A world divided by health inequalities poses ethical challenges for global health. International and national responses to health disparities must be rooted in ethical values about health and its distribution; this is because ethical claims have the power to motivate, delineate principles, duties and responsibilities, and hold global and national actors morally responsible for achieving common goals. Theories of justice are necessary to define duties and obligations of institutions and actors in reducing inequalities. The problem is the lack of a moral framework for solving problems of global health justice. Aim To study why global health inequalities are morally troubling, why efforts to reduce them are morally justified, how they should be measured and evaluated; how much priority disadvantaged groups should receive; and to delineate roles and responsibilities of national and international actors and institutions. Discussion and conclusions Duties and obligations of international and state actors in reducing global health inequalities are outlined. The ethical principles endorsed include the intrinsic value of health to well‐being and equal respect for all human life, the importance of health for individual and collective agency, the concept of a shortfall from the health status of a reference group, and the need for a disproportionate effort to help disadvantaged groups. This approach does not seek to find ways in which global and national actors address global health inequalities by virtue of their self‐interest, national interest, collective security or humanitarian assistance. It endorses the more robust concept of “human flourishing” and the desire to live in a world where all people have the capability to be healthy. Unlike cosmopolitan theory, this approach places the role of the nation‐state in the forefront with primary, though not sole, moral responsibility. Rather shared health governance is essential for delivering health equity

  12. Health@Home: The Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Anne; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in a given physical environment. Design: We conducted a descriptive-exploratory study of the work of HIMH, involving 49 community-dwelling volunteers from a rural Midwestern community. Measurements: During in-person interviews, we collected data using semistructured questionnaires and photographs of artifacts used for HIMH. Results: The work of HIMH is largely the responsibility of a single individual, primarily engaged in the tasks of acquiring, managing, and organizing a diverse set of health information. Paper-based tools are most common, and residents develop strategies for storing information in the household environment aligned with anticipated use. Affiliative relationships, e.g., parent-child or spousal, within the household serve as the organization that gives rise to health information management practices. Synthesis of these findings led to identification of several storage strategies employed in HIMH. These strategies are labeled “just-in-time,” “just-because,” “just-in-case,” and “just-at-hand,” reflecting location of the artifacts of health information and anticipated urgency in the need to retrieve it. Conclusion: Laypeople develop and employ robust, complex strategies for managing health information in the home. Capitalizing on these strategies will complement and extend current consumer health innovations to provide functional support to people who face increasing demands to manage personal health information. PMID:16049230

  13. Global health in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Laaser, Ulrich; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides. Review For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world. Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand. Civil society, as an indispensable activator of public health development, mainly represented by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is characterised by a high degree of fragmentation and lack of public accountability. The World Federation of Public Health Associations is used as an example of an NGO with a global mission and fostering regional cooperation as an indispensable intermediate level. The lack of a globally valid terminology of basic public health functions is prohibitive for coordinated global and regional efforts. Attempts to harmonise essential public health functions, services and operations are under way to facilitate communication and mutual understanding. Recommendations 1) Given the limited effects of the Millennium Development Goal agenda, the Post-2015 Development Goals should focus on integrated regional development. 2) A code of conduct for NGOs should be urgently developed for the health sector, and NGOs should be registered and accredited. 3) The harmonisation of the basic terminology for global public health essentials should be enhanced. PMID:24560267

  14. Innovation and technology for global public health.

    PubMed

    Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have been marked by the explosive development of innovative scientific, technological and business products and processes. Despite their immense impact on health globally, little has been accomplished in the field of global public health to incorporate, address and harness such innovations in practice. In order to meet the world's growing health needs, it is essential that global public health accepts and adapts to these innovations. Moreover, such innovations must be implemented equitably in ways that will best serve their intended recipients, without deepening health- and access-related disparities. This article will briefly discuss the wide array of technologies in the pipeline that will affect global public health practice, their impact on the field and on populations and the issues facing the field in adopting these innovations.

  15. Medicalization of global health 2: The medicalization of global mental health.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, 'global mental health' now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives. PMID:24848660

  16. Medicalization of global health 2: The medicalization of global mental health.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, 'global mental health' now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives.

  17. Climate Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  18. Global Health Governance at a Crossroads.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nora Y; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-06-21

    This review takes stock of the global health governance (GHG) literature. We address the transition from international health governance (IHG) to global health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and global public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG's major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health's multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the global economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a global public good); 6) global health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise. PMID:24729828

  19. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  20. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health.

  1. Using a Health Informatics System to Assess Effect of a Federal Cigarette Tax Increase on Readiness to Quit Among Low-Income Smokers, Louisiana, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Horswell, Ronald; Yi, Yong; Celestin, Michael D.; Jones, Krysten D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health informatics systems are a proven tool for tobacco control interventions. To address the needs of low-income groups, the Tobacco Control Initiative was established in partnership with the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division to provide cost-effective tobacco use cessation services through the health informatics system in the state public hospital system. Methods In this study we used a Web-based, result-reporting application to monitor and assess the effect of the 2009 federal cigarette tax increase. We assessed readiness to quit tobacco use before and after a cigarette tax increase among low-income tobacco users who were outpatients in a public hospital system. Results Overall, there was an increase in readiness to quit, from 22% during the first week of February to 33% during the first week of April, when the tax went into effect. Smokers who were female, 31 or older, African American, and assessed at a clinic visit in April were more likely to report readiness to quit than were men, those aged 30 or younger, those who were white, and those who were assessed at a clinic visit in February. Conclusion A health informatics system that efficiently tracks trends in readiness to quit can be used in combination with other strategies and thus optimize efforts to control tobacco use. Our data suggest that a cigarette tax increase affects smokers’ readiness to quit and provides an opportunity to intervene at the most beneficial time. PMID:24698530

  2. Medicalization of global health 4: the universal health coverage campaign and the medicalization of global health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as the leading and recommended overarching health goal on the post-2015 development agenda, and is promoted with fervour. UHC has the backing of major medical and health institutions, and is designed to provide patients with universal access to needed health services without financial hardship, but is also projected to have ‘a transformative effect on poverty, hunger, and disease’. Multiple reports and resolutions support UHC and few offer critical analyses; but among these are concerns with imprecise definitions and the ability to implement UHC at the country level. A medicalization lens enriches these early critiques and identifies concerns that the UHC campaign contributes to the medicalization of global health. UHC conflates health with health care, thus assigning undue importance to (biomedical) health services and downgrading the social and structural determinants of health. There is poor evidence that UHC or health care alone improves population health outcomes, and in fact health care may worsen inequities. UHC is reductionistic because it focuses on preventative and curative actions delivered at the individual level, and ignores the social and political determinants of health and right to health that have been supported by decades of international work and commitments. UHC risks commodifying health care, which threatens the underlying principles of UHC of equity in access and of health care as a collective good. PMID:24848662

  3. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  4. Global warming and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Amofah, G K

    1996-08-01

    The paper looks at the phenomenon of global warming and its potential health effects and outlines a number of plausible response by the health sector in developing countries to its threat. It suggests that the health sector should facilitate an international effort at addressing this challenge, mainly through advocacy, epidemiological surveillance and awareness creation.

  5. Accessibility: global gateway to health literacy.

    PubMed

    Perlow, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy, cited as essential to achieving Healthy People 2010's goals to "increase quality and years of healthy life" and to "eliminate health disparities," is defined by Healthy People as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Accessibility, by definition, the aforementioned "capacity to obtain," thus is health literacy's primary prerequisite. Accessibility's designation as the global gateway to health literacy is predicated also on life's realities: global aging and climate change, war and terrorism, and life-extending medical and technological advances. People with diverse access needs are health professionals' raison d'être. However, accessibility, consummately cross-cultural and universal, is virtually absent as a topic of health promotion and practice research and scholarly discussion of health literacy and equity. A call to action to place accessibility in its rightful premier position on the profession's agenda is issued.

  6. Medicalization of global health 2: the medicalization of global mental health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, ‘global mental health’ now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives. PMID:24848660

  7. Transforming global health with mobile technologies and social enterprises: global health and innovation conference.

    PubMed

    Kayingo, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    More than 2,000 people convened for the ninth annual Global Health and Innovation Conference at Yale University on April 21-22, 2012. Participants discussed the latest innovations, ideas in development, lessons learned, opportunities and challenges in global health activities. Several themes emerged, including the important role of frontline workers, strengthening health systems, leveraging social media, and sustainable and impact-driven philanthropy. Overall, the major outcome of the conference was the increased awareness of the potential of mobile technologies and social enterprises in transforming global health. Experts warned that donations and technological advances alone will not transform global health unless there are strong functioning health infrastructures and improved workforce. It was noted that there is a critical need for an integrated systems approach to global health problems and a need for scaling up promising pilot projects. Lack of funding, accountability, and sustainability were identified as major challenges in global health. PMID:23012591

  8. Global Health Governance at a Crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nora Y.; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    This review takes stock of the global health governance (GHG) literature. We address the transition from international health governance (IHG) to global health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and global public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG’s major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health’s multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the global economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a global public good); 6) global health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise. PMID:24729828

  9. Global Health Justice and the Right to Health.

    PubMed

    Widdows, Heather

    2015-12-01

    This paper reflects on Lawrence Gostin's Global Health Law. In so doing seeks to contribute to the debate about how global health justice is best conceived and achieved. Gostin's vision of global health is one which is communal and in which health is directly connected to other justice concerns. Hence the need for health-in-all policies, and the importance of focusing on basic and communal health goods rather than high-tech and individual ones. This paper asks whether this broadly communal vision of global health justice is best served by making the right to health central to the project. It explores a number of reasons why rights-talk might be problematic in the context of health justice; namely, structurally, rights are individual and state-centric and politically, they are oppositional and better suited to single-issue campaigns. The paper argues that stripping rights of their individualist assumptions is difficult, and perhaps impossible, and hence alternative approaches, such as those Gostin endorses based on global public goods and health security, might deliver much, perhaps most, global health goods, while avoiding the problems of rights-talk. PMID:26194157

  10. Health professionals for global health: include dental personnel upfront!

    PubMed Central

    Preet, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The Global Health Beyond 2015 was organized in Stockholm in April 2013, which was announced as public engagement and where the dialogue focused on three main themes: social determinants of health, climate change and the non-communicable diseases. This event provided opportunity for both students and health professionals to interact and brainstorm ideas to be formalized into Stockholm Declaration on Global Health. Amongst the active participation of various health professionals, one that was found significantly missing was that of oral health. Keeping this as background in this debate, a case for inclusion of oral health professions is presented by organizing the argument in four areas: education, evidence base, political will and context and what each one offers at a time when Scandinavia is repositioning itself in global health. PMID:23863132

  11. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  12. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  13. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  14. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... train research scientists in global health. Dr. Roger Glass, Director of the Fogarty International Center discusses worldwide ... and NIH research and training. Although Roger I. Glass, M.D., Ph.D., was named Director of ...

  15. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  16. Reducing global health inequalities. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Kenneth; Soulsby, E J L

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes four UK reviews of socially stratified health inequalities that were undertaken during the past five decades. It describes the background of misplaced optimism and false hopes which characterized the UK's own record of health inequalities; the broken promises on debt cancellations which was the experience of developing countries. It describes why the UK's past leadership record in international health provides grounds for optimism for the future and for benefits for both developed and developing countries through the adoption of more collaborative approaches to global health than have characterized international relationships in the past. It recalls the enthusiasm generated in the UK, and internationally, by the establishment of the Global Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. It promotes the perception of health both as a global public good and as a developmental issue and why a focus on poverty is essential to the address of global health issues. It sees the designing of appropriate strategies and partnerships towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals as an important first step for achieving successful address to global public health issues. PMID:21816930

  17. Reducing global health inequalities. Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Kenneth; Soulsby, EJL

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes four UK reviews of socially stratified health inequalities that were undertaken during the past five decades. It describes the background of misplaced optimism and false hopes which characterized the UK's own record of health inequalities; the broken promises on debt cancellations which was the experience of developing countries. It describes why the UK's past leadership record in international health provides grounds for optimism for the future and for benefits for both developed and developing countries through the adoption of more collaborative approaches to global health than have characterized international relationships in the past. It recalls the enthusiasm generated in the UK, and internationally, by the establishment of the Global Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. It promotes the perception of health both as a global public good and as a developmental issue and why a focus on poverty is essential to the address of global health issues. It sees the designing of appropriate strategies and partnerships towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals as an important first step for achieving successful address to global public health issues. PMID:21816930

  18. Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Patricia A; Meek, Laura A; Dumit, Joe

    2013-05-01

    The One Health approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal and ecosystem health, encourages collaboration between diverse disciplines to address complex health problems. The advantages and challenges posed by these interdisciplinary collaborations are described in this review. Learning networks where diverse participants can openly share processes, best practices, and case studies are discussed as a strategy for conducting transdisciplinary One Health research and tackling complex global health problems. The 11 papers in this special issue are also introduced as they illustrate how a One Health approach can be applied to better understand and control zoonotic pathogens, engage community stakeholders in One Health research and utilize wildlife species, most notably sea otters and birds, as sentinels of ecosystem health. Collaboration is rarely without complications; however, drawing on these insights may benefit the process of operationalizing the One Health approach to address today's global health challenges. PMID:23711930

  19. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health. PMID:25006087

  20. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  1. The changing global context of public health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  2. The changing global context of public health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments.

  3. Five Periods in Development of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Medical informatics, as scientific discipline, has to do with all aspects of understanding and promoting the effective organization, analysis, management, and use of information in health care. While the field of Medical informatics shares the general scope of these interests with some other health care specialities and disciplines, Medical (Health) informatics has developed its own areas of emphasis and approaches that have set it apart from other disciplines and specialities. For the last fifties of 20th century and some more years of 21st century, Medical informatics had the five time periods of characteristic development. In this paper author shortly described main scientific innovations and inventors who created development of Medical informatics. PMID:24648619

  4. Towards a Framework Convention on Global Health: a transformative agenda for global health justice.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Friedman, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Global health inequities cause nearly 20 million deaths annually, mostly among the world's poor. Yet international law currently does little to reduce the massive inequalities that underlie these deaths. This Article offers the first systematic account of the goals and justifications, normative foundations, and potential construction of a proposed new global health treaty, a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), grounded in the human right to health. Already endorsed by the United Nations Secretary-General, the FCGH would reimagine global governance for health, offering a new, post-Millennium Development Goals vision. A global coalition of civil society and academics has formed the Joint Action and Learning Initiative on National and Global Responsibilities for Health (JALI) to advance the FCGH.

  5. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  6. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  7. China's distinctive engagement in global health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peilong; Guo, Yan; Qian, Xu; Tang, Shenglan; Li, Zhihui; Chen, Lincoln

    2014-08-30

    China has made rapid progress in four key domains of global health. China's health aid deploys medical teams, constructs facilities, donates drugs and equipment, trains personnel, and supports malaria control mainly in Africa and Asia. Prompted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, China has prioritised the control of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases and other health-related risks. In governance, China has joined UN and related international bodies and has begun to contribute to pooled multilateral funds. China is both a knowledge producer and sharer, offering lessons based on its health accomplishments, traditional Chinese medicine, and research and development investment in drug discovery. Global health capacity is being developed in medical universities in China, which also train foreign medical students. China's approach to global health is distinctive; different from other countries; and based on its unique history, comparative strength, and policies driven by several governmental ministries. The scope and depth of China's global engagement are likely to grow and reshape the contours of global health. PMID:25176550

  8. Health as foreign policy: harnessing globalization for health.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the importance for health promotion of the rise of public health as a foreign policy issue. Although health promotion encompassed foreign policy as part of 'healthy public policy', mainstream foreign policy neglected public health and health promotion's role in it. Globalization forces health promotion, however, to address directly the relationship between public health and foreign policy. The need for 'health as foreign policy' is apparent from the prominence public health now has in all the basic governance functions served by foreign policy. The Secretary-General's United Nations (UN) reform proposals demonstrate the importance of foreign policy to health promotion as a core component of public health because the proposals embed public health in each element of the Secretary-General's vision for the UN in the 21st century. The emergence of health as foreign policy presents opportunities and risks for health promotion that can be managed by emphasizing that public health constitutes an integrated public good that benefits all governance tasks served by foreign policy. Any effort to harness globalization for public health will have to make health as foreign policy a centerpiece of its ambitions, and this task is now health promotion's burden and opportunity.

  9. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-01

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming. PMID:21848352

  10. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-31

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

  11. Globalization and health: results and options.

    PubMed Central

    Cornia, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the emergence and consolidation of an economic paradigm which emphasizes domestic deregulation and the removal of barriers to international trade and finance. If properly managed, such an approach can lead to perceptible gains in health status. Where markets are non-exclusionary, regulatory institutions strong and safety nets in place, globalization enhances the performance of countries with a good human and physical infrastructure but narrow domestic markets. Health gains in China, Costa Rica, the East Asian "tiger economies" and Viet Nam can be attributed in part to their growing access to global markets, savings and technology. However, for most of the remaining countries, many of them in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, globalization has not lived up to its promises due to a combination of poor domestic conditions, an unequal distribution of foreign investments and the imposition of new conditions further limiting the access of their exports to the OECD markets. In these developing countries, the last twenty years have brought about a slow, unstable and unequal pattern of growth and stagnation in health indicators. Autarky is not the answer to this situation, but neither is premature, unconditional and unselective globalization. Further unilateral liberalization is unlikely to help them to improve their economic performance and health conditions. For them, a gradual and selective integration into the world economy linked to the removal of asymmetries in global markets and to the creation of democratic institutions of global governance is preferable to instant globalization. PMID:11584731

  12. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  13. Global health governance and the World Bank

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    With the Paul Wolfowitz era behind it and new appointee Robert Zoellick at the helm, it is time for the World Bank to better define its role in an increasingly crowded and complex global health architecture, says Jennifer Prah Ruger, health economist and former World Bank speechwriter. PMID:17972367

  14. [Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health. InformAzione (InformAction) is the title of the last OISG report (Italian observatory on Global Health), dedicated to information and education, the essential bases for a conscious action aimed at decreasing inequalities. Increasing the investments in information, education and interventions oriented to global health may broaden the number of aware and informed citizens, able to start a dialogue, to make pressures to increase the interventions in favor of those in need.

  15. Medical Education and Global Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Drobac, Peter; Morse, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to expand medical training in resource-constrained settings are laudable, but change that transforms health systems will require new educational approaches. Today's physician-leaders need to leverage clinical and global health knowledge with a nuanced understanding of the social forces that impact health, the ability to marshal political will, and the capacity to manage dynamic programs and institutions. In establishing the University of Global Health Equity, we have identified three reform principles. First, equipping medical schools with the tools and technology to deliver is imperative. Second, the mismatch between the skills taught in most medical schools and those needed to improve fragile health systems must be addressed. Finally, medical schools that strive to eliminate health inequities should "walk the walk," adopting progressive practices to institutionalize equity. PMID:27437820

  16. Agile informatics: application of agile project management to the development of a personal health application.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeanhee; Pankey, Evan; Norris, Ryan J

    2007-01-01

    We describe the application of the Agile method-- a short iteration cycle, user responsive, measurable software development approach-- to the project management of a modular personal health record, iHealthSpace, to be deployed to the patients and providers of a large academic primary care practice. PMID:18694014

  17. Agile informatics: application of agile project management to the development of a personal health application.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeanhee; Pankey, Evan; Norris, Ryan J

    2007-10-11

    We describe the application of the Agile method-- a short iteration cycle, user responsive, measurable software development approach-- to the project management of a modular personal health record, iHealthSpace, to be deployed to the patients and providers of a large academic primary care practice.

  18. Knowledge networks for global public health.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Maria Dulce F; Fiereck, Kirk J; Parker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The challenges posed by a globalised world have made it imperative for society to search for solutions to emerging issues and to develop new ways of looking at old problems. Current discussions about global public health demand a shift in paradigms and the strategic positioning of public health within broader policy discussions that will enable it to influence political and action agendas. Critical to responding to these challenges is the generation, transmission and dissemination of new knowledge to create value. Recognising the cutting-edge role of knowledge, as a new form of capital that drives innovation and transforms society, the formation of knowledge networks is viewed as a strategy for developing a shared intellectual, conceptual and ethical infrastructure for the field of global public health. These knowledge networks are envisioned as a vehicle for sharing diverse perspectives, encouraging debate and sustaining alternative ways of thinking about and responding to the challenges that confront global public health today and in the future.

  19. Preserving idealism in global health promotion.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I

    2010-12-01

    If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history. PMID:21513081

  20. Preserving idealism in global health promotion.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I

    2010-12-01

    If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history.

  1. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  2. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version. PMID:26578006

  3. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  4. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  5. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  6. Genome Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L.; Boguski, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in genomics and informatics relevant to cardiovascular research. In particular, we review the status of (1) whole genome sequencing efforts in human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and dog; (2) the development of data mining and analysis tools; (3) the launching of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Programs for Genomics Applications and Proteomics Initiative; (4) efforts to characterize the cardiac transcriptome and proteome; and (5) the current status of computational modeling of the cardiac myocyte. In each instance, we provide links to relevant sources of information on the World Wide Web and critical appraisals of the promises and the challenges of an expanding and diverse information landscape. PMID:12750305

  7. Biodiversity informatics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Norman F

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity informatics is an emerging field that applies information management tools to the management and analysis of species-occurrence, taxonomic character, and image data. A wide and growing range of tools is available for both curators and researchers. The development and implementation of formal data exchange standards and query protocols have made it possible to integrate data holdings from collections around the world. The current technological environment is summarized; protocols, standards, and tools for data management, sharing, and integration are reviewed; and methods and tools for analyzing species-occurrence and character data are examined. Direct access to primary data and imagery has the power to transform the means by which taxonomy is practiced and its results disseminated to the general community.

  8. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide. PMID:22621678

  9. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  10. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed

    Dollar, D

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries.

  11. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  12. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  13. Applying new thinking from the linked and emerging fields of digital identity and privacy to information governance in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John; Booth, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Recent work in the emerging field of network or digital identity suggests a new approach to the design of informatics systems, in which the individual becomes the guardian of their own personal data, and is assisted in controlling access to it by an infrastructure that is aware of roles, such as 'doctor', and relationships, such as 'doctor-patient'.For these purposes, an 'identity' is defined as the history of a relationship between two entities, and thus encompasses not only name and address but also data that would usually be regarded as part of an electronic patient or health record. This paper presents a description of how such a true person-centric architecture might work, and shows how it can be seen as an evolution of current plans in the NHS for a national patient data spine. One application, the electronic transmission of prescriptions, is described in detail. Other applications, both within and without the healthcare field, are described in outline. The implementation of such a person-centric system requires a modest degree of technical innovation, but significant change in organisational and business models. It is suggested that there is a need for one or more not-for-profit trusts, each with a remit to act as host for an individual's digital identity, and as the individual's true agent. Service providers - such as healthcare organisations - will pay the trust for provision of authentication, and for the storage and transmission of a patient's data; the trust in turn will pay implementation partners, such as smart card issuers and providers of communication channels, acting on behalf of the individual.

  14. Education review: applied medical informatics--informatics in medical education.

    PubMed

    Naeymi-Rad, F; Trace, D; Moidu, K; Carmony, L; Booden, T

    1994-05-01

    The importance of informatics training within a health sciences program is well recognized and is being implemented on an increasing scale. At Chicago Medical School (CMS), the Informatics program incorporates information technology at every stage of medical education. First-year students are offered an elective in computer topics that concentrate on basic computer literacy. Second-year students learn information management such as entry and information retrieval skills. For example, during the Introduction to Clinical Medicine course, the student is exposed to the Intelligent Medical Record-Entry (IMR-E), allowing the student to enter and organize information gathered from patient encounters. In the third year, students in the Internal Medicine rotation at Norwalk Hospital use Macintosh power books to enter and manage their patients. Patient data gathered by the student are stored in a local server in Norwalk Hospital. In the final year, we teach students the role of informatics in clinical decision making. The present senior class at CMS has been exposed to the power of medical informatics tools for several years. The use of these informatics tools at the point of care is stressed. PMID:10134760

  15. Rating the raters: legal exposure of trustmark authorities in the context of consumer health informatics.

    PubMed

    Terry, N P

    2000-01-01

    There are three areas of potential legal exposure for an organization such as a trustmark authority involved in e-health quality rating. First, an e-health provider may make a complaint about negative or impliedly negative ratings rendered by the ratings body (false negative). Typically, a negative ratings complaint would rely on defamation or product disparagement causes of action. In some cases such complaints could be defended on the basis of absence of malice (US). Second, the rating body might render a positive rating on e-health data that a third party allegedly relied upon and suffered injury (false positive). While the primary cause of action would be against the e-health data provider, questions may arise as to the possible liability of the trustmark authority. For example, some US liability exposure is possible based on cases involving the potential liability of product warrantors, trade associations, and certifiers or endorsers. Third, a ratings body may face public law liability for its own web misfeasance. Several risk management approaches are possible and would not necessarily be mutually exclusive. These approaches will require careful investigation to assess their risk reduction potential and, in some cases, the introduction of legislation.

  16. Rating the Raters: Legal Exposure of Trustmark Authorities in the Context of Consumer Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    There are three areas of potential legal exposure for an organization such as a trustmark authority involved in e-health quality rating. First, an e-health provider may make a complaint about negative or impliedly negative ratings rendered by the ratings body (false negative). Typically, a negative ratings complaint would rely on defamation or product disparagement causes of action. In some cases such complaints could be defended on the basis of absence of malice (US). Second, the rating body might render a positive rating on e-health data that a third party allegedly relied upon and suffered injury (false positive). While the primary cause of action would be against the e-health data provider, questions may arise as to the possible liability of the trustmark authority. For example, some US liability exposure is possible based on cases involving the potential liability of product warrantors, trade associations, and certifiers or endorsers. Third, a ratings body may face public law liability for its own web misfeasance. Several risk management approaches are possible and would not necessarily be mutually exclusive. These approaches will require careful investigation to assess their risk reduction potential and, in some cases, the introduction of legislation. PMID:11720941

  17. A virtual aged care system: when health informatics and spatial science intersect.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hamish; Nicholas, Nick; Rosenfeld, Tuly; Georgiou, Andrew; Johnson, Julie; Travaglia, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems are increasingly adapting to address the issues associated with population ageing. The shift to chronic diseases and a rise in neuroepidemiological conditions, associated with rising life expectancies, means that continued change and accommodation will be required of our health and social support systems. Current social policy environments developed out of early approaches to state-supported health and welfare service provision, most now a century or more old. A feature of these systems has often been a formal separation between them, into silos, that does not and cannot effectively address the issues raised by a growing population of older people. This is especially true in the context of community-based care where the majority of older people currently live and where governments hope to keep more elderly people living into the future. This objective will require a far more sophisticated and responsive approach to the health information environment than is currently the case. One strategy for improving this scenario is the development of augmented and virtual environments that collect and analyse real-time data on which health professionals and support staff can act in a timely manner. In this paper we explore some aspects of a virtualised aged care system and provide some examples of how this would enhance our current strategies for aged care.

  18. Is global warming harmful to health?

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2000-08-01

    Projections from computer models predict that global warming will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global warming, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global warming and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global warming can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global warming on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global warming.

  19. Global mental health: from science to action.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.

  20. Global mental health: from science to action.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. PMID:22335178

  1. Global Mental Health: From Science to Action

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:6–12.) PMID:22335178

  2. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    PubMed

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century. PMID:10466175

  3. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    PubMed

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  4. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Garcia, Patricia J; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI-BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America.

  5. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  6. Health Information Technology and Care Coordination:The Next Big Opportunity for Informatics?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The costs of care in the U.S. are very high, in part because canre is relatively uncoordinated. To begin to address this and other issues, health care reform was passed, including the notion of accountable care. Under acountable care arrangements, providers are at risk for the costs of the care they provide to groups of patients. Evaluation of costs has made it clear that a large proportion of these costs are in the post-acute setting, and also that many specific problems such as adverse events and unnecessary readmissions occur following transitions. However, the electronic health records of today do not provide a great deal of assistance with the coordination of care, and even the best organizations have relatively primitive systems with respect to care coordination, even though communication is absolutely central to better coordination of care and health information technology (HIT) is a powerful lever for improving communication. This paper identifies specific gaps in care coordination today, presents a framework for better coordinating care using HIT, then describes how specific technologies can be leveraged. Also discussed are the need to build and test specific interventions to improve HIT-related care coordination tools, and the key policy steps needed to accomplish this. PMID:26123913

  7. Health Information Technology and Care Coordination: The Next Big Opportunity for Informatics?

    PubMed

    Bates, D W

    2015-08-13

    The costs of care in the U.S. are very high, in part because canre is relatively uncoordinated. To begin to address this and other issues, health care reform was passed, including the notion of accountable care. Under acountable care arrangements, providers are at risk for the costs of the care they provide to groups of patients. Evaluation of costs has made it clear that a large proportion of these costs are in the post-acute setting, and also that many specific problems such as adverse events and unnecessary readmissions occur following transitions. However, the electronic health records of today do not provide a great deal of assistance with the coordination of care, and even the best organizations have relatively primitive systems with respect to care coordination, even though communication is absolutely central to better coordination of care and health information technology (HIT) is a powerful lever for improving communication. This paper identifies specific gaps in care coordination today, presents a framework for better coordinating care using HIT, then describes how specific technologies can be leveraged. Also discussed are the need to build and test specific interventions to improve HIT-related care coordination tools, and the key policy steps needed to accomplish this.

  8. Why US Health Care Should Think Globally.

    PubMed

    Ruchman, Samuel G; Singh, Prabhjot; Stapleton, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Why should health care systems in the United States engage with the world's poorest populations abroad while tremendous inequalities in health status and access are pervasive domestically? Traditionally, three arguments have bolstered global engagement: (1) a moral obligation to ensure opportunities to live, (2) a duty to protect against health threats, and (3) a desire to protect against economic downturns precipitated by health crises. We expand this conversation, arguing that US-based clinicians, organizational stewards, and researchers should engage with and learn from low-resource settings' systems and products that deliver high-quality, cost-effective, inclusive care in order to better respond to domestic inequities. Ultimately, connecting "local" and "global" efforts will benefit both populations and is not a sacrifice of one for the other. PMID:27437824

  9. Teaching the basics: core competencies in global health.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Megan A M; Battat, Robert; Brewer, Timothy F

    2011-06-01

    Compelling moral, ethical, professional, pedagogical, and economic imperatives support the integration of global health topics within medical school curriculum. Although the process of integrating global health into medical education is well underway at some medical schools, there remain substantial challenges to initiating global health training in others. As global health is a new field, faculties and schools may benefit from resources and guidance to develop global health modules and teaching materials. This article describes the Core Competencies project undertaken by the Global Health Education Consortium and the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada's Global Health Resource Group.

  10. Improving global health: counting reasons why.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines cumulative ethical and self-interested reasons why wealthy developed nations should be motivated to do more to improve health care in developing countries. Egalitarian and human rights reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (1) promote equality of opportunity (2) improve the situation of the worst-off, (3) promote respect of the human right to have one's most basic needs met, and (4) reduce undeserved inequalities in well-being. Utilitarian reasons for improving global health are that this would (5) promote the greater good of humankind, and (6) achieve enormous benefits while requiring only small sacrifices. Libertarian reasons are that this would (7) amend historical injustices and (8) meet the obligation to amend injustices that developed world countries have contributed to. Self-interested reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (9) reduce the threat of infectious diseases to developed countries, (10) promote developed countries' economic interests, and (11) promote global security. All of these reasons count, and together they add up to make an overwhelmingly powerful case for change. Those opposed to wealthy government funding of developing world health improvement would most likely appeal, implicitly or explicitly to the idea that coercive taxation for redistributive purposes would violate the right of an individual to keep his hard-earned income. The idea that this reason not to improve global health should outweigh the combination of rights and values embodied in the eleven reasons enumerated above, however is implausibly extreme, morally repugnant and perhaps imprudent.

  11. Improving global health: counting reasons why.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines cumulative ethical and self-interested reasons why wealthy developed nations should be motivated to do more to improve health care in developing countries. Egalitarian and human rights reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (1) promote equality of opportunity (2) improve the situation of the worst-off, (3) promote respect of the human right to have one's most basic needs met, and (4) reduce undeserved inequalities in well-being. Utilitarian reasons for improving global health are that this would (5) promote the greater good of humankind, and (6) achieve enormous benefits while requiring only small sacrifices. Libertarian reasons are that this would (7) amend historical injustices and (8) meet the obligation to amend injustices that developed world countries have contributed to. Self-interested reasons why wealthy nations should do more to improve global health are that doing so would (9) reduce the threat of infectious diseases to developed countries, (10) promote developed countries' economic interests, and (11) promote global security. All of these reasons count, and together they add up to make an overwhelmingly powerful case for change. Those opposed to wealthy government funding of developing world health improvement would most likely appeal, implicitly or explicitly to the idea that coercive taxation for redistributive purposes would violate the right of an individual to keep his hard-earned income. The idea that this reason not to improve global health should outweigh the combination of rights and values embodied in the eleven reasons enumerated above, however is implausibly extreme, morally repugnant and perhaps imprudent. PMID:19143088

  12. National health expenditures: a global analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Govindaraj, R.; Musgrove, P.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the background research to the World development report 1993: investing in health, an effort was made to estimate public, private and total expenditures on health for all countries of the world. Estimates could be found for public spending for most countries, but for private expenditure in many fewer countries. Regressions were used to predict the missing values of regional and global estimates. These econometric exercises were also used to relate expenditure to measures of health status. In 1990 the world spent an estimated US$ 1.7 trillion (1.7 x 10(12) on health, or $1.9 trillion (1.9 x 10(12)) in dollars adjusted for higher purchasing power in poorer countries. This amount was about 60% public and 40% private in origin. However, as incomes rise, public health expenditure tends to displace private spending and to account for the increasing share of incomes devoted to health. PMID:7923542

  13. An Introduction to Global Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2008-01-01

    Sex-based health disparities are evident throughout the world; however, nowhere are these disparities greater than in resource-poor countries. Women in developing nations lack basic health care and face life-debilitating and life-threatening health issues. Some health issues never existed in the West, whereas science eradicated others decades ago. Maternal mortality, female genital cutting, child marriage, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and cervical cancer are a few of the issues that plague developing nations. This article introduces some of these challenging health problems. In subsequent issues, they will be explored in more depth. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology hopes that highlighting global women's health issues will increase awareness and establish a renewed commitment to improving women's lives. PMID:18701928

  14. [Historical evolution and chinese definition of global health].

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyou; Liang, Xiaohui; Mao, Zongfu; Sun, Jikuan; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yuanli; Ren, Minghui

    2015-03-01

    Under the background of globalization, public health issues are becoming more and more complicated. In the international arena, global health has gradually replaced international health and "global public health" as one of the dominant terms in the field of public health. However, until now, there is no unified understanding and definition for the concept of global health domestically and internationally. In this article, various foreign experts 'views and domestic experts' opinions about the concept of global health are collected and solicited, in order to generalize appropriate Chinese definition of global health of China. PMID:26268860

  15. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  16. Do the solutions for global health lie in healthcare?

    PubMed

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-09-24

    Jocalyn Clark argues that the medicalisation of global health, like other aspects of human life and health, produces a narrow view of global health problems and will limit the success of solutions proposed to replace the millennium development goals.

  17. Medicalization of global health 1: has the global health agenda become too medicalized?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Medicalization analyses have roots in sociology and have critical usefulness for understanding contemporary health issues including the ‘post-2015 global health agenda’. Medicalization is more complex than just ‘disease mongering’ – it is a process and not only an outcome; has both positive and negative elements; can be partial rather than complete; and is often sought or challenged by patients or others in the health field. It is understood to be expanding rather than contracting, plays out at the level of interaction or of definitions and agenda-setting, and is said to be largely harmful and costly to individuals and societies. Medicalization of global health issues would overemphasise the role of health care to health; define and frame issues in relation to disease, treatment strategies, and individual behaviour; promote the role of medical professionals and models of care; find support in industry or other advocates of technologies and pharmaceuticals; and discount social contexts, causes, and solutions. In subsequent articles, three case studies are explored, which critically examine predominant issues on the global health agenda: global mental health, non-communicable disease, and universal health coverage. A medicalization lens helps uncover areas where the global health agenda and its framing of problems are shifted toward medical and technical solutions, neglecting necessary social, community, or political action. PMID:24848659

  18. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamzeh; Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children's Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto. PMID:27170907

  19. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamzeh; Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children's Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto.

  20. Preparing for the third millennium: the views of life informatics.

    PubMed

    Li, Z R; Tian, A J; Yang, Y Y

    1998-01-01

    The chief aspects of this paper are the condition of the birth of life informatics and its tasks, basic concepts, principles, and structure. There are three phases of combining informatics with medicine: product, technological, and theoretic application of which the goals are respectively the informatization of numerical and word processing, data of medical treatment, and the knowledge of medicine. While reached the third phase we have dealt with two types of biological information, physical and nonphysical, i.e., body information (i.e., the information about body's components and structure), and life information (i.e., the information about life codes and life programs). Life informatics is a main branch of bioinformatics. It is a new member of the medical informatics family, and as such is younger than health informatics, nursing informatics, and dental informatics. It's task is to assist biologists and medical doctors to recognize and interfere the human life information procedure just as they are doing well with human body's matter and energy system. Its basic concepts are life information, life information medicine, and life information therapy. Its most important principles are information materialism, general informatics, and information determinism. Its main branches are biomolecule, cellular, organic, individual, and social informatics. In the third millennium, the life informatics will be a leading discipline in biology, medicine and informatics, which will gradually influence modern philosophy and other humanities.

  1. Implementing the global health security agenda: lessons from global health and security programs.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Suman M; Franz, David R

    2015-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) describes a vision for a world that is safe and secure from infectious disease threats; it underscores the importance of developing the international capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to pandemic agents. In February 2014, the United States committed to support the GHSA by expanding and intensifying ongoing efforts across the US government. Implementing these goals will require interagency coordination and harmonization of diverse health security elements. Lessons learned from the Global Health Initiative (GHI), the President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program underscore that centralized political, technical, and fiscal authority will be key to developing robust, sustainable, and integrated global health security efforts across the US government. In this article, we review the strengths and challenges of GHI, PEPFAR, and CTR and develop recommendations for implementing a unified US global health security program.

  2. Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-10-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a conceptual approach to explore how the governance of transnational global health research consortia should be structured to advance health equity. To do so, it applies an account called shared health governance to derive procedural and substantive guidance. A checklist based on this guidance is proposed to assist research consortia determine where their governance practices strongly promote equity and where they may fall short. PMID:27653398

  3. Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-10-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a conceptual approach to explore how the governance of transnational global health research consortia should be structured to advance health equity. To do so, it applies an account called shared health governance to derive procedural and substantive guidance. A checklist based on this guidance is proposed to assist research consortia determine where their governance practices strongly promote equity and where they may fall short.

  4. The World Health Organization and Global Health Governance: post-1990.

    PubMed

    Lidén, J

    2014-02-01

    This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization. PMID:24388640

  5. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). The current HR(2005) contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever) required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005) call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010. PMID:21143824

  6. The World Health Organization and Global Health Governance: post-1990.

    PubMed

    Lidén, J

    2014-02-01

    This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization.

  7. Global health promotion models: enlightenment or entrapment?

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, S; McKeown, K; Williams, J

    1997-12-01

    This paper suggests that there is a tendency for health promotion to be located within models that consider health to be a product of a range of forces, with practice itself assumed to comprise a similarly wide range of activities. This paper develops a critique of this tendency that is essentially accommodating, all embracing and 'neutral'. It is argued that this leads to the masking of tensions between the conflicting values contained within the different elements of the models. We suggest that for health promoters, this is neither conceptually appropriate nor practically sensible. These notions are developed in five main stages. We start by defining some of the key concepts in the piece, e.g. the nature of a 'model' and examples of 'global' models. We then examine some of the general reasons why global models are favoured, with respect to the emergence of the UK's strategy for health, The Health of the Nation. The third stage of the discussion identifies and considers, within the British context, professional and governmental factors perceived to have driven this choice. The fourth aspect of the paper will introduce a critique of the use of global modelling. The paper concludes by critically questioning this evolving relationship, and suggests that it will be essentially conservative and unproductive. We end by reviewing the implications for practice and suggesting a useful way forward.

  8. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  9. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  10. Anthropology, knowledge-flows and global health.

    PubMed

    Feierman, S; Kleinman, A; Stewart, K; Farmer, D; Das, V

    2010-01-01

    Global health programmes are damaged by blockages in the upward flow of information from localities and regional centres about realities of professional practice and about patients' lives and conditions of treatment. Power differentials between local actors and national or international decision-makers present further obstacles to effective action. Anthropological research and action, in its most effective current forms, make important contributions to these issues. This research often continues over the long term, intensively. It can be multi-sited, studying actors at local, national and international levels simultaneously. It studies the relative knowledge and power of impoverished patients and global decision-makers, all within a single frame. By doing so, anthropological research is capable of providing new and important insights on the diverse meanings of patient decision-making, informed consent, non-compliance, public health reporting, the building of political coalitions for health and many other issues. PMID:20013523

  11. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains. PMID:25825658

  12. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains.

  13. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children’s Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children’s Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto. PMID:27170907

  14. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries. PMID:11584730

  15. Coordinating Canada's research response to global health challenges: the Global Health Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Zarowsky, Christina; Frank, John; Mhatre, Sharmila; Aslanyan, Garry; Perry, Alita; Previsich, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) involving the Canadian International Development Agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Health Canada and the International Development Research Centre seeks to coordinate Canada's research response to global health challenges. In light of numerous calls to action both nationally and internationally, an orientation to applied health policy and systems research, and to public health research and its application is required to redress global inequalities in wealth and health and to tackle well-documented constraints to achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Over the last four years, the GHRI has funded close to 70 research program development and pilot projects. However, longer-term investment is needed. The proposed dollars 100 million Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program is such a response, and is intended to support teams of researchers and research users to develop, test and implement innovative approaches to strengthening institutional capacity, especially in low- and middle-income countries; to generating knowledge and its effective application to improve the health of populations, especially those most vulnerable; and to strengthen health systems in those countries. While Canada stands poised to act, concerted leadership and resources are still required to support "research that matters" for health and development in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Coordinating Canada's research response to global health challenges: the Global Health Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Zarowsky, Christina; Frank, John; Mhatre, Sharmila; Aslanyan, Garry; Perry, Alita; Previsich, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) involving the Canadian International Development Agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Health Canada and the International Development Research Centre seeks to coordinate Canada's research response to global health challenges. In light of numerous calls to action both nationally and internationally, an orientation to applied health policy and systems research, and to public health research and its application is required to redress global inequalities in wealth and health and to tackle well-documented constraints to achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Over the last four years, the GHRI has funded close to 70 research program development and pilot projects. However, longer-term investment is needed. The proposed dollars 100 million Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program is such a response, and is intended to support teams of researchers and research users to develop, test and implement innovative approaches to strengthening institutional capacity, especially in low- and middle-income countries; to generating knowledge and its effective application to improve the health of populations, especially those most vulnerable; and to strengthen health systems in those countries. While Canada stands poised to act, concerted leadership and resources are still required to support "research that matters" for health and development in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:16512323

  17. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahdoot, Samantha; Pacheco, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperature is causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes across the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as climate change, are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security. Children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters, increased heat stress, decreased air quality, altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections, and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. Prompt implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies will protect children against worsening of the problem and its associated health effects. This technical report reviews the nature of climate change and its associated child health effects and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health.

  18. Mental health and global well-being.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-12-01

    A range of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions can be implemented in parenting, at schools, at the workplace and in older age to promote mental health and well-being. Such programmes need to be supplemented with actions to build mental health capital and promote resilience to manage and cope with the global risks that face humankind over the coming years. Actions need to connect mental and physical health and individuals need to be connected through health-promoting social networks; living environments need to be designed to support mental health and well-being; well-being indicators that include material living conditions, quality of life and sustainability can help drive healthy public policy. There is an urgent need to invest in skills training in decision-making, social interactions, building trust and cooperative behaviour that support the family of humanity as a whole as it faces the unprecedented stressors resulting from climate change. PMID:22079934

  19. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahdoot, Samantha; Pacheco, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperature is causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes across the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as climate change, are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security. Children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters, increased heat stress, decreased air quality, altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections, and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. Prompt implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies will protect children against worsening of the problem and its associated health effects. This technical report reviews the nature of climate change and its associated child health effects and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health. PMID:26504134

  20. Globalization, socioeconomic restructuring, and community health.

    PubMed

    Waters, W F

    2001-04-01

    New trends in global public health have social, economic, and political underpinnings that can be found in three 20th century revolutions: globalization, a new epidemiological transition, and an historical shift in patterns of production and consumption throughout the world. Globalization is more than the internationalization of commerce and manufacture; it represents a new development paradigm that creates new links among corporations, international organizations, governments, communities, and families. Social and economic restructuring is reflected in the emerging health profile in underdeveloped countries, including those in Latin America. This emerging profile defies simple categorization, however; while the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer has increased, the traditional diseases (infectious and respiratory disease) are still the leading cause of death. At the same time, industrialized countries are experiencing the re-emergence of those same traditional diseases. These apparent anomalies can be understood by examining class structures within and among countries and by linking health outcomes at the local level to new patterns of production and consumption in the global system. PMID:11322756

  1. An informatics system to support knowledge management in the health sector--the South African National Health Knowledge Network.

    PubMed

    Louw, J A; Seebregts, C J; Makgoba, W M; Fouché, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of a South African national health knowledge network. The methodology is in essence based on the principles of knowledge management and the drivers of a system of innovation. The knowledge network, SA HealthInfo, aims to provide a one-stop interactive forum/resource, for quality-controlled and evidence-based health research information, to a wide spectrum of users, at various levels of aggregation, with the necessary security arrangements and facilities for interaction among users to promote explicit (codified) and tacit knowledge flow. It will therefore stimulate the process of innovation within the South African health system.

  2. Public engagement on global health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emma RM; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues. PMID:18492256

  3. Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Amy; Brown, Garrett W; Harman, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Partnership is a key idea in current debates about global health and development assistance, yet little is known about what partnership means to those who are responsible for operationalising it or how it is experienced in practice. This is particularly the case in the context of African health systems. This paper explores how health professionals working in global health hubs and the health systems of South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia understand and experience partnership. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 101 professionals based in each country, Washington DC and Geneva between October 2012 and June 2013, the paper makes four key arguments. First, partnership has a legitimating function in global health policy processes for international development institutions, government agencies and civil society organisations alike. Second, the practice of partnership generates idiosyncratic and complicated relationships that health professionals have to manage and navigate, often informally. Third, partnership is shaped by historical legacies, critical events, and independent consultants. Fourth, despite being an accepted part of global health policy, there is little shared understanding of what good partnership is meant to include or resemble in practice. Knowing more about the specific socio-cultural and political dynamics of partnership in different health system contexts is critical to equip health professionals with the skills to build the informal relations that are essential to effective partnership engagement. PMID:27155226

  4. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  5. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperatures are causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes in the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as "climate change," are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security, and children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include: physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters; increased heat stress; decreased air quality; altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections; and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. The social foundations of children's mental and physical health are threatened by the specter of far-reaching effects of unchecked climate change, including community and global instability, mass migrations, and increased conflict. Given this knowledge, failure to take prompt, substantive action would be an act of injustice to all children. A paradigm shift in production and consumption of energy is both a necessity and an opportunity for major innovation, job creation, and significant, immediate associated health benefits. Pediatricians have a uniquely valuable role to play in the societal response to this global challenge.

  6. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperatures are causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes in the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as "climate change," are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security, and children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include: physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters; increased heat stress; decreased air quality; altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections; and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. The social foundations of children's mental and physical health are threatened by the specter of far-reaching effects of unchecked climate change, including community and global instability, mass migrations, and increased conflict. Given this knowledge, failure to take prompt, substantive action would be an act of injustice to all children. A paradigm shift in production and consumption of energy is both a necessity and an opportunity for major innovation, job creation, and significant, immediate associated health benefits. Pediatricians have a uniquely valuable role to play in the societal response to this global challenge. PMID:26504130

  7. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  8. Building Global Health Through a Center-Without-Walls: The Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  9. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    PubMed

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  10. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    PubMed

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health.

  11. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  12. A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14–24 years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Materials and Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Results Unexpectedly, the majority of participants’ design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants’ design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Discussion Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Conclusions Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group

  13. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health.

  14. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health. PMID:26686330

  15. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States.

  16. Globalization and Health: Exploring the opportunities and constraints for health arising from globalization.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek

    2005-04-22

    The tremendous benefits which have been conferred to almost 5 billion people through improved technologies and knowledge highlights the concomitant challenge of bringing these changes to the 1 billion people living mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia who are yet to benefit. There is a growing awareness of the need to reduce human suffering and of the necessary participation of governments, non-government organizations and industry within this process. This awareness has recently translated into new funding mechanisms to address HIV/Aids and vaccines, a global push for debt relief and better trade opportunities for the poorest countries, and recognition of how global norms that address food safety, infectious diseases and tobacco benefit all. 'Globalization and Health' will encourage an exchange of views on how the global architecture for health governance needs to changes in the light of global threats and opportunities. PMID:15847700

  17. Information science for the future: an innovative nursing informatics curriculum.

    PubMed

    Travis, L; Flatley Brennan, P

    1998-04-01

    Health care is increasingly driven by information, and consequently, patient care will demand effective management of information. The report of the Priority Expert Panel E: Nursing Informatics and Enhancing Clinical Care Through Nursing Informatics challenges faculty to produce baccalaureate graduates who use information technologies to improve the patient care process and change health care. The challenge is to construct an evolving nursing informatics curriculum to provide nursing professionals with the foundation for affecting health care delivery. This article discusses the design, implementation, and evaluation of an innovative nursing informatics curriculum incorporated into a baccalaureate nursing program. The basic components of the curriculum framework are information, technology, and clinical care process. The presented integrated curriculum is effective in familiarizing students with informatics and encouraging them to think critically about using informatics in practice. The two groups of students who completed the four-course sequence will be discussed.

  18. Health in global context; beyond the social determinants of health?

    PubMed Central

    Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The rise of the social determinants of health (SDH) discourse on the basis of statistical evidence that correlates ill health to SDH and pictures causal pathways in comprehensive theoretical frameworks led to widespread awareness that health and health disparities are the outcome of complex pathways of interconnecting SDH. In this paper we explore whether and how SDH frameworks can be translated to effectively inform particular national health policies. To this end we identified major challenges for this translation followed by reflections on ways to overcome them. Most important challenges affecting adequate translation of these frameworks into concrete policy and intervention are 1) overcoming the inclination to conceptualize SDH as mere barriers to health behavior to be modified by lifestyle interventions by addressing them as structural factors instead; 2) obtaining sufficient in-depth insight in and evidence for the exact nature of the relationship between SDs and health; 3) to adequately translate the general determinants and pathways into explanations for ill health and limited access to health care in local settings; 4) to develop and implement policies and other interventions that are adjusted to those local circumstances. We conclude that to transform generic SDH models into useful policy tools and to prevent them to transform in SDH themselves, in depth understanding of the unique interplay between local, national and global SDH in a local setting, gathered by ethnographic research, is needed to be able to address structural SD in the local setting and decrease health inequity.

  19. The Informatics Opportunities at the Intersection of Patient Safety and Clinical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Kilbridge, Peter M.; Classen, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Health care providers have a basic responsibility to protect patients from accidental harm. At the institutional level, creating safe health care organizations necessitates a systematic approach. Effective use of informatics to enhance safety requires the establishment and use of standards for concept definitions and for data exchange, development of acceptable models for knowledge representation, incentives for adoption of electronic health records, support for adverse event detection and reporting, and greater investment in research at the intersection of informatics and patient safety. Leading organizations have demonstrated that health care informatics approaches can improve safety. Nevertheless, significant obstacles today limit optimal application of health informatics to safety within most provider environments. The authors offer a series of recommendations for addressing these challenges. PMID:18436896

  20. The Global Role of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Yach, Derek

    2009-04-01

    The 21(st) century global health landscape requires effective global action in the face of globalization of trade, travel, information, human rights, ideas, and disease. The new global health era is more plural, comprising a number of key actors, and requiring more coordination of effort, priorities and investments. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays an essential role in the global governance of health and disease; due to its core global functions of establishing, monitoring and enforcing international norms and standards, and coordinating multiple actors toward common goals. Global health governance requires WHO leadership and effective implementation of WHO's core global functions to ensure better effectiveness of all health actors, but achieving this global mission could be hampered by narrowing activities and budget reallocations from core global functions. PMID:24729827

  1. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values. PMID:17578570

  2. Globalization and social determinants of health: Promoting health equity in global governance (part 3 of 3).

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-06-19

    This article is the third in a three-part review of research on globalization and the social determinants of health (SDH). In the first article of the series, we identified and defended an economically oriented definition of globalization and addressed a number of important conceptual and metholodogical issues. In the second article, we identified and described seven key clusters of pathways relevant to globalization's influence on SDH. This discussion provided the basis for the premise from which we begin this article: interventions to reduce health inequities by way of SDH are inextricably linked with social protection, economic management and development strategy. Reflecting this insight, and against the background of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we focus on the asymmetrical distribution of gains, losses and power that is characteristic of globalization in its current form and identify a number of areas for innovation on the part of the international community: making more resources available for health systems, as part of the more general task of expanding and improving development assistance; expanding debt relief and taking poverty reduction more seriously; reforming the international trade regime; considering the implications of health as a human right; and protecting the policy space available to national governments to address social determinants of health, notably with respect to the hypermobility of financial capital. We conclude by suggesting that responses to globalization's effects on social determinants of health can be classified with reference to two contrasting visions of the future, reflecting quite distinct values.

  3. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives.

  4. The hitchhiker's guide to global health blogging.

    PubMed

    Frischtak, Helena; Sinha, Pranay

    2013-01-01

    Social media use in modern medicine is fraught with ethical dilemmas and risks of unprofessional behavior. This essay surveys the existing literature on the possibilities and pitfalls of social media use by health-care professionals and concludes that non-engagement with social media is not an option. A mindful approach, not vague guidelines or long checklists, will foster a generation of physicians comfortable using online platforms for education and reflection. The use of social media during global health experiences abroad has been largely ignored in the literature and presents special challenges. With a view to starting a reflective dialogue on this subject, this essay identifies some ethically nebulous aspects of global health blogging. The discussion focuses on physician and student blogging, but these principles should apply to other online platforms as well and should prove valuable for health-care professionals who are engaged in developing guidelines, educating medical students and resident physicians, or in sharing their experiences and insights on the internet.

  5. Who should pay for global health, and how much?

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis R; Coker, Richard; Cook, Alex R

    2013-01-01

    Roman Carrasco and colleagues propose a "cap and trade" system for global health involving a cost-effectiveness criterion and a DALY global credit market, mirroring global carbon emission permits trading markets to mitigate climate change.

  6. Who should pay for global health, and how much?

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis R; Coker, Richard; Cook, Alex R

    2013-01-01

    Roman Carrasco and colleagues propose a "cap and trade" system for global health involving a cost-effectiveness criterion and a DALY global credit market, mirroring global carbon emission permits trading markets to mitigate climate change. PMID:23431273

  7. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  8. Cancer Research from Molecular Discovery to Global Health

    Cancer.gov

    A science writers' seminar to discuss the latest research in cancer genetics and global health efforts, including talks from leaders of NCI’s new centers of cancer genomics and global health will be held Dec. 13, 2011, at NCI.

  9. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    PubMed

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  10. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to

  11. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to

  12. Crossing the Chasm: Information Technology to Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Brenda G.; Balke, C. William; Umberger, Gloria H.; Talbert, Jeffery; Canales, Denise Niles; Steltenkamp, Carol L.; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating the translation of new scientific discoveries to improve human health and disease management is the overall goal of a series of initiatives integrated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Roadmap for Medical Research.” The Clinical and Translational Research Award (CTSA) program is, arguably, the most visible component of the NIH Roadmap providing resources to institutions to transform their clinical and translational research enterprises along the goals of the Roadmap. The CTSA program emphasizes biomedical informatics as a critical component for the accomplishment of the NIH’s translational objectives. To be optimally effective, emerging biomedical informatics programs must link with the information technology (IT) platforms of the enterprise clinical operations within academic health centers. This report details one academic health center’s transdisciplinary initiative to create an integrated academic discipline of biomedical informatics through the development of its infrastructure for clinical and translational science infrastructure and response to the CTSA mechanism. This approach required a detailed informatics strategy to accomplish these goals. This transdisciplinary initiative was the impetus for creation of a specialized biomedical informatics core, the Center for Biomedical Informatics (CBI). Development of the CBI codified the need to incorporate medical informatics including quality and safety informatics and enterprise clinical information systems within the CBI. This paper describes the steps taken to develop the biomedical informatics infrastructure, its integration with clinical systems at one academic health center, successes achieved, and barriers encountered during these efforts. PMID:21383632

  13. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health. PMID:25891059

  14. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health.

  15. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-10-22

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  16. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue. PMID:23088820

  17. Biomedical informatics methods in pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the study of the genetic basis of individual variation in response to therapeutic agents. Pharmacogenomics may potentially affect on every step of health care and every drug treatment protocol. The optimal approach to pharmacogenomics in hypertension requires the integration of different disciplines, in which biomedical informatics plays an essential role. This chapter describes biomedical informatics methods used in dealing with key issues in pharmacogenomics. These key issues include the association between structure and function, the interaction between gene and drug, and the correlation between genotype and phenotype. Heterogeneous resources, including web sites, databases, and software analysis tools, are selected, organized, and integrated in practical methods to support these studies. Bioinformatics methods described in this chapter include genetic sequence searching, comparison, structural modeling, functional analysis, and systems biology studies, with emphasis on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Medical informatics methods such as disease and drug information and clinical terminology are also embraced in this chapter. This combination of both biological and medical informatics provides comprehensive methodologies to resolve complex problems in pharmacogenomics.

  18. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy. PMID:17519005

  19. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy. PMID:17519005

  20. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  1. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order.

  2. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order. PMID:16495684

  3. Global health post-2015: the case for universal health equity

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Set in 2000, with a completion date of 2015, the deadline for the Millennium Development Goals is approaching, at which time a new global development infrastructure will become operational. Unsurprisingly, the discussions on goals, topics, priorities and monitoring and evaluation are gaining momentum. But this is a critical juncture. Over a decade of development programming offers a unique opportunity to reflect on its structure, function and purpose in a contemporary global context. This article examines the topic from an analytical health perspective and identifies universal health equity as an operational and analytical priority to encourage attention to the root causes of unnecessary and unfair illness and disease from the perspectives of those for whom the issues have most direct relevance. PMID:23561031

  4. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring

  5. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  6. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  7. Global health priorities – priorities of the wealthy?

    PubMed Central

    Ollila, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    Health has gained importance on the global agenda. It has become recognized in forums where it was once not addressed. In this article three issues are considered: global health policy actors, global health priorities and the means of addressing the identified health priorities. I argue that the arenas for global health policy-making have shifted from the public spheres towards arenas that include the transnational for-profit sector. Global health policy has become increasingly fragmented and verticalized. Infectious diseases have gained ground as global health priorities, while non-communicable diseases and the broader issues of health systems development have been neglected. Approaches to tackling the health problems are increasingly influenced by trade and industrial interests with the emphasis on technological solutions. PMID:15847685

  8. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities – through conventional ‘vertical-programming’ approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. Methods We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). Results According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. Conclusions This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund’s Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced

  9. Community Health Nursing through a Global Lens.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Norma; Dallwig, Amber; Abbott, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Nursing (N456) is a required senior clinical course in the undergraduate nursing curriculum at the University of Michigan in which students learn to assess and address the health of populations and communities. In 2012, we began our efforts to internationalize the curriculum using a globally engaged nursing education framework. Our goal is for all students to have an intercultural learning experience understanding that all students are unable to travel internationally. Therefore, this intercultural learning was implemented through a range of experiences including actual immersion, virtual activities (videoconferencing) and interventions with local vulnerable populations. Grants were obtained to provide immersion experiences in Quito, Ecuador and New Delhi, India. Several technologies were initiated with partner nursing schools in Leogane, Haiti and New Delhi, India. Weekly videoconferencing utilizing BlueJeans software and exchange of knowledge through the Knowledge Gateway facilitated intercultural exchange of knowledge and culture. Local clinical groups work with a variety of vulnerable populations. A private blog was developed for all sections to share community assessment data from local and international communities. Qualitative evaluation data was collected for local and international students to begin to assess cultural competence and student learning. Analysis of data documented increased awareness of culture and identified the many positive benefits of interaction with a global partner. PMID:25980716

  10. The growing impact of globalization for health and public health practice.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, public health policy and practice have been increasingly challenged by globalization, even as global financing for health has increased dramatically. This article discusses globalization and its health challenges from a vantage of political science, emphasizing increased global flows (of pathogens, information, trade, finance, and people) as driving, and driven by, global market integration. This integration requires a shift in public health thinking from a singular focus on international health (the higher disease burden in poor countries) to a more nuanced analysis of global health (in which health risks in both poor and rich countries are seen as having inherently global causes and consequences). Several globalization-related pathways to health exist, two key ones of which are described: globalized diseases and economic vulnerabilities. The article concludes with a call for national governments, especially those of wealthier nations, to take greater account of global health and its social determinants in all their foreign policies.

  11. Global Health Education in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowships.

    PubMed

    Siddharthan, Trishul; North, Crystal M; Attia, Engi F; Christiani, David C; Checkley, William; West, T Eoin

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship programs in the United States offer global health training opportunities. Formal, integrated global health programs within pulmonary and critical care fellowships are relatively new but are built on principles and ideals of global health that focus on the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and social justice. Although core competencies consistent with these overarching themes in global health education have not been formalized for pulmonary and critical care trainees, relevant competency areas include clinical knowledge, international research training, cultural competency, and clinical and research capacity building. Existing global health education in U.S. pulmonary and critical care medicine training programs can generally be classified as one of three different models: integrated global health tracks, global health electives, and additional research years. Successful global health education programs foster partnerships and collaborations with international sites that emphasize bidirectional exchange. This bidirectional exchange includes ongoing, equitable commitments to mutual opportunities for training and professional development, including a focus on the particular knowledge and skill sets critical for addressing the unique priorities of individual countries. However, barriers related to the availability of mentorship, funding, and dedicated time exist to expanding global health education in pulmonary and critical care medicine. The implementation of global health training within pulmonary and critical care medicine programs requires continued optimization, but this training is essential to prepare the next generation of physicians to address the global aspects of respiratory disease and critical illness. PMID:26974557

  12. Guiding the design of evaluations of innovations in health informatics: a framework and a case study of the SMArt SHARP evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand. PMID:23304417

  13. Guiding the design of evaluations of innovations in health informatics: a framework and a case study of the SMArt SHARP evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand.

  14. Guiding the Design of Evaluations of Innovations in Health Informatics: a Framework and a Case Study of the SMArt SHARP Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand. PMID:23304417

  15. Time to go global: a consultation on global health competencies for postgraduate doctors

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, Sarah C.; Shortall, Clare; van Schalkwyk, May CI; Merriel, Abi; Ellis, Jayne; Obolensky, Lucy; Casanova Dias, Marisa; Watson, Jessica; Brown, Colin S.; Hall, Jennifer; Pettigrew, Luisa M.; Allen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Globalisation is having profound impacts on health and healthcare. We solicited the views of a wide range of stakeholders in order to develop core global health competencies for postgraduate doctors. Methods Published literature and existing curricula informed writing of seven global health competencies for consultation. A modified policy Delphi involved an online survey and face-to-face and telephone interviews over three rounds. Results Over 250 stakeholders participated, including doctors, other health professionals, policymakers and members of the public from all continents of the world. Participants indicated that global health competence is essential for postgraduate doctors and other health professionals. Concerns were expressed about overburdening curricula and identifying what is ‘essential’ for whom. Conflicting perspectives emerged about the importance and relevance of different global health topics. Five core competencies were developed: (1) diversity, human rights and ethics; (2) environmental, social and economic determinants of health; (3) global epidemiology; (4) global health governance; and (5) health systems and health professionals. Conclusions Global health can bring important perspectives to postgraduate curricula, enhancing the ability of doctors to provide quality care. These global health competencies require tailoring to meet different trainees' needs and facilitate their incorporation into curricula. Healthcare and global health are ever-changing; therefore, the competencies will need to be regularly reviewed and updated. PMID:27241136

  16. Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

  17. Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Birbeck, Gretchen L; Wiysonge, Charles S; Mills, Edward J; Frenk, Julio J; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jha, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

  18. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem.

  19. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. PMID:16121261

  20. Globalization causes a world of health problems.

    PubMed

    Abell, H

    1998-01-01

    Many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean offer substantial tax breaks to foreign corporations that set up shops in free-trade zones and waive environmental regulations and repress trade unions to further induce this practice. Workers in these shops--mainly women--perform repetitive machine-based motions, are exposed to toxic chemicals and unsafe equipment, and face dangerously high production quotas. Health problems caused by these working conditions include headache and dizziness, fatigue, anemia, forgetfulness, stomach pains, respiratory problems, hypertension, heart disease, and allergies. Water and air pollution and dumping of hazardous waste affect the health of entire communities. Since free-trade zones are a permanent feature of the global economy, organizing to protect workers and communities assumes critical importance. Groups such as the Border Committee of Women Workers in Mexico are providing workers with skills and support to make demands such as better treatment of pregnant workers. International labor, environmental, and public health advocates can support such efforts by providing assistance to worker-controlled organizations and pressuring governments to enforce laws intended to protect workers and their communities.

  1. [Influenza vaccine: globalization of public health stakes].

    PubMed

    Collin, N; Briand, S

    2009-08-01

    On June 11, 2009, Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), declared the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. It was the first time in history that an influenza outbreak had been tracked in real-time from the emergence of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1) up to its spread to all continents over a period of 9 weeks. In recent years the international community has been working closely to prepare for such situations. A notable example of this cooperation occurred in response to the threat posed by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1). Vaccine availability is a major challenge that will require increasing worldwide production and ensuring a widespread access. In this regard it is important to underline the fact that 70% of influenza vaccine is produced in Europe and the United States. In 2006 WHO implemented a global pandemic influenza action plan (GAP) aiming at increasing the world's production capacity for pandemic vaccine. The GAP contains three elements: (1) increased use of seasonal influenza vaccination in industrialized and developing countries (resolution WHA 56.19). (2) technology transfer. (3) development of new production technologies. Nevertheless numerous barriers still prevent people living in developing countries from rapid and fair access to pandemic influenza vaccine. Capacity for production of pandemic vaccine is limited and advanced purchase agreements between industrialized countries and vaccine manufacturers reduce potential access of developing countries to pandemic vaccine. Economic and logistic factors also limit global access to pandemic vaccine. Therefore, WHO is working with industrialized countries, pharmaceutical companies and the international community as a whole to promote global solidarity and cooperation and thus ensure distribution of pandemic vaccine in poor countries with no local production. The current pandemic situation highlights the increasing globalization of public

  2. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  3. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  4. Boreal forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions.

  5. Boreal forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions. PMID:26293953

  6. Tuberculosis and aging: a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, S

    2001-10-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's declaration that the spread of tuberculosis is a global emergency and despite the implementation of strong tuberculosis-control initiatives, this highly infectious disease continues to affect all vulnerable populations, including the elderly population (age > or =65 years). Tuberculosis in aging adults remains a clinical and epidemiological challenge. Atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in older persons can result in delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment; thus, unfortunately, higher rates of morbidity and mortality from this treatable infection can occur. Underlying illnesses, age-related diminution in immune function, the increased frequency of adverse drug reactions, and institutionalization can complicate the overall clinical approach to tuberculosis in elderly patients; maintenance of a high index of suspicion for tuberculosis in this vulnerable population is, thus, undoubtedly justifiable.

  7. Evolution of medical informatics in bibliographic databases.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paula; Pedernera, Federico; Montenegro, Sergio; Borbolla, Damian; Garcia Marti, Sebastián; Luna, Daniel; de Quiros, Fernan Gonzalez Bernaldo

    2004-01-01

    Medical informatics became a medical specialty during the last years and this is evidenced by a great amount of journal articles regarding the subject published worldwide. We compared the presentation of Medical Informatics in two different bibliographic databases: MEDLINE and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on the Health Sciences). Previous studies described how Medical Informatics was represented in MEDLINE, but we wanted to compare it to a regional database as LILACS. We search both databases completely (MEDLINE 1966 -2002 and LILACS 1982-2002) using the keyword "Medical Informatics" as MeSH term in MEDLINE and as DeCS term in LILACS, and we added "medical informatics" as text word and analyzed the references obtained as results. We found that MEDLINE properly represents the impact of Medical Informatics in non-Latin-American international journals, but lacks of a considerable amount of articles from this region, while LILACS, although in comparison it is smaller in size, has more articles regarding the subject. So we think that LILACS properly represents the specialty in Latin America and the Caribbean Region.

  8. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included. PMID:23033581

  9. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept of health…

  10. Creating an Online Global Health Course and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Brent A.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Hai-Jew, Shalin; Caby, Zachary; Werick, Mary

    2011-01-01

    As a college course, global public health covers topics that affect individuals' welfare and thus should be accessible to the public, providing information to help people make informed decisions about their health. This article discusses the creation of DMP 844: Global Health, a graduate-level course in the College of Veterinary Medicine's…

  11. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  12. A Research-Based Narrative Assignment for Global Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on novel approaches to classroom-based global health education despite the growing popularity of this topic in health professional curricula. The purpose of the following paper is to (1) describe the rationale underlying the use of a research-based narrative assignment for global health education, and (2) describe…

  13. Effect of an informatics for evidence-based practice curriculum on nursing informatics competencies.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Karen S; Cook, Sarah Sheets; Jenkins, Melinda; Bakken, Suzanne

    2005-12-01

    Effective and appropriate use of information and communication technologies is an essential competency for all health care professionals. The purpose of this paper is to describe the effect of an evolving informatics for evidence-based practice (IEBP) curriculum on nursing informatics competencies in three student cohorts in the combined BS/MS program for non-nurses at the Columbia University School of Nursing. A repeated-measures, non-equivalent comparison group design was used to determine differences in self-rated informatics competencies pre- and post-IEBP and between cohorts at the end of the BS year of the combined BS/MS program. The types of Computer Skill competencies on which the students rated themselves as competent (> or =3) on admission were generic in nature and reflective of basic computer literacy. Informatics competencies increased significantly from admission to BS graduation in all areas for the class of 2002 and in all, but three areas, for the class of 2003. None of the three cohorts achieved competence in Computer Skills: Education despite curricular revisions. There were no significant differences between classes at the end of the BS year. Innovative educational approaches, such as the one described in this paper demonstrate promise as a method to achieve informatics competence. It is essential to integrate routine measurement of informatics competency into the curriculum so that approaches can be refined as needed to ensure informatics competent graduates.

  14. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  15. A brief history of nursing informatics in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Ozbolt, Judy G; Saba, Virginia K

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of modern nursing, data from standardized patient records were seen as a potentially powerful resource for assessing and improving the quality of care. As nursing informatics began to evolve in the second half of the 20th century, the lack of standards for language and data limited the functionality and usefulness of early applications. In response, nurses developed standardized languages, but until the turn of the century, neither they nor anyone else understood the attributes required to achieve computability and semantic interoperability. Collaboration across disciplines and national boundaries has led to the development of standards that meet these requirements, opening the way for powerful information tools. Many challenges remain, however. Realizing the potential of nurses to transform and improve health care and outcomes through informatics will require fundamental changes in individuals, organizations, and systems. Nurses are developing and applying informatics methods and tools to discover knowledge and improve health from the molecular to the global level and are seeking the collective wisdom of interdisciplinary and interorganizational collaboration to effect the necessary changes. NOTE: Although this article focuses on nursing informatics in the United States, nurses around the world have made substantial contributions to the field. This article alludes to a few of those advances, but a comprehensive description is beyond the scope of the present work.

  16. Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

    2011-01-01

    Context: Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. Methods: In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Findings: Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. Conclusions: The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. PMID:21933277

  17. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  18. Global mental health: an interview with Vikram Patel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2014-03-14

    In this podcast, we talk to Professor Vikram Patel about the impact of global mental health in the field of medicine, and discuss the initiatives and platforms being developed to promote capacity building, research, policy and advocacy within the established Centre for Global Mental Health. The anticipated challenges, controversies, and future directions for this discipline of global health are highlighted as well.The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Patel.mp3.

  19. Global health in the UK government and university sector.

    PubMed

    Coltart, Cordelia E M; Black, Mary E; Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2011-09-01

    In this article, the authors review recent global health activities in the United Kingdom by key organisations in several defined areas:- UK government (international aid and global health strategy); UK research funding agencies (overseas research units); non-governmental organisations; UK universities and hospitals and academic/clinical international partnerships;professional societies; UK undergraduate and postgraduate training opportunities in global health; and opportunities for international medical graduates.

  20. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263