Science.gov

Sample records for global minimum cost

  1. Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

  2. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  3. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  4. Priority setting in global health: towards a minimum DALY value.

    PubMed

    Drake, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Rational and analytic healthcare decision making employed by many national healthcare-funding bodies could also be expected from global health donors. Cost effectiveness analysis of healthcare investment options presents the effectiveness of a particular action in proportion to the resources required, and cost effectiveness thresholds, while somewhat arbitrary, define the level at which the investment can be considered value for money. Currently, cost effectiveness thresholds reflect the national budget context or willingness-to-pay, which is problematic when making cross-country comparisons. Defining a global minimum monetary value for the disability adjusted life year (DALY) would in effect set a global baseline cost effectiveness threshold. A global minimum DALY value would reflect a universal minimum value on human health, irrespective of a national provider's willingness or ability to pay. A minimum DALY value and associated threshold has both limitations and flaws but is justified on similar grounds to the Millennium Development Goals or the absolute poverty threshold and has the potential to radically improve transparency and efficiency of priority setting in global health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes.

    PubMed

    Hady, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

  6. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes

    PubMed Central

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

  7. A transcribed emergency record at minimum cost.

    PubMed

    Klimt, C R; Becker, S; Fox, B S; Ensminger, F

    1983-09-01

    We have developed a new method of implementing a transcribed emergency record at minimum cost. Dictated emergency records are typed immediately by a transcriber located in the emergency department. This member of the medical record transcriber pool is given other non-urgent medical record material to type when there are no emergency records to type. The costs are reduced to the same level as routine medical records transcription. In 1982, 19,892 of the total 28,000 emergency records were transcribed by adding only 1.35 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to the transcriber pool. The remaining charts were handwritten because insufficient funds had been allocated to type all emergency records. The transcriber is capable of typing a maximum of 64 charts, averaging 13 lines (156 words) each, per 8-hour shift. The service can be phased in gradually as funds for transcribing the emergency record are allocated to the central transcriber pool.

  8. 7 CFR 701.110 - Qualifying minimum cost of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifying minimum cost of restoration. 701.110... Conservation Program § 701.110 Qualifying minimum cost of restoration. (a) To qualify for assistance under... Deputy Administrator shall establish the minimum qualifying cost of restoration. Each affected State may...

  9. 7 CFR 701.210 - Qualifying minimum cost of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifying minimum cost of restoration. 701.210... Restoration Program § 701.210 Qualifying minimum cost of restoration. (a) FSA will establish the minimum qualifying cost of restoration, which may vary by State or region. (b) An applicant may request a waiver of...

  10. 7 CFR 701.10 - Qualifying minimum cost of restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying minimum cost of restoration. 701.10 Section... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.10 Qualifying minimum cost of restoration... assistance is or will be required to return the land to productive agricultural use or to provide emergency...

  11. Minimum cost criteria for SPS transportation to GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelle, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The application of cost optimization to vehicle design is discussed relative to establishing ground rules for a minimum cost heavy cargo launch vehicle to transport the Satellite Power System to geosynchronous orbit. Criteria defined include: fully reusable; unmanned; technical simplicity; and operations simplicity. Graphs are presented depicting (1) the launch vehicle concept schematic, (2) the cost comparison, (3) the launch vehicle sizing, and (4) the specific transportation cost.

  12. Optimizing conceptual aircraft designs for minimum life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.

    1989-01-01

    A life cycle cost (LCC) module has been added to the FLight Optimization System (FLOPS), allowing the additional optimization variables of life cycle cost, direct operating cost, and acquisition cost. Extensive use of the methodology on short-, medium-, and medium-to-long range aircraft has demonstrated that the system works well. Results from the study show that optimization parameter has a definite effect on the aircraft, and that optimizing an aircraft for minimum LCC results in a different airplane than when optimizing for minimum take-off gross weight (TOGW), fuel burned, direct operation cost (DOC), or acquisition cost. Additionally, the economic assumptions can have a strong impact on the configurations optimized for minimum LCC or DOC. Also, results show that advanced technology can be worthwhile, even if it results in higher manufacturing and operating costs. Examining the number of engines a configuration should have demonstrated a real payoff of including life cycle cost in the conceptual design process: the minimum TOGW of fuel aircraft did not always have the lowest life cycle cost when considering the number of engines.

  13. Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

  14. Road networks as collections of minimum cost paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Jan Dirk; Montoya-Zegarra, Javier Alexander; Schindler, Konrad

    2015-10-01

    We present a probabilistic representation of network structures in images. Our target application is the extraction of urban roads from aerial images. Roads appear as thin, elongated, partially curved structures forming a loopy graph, and this complex layout requires a prior that goes beyond standard smoothness and co-occurrence assumptions. In the proposed model the network is represented as a union of 1D paths connecting distant (super-)pixels. A large set of putative candidate paths is constructed in such a way that they include the true network as much as possible, by searching for minimum cost paths in the foreground (road) likelihood. Selecting the optimal subset of candidate paths is posed as MAP inference in a higher-order conditional random field. Each path forms a higher-order clique with a type of clique potential, which attracts the member nodes of cliques with high cumulative road evidence to the foreground label. That formulation induces a robust PN -Potts model, for which a global MAP solution can be found efficiently with graph cuts. Experiments with two road data sets show that the proposed model significantly improves per-pixel accuracies as well as the overall topological network quality with respect to several baselines.

  15. Constructing minimum-cost flow-dependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Doreen A.; Weng, Jia F.

    2002-09-01

    In the construction of a communication network, the length of the network is an important but not unique factor determining the cost of the network. Among many possible network models, Gilbert proposed a flow-dependent model in which flow demands are assigned between each pair of points in a given point set A, and the cost per unit length of a link in the network is a function of the flow through the link. In this paper we first investigate the properties of this Gilbert model: the concavity of the cost function, decomposition, local minimality, the number of Steiner points and the maximum degree of Steiner points. Then we propose three heuristics for constructing minimum cost Gilbert networks. Two of them come from the fact that generally a minimum cost Gilbert network stands between two extremes: the complete network G(A) on A and the edge-weighted Steiner minimal tree W(A) on A. The first heuristic starts with G(A) and reduces the cost by splitting angles; the second one starts with both G(A) and W(A), and reduces the cost by selecting low cost paths. As a generalisation of the second heuristic, the third heuristic constructs a new Gilbert network of less cost by hybridising known Gilbert networks. Finally we discuss some considerations in practical applications.

  16. Multiflow and disjoint paths of minimum total cost

    SciTech Connect

    Karzanov, A.

    1994-12-31

    We discuss some earlier and recent results in the field of combinatorial network flow theory, considering problems on minimum cost maximum value multiflows (multicommodity flows), minimum cost maximum cardinality sets of edge-disjoint or openly disjoint paths, and related problems. Multiflows (multicommodity flows), minimum cost maximum cardinality sets of edge-disjoint or openly disjoint paths, and related problems. Throughout we deal with the undirected case. We exactly characterize the set of commodity graphs H for which, given an arbitrary network with nonnegative integer-valued capacities and costs, there exists an optimal multiflow f such that the denominator of each component of the vector f is bounded by a constant depending only on H. Moreover, for these H`s there are purely combinatorial polynomial time algorithms for finding such optimal solutions. Another, more complicated, problem is: given a graph G, a subset T of its vertices and a nonnegative function of cost on its edges, find a maximum cardinality set of pairwise edge-disjoint T-paths (i.e., paths in G connecting arbitrary pairs in T) such that the sum of costs of edges occurring in these paths is as small as possible. We give a minimax relation for this problem and develop a strongly polynomial algorithm to solve it. In fact, the former result generalizes the minimax relation involving the maximum number of edge-disjoint T-paths that has been established by Mader and, independently, Lomonosov. As a consequence, one can derive a description of the dominant polyhedron for the set of T,d-joins (a generalization of T-joins) and the dominant polyhedron for the set of so-called multi-joins of a graph. Finally, we present a minimax relation that concerns minimum cost maximum cardinality sets of pairwise openly disjoint T-paths, thus extending another result of Mader. The proof gives rise to a strongly polynomial solution algorithm.

  17. Rock climbing: A local-global algorithm to compute minimum energy and minimum free energy pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Clark; Chen, Szu-Hua; Fathizadeh, Arman; Elber, Ron

    2017-10-01

    The calculation of minimum energy or minimum free energy paths is an important step in the quantitative and qualitative studies of chemical and physical processes. The computations of these coordinates present a significant challenge and have attracted considerable theoretical and computational interest. Here we present a new local-global approach to study reaction coordinates, based on a gradual optimization of an action. Like other global algorithms, it provides a path between known reactants and products, but it uses a local algorithm to extend the current path in small steps. The local-global approach does not require an initial guess to the path, a major challenge for global pathway finders. Finally, it provides an exact answer (the steepest descent path) at the end of the calculations. Numerical examples are provided for the Mueller potential and for a conformational transition in a solvated ring system.

  18. An Algorithm to Find Minimum Cost Flow in a Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper describes an algorithm to find a flow of minimum cost in a network and a computer program which performs this algorithm. The principle of...optimal. What might make this algorithm efficient is the fact that the information which has been gathered at some iteration to find a negative...circuit will be used to find a negative circuit at next iteration so that each iteration requires a relatively small amount of work. (Author)

  19. Principles of minimum cost refining for optimum linerboard strength

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Urbanik; Jong Myoung Won

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of paper at a single basis weight and a single targeted refining freeness level have traditionally been used to compare papers. Understanding the economics of corrugated fiberboard requires a more global characterization of the variation of mechanical properties and refining energy consumption with freeness. The cost of refining energy to...

  20. Finding the global minimum: a fuzzy end elimination implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, D. A.; Shibata, M.; Marcus, E.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1995-01-01

    The 'fuzzy end elimination theorem' (FEE) is a mathematically proven theorem that identifies rotameric states in proteins which are incompatible with the global minimum energy conformation. While implementing the FEE we noticed two different aspects that directly affected the final results at convergence. First, the identification of a single dead-ending rotameric state can trigger a 'domino effect' that initiates the identification of additional rotameric states which become dead-ending. A recursive check for dead-ending rotameric states is therefore necessary every time a dead-ending rotameric state is identified. It is shown that, if the recursive check is omitted, it is possible to miss the identification of some dead-ending rotameric states causing a premature termination of the elimination process. Second, we examined the effects of removing dead-ending rotameric states from further considerations at different moments of time. Two different methods of rotameric state removal were examined for an order dependence. In one case, each rotamer found to be incompatible with the global minimum energy conformation was removed immediately following its identification. In the other, dead-ending rotamers were marked for deletion but retained during the search, so that they influenced the evaluation of other rotameric states. When the search was completed, all marked rotamers were removed simultaneously. In addition, to expand further the usefulness of the FEE, a novel method is presented that allows for further reduction in the remaining set of conformations at the FEE convergence. In this method, called a tree-based search, each dead-ending pair of rotamers which does not lead to the direct removal of either rotameric state is used to reduce significantly the number of remaining conformations. In the future this method can also be expanded to triplet and quadruplet sets of rotameric states. We tested our implementation of the FEE by exhaustively searching ten protein

  1. Finding the global minimum: a fuzzy end elimination implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, D. A.; Shibata, M.; Marcus, E.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1995-01-01

    The 'fuzzy end elimination theorem' (FEE) is a mathematically proven theorem that identifies rotameric states in proteins which are incompatible with the global minimum energy conformation. While implementing the FEE we noticed two different aspects that directly affected the final results at convergence. First, the identification of a single dead-ending rotameric state can trigger a 'domino effect' that initiates the identification of additional rotameric states which become dead-ending. A recursive check for dead-ending rotameric states is therefore necessary every time a dead-ending rotameric state is identified. It is shown that, if the recursive check is omitted, it is possible to miss the identification of some dead-ending rotameric states causing a premature termination of the elimination process. Second, we examined the effects of removing dead-ending rotameric states from further considerations at different moments of time. Two different methods of rotameric state removal were examined for an order dependence. In one case, each rotamer found to be incompatible with the global minimum energy conformation was removed immediately following its identification. In the other, dead-ending rotamers were marked for deletion but retained during the search, so that they influenced the evaluation of other rotameric states. When the search was completed, all marked rotamers were removed simultaneously. In addition, to expand further the usefulness of the FEE, a novel method is presented that allows for further reduction in the remaining set of conformations at the FEE convergence. In this method, called a tree-based search, each dead-ending pair of rotamers which does not lead to the direct removal of either rotameric state is used to reduce significantly the number of remaining conformations. In the future this method can also be expanded to triplet and quadruplet sets of rotameric states. We tested our implementation of the FEE by exhaustively searching ten protein

  2. Minimum energetic cost to maintain a target nonequilibrium state.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Zhou, Kevin; England, Jeremy L

    2017-04-01

    In the absence of external driving, a system exposed to thermal fluctuations will relax to equilibrium. However, the constant input of work makes it possible to counteract this relaxation and maintain the system in a nonequilibrium steady state. In this article, we use the stochastic thermodynamics of Markov jump processes to compute the minimum rate at which energy must be supplied and dissipated to maintain an arbitrary nonequilibrium distribution in a given energy landscape. This lower bound depends on two factors: the undriven probability current in the equilibrium state and the distance from thermal equilibrium of the target distribution. By showing the consequences of this result in a few simple examples, we suggest general implications for the required energetic costs of macromolecular repair and cytosolic protein localization.

  3. Minimum energetic cost to maintain a target nonequilibrium state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Zhou, Kevin; England, Jeremy L.

    2017-04-01

    In the absence of external driving, a system exposed to thermal fluctuations will relax to equilibrium. However, the constant input of work makes it possible to counteract this relaxation and maintain the system in a nonequilibrium steady state. In this article, we use the stochastic thermodynamics of Markov jump processes to compute the minimum rate at which energy must be supplied and dissipated to maintain an arbitrary nonequilibrium distribution in a given energy landscape. This lower bound depends on two factors: the undriven probability current in the equilibrium state and the distance from thermal equilibrium of the target distribution. By showing the consequences of this result in a few simple examples, we suggest general implications for the required energetic costs of macromolecular repair and cytosolic protein localization.

  4. Efficient algorithms for the minimum cost perfect matching problem

    SciTech Connect

    Atamturk, A.; Akgul, M.

    1994-12-31

    We present two efficient forest algorithms for the minimum cost perfect matching problem on general graphs. In the multiple augmentation algorithm, we allow augmenting a set of node-disjoint paths in a single stage and show that scanning and updating operations can be delayed to the first time the augmenting paths intersect. Efficiency of the algorithm increases as the number of augmenting paths found per stage gets larger. In the second algorithm initialization of heaps is performed only at the beginning of the algorithm. With a concept of dating/heap correcting the problem is solved at a single stage. In both of the algorithms, we achieved drastic reductions in the total number of time consuming operations such as scanning, updating dual variables and reduced costs. Detailed computational analysis on randomly generated graphs has shown the proposed algorithms to be several times faster than other algorithms in the literature. Hence, we conjecture that employment of the new algorithms in the solution methods of hard optimization problems would speed them up significantly. The complexity of both of the algorithms are O(n{sup 3}) for dense graphs and O(nmlog n) for sparse graphs using splittable heaps.

  5. Unwrapping noisy phase maps by use of a minimum-cost-matching algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckland, J. R.; Huntley, J. M.; Turner, S. R. E.

    1995-08-01

    An algorithm for unwrapping noisy phase maps by means of branch cuts has been proposed recently. These cuts join discontinuity sources that mark the beginning or end of a 2 pi phase discontinuity. After the placement of branch cuts, the unwrapped phase map is unique and independent of the unwrapping route. We show how a minimum-cost-matching graph-theory method can be used to find the set of cuts that has the global minimum of total cut length, in time approximately proportional to the square of the number of sources. The method enables one to unwrap unfiltered speckle-interferometry phase maps at higher source densities (0.1 sources pixel-1) than any previous branch-cut placement algorithm.

  6. Minimum cost of transport in human running is not ubiquitous.

    PubMed

    Cher, Pei Hua; Stewart, Ian B; Worringham, Charles J

    2015-02-01

    This study explores recent claims that humans exhibit minimum cost of transport (CoTmin) for running, which occurs at intermediate speed, and assesses individual physiological, gait, and training characteristics. Twelve healthy participants with varying levels of fitness and running experience ran on a treadmill at six self-selected speeds in a discontinuous protocol over three sessions. Running speed (km·h), VO2 (mL·kg·km), CoT (kcal·km), HR (bpm), and cadence (steps per minute) were continuously measured. VO2max was measured on the fourth testing session. The occurrence of CoTmin was investigated, and its presence or absence was examined with respect to fitness, gait, and training characteristics. Five participants showed clear CoTmin at intermediate speed and a statistically significant (P < 0.05) quadratic CoT-speed function, whereas the other participants did not show such evidence. Participants were then categorized and compared with respect to the strength of evidence for CoTmin (ClearCoTmin and NoCoTmin). The ClearCoTmin group displayed a significantly higher correlation between speed and cadence, more endurance training and exercise sessions per week, and a marginally nonsignificant but higher aerobic capacity than the NoCoTmin group. Some runners still showed CoTmin at intermediate speed even after subtraction of resting energy expenditure. The findings confirm the existence of optimal speed for human running in some but not all participants. Those exhibiting COTmin undertook higher volume of running, ran with a cadence that was more consistently modulated with speed, and tended to be aerobically fitter. The ability to minimize energetic CoT seems not to be a ubiquitous feature of human running but may emerge in some individuals with extensive running experience.

  7. Massive yet grossly underestimated global costs of invasive insects

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Leroy, Boris; Bellard, Céline; Roiz, David; Albert, Céline; Fournier, Alice; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Salles, Jean-Michel; Simard, Frédéric; Courchamp, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Insects have presented human society with some of its greatest development challenges by spreading diseases, consuming crops and damaging infrastructure. Despite the massive human and financial toll of invasive insects, cost estimates of their impacts remain sporadic, spatially incomplete and of questionable quality. Here we compile a comprehensive database of economic costs of invasive insects. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed US$6.9 billion per year. Total costs rise as the number of estimate increases, although many of the worst costs have already been estimated (especially those related to human health). A lack of dedicated studies, especially for reproducible goods and service estimates, implies gross underestimation of global costs. Global warming as a consequence of climate change, rising human population densities and intensifying international trade will allow these costly insects to spread into new areas, but substantial savings could be achieved by increasing surveillance, containment and public awareness. PMID:27698460

  8. Massive yet grossly underestimated global costs of invasive insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Leroy, Boris; Bellard, Céline; Roiz, David; Albert, Céline; Fournier, Alice; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Salles, Jean-Michel; Simard, Frédéric; Courchamp, Franck

    2016-10-01

    Insects have presented human society with some of its greatest development challenges by spreading diseases, consuming crops and damaging infrastructure. Despite the massive human and financial toll of invasive insects, cost estimates of their impacts remain sporadic, spatially incomplete and of questionable quality. Here we compile a comprehensive database of economic costs of invasive insects. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed US$6.9 billion per year. Total costs rise as the number of estimate increases, although many of the worst costs have already been estimated (especially those related to human health). A lack of dedicated studies, especially for reproducible goods and service estimates, implies gross underestimation of global costs. Global warming as a consequence of climate change, rising human population densities and intensifying international trade will allow these costly insects to spread into new areas, but substantial savings could be achieved by increasing surveillance, containment and public awareness.

  9. Massive yet grossly underestimated global costs of invasive insects.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Leroy, Boris; Bellard, Céline; Roiz, David; Albert, Céline; Fournier, Alice; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Salles, Jean-Michel; Simard, Frédéric; Courchamp, Franck

    2016-10-04

    Insects have presented human society with some of its greatest development challenges by spreading diseases, consuming crops and damaging infrastructure. Despite the massive human and financial toll of invasive insects, cost estimates of their impacts remain sporadic, spatially incomplete and of questionable quality. Here we compile a comprehensive database of economic costs of invasive insects. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed US$6.9 billion per year. Total costs rise as the number of estimate increases, although many of the worst costs have already been estimated (especially those related to human health). A lack of dedicated studies, especially for reproducible goods and service estimates, implies gross underestimation of global costs. Global warming as a consequence of climate change, rising human population densities and intensifying international trade will allow these costly insects to spread into new areas, but substantial savings could be achieved by increasing surveillance, containment and public awareness.

  10. Optimal Shielding for Minimum Materials Cost of Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2014-08-01

    Material costs dominate some shielding design problems. This is certainly the case for manned nuclear power space applications for which shielding is essential and the cost of launching by rocket from earth is high. In such situations or in those where shielding volume or mass is constrained, it is important to optimize the design. Although trial and error synthesis methods may succeed a more systematic approach is warranted. Design automation may also potentially reduce engineering costs.

  11. The global costs of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Martin; Mangalore, Roshni; Simon, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease associated with a significant and long-lasting health, social, and financial burden, not only for patients but also for families, other caregivers, and the wider society. Many national and local studies have sought to estimate the societal burden of the illness--or some components of it--in monetary terms. Findings vary. We systematically reviewed the literature to locate all existing international estimates to date. Sixty-two relevant studies were found and summarized. Within- and between-country differences were analyzed descriptively. Despite the wide diversity of data sets and methods applied, all cost-of-illness estimates highlight the heavy societal burden of schizophrenia. Such information helps us to understand the health, health care, economic, and policy importance of schizophrenia, and to better interpret and explain the large within- and across-country differences that exist.

  12. Minimum cost strategies for sequestering carbon in forests.

    Treesearch

    Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; Bruce A. McCarl; John M. Callaway; Steven M. Winnett

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the costs of meeting explicit targets for increments of carbon sequestered in forests when both forest management decisions and the area of forests can be varied. Costs are estimated as welfare losses in markets for forest and agricultural products. Results show greatest change in management actions when targets require large near-term flux...

  13. Preserving natural environments on coal lands at minimum cost

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D.

    1996-06-01

    In the U.S., about 67 billion tons of coal (27% of the nation`s surface minable coal) have been placed off-limits to surface mining by the Federal Land Policy Management Act and other restrictions in order to protect the environment. By the year 2005, it is projected that this reduction in coal reserves will add about $500 million per year to the nation`s energy costs. As set-aside costs grow and the locked-up coal is perceived as progressively more valuable over time, it is likely that pressure will be brought on the U.S. Department of the Interior to revise its resource management plans. As a general rule, a rational management objective is to achieve a given amount of environmental preservation at the lowest cost. This paper provides an analytic framework, namely constrained cost minimization, for implementing that objective. Examples are given for protecting sage grouse and eagle habitat.

  14. Optimal dual-fuel propulsion for minimum inert weight or minimum fuel cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of single-stage vehicles with multiple propulsion phases has been conducted with the phasing optimized to minimize a general cost function. Some results are presented for linearized sizing relationships which indicate that single-stage-to-orbit, dual-fuel rocket vehicles can have lower inert weight than similar single-fuel rocket vehicles and that the advantage of dual-fuel vehicles can be increased if a dual-fuel engine is developed. The results also indicate that the optimum split can vary considerably with the choice of cost function to be minimized.

  15. An algorithm for minimum-cost set-point ordering in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for minimum cost ordering of set points in a cryogenic wind tunnel is developed. The procedure generates a matrix of dynamic state transition costs, which is evaluated by means of a single-volume lumped model of the cryogenic wind tunnel and the use of some idealized minimum-costs, which is evaluated by means of a single-volume lumped model of the cryogenic wind tunnel and the use of some idealized minimum-cost state-transition control strategies. A branch and bound algorithm is employed to determine the least costly sequence of state transitions from the transition-cost matrix. Some numerical results based on data for the National Transonic Facility are presented which show a strong preference for state transitions that consume to coolant. Results also show that the choice of the terminal set point in an open odering can produce a wide variation in total cost.

  16. Optimal shielding design for minimum materials cost or mass

    DOE PAGES

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2015-12-02

    The mathematical underpinnings of cost optimal radiation shielding designs based on an extension of optimal control theory are presented, a heuristic algorithm to iteratively solve the resulting optimal design equations is suggested, and computational results for a simple test case are discussed. A typical radiation shielding design problem can have infinitely many solutions, all satisfying the problem's specified set of radiation attenuation requirements. Each such design has its own total materials cost. For a design to be optimal, no admissible change in its deployment of shielding materials can result in a lower cost. This applies in particular to very smallmore » changes, which can be restated using the calculus of variations as the Euler-Lagrange equations. Furthermore, the associated Hamiltonian function and application of Pontryagin's theorem lead to conditions for a shield to be optimal.« less

  17. Optimal shielding design for minimum materials cost or mass

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2015-12-02

    The mathematical underpinnings of cost optimal radiation shielding designs based on an extension of optimal control theory are presented, a heuristic algorithm to iteratively solve the resulting optimal design equations is suggested, and computational results for a simple test case are discussed. A typical radiation shielding design problem can have infinitely many solutions, all satisfying the problem's specified set of radiation attenuation requirements. Each such design has its own total materials cost. For a design to be optimal, no admissible change in its deployment of shielding materials can result in a lower cost. This applies in particular to very small changes, which can be restated using the calculus of variations as the Euler-Lagrange equations. Furthermore, the associated Hamiltonian function and application of Pontryagin's theorem lead to conditions for a shield to be optimal.

  18. A Multilevel Approach to Minimum Cost Network Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    COSTS, CAPACITIES, C SUPPLIES AND DEMANDS CALL SHARE 1 (M,S,HEAD,TAIL,C,CP,X,CPX,P,DP,IT,U,NSA,ISA,A,BIGI, 2 MAXC, ISUP , IPRT, NR, 3 INPUT,OUTPUT,NOD...NAD,MXC) D(0) = M-S I1- DO 70 J=1,S SUPPLY(J) = X(J) 70 CONTINUE DO 71 J.S+1,M DEMAND(J-S,0) - 1 °X(J) 77 71 CONTINUE TOTAL SUPPLY - ISUP TOTALDEMAND... ISUP C INITIALIZE COST ARRAY FOR FINEST LEVEL DO 997 1 = S+1,M DO 998 J - HEAD(I), HEAD(I+1)-1 COST(TAIL(J),I-S,0) = REAL(C(J)) 998 CONTINUE 997

  19. Minimum-Cost Aircraft Descent Trajectories with a Constrained Altitude Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Minghong G.; Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical formula for solving the speed profile that accrues minimum cost during an aircraft descent with a constrained altitude profile is derived. The optimal speed profile first reaches a certain speed, called the minimum-cost speed, as quickly as possible using an appropriate extreme value of thrust. The speed profile then stays on the minimum-cost speed as long as possible, before switching to an extreme value of thrust for the rest of the descent. The formula is applied to an actual arrival route and its sensitivity to winds and airlines' business objectives is analyzed.

  20. Minimum-cost well drilling strategy using dynamic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.; Kuru, E.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents an advanced concept in drilling optimization -- the dynamic drilling strategy. The dynamic drilling strategy is a new methodology of drilling process planning and control; it combines theory of single-bit control with an optimal multi-bit drilling program for a well. In the simulation study, the dynamic drilling strategy was compared to conventional drilling optimization and typical field practices; the considerable cost-saving potential of 25 and 60 percent, respectively, was estimated. The method also appeared to be the most cost-effective for expensive and long-lasting PDC bits through better utilization of their performance and reduction in the number of bits needed for the hole.

  1. 40 CFR 35.147 - Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Partnership Grant. 35.147 Section 35.147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... (section 105) § 35.147 Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant. (a) To calculate the cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant (see §§ 35.130 through 35.138) in the initial and...

  2. Possible Global Minimum Lattice Configurations for Thomson's Problem of Charges on a Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin; Williams, Timothy J.; Ratner, Edward R.; Tipton, Robert; Stong, Richard; Dowla, Farid; Wooten, Frederick

    1997-04-01

    What configuration of N point charges on a conducting sphere minimizes the Coulombic energy? J. J. Thomson posed this question in 1904. For N<=112, numerical methods have found apparent global minimum-energy configurations; but the number of local minima appears to grow exponentially with N, making many such methods impractical. Here we describe a topological/numerical procedure that we believe gives the global energy minimum lattice configuration for N of the form N = 10\\(m2+n2+mn\\)+2 ( m, n positive integers). For those N with more than one lattice, we give a rule to choose the minimum one.

  3. Mapping the global topography of the cost function in STELLOPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M.; Mynick, H. E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2011-10-01

    Stellarator designs have long been optimized for reduced neoclassical transport, but optimization for reduced turbulent transport is a relatively nascent research thrust. Recent work has addressed this ``turbulent optimization'' by using the GENE/GIST nonlinear gyrokinetic code and the STELLOPT stellarator optimization code. That work demonstrated that STELLOPT can produce stellarator designs that reduce the turbulent transport without adversely affecting other design metrics. STELLOPT utilizes a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to find a local minimum of a cost function in a shape space z of coefficients that define the plasma boundary. However, a visualization of the topography of the cost function in z space might reveal a lower global minimum and provide insight into why the LM algorithm missed it. The current work uses STELLOPT to provide this capability, replacing its LM algorithm with one that produces maps of the wider topography of the cost function. Analysis of these maps will be used to gain insight into the properties of the studied design configurations and to identify possible improvements to STELLOPT's optimization algorithm. Supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by U.S. DOD NDSEG fellowship.

  4. 20 CFR 404.277 - When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does the frozen minimum primary... Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.277 When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living adjustments? (a) What is the frozen minimum...

  5. 40 CFR 35.147 - Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum cost share for a Performance Partnership Grant. 35.147 Section 35.147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution...

  6. A Minimum-Cost Network-Flow Solution to the Case v Thurstone Scaling Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattin, James M.

    1990-01-01

    An approach is presented for determining unidimensional scale estimates that are relatively insensitive to limited inconsistencies in paired comparisons data. The solution procedure--a minimum-cost network-flow problem--is presented in conjunction with a sensitivity diagnostic that assesses the influence of a single pairwise comparison on…

  7. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  8. Coronary centerline extraction from CT coronary angiography images using a minimum cost path approach

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, C. T.; Schaap, M.; Weustink, A. C.; Mollet, N. R.; Walsum, T. van; Niessen, W. J.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The application and large-scale evaluation of minimum cost path approaches for coronary centerline extraction from computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) data and the development and evaluation of a novel method to reduce the user-interaction time. Methods: A semiautomatic method based on a minimum cost path approach is evaluated for two different cost functions. The first cost function is based on a frequently used vesselness measure and intensity information, and the second is a recently proposed cost function based on region statistics. User interaction is minimized to one or two mouse clicks distally in the coronary artery. The starting point for the minimum cost path search is automatically determined using a newly developed method that finds a point in the center of the aorta in one of the axial slices. This step ensures that all computationally expensive parts of the algorithm can be precomputed. Results: The performance of the aorta localization procedure was demonstrated by a success rate of 100% in 75 images. The success rate and accuracy of centerline extraction was quantitatively evaluated on 48 coronary arteries in 12 images by comparing extracted centerlines with a manually annotated reference standard. The method was able to extract 88% and 47% of the vessel centerlines correctly using the vesselness/intensity and region statistics cost function, respectively. For only the proximal part of the vessels these values were 97% and 86%, respectively. Accuracy of centerline extraction, defined as the average distance from correctly automatically extracted parts of the centerline to the reference standard, was 0.64 mm for the vesselness/intensity and 0.51 mm for the region statistics cost function. The interobserver variability was 99% for the success rate measure and 0.42 mm for the accuracy measure. Qualitative evaluation using the best performing cost function resulted in successful centerline extraction for 233 out of the 252

  9. Characteristics of the Global Ionosphere During the Solar Minimum of Cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, G.; Lee, H.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The last solar minimum period was anomalously low and lasted long compared with previous solar minima. The resulting solar irradiance received in the Earth's upper atmosphere was extremely low and therefore it can readily be expected that the upper atmosphere should be greatly affected by this low solar activity. It has been well reported that the thermospheric temperature was cooler and the density was lower during the last solar minimum than the previous solar minimum periods. The low solar irradiance should also affect the ionosphere, not only via the lower ion-electron production but also through the interactions with the thermosphere that was greatly influenced by the low solar irradiance. In this study, we utilized the measurements of total electron content (TEC) from the TOPEX and JASON-1 satellites for the precious solar minimum and the last solar minimum, respectively, in order to investigate the differences between the ionospheric TECs during the two minimum periods. For this investigation, we first made a comparison between TOPEX and JASON TECs to confirm that they produced identical TECs during the overlap period of the two satellite missions and can be considered as a single TEC observation. Next, the global ionospheric TEC maps are produced during the last two solar minimums for different seasons and the results of the comparison will be discussed, in particular, in relation to the thermospheric changes during the same periods.

  10. Characteristics of the global ionospheric electron density during the extreme solar minimum condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, G.

    2010-12-01

    The last solar minimum period between the cycles 23 and 24 was anomalously low and lasted long compared with previous solar minimums. The resulting solar irradiance received in the Earth’s upper atmosphere was extremely low and therefore it can readily be expected that the upper atmosphere should be greatly affected by this low solar activity. There were several studies on this effect but many of them was on the thermosphere (Solomon et al., 2010; Emmert et al., 2010). According to these studies, the thermospheric temperature was cooler and the density was lower than the previous solar minimum periods. The low solar irradiance during the last solar minimum should also affect the ionosphere, not only via the lower ion-electron production due to the lower EUV radiation but also through the interactions with the thermosphere that was already influenced by the low solar irradiance. In this study, we utilized the measurements of total electron content (TEC) from the TOPEX and JASON satellites during the periods of 1992 to 2010, which includes the last two solar minimums, in order to investigate the differences between the ionospheric behaviors during the two minimum conditions. Initially the levels of the global ionization will be examined during these minimum periods and then further discussions will be continued on the details of the ionospheric behavior such as the seasonal and storm-time variations.

  11. Research on configuration of railway self-equipped tanker based on minimum cost maximum flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuefang; Gan, Chunhui; Shen, Tingting

    2017-05-01

    In the study of the configuration of the tanker of chemical logistics park, the minimum cost maximum flow model is adopted. Firstly, the transport capacity of the park loading and unloading area and the transportation demand of the dangerous goods are taken as the constraint condition of the model; then the transport arc capacity, the transport arc flow and the transport arc edge weight are determined in the transportation network diagram; finally, the software calculations. The calculation results show that the configuration issue of the tankers can be effectively solved by the minimum cost maximum flow model, which has theoretical and practical application value for tanker management of railway transportation of dangerous goods in the chemical logistics park.

  12. Properties of grain oriented 3% silicon steel for transformers with minimum cost of ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littmann, Martin F.

    1982-03-01

    The dependence of total loss on thickness at inductions of 1.0-1.7 T is shown for commerical regular grain oriented and high-permeability 3% silicon-iron with nearly constant grain size and permeability at 800 A/m. As energy evaluations increase, minimum cost of transformer ownership may be attained with regular grain oriented material less than 0.27 mm thick operated at inductions of 1.5 T or less.

  13. Estimating the standardized mean difference with minimum risk: Maximizing accuracy and minimizing cost with sequential estimation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhargab; Kelley, Ken

    2017-03-01

    The standardized mean difference is a widely used effect size measure. In this article, we develop a general theory for estimating the population standardized mean difference by minimizing both the mean square error of the estimator and the total sampling cost. Fixed sample size methods, when sample size is planned before the start of a study, cannot simultaneously minimize both the mean square error of the estimator and the total sampling cost. To overcome this limitation of the current state of affairs, this article develops a purely sequential sampling procedure, which provides an estimate of the sample size required to achieve a sufficiently accurate estimate with minimum expected sampling cost. Performance of the purely sequential procedure is examined via a simulation study to show that our analytic developments are highly accurate. Additionally, we provide freely available functions in R to implement the algorithm of the purely sequential procedure. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  15. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Spurlock, C. Anna; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  16. Minimum cost maximum flow algorithm for upstream bandwidth allocation in OFDMA passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.

  17. Global Prevalence of Past-year Violence Against Children: A Systematic Review and Minimum Estimates.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Susan; Mercy, James; Amobi, Adaugo; Kress, Howard

    2016-03-01

    Evidence confirms associations between childhood violence and major causes of mortality in adulthood. A synthesis of data on past-year prevalence of violence against children will help advance the United Nations' call to end all violence against children. Investigators systematically reviewed population-based surveys on the prevalence of past-year violence against children and synthesized the best available evidence to generate minimum regional and global estimates. We searched Medline, PubMed, Global Health, NBASE, CINAHL, and the World Wide Web for reports of representative surveys estimating prevalences of violence against children. Two investigators independently assessed surveys against inclusion criteria and rated those included on indicators of quality. Investigators extracted data on past-year prevalences of violent victimization by country, age group, and type (physical, sexual, emotional, or multiple types). We used a triangulation approach which synthesized data to generate minimum regional prevalences, derived from population-weighted averages of the country-specific prevalences. Thirty-eight reports provided quality data for 96 countries on past-year prevalences of violence against children. Base case estimates showed a minimum of 50% or more of children in Asia, Africa, and Northern America experienced past-year violence, and that globally over half of all children-1 billion children, ages 2-17 years-experienced such violence. Due to variations in timing and types of violence reported, triangulation could only be used to generate minimum prevalence estimates. Expanded population-based surveillance of violence against children is essential to target prevention and drive the urgent investment in action endorsed in the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Tauer, Loren W; Sanderson, Michael W; Gröhn, Yrjo T

    2014-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2-3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2-4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal's herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times.

  19. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Tauer, Loren W.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2–3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2–4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal’s herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  20. Solar Wind and Global Electron Hemispheric Power in Solar Minimum Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, B. A.; Richardson, I. G.; Evans, D. S.; Rich, F. J.; Wilson, G.

    2008-12-01

    We assess the periodicities of the hourly and daily solar wind velocity (Vsw) and average global electron auroral hemispheric power (Hpeg) with Lomb-Scargle (L-S) and Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) using three Carrington Rotations (CRs) to a year or more of data in two different solar minimum periods. The first Whole Sun Month (WSM) interval (96223-96252) was during the last solar minimum where the solar magnetic field relaxed into a dipole. A strong 'semiannual' periodicity in Vsw maximizing in equinoxes was found, which enhanced the equinoctial maxima found in Hpeg (and Kp) due to the preferred solar wind and magnetospheric reconnection during equinoxes. In the present solar minimum, the solar magnetic field has considerable quadrupole components during the Whole Heliospheric Interval (WHI, 08080-08107). Hpeg exhibits solar rotational periodicities similar to those for Vsw using both L-S and FFT analyses, where the 9- day periodicity is particularly strong in the present solar minimum period. The 9-day periodicity in the WHI CR was caused by three periods of slow-speed solar wind from near the ecliptic plane as seen in the sign of IMF Bx. Periodicities are examined in Vsw since 1972, and in Hpeg since 1978 to assess solar cycle variations. Periodicities longer than 100 days are not as strong or as well correlated between Vsw and Hpeg compared to the shorter solar rotational periodicities.

  1. Minimum Cost Multi-way Data Association for Optimizing Multitarget Tracking of Interacting Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chiwoo; Woehl, Taylor J.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a general formulation for a minimum cost data association problem which associates data features via one-to-one, m-to-one and one-to-n links with minimum total cost of the links. A motivating example is a problem of tracking multiple interacting nanoparticles imaged on video frames, where particles can aggregate into one particle or a particle can be split into multiple particles. Many existing multitarget tracking methods are capable of tracking non-interacting targets or tracking interacting targets of restricted degrees of interactions. The proposed formulation solves a multitarget tracking problem for general degrees of inter-object interactions. The formulation is in the form of a binary integer programming problem. We propose a polynomial time solution approach that can obtain a good relaxation solution of the binary integer programming, so the approach can be applied for multitarget tracking problems of a moderate size (for hundreds of targets over tens of time frames). The resulting solution is always integral and obtains a better duality gap than the simple linear relaxation solution of the corresponding problem. The proposed method was validated through applications to simulated multitarget tracking problems and a real multitarget tracking problem.

  2. Anisotropy effect on global minimum structures of clusters: Two-center Lennard-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Longjiu; Liu, Haiyan

    2011-12-01

    Using a two-center Lennard-Jones (2CLJ) model, the simplest anisotropic case, we investigated how anisotropy affects global minimum structures of clusters and obtained some interesting results. The anisotropy parameter, R, is defined as the ratio of the bond length of 2CLJ dimer to the LJ equilibrium pair separation, where a larger R value means higher anisotropy. For low R values, the structures resemble those of the Lennard-Jones atomic clusters. However, as the pairwise interaction becomes more anisotropic, the "magic numbers" change, and several novel cluster patterns emerge as particularly stable structures, and the global minima change from icosahedral, to polyicosahedral and to novel irregular structures. Moreover, increasing the anisotropy effectively softens the 2CLJ potential. Given the general importance of the LJ cluster as a simple model cluster, 2CLJ model can provide a straightforward and useful analysis of the effect of molecular shape on the structures of clusters.

  3. Anisotropy effect on global minimum structures of clusters: two-center Lennard-Jones model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Longjiu; Liu, Haiyan

    2011-12-28

    Using a two-center Lennard-Jones (2CLJ) model, the simplest anisotropic case, we investigated how anisotropy affects global minimum structures of clusters and obtained some interesting results. The anisotropy parameter, R, is defined as the ratio of the bond length of 2CLJ dimer to the LJ equilibrium pair separation, where a larger R value means higher anisotropy. For low R values, the structures resemble those of the Lennard-Jones atomic clusters. However, as the pairwise interaction becomes more anisotropic, the "magic numbers" change, and several novel cluster patterns emerge as particularly stable structures, and the global minima change from icosahedral, to polyicosahedral and to novel irregular structures. Moreover, increasing the anisotropy effectively softens the 2CLJ potential. Given the general importance of the LJ cluster as a simple model cluster, 2CLJ model can provide a straightforward and useful analysis of the effect of molecular shape on the structures of clusters.

  4. A minimum cost tolerance allocation method for rocket engines and robust rocket engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerth, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    Rocket engine design follows three phases: systems design, parameter design, and tolerance design. Systems design and parameter design are most effectively conducted in a concurrent engineering (CE) environment that utilize methods such as Quality Function Deployment and Taguchi methods. However, tolerance allocation remains an art driven by experience, handbooks, and rules of thumb. It was desirable to develop and optimization approach to tolerancing. The case study engine was the STME gas generator cycle. The design of the major components had been completed and the functional relationship between the component tolerances and system performance had been computed using the Generic Power Balance model. The system performance nominals (thrust, MR, and Isp) and tolerances were already specified, as were an initial set of component tolerances. However, the question was whether there existed an optimal combination of tolerances that would result in the minimum cost without any degradation in system performance.

  5. A Decision Processing Algorithm for CDC Location Under Minimum Cost SCM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, N. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, W. Y.; Tian, Z. M.; Kim, D. J.

    Location of CDC in the matter of network on Supply Chain is becoming on the high concern these days. Present status of methods on CDC has been mainly based on the calculation manually by the spread sheet to achieve the goal of minimum logistics cost. This study is focused on the development of new processing algorithm to overcome the limit of present methods, and examination of the propriety of this algorithm by case study. The algorithm suggested by this study is based on the principle of optimization on the directive GRAPH of SCM model and suggest the algorithm utilizing the traditionally introduced MST, shortest paths finding methods, etc. By the aftermath of this study, it helps to assess suitability of the present on-going SCM network and could be the criterion on the decision-making process for the optimal SCM network building-up for the demand prospect in the future.

  6. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum-standard" forest truck roads constructed in the central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith

    1984-01-01

    A "minimum-standard" forest truck road that provides efficient and environmentally acceptable access for several forest activities is described. Cost data are presented for eight of these roads constructed in the central Appalachians. The average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,119. The range was $5,048 to $14,424. Soil loss was measured from several...

  7. 20 CFR 404.277 - When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living adjustments? 404.277 Section 404.277 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living...

  8. 20 CFR 404.277 - When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living adjustments? 404.277 Section 404.277 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living...

  9. Incremental costs of global environmental benefits. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 5

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-11-01

    The report covers the conceptual, analytical, and strategic issues involved in measuring the costs and potential benefits of environmental programs. This paper surveys the core issues that will be explored in the Global Environment Facility`s (GEF) Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This research examines the measurement of incremental costs associated with reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases, protecting international waters, and conserving global biodiversity. An appendix provides examples of environmental protection efforts that incur net incremental costs. Another delineates principles for equitable resource transfers.

  10. Global cost of correcting vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error.

    PubMed

    Fricke, T R; Holden, B A; Wilson, D A; Schlenther, G; Naidoo, K S; Resnikoff, S; Frick, K D

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the global cost of establishing and operating the educational and refractive care facilities required to provide care to all individuals who currently have vision impairment resulting from uncorrected refractive error (URE). The global cost of correcting URE was estimated using data on the population, the prevalence of URE and the number of existing refractive care practitioners in individual countries, the cost of establishing and operating educational programmes for practitioners and the cost of establishing and operating refractive care facilities. The assumptions made ensured that costs were not underestimated and an upper limit to the costs was derived using the most expensive extreme for each assumption. There were an estimated 158 million cases of distance vision impairment and 544 million cases of near vision impairment caused by URE worldwide in 2007. Approximately 47 000 additional full-time functional clinical refractionists and 18 000 ophthalmic dispensers would be required to provide refractive care services for these individuals. The global cost of educating the additional personnel and of establishing, maintaining and operating the refractive care facilities needed was estimated to be around 20 000 million United States dollars (US$) and the upper-limit cost was US$ 28 000 million. The estimated loss in global gross domestic product due to distance vision impairment caused by URE was US$ 202 000 million annually. The cost of establishing and operating the educational and refractive care facilities required to deal with vision impairment resulting from URE was a small proportion of the global loss in productivity associated with that vision impairment.

  11. Global cost of correcting vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, TR; Wilson, DA; Schlenther, G; Naidoo, KS; Resnikoff, S; Frick, KD

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global cost of establishing and operating the educational and refractive care facilities required to provide care to all individuals who currently have vision impairment resulting from uncorrected refractive error (URE). Methods The global cost of correcting URE was estimated using data on the population, the prevalence of URE and the number of existing refractive care practitioners in individual countries, the cost of establishing and operating educational programmes for practitioners and the cost of establishing and operating refractive care facilities. The assumptions made ensured that costs were not underestimated and an upper limit to the costs was derived using the most expensive extreme for each assumption. Findings There were an estimated 158 million cases of distance vision impairment and 544 million cases of near vision impairment caused by URE worldwide in 2007. Approximately 47 000 additional full-time functional clinical refractionists and 18 000 ophthalmic dispensers would be required to provide refractive care services for these individuals. The global cost of educating the additional personnel and of establishing, maintaining and operating the refractive care facilities needed was estimated to be around 20 000 million United States dollars (US$) and the upper-limit cost was US$ 28 000 million. The estimated loss in global gross domestic product due to distance vision impairment caused by URE was US$ 202 000 million annually. Conclusion The cost of establishing and operating the educational and refractive care facilities required to deal with vision impairment resulting from URE was a small proportion of the global loss in productivity associated with that vision impairment. PMID:23109740

  12. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  13. Photoswitchable molecules as key ingredients to drive systems away from the global thermodynamic minimum.

    PubMed

    Kathan, Michael; Hecht, Stefan

    2017-08-31

    In order to perform chemical work, molecular systems have to be operated away from thermodynamic equilibrium and therefore require the input of energy. Light is perhaps the most abundant and advantageous energy source that in combination with photoswitches allows for a reversible and hence continuous stimulation of a system. In this review, we illustrate how photoswitchable molecules can be used to escape the global thermodynamic minimum by populating metastable states, from which energy can be transferred and transformed in a controlled fashion. We emphasize the unique feature of photodynamic equilibria, in which population of the states is dictated by the excitation wavelength (and not primarily by temperature), thereby avoiding microscopic reversibility since the photoreaction involves an electronically excited state. Thus, photoswitchable molecular systems can remotely be controlled with high spatial and temporal resolution and in addition their action can be fueled by light.

  14. Benefits of rebuilding global marine fisheries outweigh costs.

    PubMed

    Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Cheung, William; Dyck, Andrew; Gueye, Kamal; Huang, Ling; Lam, Vicky; Pauly, Daniel; Srinivasan, Thara; Swartz, Wilf; Watson, Reginald; Zeller, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Global marine fisheries are currently underperforming, largely due to overfishing. An analysis of global databases finds that resource rent net of subsidies from rebuilt world fisheries could increase from the current negative US$13 billion to positive US$54 billion per year, resulting in a net gain of US$600 to US$1,400 billion in present value over fifty years after rebuilding. To realize this gain, governments need to implement a rebuilding program at a cost of about US$203 (US$130-US$292) billion in present value. We estimate that it would take just 12 years after rebuilding begins for the benefits to surpass the cost. Even without accounting for the potential boost to recreational fisheries, and ignoring ancillary and non-market values that would likely increase, the potential benefits of rebuilding global fisheries far outweigh the costs.

  15. Benefits of Rebuilding Global Marine Fisheries Outweigh Costs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Cheung, William; Dyck, Andrew; Gueye, Kamal; Huang, Ling; Lam, Vicky; Pauly, Daniel; Srinivasan, Thara; Swartz, Wilf; Watson, Reginald; Zeller, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Global marine fisheries are currently underperforming, largely due to overfishing. An analysis of global databases finds that resource rent net of subsidies from rebuilt world fisheries could increase from the current negative US$13 billion to positive US$54 billion per year, resulting in a net gain of US$600 to US$1,400 billion in present value over fifty years after rebuilding. To realize this gain, governments need to implement a rebuilding program at a cost of about US$203 (US$130–US$292) billion in present value. We estimate that it would take just 12 years after rebuilding begins for the benefits to surpass the cost. Even without accounting for the potential boost to recreational fisheries, and ignoring ancillary and non-market values that would likely increase, the potential benefits of rebuilding global fisheries far outweigh the costs. PMID:22808187

  16. Proton modulation and global gradients during the solar minimum of Cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Etienne; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    The PAMELA detector is capable of providing accurate measurements of the modulated proton energy spectrum at Earth. Between mid-2006 and mid-2009, the PAMELA and Ulysses missions overlapped, leading to the availability of simultaneous measurements of protons at Earth and along Ulysses' orbit which spans across a range of latitudes. These simultaneous measurements enable a detailed study of the global gradients of cosmic rays (CRs), especially when combined with a comprehensive 3D modulation model that include all of the important modulation mechanisms. In this study, a selection of PAMELA proton energy spectra at Earth were reproduced at different times during the solar minimum period of Cycle 23/24 using such a modulation model. Intensities along the orbit of Ulysses were also calculated for corresponding times. By comparing model solutions with measurements and consequently calculating the global gradients, the physics behind solar modulation can be tested and verified, in particular drifts which cause charge-sign dependent modulation. Moreover, with the crossing of the heliopause (HP) by Voyager 1 in 2012, measurements from beyond the HP allow us to constrain the very local interstellar spectrum for energies below ~100MeV, while PAMELA and AMS-02 measurements can be used to normalize the LIS for energies above ~30GeV, where modulation becomes negligible. This eliminates many uncertainties in modulation studies that existed before.

  17. Global Hawk: Root Cause Analysis of Projected Unit Cost Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    2009 (WSARA). This report describes our task analysis and findings. The Global Hawk Program Global Hawk is a family of high -altitude, high -endurance...Document (CDD) • Cost Analysis Requirements Description (CARD) • Test and Evaluation Master Plan ( TEMP ) • Acquisition Program Baseline (APB...fixed content and completion criteria as defined by the new CDD, CARD, TEMP , and ASR. The four increments shown in the table above reflect the

  18. Global production, use, and emission volumes of short-chain chlorinated paraffins - A minimum scenario.

    PubMed

    Glüge, Juliane; Wang, Zhanyun; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2016-12-15

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) show high persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT properties). Consequently, restrictions on production and use have been enforced in several countries/regions. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants recognized the PBT properties and long-range transport potential of SCCPs in 2015 and is now evaluating a possible global phase-out or restrictions. In this context, it is relevant to know which countries are producing/using SCCPs and in which amounts, and which applications contribute most to their environmental emissions. To provide a first comprehensive overview, we review and integrate all publicly available data on the global production and use of both chlorinated paraffins (CPs) as a whole and specifically SCCPs. Considerable amount of data on production/use of CPs and SCCPs are missing. Based on the available data and reported emission factors, we estimate the past and current worldwide SCCP emissions from individual applications. Using the available data as a minimum scenario, we conclude: (i) SCCP production and use is increasing, with the current worldwide production volume being 165,000t/year at least, whereas the global production of total CPs exceeds 1milliont/year. (ii) The worldwide release of SCCPs from their production and use to air, surface water, and soil between 1935 and 2012 has been in the range of 1690-41,400t, 1660-105,000t, and 9460-81,000t, respectively. (iii) The SCCP manufacture and use in PVC, the use in metal working applications and sealants/adhesives, and the use in plastics and rubber contribute most to the emissions to air, surface water, and soil. Thus, the decrease in the environmental emissions of SCCPs requires reduction of SCCP use in (almost) all applications. (iv) Emissions due to the disposal of waste SCCPs cannot be accurately estimated, because relevant information is missing. Instead, we conduct a scenario analysis to provide some insights into

  19. 20 CFR 641.876 - How will compliance with cost limitations and minimum expenditure levels be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will compliance with cost limitations and minimum expenditure levels be determined? 641.876 Section 641.876 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE...

  20. 20 CFR 641.876 - How will compliance with cost limitations and minimum expenditure levels be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will compliance with cost limitations and minimum expenditure levels be determined? 641.876 Section 641.876 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE...

  1. Minimum cost of transport in Asian elephants: do we really need a bigger elephant?

    PubMed

    Langman, Vaughan A; Rowe, Michael F; Roberts, Thomas J; Langman, Nathanial V; Taylor, Charles R

    2012-05-01

    Body mass is the primary determinant of an animal's energy requirements. At their optimum walking speed, large animals have lower mass-specific energy requirements for locomotion than small ones. In animals ranging in size from 0.8 g (roach) to 260 kg (zebu steer), the minimum cost of transport (COT(min)) decreases with increasing body size roughly as COT(min)∝body mass (M(b))(-0.316±0.023) (95% CI). Typically, the variation of COT(min) with body mass is weaker at the intraspecific level as a result of physiological and geometric similarity within closely related species. The interspecific relationship estimates that an adult elephant, with twice the body mass of a mid-sized elephant, should be able to move its body approximately 23% cheaper than the smaller elephant. We sought to determine whether adult Asian and sub-adult African elephants follow a single quasi-intraspecific relationship, and extend the interspecific relationship between COT(min) and body mass to 12-fold larger animals. Physiological and possibly geometric similarity between adult Asian elephants and sub-adult African elephants caused body mass to have a no effect on COT(min) (COT(min)∝M(b)(0.007±0.455)). The COT(min) in elephants occurred at walking speeds between 1.3 and ∼1.5 m s(-1), and at Froude numbers between 0.10 and 0.24. The addition of adult Asian elephants to the interspecific relationship resulted in COT(min)∝M (-0.277±0.046)(b). The quasi-intraspecific relationship between body mass and COT(min) among elephants caused the interspecific relationship to underestimate COT(min) in larger elephants.

  2. Cost-effective priorities for global mammal conservation

    PubMed Central

    Carwardine, Josie; Wilson, Kerrie A.; Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Naidoo, Robin; Iwamura, Takuya; Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2008-01-01

    Global biodiversity priority setting underpins the strategic allocation of conservation funds. In identifying the first comprehensive set of global priority areas for mammals, Ceballos et al. [Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR, Soberón J, Salazar I, Fay JP (2005) Science 309:603–607] found much potential for conflict between conservation and agricultural human activity. This is not surprising because, like other global priority-setting approaches, they set priorities without socioeconomic objectives. Here we present a priority-setting framework that seeks to minimize the conflicts and opportunity costs of meeting conservation goals. We use it to derive a new set of priority areas for investment in mammal conservation based on (i) agricultural opportunity cost and biodiversity importance, (ii) current levels of international funding, and (iii) degree of threat. Our approach achieves the same biodiversity outcomes as Ceballos et al.'s while reducing the opportunity costs and conflicts with agricultural human activity by up to 50%. We uncover shortfalls in the allocation of conservation funds in many threatened priority areas, highlighting a global conservation challenge. PMID:18678892

  3. Minimum-time control of systems with Coloumb friction: Near global optima via mixed integer linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    DRIESSEN,BRIAN; SADEGH,NADER

    2000-04-25

    This work presents a method of finding near global optima to minimum-time trajectory generation problem for systems that would be linear if it were not for the presence of Coloumb friction. The required final state of the system is assumed to be maintainable by the system, and the input bounds are assumed to be large enough so that they can overcome the maximum static Coloumb friction force. Other than the previous work for generating minimum-time trajectories for non redundant robotic manipulators for which the path in joint space is already specified, this work represents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first approach for generating near global optima for minimum-time problems involving a nonlinear class of dynamic systems. The reason the optima generated are near global optima instead of exactly global optima is due to a discrete-time approximation of the system (which is usually used anyway to simulate such a system numerically). The method closely resembles previous methods for generating minimum-time trajectories for linear systems, where the core operation is the solution of a Phase I linear programming problem. For the nonlinear systems considered herein, the core operation is instead the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem.

  4. Global cost and weight evaluation of fuselage keel design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Morris, M. R.; Metschan, S. L.; Swanson, G. D.; Smith, P. J.; Griess, K. H.; Schramm, M. R.; Humphrey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing program entitled Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) is focused on the application of affordable composite technology to pressurized fuselage structure of future aircraft. As part of this effort, a design study was conducted on the keel section of the aft fuselage. A design build team (DBT) approach was used to identify and evaluate several design concepts which incorporated different material systems, fabrication processes, structural configurations, and subassembly details. The design concepts were developed in sufficient detail to accurately assess their potential for cost and weight savings as compared with a metal baseline representing current wide body technology. The cost and weight results, along with an appraisal of performance and producibility risks, are used to identify a globally optimized keel design; one which offers the most promising cost and weight advantages over metal construction. Lastly, an assessment is given of the potential for further cost and weight reductions of the selected keel design during local optimization.

  5. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  6. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  7. Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jenkins, Richard B; Boe, Kaia; Hoffmann, Michael; Angulo, Ariadne; Bachman, Steve; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Carpenter, Kent E; Comer, Pat J; Cox, Neil; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Darwall, William R T; Di Marco, Moreno; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Goettsch, Bárbara; Heath, Melanie; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hutton, Jon; Johnson, Tim; Joolia, Ackbar; Keith, David A; Langhammer, Penny F; Luedtke, Jennifer; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Lutz, Maiko; May, Ian; Miller, Rebecca M; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Parr, Mike; Pollock, Caroline M; Ralph, Gina; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rondinini, Carlo; Smart, Jane; Stuart, Simon; Symes, Andy; Tordoff, Andrew W; Woodley, Stephen; Young, Bruce; Kingston, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116-204 million), plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278-308 person-years) valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12-16 million), were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013) is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2-6.7 million). We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform decision-making for

  8. A greedy global search algorithm for connecting unstable periodic orbits with low energy cost.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirogiannis, G. A.; Markellos, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    A method for space mission trajectory design is presented in the form of a greedy global search algorithm. It uses invariant manifolds of unstable periodic orbits and its main advantage is that it performs a global search for the suitable legs of the invariant manifolds to be connected for a preliminary transfer design, as well as the appropriate points of the legs for maneuver application. The designed indirect algorithm bases the greedy choice on the optimality conditions that are assumed for the theoretical minimum transfer cost of a spacecraft when using invariant manifolds. The method is applied to a test case space mission design project in the Earth-Moon system and is found to compare favorably with previous techniques applied to the same project.

  9. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-06-26

    This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC can be an important new approach for enhancing global health

  10. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC

  11. Economic costs of protistan and metazoan parasites to global mariculture.

    PubMed

    Shinn, A P; Pratoomyot, J; Bron, J E; Paladini, G; Brooker, E E; Brooker, A J

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, having significant effects on farm production, sustainability and economic viability. Parasite infections and impacts can, according to pathogen and context, be considered to be either unpredictable/sporadic or predictable/regular. Although both types of infection may result in the loss of stock and incur costs associated with the control and management of infection, predictable infections can also lead to costs associated with prophylaxis and related activities. The estimation of the economic cost of a parasite event is frequently complicated by the complex interplay of numerous factors associated with a specific incident, which may range from direct production losses to downstream socio-economic impacts on livelihoods and satellite industries associated with the primary producer. In this study, we examine the world's major marine and brackish water aquaculture production industries and provide estimates of the potential economic costs attributable to a range of key parasite pathogens using 498 specific events for the purposes of illustration and estimation of costs. This study provides a baseline resource for risk assessment and the development of more robust biosecurity practices, which can in turn help mitigate against and/or minimise the potential impacts of parasite-mediated disease in aquaculture.

  12. Produce yellow-poplar furniture dimension at minimum cost by using YELLOPOP

    Treesearch

    David G. Marten; David G. Marten

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program called YELLOPOP that determines the least-cost combination of lumber grades required to produce a given cutting order of furniture dimension parts. If the least-cost mix is not available, YELLOPOP can be used to determine the next best alternative. The steps involved in using the program are also described.

  13. The cost of hybrid waste water systems: A systematic framework for specifying minimum cost-connection rates.

    PubMed

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-10-15

    To determine the optimal connection rate (CR) for regional waste water treatment is a challenge that has recently gained the attention of academia and professional circles throughout the world. We contribute to this debate by proposing a framework for a total cost assessment of sanitation infrastructures in a given region for the whole range of possible CRs. The total costs comprise the treatment and transportation costs of centralised and on-site waste water management systems relative to specific CRs. We can then identify optimal CRs that either deliver waste water services at the lowest overall regional cost, or alternatively, CRs that result from households freely choosing whether they want to connect or not. We apply the framework to a Swiss region, derive a typology for regional cost curves and discuss whether and by how much the empirically observed CRs differ from the two optimal ones. Both optimal CRs may be reached by introducing specific regulatory incentive structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  15. Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Brooks, Thomas M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Jenkins, Richard B.; Boe, Kaia; Hoffmann, Michael; Angulo, Ariadne; Bachman, Steve; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Carpenter, Kent E.; Comer, Pat J.; Cox, Neil; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Darwall, William R. T.; Fishpool, Lincoln D. C.; Goettsch, Bárbara; Heath, Melanie; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hutton, Jon; Johnson, Tim; Joolia, Ackbar; Keith, David A.; Langhammer, Penny F.; Luedtke, Jennifer; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Lutz, Maiko; May, Ian; Miller, Rebecca M.; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Parr, Mike; Pollock, Caroline M.; Ralph, Gina; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rondinini, Carlo; Smart, Jane; Stuart, Simon; Symes, Andy; Tordoff, Andrew W.; Young, Bruce; Kingston, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116–204 million), plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278–308 person-years) valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12–16 million), were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013) is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2–6.7 million). We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform decision

  16. INFERRING THE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA AND INNER HELIOSPHERE DURING THE MAUNDER MINIMUM USING GLOBAL THERMODYNAMIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Pete; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A. E-mail: lionel@predsci.com; and others

    2015-04-01

    Observations of the Sun’s corona during the space era have led to a picture of relatively constant, but cyclically varying solar output and structure. Longer-term, more indirect measurements, such as from {sup 10}Be, coupled by other albeit less reliable contemporaneous reports, however, suggest periods of significant departure from this standard. The Maunder Minimum was one such epoch where: (1) sunspots effectively disappeared for long intervals during a 70 yr period; (2) eclipse observations suggested the distinct lack of a visible K-corona but possible appearance of the F-corona; (3) reports of aurora were notably reduced; and (4) cosmic ray intensities at Earth were inferred to be substantially higher. Using a global thermodynamic MHD model, we have constructed a range of possible coronal configurations for the Maunder Minimum period and compared their predictions with these limited observational constraints. We conclude that the most likely state of the corona during—at least—the later portion of the Maunder Minimum was not merely that of the 2008/2009 solar minimum, as has been suggested recently, but rather a state devoid of any large-scale structure, driven by a photospheric field composed of only ephemeral regions, and likely substantially reduced in strength. Moreover, we suggest that the Sun evolved from a 2008/2009-like configuration at the start of the Maunder Minimum toward an ephemeral-only configuration by the end of it, supporting a prediction that we may be on the cusp of a new grand solar minimum.

  17. Globalization's costs to healthcare. How can we pay the bill?

    PubMed

    Nosek, Laura J

    2004-01-01

    As people become ever more globally mobile and electronic communication permeates ever more remote areas of the world, healthcare reaps both benefits and burdens. Instantaneous communication and worldwide collegial collaboration are contributing solutions to complex biologic and technologic healthcare challenges. Patients are able to access healthcare expertise in distant sites through telehealth modalities, as well as through direct contact. Affordable, accessible air transportation renders world society highly and rapidly mobile. Concomitantly, both new and previously remote diseases are spreading in epidemics and pandemics. Both the financial cost and the cost in human lives lost during the time required to uncover the etiology of a new disease and develop efficacious diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to control it can be astronomical. How can society pay the bills when economies around the world are struggling for stability? A new model for reimbursement of the financial burden incurred by epidemics or pandemics is proposed. In addition, nurse executives are encouraged to invest in preparedness, rather than risk the financial and human cost of being unprepared.

  18. Possible impacts of a future grand solar minimum on climate: Stratospheric and global circulation changes.

    PubMed

    Maycock, A C; Ineson, S; Gray, L J; Scaife, A A; Anstey, J A; Lockwood, M; Butchart, N; Hardiman, S C; Mitchell, D M; Osprey, S M

    2015-09-27

    A future decline in solar activity would not offset projected global warmingA future decline in solar activity could have larger regional effects in winterTop-down mechanism contributes to Northern Hemisphere regional response.

  19. Optimal-Flow Minimum-Cost Correspondence Assignment in Particle Flow Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Matov, Alexandre; Edvall, Marcus M.; Yang, Ge; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-01-01

    A diversity of tracking problems exists in which cohorts of densely packed particles move in an organized fashion, however the stability of individual particles within the cohort is low. Moreover, the flows of cohorts can regionally overlap. Together, these conditions yield a complex tracking scenario that can not be addressed by optical flow techniques that assume piecewise coherent flows, or by multiparticle tracking techniques that suffer from the local ambiguity in particle assignment. Here, we propose a graph-based assignment of particles in three consecutive frames to recover from image sequences the instantaneous organized motion of groups of particles, i.e. flows. The algorithm makes no a priori assumptions on the fraction of particles participating in organized movement, as this number continuously alters with the evolution of the flow fields in time. Graph-based assignment methods generally maximize the number of acceptable particles assignments between consecutive frames and only then minimize the association cost. In dense and unstable particle flow fields this approach produces many false positives. The here proposed approach avoids this via solution of a multi-objective optimization problem in which the number of assignments is maximized while their total association cost is minimized at the same time. The method is validated on standard benchmark data for particle tracking. In addition, we demonstrate its application to live cell microscopy where several large molecular populations with different behaviors are tracked. PMID:21720496

  20. Formation of regular polyicosahedral structure during growth of large Lennard-Jones clusters from their global minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Wiesław Z.

    2016-08-01

    Simulated growth of four global-minimum Lennard-Jones clusters of sizes N = 561, 823, 850 and 923, representing multishell icosahedra and decahedron, always leads to formation of regular polyicosahedral clusters. Observation of cluster structure evolution revealed that new atoms form anti-Mackay islands spreading over the cluster surface by making strong island-island junctions at cluster edges. Analysis of potential energies of atoms composing different local structures shows that energy-driven preference for decahedral arrangement of several atoms initiating the junction of pentagonal symmetry on the cluster surface is responsible for kinetic effect in the cluster growth.

  1. Global warming and least-cost energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption is implicated in the growing emissions of all the major greenhouse gases'': carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and tropospheric ozone. All trap heat emitted from the earth's surface, a phenomenon that could accelerate to destroy the same planetary ecosystems that it has nurtured in the past. Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions are this article's principal concern; increases in such emissions account for about half the projected atmospheric warming, with the increases themselves principally attributable to fossil fuel combustion. The United States is the world's largest emissions source, and while it cannot succeed alone, neither can it abdicate leadership responsibilities without all but ensuring failure. This article contends that US energy policy has been working to increase, rather than forestall, the danger of global warming. In particular, recent trends toward deregulation of the energy sector are grossly insufficient as solutions to the problem, although not necessarily inconsistent with them. The article outlines a way to organize urgent US and international energy policy reforms, drawing on the experience of certain state utility regulators with an approach called least-cost energy planning.'' Least-cost planning recognizes improvements in the efficiency of energy use as a major source of additional energy supplies, and seeks fair competition for energy investment dollars between conservation measures and production facilities.

  2. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert

    2008-07-29

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of global land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 10(5) g) CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion.yr(-1) for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion.yr(-1). Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  3. Mars Sample Return: A Low Cost, Direct and Minimum Risk Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Current NASA strategy for Mars exploration is seeking simpler, cheaper, and more reliable missions to Mars. This requirement has left virtually all previously proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions as economically untenable. The MSR mission proposed in this paper represents an economical, back-to-basics approach of mission design by leveraging interplanetary trajectory design and limited surface science for shorter mission duration, advanced propulsion and thermal protection systems for mass reduction and simplified mission operations for high reliability. As a result, the proposed concept, called the Fast, Mini, Direct Mars Sample Return (FMD-MSR) mission represents the cheapest and fastest class of missions that could return a 0.5 kg sample from the surface of Mars to Earth with a total mission duration of less than 1.5 Earth years. The constraints require an aggressive mission design that dictates the use of advanced storable liquid propulsion systems and advanced TPS materials to minimize aeroshell mass. The mission does not have the high risk operations of other MSR missions such as orbit rendezvous at Mars, propulsive insertion at Mars, rover operations on the surface, and sample transfer. This paper details the key mission elements for such a mission and presents a feasible and cost effective design.

  4. A PC program to optimize system configuration for desired reliability at minimum cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, Steven W.; Siahpush, Ali S.

    1994-01-01

    High reliability is desired in all engineered systems. One way to improve system reliability is to use redundant components. When redundant components are used, the problem becomes one of allocating them to achieve the best reliability without exceeding other design constraints such as cost, weight, or volume. Systems with few components can be optimized by simply examining every possible combination but the number of combinations for most systems is prohibitive. A computerized iteration of the process is possible but anything short of a super computer requires too much time to be practical. Many researchers have derived mathematical formulations for calculating the optimum configuration directly. However, most of the derivations are based on continuous functions whereas the real system is composed of discrete entities. Therefore, these techniques are approximations of the true optimum solution. This paper describes a computer program that will determine the optimum configuration of a system of multiple redundancy of both standard and optional components. The algorithm is a pair-wise comparative progression technique which can derive the true optimum by calculating only a small fraction of the total number of combinations. A designer can quickly analyze a system with this program on a personal computer.

  5. Mars Sample Return: A Low Cost, Direct and Minimum Risk Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Current NASA strategy for Mars exploration is seeking simpler, cheaper, and more reliable missions to Mars. This requirement has left virtually all previously proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions as economically untenable. The MSR mission proposed in this paper represents an economical, back-to-basics approach of mission design by leveraging interplanetary trajectory design and limited surface science for shorter mission duration, advanced propulsion and thermal protection systems for mass reduction and simplified mission operations for high reliability. As a result, the proposed concept, called the Fast, Mini, Direct Mars Sample Return (FMD-MSR) mission represents the cheapest and fastest class of missions that could return a 0.5 kg sample from the surface of Mars to Earth with a total mission duration of less than 1.5 Earth years. The constraints require an aggressive mission design that dictates the use of advanced storable liquid propulsion systems and advanced TPS materials to minimize aeroshell mass. The mission does not have the high risk operations of other MSR missions such as orbit rendezvous at Mars, propulsive insertion at Mars, rover operations on the surface, and sample transfer. This paper details the key mission elements for such a mission and presents a feasible and cost effective design.

  6. Improved variable reduction in partial least squares modelling by Global-Minimum Error Uninformative-Variable Elimination.

    PubMed

    Andries, Jan P M; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2017-08-22

    The calibration performance of Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) can be improved by eliminating uninformative variables. For PLS, many variable elimination methods have been developed. One is the Uninformative-Variable Elimination for PLS (UVE-PLS). However, the number of variables retained by UVE-PLS is usually still large. In UVE-PLS, variable elimination is repeated as long as the root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV) is decreasing. The set of variables in this first local minimum is retained. In this paper, a modification of UVE-PLS is proposed and investigated, in which UVE is repeated until no further reduction in variables is possible, followed by a search for the global RMSECV minimum. The method is called Global-Minimum Error Uninformative-Variable Elimination for PLS, denoted as GME-UVE-PLS or simply GME-UVE. After each iteration, the predictive ability of the PLS model, built with the remaining variable set, is assessed by RMSECV. The variable set with the global RMSECV minimum is then finally selected. The goal is to obtain smaller sets of variables with similar or improved predictability than those from the classical UVE-PLS method. The performance of the GME-UVE-PLS method is investigated using four data sets, i.e. a simulated set, NIR and NMR spectra, and a theoretical molecular descriptors set, resulting in twelve profile-response (X-y) calibrations. The selective and predictive performances of the models resulting from GME-UVE-PLS are statistically compared to those from UVE-PLS and 1-step UVE, one-sided paired t-tests. The results demonstrate that variable reduction with the proposed GME-UVE-PLS method, usually eliminates significantly more variables than the classical UVE-PLS, while the predictive abilities of the resulting models are better. With GME-UVE-PLS, a lower number of uninformative variables, without a chemical meaning for the response, may be retained than with UVE-PLS. The selectivity of the classical UVE method

  7. Global anthropogenic methane emissions 2005-2030: technical mitigation potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höglund-Isaksson, L.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents estimates of current and future global anthropogenic methane emissions, their technical mitigation potential and associated costs for the period 2005 to 2030. The analysis uses the GAINS model framework to estimate emissions, mitigation potentials and costs for all major sources of anthropogenic methane for 83 countries/regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. Global anthropogenic methane emissions are estimated at 323 Mt methane in 2005, with an expected increase to 414 Mt methane in 2030. Major uncertainty sources in emission estimates are identified and discussed. Mitigation costs are estimated defining two different cost perspectives; the social planner cost perspective and the private investor cost perspective.

  8. Performance of IRI-2012 model during a deep solar minimum and a maximum year over global equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Present paper inspects the prediction capability of the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model in predicting the total electron content (TEC) over seven different equatorial regions across the globe during a very low solar activity phase 2009 and a high solar activity phase 2012. This has been carried out by comparing the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived VTEC with those from the IRI-2012 model. The observed GPS-TEC shows the presence of winter anomaly which is prominent during the solar maximum year 2012 and disappeared during solar minimum year 2009. The monthly and seasonal mean of the IRI-2012 model TEC with IRI-NeQ topside has been compared with the GPS-TEC, and our results showed that the monthly and seasonal mean value of the IRI-2012 model overestimates the observed GPS-TEC at all the equatorial stations. The discrepancy (or over estimation) in the IRI-2012 model is found larger during solar maximum year 2012 than that during solar minimum year 2009. This is a contradiction to the results recently presented by Tariku (2015) over equatorial regions of Uganda. The discrepancy is found maximum during the December solstice and a minimum during the March equinox. The magnitude of discrepancy in the IRI-2012 model showed longitudinal dependent which maximized in western longitude sector during both the years 2009 and 2012. The significant discrepancy in the IRI-2012 model observed during the solar minimum year 2009 could be attributed to larger difference between F10.7 flux and EUV flux (26-34 nm) during low solar activity period 2007-2009 than that during high solar activity period 2010-2012. This suggests that to represent the solar activity impact in the IRI model, implementation of new solar activity indices is further required for its better performance.

  9. Representing nighttime and minimum conductance in CLM4.5: global hydrology and carbon sensitivity analysis using observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, Danica L.; Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere regulates climate through carbon, water, and energy exchanges with the atmosphere. Land-surface models estimate plant transpiration, which is actively regulated by stomatal pores, and provide projections essential for understanding Earth's carbon and water resources. Empirical evidence from 204 species suggests that significant amounts of water are lost through leaves at night, though land-surface models typically reduce stomatal conductance to nearly zero at night. Here, we test the sensitivity of carbon and water budgets in a global land-surface model, the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5, to three different methods of incorporating observed nighttime stomatal conductance values. We find that our modifications increase transpiration by up to 5 % globally, reduce modeled available soil moisture by up to 50 % in semi-arid regions, and increase the importance of the land surface in modulating energy fluxes. Carbon gain declines by up to ˜ 4 % globally and > 25 % in semi-arid regions. We advocate for realistic constraints of minimum stomatal conductance in future climate simulations, and widespread field observations to improve parameterizations.

  10. Modified Papanicolaou staining protocol with minimum alcohol use: a cost-cutting measure for resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chachra, K L; Bhadola, P; Sodhani, P

    2010-08-01

    To devise a simple, cost-effective protocol for Papanicolaou (Pap) staining of cervicovaginal smears. Five hundred coded paired cervical smears were collected from women as part of routine cervical cancer screening. One set of smears was stained by conventional Pap staining protocol (CP) and the other by a modified protocol (MP) in which alcohol was replaced by 1% acetic acid in all the steps except during fixation and prior to mounting; in addition, one alcohol-based counterstain, OG, was omitted. The smears were examined blindly by the pathologists and then decoded. Each pair of smears was compared and the two protocols were analysed for staining quality and diagnoses by McNemar and chi-square tests. The staining quality in the MP was satisfactory. The nuclear and cytoplasmic features were comparable to the CP. Cytoplasmic transparency was maintained in the MP and the differential staining of blue/green and pink was acceptable to the pathologists and technicians. The diagnoses agreed in all cases and there was no compromise in interpreting the smears. With MP it took only 3-4 minutes to stain a batch of 50 slides. in contrast to the 20 minutes taken by CP. The MP used almost one-seventh of the amount of alcohol compared with CP, which translated into a significant cost reduction per smear. The improvised Pap staining protocol with minimum alcohol use is a simple, cost-effective and technician-friendly procedure that can be easily adopted in high-volume, resource-limited laboratories for mass cervical cancer screening.

  11. Ab initio search for global minimum structures of neutral and anionic B 4H 5 clusters. Optical isomerism in B 4H 5 and B4H5-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jared K.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2011-11-01

    Potential energy surfaces of neutral and anionic B 4H 5 clusters were sampled using the Coalescence Kick method. We found that the neutral B 4H 5 cluster has two optical isomers as either a global minimum structure, or as almost degenerate isomers with the global minimum structure. For the B4H5- anion only the third lowest isomer forms a pair of optical isomers. The chemical bonding patterns revealed by the Adaptive Natural Density Partitioning (AdNDP) analysis can easily explain the geometric structure of even very exotic isomers and global minima. Theoretical vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs) were calculated for comparison with future experimental work.

  12. Global Gradients for Cosmic-Ray Protons in the Heliosphere During the Solar Minimum of Cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, E. E.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Global gradients for cosmic-ray (CR) protons in the heliosphere are computed with a comprehensive modulation model for the recent prolonged solar minimum of Cycle 23/24. Fortunately, the PAMELA ( Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) and Ulysses/KET ( Kiel Electron Telescope) instruments simultaneously observed proton intensities for the period between July 2006 and June 2009. This provides a good opportunity to compare the basic features of the model with these observations, including observations from Voyager-1 in the outer heliosphere, beyond 50~AU. Radial and latitudinal gradients are calculated from measurements, with the latter possible because Ulysses changed its position significantly in the heliocentric meridional plane during this period. The modulation model is set up for the conditions that prevailed during this unusual solar-minimum period to gain insight into the role that particle drifts played in establishing the observed gradients for this period. Four year-end PAMELA proton spectra were reproduced with the model, from 2006 to 2009, followed by corresponding radial profiles that were computed along the Voyager-1 trajectory, and compared to available observations.

  13. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Treesearch

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  14. Cost analysis of Navy acquisition alternatives for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcy, T. F.; Smith, G. P.

    1982-12-01

    This research analyzes the life cycle cost (LCC) of the Navy's current and two hypothetical procurement alternatives for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment. Costs are derived by the ARINC Research Corporation ACBEN cost estimating system. Data presentation is in a comparative format describing individual alternative LCC and differential costs between alternatives. Sensitivity analysis explores the impact receiver-processor unit (RPU) first unit production cost has on individual alternative LCC, as well as cost differentials between each alternative. Several benefits are discussed that might provide sufficient cost savings and/or system effectiveness improvements to warrant a procurement strategy other than the existing proposal.

  15. Disease management. A global cost-containing initiative?

    PubMed

    Bloor, K; Maynard, A

    2000-06-01

    Disease management has been marketed by healthcare industry providers as a way of improving resource allocation in healthcare and containing costs. However, to achieve improved efficiency in healthcare requires the guidelines and protocols in the disease management process to be based on sound evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness. This has not always been the case. The approach itself has an inadequate evidence base in terms of randomised controlled trials, other rigorous methods of evaluation and the results of economic evaluation. Disease management can be viewed as an attempt by pharmaceutical companies to undertake forward vertical integration into other parts of the healthcare process. This could reduce uncertainty for purchasers and reduce transaction costs, thereby potentially facilitating both healthcare expenditure control and efficiency. However, such cost savings may be outweighed by a concentration of power in disease management (pharmaceutical) companies, and the exploitation of such power to inflate expenditure and misallocate resources. Disease management must be appraised with care.

  16. Toward Global Biobank Integration by Implementation of the Minimum Information About BIobank Data Sharing (MIABIS 2.0 Core).

    PubMed

    Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Norlin, Loreana; van Enckevort, David; Anton, Gabriele; Schuffenhauer, Simone; Silander, Kaisa; Mook, Linda; Holub, Petr; Bild, Raffael; Swertz, Morris; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are the biological back end of data-driven medicine, but lack standards and generic solutions for interoperability and information harmonization. The move toward a global information infrastructure for biobanking demands semantic interoperability through harmonized services and common ontologies. To tackle this issue, the Minimum Information About BIobank data Sharing (MIABIS) was developed in 2012 by the Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure of Sweden (BBMRI.se). The wide acceptance of the first version of MIABIS encouraged evolving it to a more structured and descriptive standard. In 2013 a working group was formed under the largest infrastructure for health in Europe, Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-ERIC), with the remit to continue the development of MIABIS (version 2.0) through a multicountry governance process. MIABIS 2.0 Core has been developed with 22 attributes describing Biobanks, Sample Collections, and Studies according to a modular structure that makes it easier to adhere to and to extend the standard. This integration standard will make a great contribution to the discovery and exploitation of biobank resources and lead to a wider and more efficient use of valuable bioresources, thereby speeding up the research on human diseases. Many within the European Union have accepted MIABIS 2.0 Core as the "de facto" biobank information standard.

  17. Semi-global robust output regulation of minimum-phase nonlinear systems based on high-gain nonlinear internal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, K. M.; Deng, Bin; Che, Yanqiu

    2010-05-01

    We consider the assumption of existence of the general nonlinear internal model that is introduced in the design of robust output regulators for a class of minimum-phase nonlinear systems with rth degree (r ≥ 2). The robust output regulation problem can be converted into a robust stabilisation problem of an augmented system consisting of the given plant and a high-gain nonlinear internal model, perfectly reproducing the bounded including not only periodic but also nonperiodic exogenous signal from a nonlinear system, which satisfies some general immersion assumption. The state feedback controller is designed to guarantee the asymptotic convergence of system errors to zero manifold. Furthermore, the proposed scheme makes use of output feedback dynamic controller that only processes information from the regulated output error by using high-gain observer to robustly estimate the derivatives of the regulated output error. The stabilisation analysis of the resulting closed-loop systems leads to regional as well as semi-global robust output regulation achieved for some appointed initial condition in the state space, for all possible values of the uncertain parameter vector and the exogenous signal, ranging over an arbitrary compact set.

  18. The global distribution of the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of summer NmF2 at solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement (DNE) of summer NmF2 was investigated based on Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation observations at solar minimum. The global distributions of the magnitude and the peak time of the DNE as well as the role of the DNE in NmF2 diurnal cycle were presented. The DNE mainly exists in three regions (one in the Southern Hemisphere and two in the Northern Hemisphere), and its distribution is related to geomagnetic configuration, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. For most DNEs, their peaks correspond to the maxima of NmF2 diurnal cycle. The DNEs are much more prominent in the southern than in the northern summer hemisphere; they last to later nighttime hours, have larger magnitudes, and play more important roles in NmF2 diurnal cycle in the southern than in the northern summer hemisphere. The distribution of the DNE was analyzed in terms of photoionization and the vertical plasma drift induced by neutral winds. The positive geomagnetic declinations and the smaller geomagnetic inclinations at higher geographic latitudes over the South Pacific are crucial for the prominent DNEs in the southern summer hemisphere; they result in larger upward plasma drift at higher latitudes where photoionization is still significant at sunset and evening hours.

  19. Greenhouse effect and coastal wetland policy: How Americans could abandon an area the size of Massachusetts at minimum cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Climatologists generally expect an anthropogenic global warming that could raise sea level 30-150 cm in the next century and more thereafter. One of the impacts would be the loss of coastal wetlands. Although the inundation of adjacent dryland would enable new wetlands to form, much of this land is or will soon be developed. If developed areas are protected, wetlands will be squeezed between an advancing sea and the land being protected, which has already happened in China and the Netherlands, where people have built dikes for centuries. Unlike those countries, the United States has enough land to accommodate the landward migration of wetlands; but governments lack the funds to purchase all the coastal lowlands that might be inundated and the legal authority to prohibit their development. We propose a third approach: allowing property owners to use coastal lowlands today as they choose, but setting up a legal mechanism to ensure that the land is abandoned if and when sea level rises enough to inundate it. Although compensation may be required, this approach would cost less than 1% as much as purchasing the land, and would be (1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise. This article demonstrates that it would be irrational to delay policy formulation until sea level rise projections are more precise. The cost will be small if we act now but great if we wait, and sea level is already rising along most coasts. The US government should develop a strategy in the next three years.

  20. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.

    2004-12-01

    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  1. Mitigation potential and costs for global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural activities are a substantial contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for about 58% of the world’s anthropogenic non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions and 14% of all anthropogenic GHG emissions, and agriculture is often viewed as a potential source of relatively low-c...

  2. Identification of Evidence for Key Parameters in Decision-Analytic Models of Cost Effectiveness: A Description of Sources and a Recommended Minimum Search Requirement.

    PubMed

    Paisley, Suzy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes recommendations for a minimum level of searching for data for key parameters in decision-analytic models of cost effectiveness and describes sources of evidence relevant to each parameter type. Key parameters are defined as treatment effects, adverse effects, costs, resource use, health state utility values (HSUVs) and baseline risk of events. The recommended minimum requirement for treatment effects is comprehensive searching according to available methodological guidance. For other parameter types, the minimum is the searching of one bibliographic database plus, where appropriate, specialist sources and non-research-based and non-standard format sources. The recommendations draw on the search methods literature and on existing analyses of how evidence is used to support decision-analytic models. They take account of the range of research and non-research-based sources of evidence used in cost-effectiveness models and of the need for efficient searching. Consideration is given to what constitutes best evidence for the different parameter types in terms of design and scientific quality and to making transparent the judgments that underpin the selection of evidence from the options available. Methodological issues are discussed, including the differences between decision-analytic models of cost effectiveness and systematic reviews when searching and selecting evidence and comprehensive versus sufficient searching. Areas are highlighted where further methodological research is required.

  3. Global anthropogenic methane emissions 2005-2030: technical mitigation potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höglund-Isaksson, L.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents estimates of current and future global anthropogenic methane emissions, their technical mitigation potential and associated costs for the period 2005 to 2030. The analysis uses the GAINS model framework to estimate emissions, mitigation potentials and costs for all major sources of anthropogenic methane for 83 countries/regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. Global emissions are estimated at 323 Mt methane in 2005, with an expected increase to 414 Mt methane in 2030. The technical mitigation potential is estimated at 195 Mt methane in 2030, whereof about 80 percent is found attainable at a marginal cost less than 20 Euro t-1 CO2eq when using a social planner cost perspective. With a private investor cost perspective, the corresponding fraction is only 30 percent. Major uncertainty sources in emission estimates are identified and discussed.

  4. [Cost-effectiveness analysis and diet quality index applied to the WHO Global Strategy].

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Simões, Arlete Naresse

    2008-02-01

    To test the use of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision making tool in the production of meals for the inclusion of the recommendations published in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy. Five alternative options for breakfast menu were assessed previously to their adoption in a food service at a university in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Costs of the different options were based on market prices of food items (direct cost). Health benefits were estimated based on adaptation of the Diet Quality Index (DQI). Cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated by dividing benefits by costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated as cost differential per unit of additional benefit. The meal choice was based on health benefit units associated to direct production cost as well as incremental effectiveness per unit of differential cost. The analysis showed the most simple option with the addition of a fruit (DQI = 64 / cost = R$ 1.58) as the best alternative. Higher effectiveness was seen in the options with a fruit portion (DQI1=64 / DQI3=58 / DQI5=72) compared to the others (DQI2=48 / DQI4=58). The estimate of cost-effectiveness ratio allowed to identifying the best breakfast option based on cost-effectiveness analysis and Diet Quality Index. These instruments allow easy application easiness and objective evaluation which are key to the process of inclusion of public or private institutions under the Global Strategy directives.

  5. Minimum costs for producing hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals for use in large-scale treatment access programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew; Khoo, Saye; Fortunak, Joe; Simmons, Bryony; Ford, Nathan

    2014-04-01

    Several combinations of 2 or 3 direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the majority of treatment-naive patients. DAAs for HCV infection have similar mechanisms of action and chemical structures to antiretrovirals for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Generic antiretrovirals are currently manufactured at very low prices, to treat 10 million people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Four HCV DAAs, currently either in phase 3 development or recent approval (daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, faldaprevir), and ribavirin were classified by chemical structure, molecular weight, total daily dose, and complexity of synthesis. The likely range of manufacturing costs per gram of DAA were then projected as formulated product cost, based upon treating a minimum of 1 million patients annually (to arrive at volume demand) combined with an analysis of the complexity of synthesis and a 40% margin for formulation. Projections were then compared with actual costs of antiretrovirals with similar structures. Minimum manufacturing costs of antiretrovirals were US$0.2-$2.1 per gram. The complexity of chemical synthesis for HCV DAAs was ranked from lowest to highest: ribavirin, daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, faldaprevir, and simeprevir. Predicted manufacturing costs (US dollars) for 12-week courses of HCV DAAs were $21-$63 for ribavirin, $10-$30 for daclatasvir, $68-$136 for sofosbuvir, $100-$210 for faldaprevir, and $130-$270 for simeprevir. Within the next 15 years, large-scale manufacture of 2 or 3 drug combinations of HCV DAAs is feasible, with minimum target prices of $100-$250 per 12-week treatment course. These low prices could make widespread access to HCV treatment in low- and middle-income countries a realistic goal.

  6. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  7. Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities

    PubMed Central

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

  8. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  9. Integrating economic costs and biological traits into global conservation priorities for carnivores.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Rafael Dias; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Nogueira, Denise Martins; Kubota, Umberto; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Lewinsohn, Thomas Michael

    2009-08-27

    Prioritization schemes usually highlight species-rich areas, where many species are at imminent risk of extinction. To be ecologically relevant these schemes should also include species biological traits into area-setting methods. Furthermore, in a world of limited funds for conservation, conservation action is constrained by land acquisition costs. Hence, including economic costs into conservation priorities can substantially improve their conservation cost-effectiveness. We examined four global conservation scenarios for carnivores based on the joint mapping of economic costs and species biological traits. These scenarios identify the most cost-effective priority sets of ecoregions, indicating best investment opportunities for safeguarding every carnivore species, and also establish priority sets that can maximize species representation in areas harboring highly vulnerable species. We compared these results with a scenario that minimizes the total number of ecoregions required for conserving all species, irrespective of other factors. We found that cost-effective conservation investments should focus on 41 ecoregions highlighted in the scenario that consider simultaneously both ecoregion vulnerability and economic costs of land acquisition. Ecoregions included in priority sets under these criteria should yield best returns of investments since they harbor species with high extinction risk and have lower mean land cost. Our study highlights ecoregions of particular importance for the conservation of the world's carnivores defining global conservation priorities in analyses that encompass socioeconomic and life-history factors. We consider the identification of a comprehensive priority-set of areas as a first step towards an in-situ biodiversity maintenance strategy.

  10. Estimating the global costs of vitamin A capsule supplementation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Neidecker-Gonzales, Oscar; Nestel, Penelope; Bouis, Howarth

    2007-09-01

    Vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality. It is estimated that 500 million vitamin A capsules are distributed annually. Policy recommendations have assumed that the supplementation programs offer a proven technology at a relatively low cost of around US$0.10 per capsule. To review data on costs of vitamin A supplementation to analyze the key factors that determine program costs, and to attempt to model these costs as a function of per capita income figures. Using data from detailed cost studies in seven countries, this study generated comparable cost categories for analysis, and then used the correlation between national incomes and wage rates to postulate a simple model where costs of vitamin A supplementation are regressed on per capita incomes. Costs vary substantially by country and depend principally on the cost of labor, which is highly correlated with per capita income. Two other factors driving costs are whether the program is implemented in conjunction with other health programs, such as National Immunization Days (which lowers costs), and coverage in rural areas (which increases costs). Labor accounts for 70% of total costs, both for paid staff and for volunteers, while the capsules account for less than 5%. Marketing, training, and administration account for the remaining 25%. Total costs are lowest (roughly US$0.50 per capsule) in Africa, where wages and incomes are lowest, US$1 in developing countries in Asia, and US$1.50 in Latin America. Overall, this study derives a much higher global estimate of costs of around US$1 per capsule.

  11. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  12. Costs and benefits of polio eradication: a long-run global perspective.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ehreth, Jennifer

    2003-01-30

    Pre-vaccination polio incidence rates in USA and Italy were used to predict the cases that would have occurred in the world for the years 1970-2050 in the absence of immunization. Globally, polio program will cost about US dollars 67 billion if vaccination is discontinued after 2010. The medical care cost savings achieved will be more than US dollars 128 billions, implying that polio eradication activities actually pay for itself in the longer run. In addition to the cost savings, the program will prevent 855000 deaths, 4 million paralysis cases and 40 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) over the years 1970-2050.

  13. A global view of the modulation of cosmic ray protons in the heliosphere for the solar minimum period up to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potgieter, M. S.; Vos, E. E.

    2016-11-01

    The heliosphere was in a state of ideal solar minimum conditions for at least three years up to the end of 2009. During this period the highest ever recorded cosmic ray spectra were observed at the Earth. Fortunately, the PAMELA and Ulysses KET instruments simultaneously observed proton intensities for most of the period between July 2006 and June 2009, while Voyager 1 made observations in the outer heliosphere. This provides a good opportunity to compare the basic features of a comprehensive numerical model for the global modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere with these observations. Global gradients for protons are computed with the model for this prolonged solar minimum of cycle 23/24. This is done for both radial and latitudinal gradients, with the latter possible because Ulysses changed its position significantly in the heliocentric meridional plane during this period. The modulation model is set up for the conditions that prevailed during this unusual solar minimum period so that insight is gained on what role particle drifts played in establishing the observed gradients for this period. Good agreement is found between computed and observed gradients so that we conclude that the model gives a most reasonable representation of modulation conditions from the Earth to the heliopause for the mentioned period. These results can be used to refine the theory for diffusion, particle drifts and turbulence in the heliosphere.

  14. Estimation of the Coefficient of Variation with Minimum Risk: A Sequential Method for Minimizing Sampling Error and Study Cost.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhargab; Kelley, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The coefficient of variation is an effect size measure with many potential uses in psychology and related disciplines. We propose a general theory for a sequential estimation of the population coefficient of variation that considers both the sampling error and the study cost, importantly without specific distributional assumptions. Fixed sample size planning methods, commonly used in psychology and related fields, cannot simultaneously minimize both the sampling error and the study cost. The sequential procedure we develop is the first sequential sampling procedure developed for estimating the coefficient of variation. We first present a method of planning a pilot sample size after the research goals are specified by the researcher. Then, after collecting a sample size as large as the estimated pilot sample size, a check is performed to assess whether the conditions necessary to stop the data collection have been satisfied. If not an additional observation is collected and the check is performed again. This process continues, sequentially, until a stopping rule involving a risk function is satisfied. Our method ensures that the sampling error and the study costs are considered simultaneously so that the cost is not higher than necessary for the tolerable sampling error. We also demonstrate a variety of properties of the distribution of the final sample size for five different distributions under a variety of conditions with a Monte Carlo simulation study. In addition, we provide freely available functions via the MBESS package in R to implement the methods discussed.

  15. The Need for Cost-Effective Neurosurgical Innovation--A Global Surgery Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Kraus, Kristin L; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K; Kestle, John R

    2015-11-01

    The authors discuss the unmet needs for neurosurgical care around the world and some of the innovative work being done to address this need. The growing demonstration of surgical innovation and cost-effective technology represents an opportunity within neurosurgery to achieve the goal of making surgical care more accessible to the global population.

  16. Costs and benefits of adapting to river floods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen; Botzen, Wouter; Hallegatte, Stephane; Jongman, Brenden; Kind, Jarl; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the economic losses associated with flooding are huge; for example in 2012 alone the economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion. As a result, different models have been developed to assess global scale flood risk. Recently, these have been used in several studies to assess current flood risk at the global scale, and to project how risk may increase as a result of climate change and/or socioeconomic development. In most regions, these studies show rapid increases in risk into the future, and therefore call for urgent adaptation. However, to date no studies have attempted to assess the costs of carrying out such adaptation, nor the benefits. In this paper, we therefore present the first global scale estimate of the costs and benefits of adapting to increased river flood risk caused by factors such as climate change and socioeconomic development. For this study, we concentrate on structural adaptation measures, such as dikes, designed to prevent flood hazard up to a certain design standard. We address two questions: 1. What would be the costs and benefits of maintaining current flood protection standards, accounting for future climate and socioeconomic change until 2100? 2. What flood protection standards would be required by 2100 to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels? And what would be the costs and benefits associated with this? In this paper, we will present our first global estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation to increased flood risk, as well as maps of these findings per country and river basin. We present the results under 4 emission scenarios (RCPs), 5 socioeconomic scenarios (SSPs), and under several assumptions relating to total potential flood damages, discount rates, construction costs, maintenance costs, and so forth. The research was carried out using the GLOFRIS modelling cascade. This global flood risk model calculates flood risk in terms of annual expected damage, and has been developed and

  17. Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases until 2050: technical mitigation potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Hoglund-Isaksson, Lena

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic fluorinated (F-gases) greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly in recent years and are estimated to rise further in response to increased demand for cooling services and the phase out of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol. F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) are potent greenhouse gases, with a global warming effect up to 22,800 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2). This study presents estimates of current and future global emissions of F-gases, their technical mitigation potential and associated costs for the period 2005 to 2050. The analysis uses the GAINS model framework to estimate emissions, mitigation potentials and costs for all major sources of anthropogenic F-gases for 162 countries/regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. For each region, 18 emission source sectors with mitigation potentials and costs were identified. Global F-gas emissions are estimated at 0.7 Gt CO2eq in 2005 with an expected increase to about 3.6 Gt CO2eq in 2050. There are extensive opportunities to reduce emissions by over 95 percent primarily through replacement with existing low GWP substances. The initial results indicate that at least half of the mitigation potential is attainable at a cost of less than 20€ per t CO2eq, while almost 90 percent reduction is attainable at less than 100€ per t CO2eq. Currently, several policy proposals have been presented to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially curb global HFC use. We analyze the technical potentials and costs associated with the HFC mitigation required under the different proposed Montreal Protocol amendments.

  18. Global minimum structures, stability and electronic properties of small NixSny (x + y ≤ 5) bimetallic clusters; a DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Hernández, Elisa Marina; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martin; Alvarado-Leyva, Pedro Gilberto

    2016-10-01

    We report DFT calculations about the global minimum structures, stability and electronic properties of small free Ni x Sn y nanoalloys ( x + y ≤ 5), by using the free SIESTA code. Our results show that the optimized structures of these binary nanoalloys prefer geometries with high coordination and show significant variations as compared to lower energies structures of the pure clusters. The excess energy reveals a favorable mixing of the constituent atoms for all the clusters studied here. The electronic behavior is analyzed through the ionization potential, electron affinity and hardness.

  19. A global analysis of the environmental cost of river water withdrawals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soligno, Irene; Ridolfi, Luca; Laio, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    World freshwater ecosystems are considerably declining, at a faster rate than other ecosystems. Water withdrawals are identified as one of the main drivers of increasing water stress in several river basins worldwide. So far, much effort has been devoted to quantify water withdrawals and fluvial water consumptions at a global scale; however, comparisons are not simple because the irregular spatiotemporal distribution of freshwater resources entails that the same volume of consumed water does not have the same environmental "cost" in different times or places. In order to take into account this spatial and temporal heterogeneity, our work proposes a novel index to evaluate the environmental cost of a reference amount of water withdrawn from a generic river section. The index depends on (i) the local environmental relevance of the impacted fluvial ecosystem (e.g., nutrient/sediment transport capacity, width of the riparian region, biodiversity richness) and (ii) the portion of the river network impacted by the reference water withdrawal, that is the downstream drainage network. In the present work, the index is applied at a global scale with a 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution and employing annual average data of river discharge. Globally, regions and countries more environmentally vulnerable to water depletion are identified. Since the proposed index systematically assesses the environmental cost by accounting for the downstream propagation effect of a water withdrawal on the fluvial ecosystem, it aims to support decision-making in global transboundary river basins as well.

  20. Integrating Economic Costs and Biological Traits into Global Conservation Priorities for Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Loyola, Rafael Dias; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Nogueira, Denise Martins; Kubota, Umberto; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Lewinsohn, Thomas Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Prioritization schemes usually highlight species-rich areas, where many species are at imminent risk of extinction. To be ecologically relevant these schemes should also include species biological traits into area-setting methods. Furthermore, in a world of limited funds for conservation, conservation action is constrained by land acquisition costs. Hence, including economic costs into conservation priorities can substantially improve their conservation cost-effectiveness. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined four global conservation scenarios for carnivores based on the joint mapping of economic costs and species biological traits. These scenarios identify the most cost-effective priority sets of ecoregions, indicating best investment opportunities for safeguarding every carnivore species, and also establish priority sets that can maximize species representation in areas harboring highly vulnerable species. We compared these results with a scenario that minimizes the total number of ecoregions required for conserving all species, irrespective of other factors. We found that cost-effective conservation investments should focus on 41 ecoregions highlighted in the scenario that consider simultaneously both ecoregion vulnerability and economic costs of land acquisition. Ecoregions included in priority sets under these criteria should yield best returns of investments since they harbor species with high extinction risk and have lower mean land cost. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights ecoregions of particular importance for the conservation of the world's carnivores defining global conservation priorities in analyses that encompass socioeconomic and life-history factors. We consider the identification of a comprehensive priority-set of areas as a first step towards an in-situ biodiversity maintenance strategy. PMID:19710911

  1. Microarray as a first genetic test in global developmental delay: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) would have on the total cost of the workup for GDD. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of aCGH compared with karyotyping by retrospectively analysing the cost of workup in a cohort of 114 children (69 males; 45 females) representing a consecutive series of children diagnosed with GDD. The average increase in cost if aCGH had been performed instead of karyotyping as a first test was $442 per individual when performed by a private company (98% confidence interval $238-604). In contrast, $106 (98% confidence interval -$17 to $195) would have been saved if aCGH was performed locally in a laboratory already possessing the required technology. The incremental cost per additional diagnosis was estimated to be $12,874 if aCGH was performed in a private laboratory, but <$1379 if performed locally. (Costs reported in Canadian dollars, using 2010 prices.) aCGH would be cost-effective as a first genetic test in the clinical evaluation of individuals with GDD. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  2. A global overview of health insurance administrative costs: what are the reasons for variations found?

    PubMed

    Mathauer, Inke; Nicolle, Emmanuelle

    2011-10-01

    Administrative costs are an important spending category in total health insurance expenditure. Yet, they have rarely been a topic outside the US and there is no cross-country comparison available. This paper provides a global overview and analysis of administrative costs for social security schemes (SSS) and private health insurance schemes (PHI). The analysis is based on data of the World Health Organization (WHO) National Health Accounts (NHA) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) System of Health Accounts (SHA). These are the only worldwide databases on health expenditure data. Further data was retrieved from a literature search. Administrative costs are presented as a share of total health insurance costs. Data is available for 58 countries. In high-income OECD countries, the average SSS administrative costs are 4.2%. Average PHI administrative costs are about three times higher. The shares are much higher for low- and middle-income countries. However, considerable variations across and within countries over time are revealed. Seven explanatory factors are explored to explain the variations: health financing system aspects, administrative activities undertaken, insurance design aspects, context factors, reporting format, accounting methods, and management and administrative efficiency measures. More detailed reporting of administrative costs would enhance comparability and provide benchmarks. Improved administrative efficiency could free resources to expand coverage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Probing the global potential energy minimum of (CH2O)2: THz absorption spectrum of (CH2O)2 in solid neon and para-hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J; Voute, A; Mihrin, D; Heimdal, J; Berg, R W; Torsson, M; Wugt Larsen, R

    2017-06-28

    The true global potential energy minimum configuration of the formaldehyde dimer (CH2O)2, including the presence of a single or a double weak intermolecular CH⋯O hydrogen bond motif, has been a long-standing subject among both experimentalists and theoreticians as two different energy minima conformations of Cs and C2h symmetry have almost identical energies. The present work demonstrates how the class of large-amplitude hydrogen bond vibrational motion probed in the THz region provides excellent direct spectroscopic observables for these weak intermolecular CH⋯O hydrogen bond motifs. The combination of concentration dependency measurements, observed isotopic spectral shifts associated with H/D substitutions and dedicated annealing procedures, enables the unambiguous assignment of three large-amplitude infrared active hydrogen bond vibrational modes for the non-planar Cs configuration of (CH2O)2 embedded in cryogenic neon and enriched para-hydrogen matrices. A (semi)-empirical value for the change of vibrational zero-point energy of 5.5 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) is proposed for the dimerization process. These THz spectroscopic observations are complemented by CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pV5Z (electronic energies) and MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ (force fields) electronic structure calculations yielding a (semi)-empirical value of 13.7 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) for the dissociation energy D0 of this global potential energy minimum.

  4. Probing the global potential energy minimum of (CH2O)2: THz absorption spectrum of (CH2O)2 in solid neon and para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J.; Voute, A.; Mihrin, D.; Heimdal, J.; Berg, R. W.; Torsson, M.; Wugt Larsen, R.

    2017-06-01

    The true global potential energy minimum configuration of the formaldehyde dimer (CH2O)2, including the presence of a single or a double weak intermolecular CH⋯O hydrogen bond motif, has been a long-standing subject among both experimentalists and theoreticians as two different energy minima conformations of Cs and C2h symmetry have almost identical energies. The present work demonstrates how the class of large-amplitude hydrogen bond vibrational motion probed in the THz region provides excellent direct spectroscopic observables for these weak intermolecular CH⋯O hydrogen bond motifs. The combination of concentration dependency measurements, observed isotopic spectral shifts associated with H/D substitutions and dedicated annealing procedures, enables the unambiguous assignment of three large-amplitude infrared active hydrogen bond vibrational modes for the non-planar Cs configuration of (CH2O)2 embedded in cryogenic neon and enriched para-hydrogen matrices. A (semi)-empirical value for the change of vibrational zero-point energy of 5.5 ± 0.3 kJ mol-1 is proposed for the dimerization process. These THz spectroscopic observations are complemented by CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pV5Z (electronic energies) and MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ (force fields) electronic structure calculations yielding a (semi)-empirical value of 13.7 ± 0.3 kJ mol-1 for the dissociation energy D0 of this global potential energy minimum.

  5. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. Methods We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. Results The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. Conclusions We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:27001116

  6. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mishiro, Izumi; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-10-05

    Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies.

  7. A Case Study on Investigating the Effect of Genetic Algorithm Operators on Predicting the Global Minimum Hardness Value of Biomaterial Extrudate

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, T.J.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-02-01

    Crossover and mutation are the main search operators of genetic algorithm, one of the most important features which distinguish it from other search algorithms like simulated annealing. A genetic algorithm adopts crossover and mutation as their main genetic operators. The present work was aimed to see the effect of genetic algorithm operators like crossover and mutation (Pc & Pm), population size (n), and number of iterations (I) on predicting the minimum hardness (N) of the biomaterial extrudate. The second order polynomial regression equation developed for the extrudate property hardness in terms of the independent variables like barrel temperature, screw speed, fish content of the feed, and feed moisture content was used as the objective function in the GA analysis. A simple genetic algorithm (SGA) with a crossover and mutation operators was used in the present study. A program was developed in C language for a SGA with a rank based fitness selection method. The upper limit of population and iterations were fixed at 100. It was observed that increasing population and iterations the prediction of function minimum improved drastically. Minimum predicted hardness values were achievable with a medium population of 50, iterations of 50 and crossover and mutation probabilities of 50 % and 0.5 %. Further the Pareto charts indicated that the effect of Pc was found to be more significant when population is 50 and Pm played a major role at low population ( 10). A crossover probability of 50 % and mutation probability of 0.5 % are the threshold values for the convergence of GA to reach a global search space. A minimum predicted hardness value of 3.82 (N) was observed for n = 60 and I = 100 and Pc & Pm of 85 % and 0.5 %.

  8. What is the cost of a life in a disaster? - Examples, Practice and Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan

    2015-04-01

    An analysis is presented based on historical evidence and global exposure metrics using the CATDAT Socioeconomic databases, in order to create a global distribution of the cost of life in a disaster using various metrics. Casualty insurance models require a value of life & mitigation and cost-benefit studies require a value of life in order to make decisions and set premiums. Although this is a contentious concept, there are two general approaches to human life costing: the first is based on human capital which looks at the production capacity and potential output as a proxy for future earning; the second looks at willingness to pay which estimates people's value on reducing risk and compensation payouts. A combination approach is used. For each of the 245 nations, a value of life is estimated using the following parameters:- (1) Age of people in a country using the life expectancy and distribution data in CATDAT (2) Output of the economy and wage distribution (3) Household and community interactions (4) Lost quality of life The range of statistical life costs are examined globally from different sources, with the range of a life value being from 10,000 up to in the order of 10 million between different countries. The difference of the cost for a fatality vs. that of a severe injury is also discussed with a severe injury often having higher costs than a fatality for loss purposes. The losses in terms of historical disasters are looked at and examined with the percentage of life cost shown as a proportion of total losses. The losses of a future major earthquake in a low seismicity region show some of the largest potential life cost losses with that of a M6.8 in Adelaide, Australia; having around 160 billion in life costs (25,000 deaths, 15,000 severe injuries). This study has benefits post-disaster for quantification of human capital losses in major disasters, and pre-disaster for the analysis of insurance and mitigation options.

  9. Nursing Management Minimum Data Set: Cost-Effective Tool To Demonstrate the Value of Nurse Staffing in the Big Data Science Era.

    PubMed

    Pruinelli, Lisiane; Delaney, Connie W; Garciannie, Amy; Caspers, Barbara; Westra, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence of the relationship of nurse staffing to patient, nurse, and financial outcomes. With the advent of big data science and developing big data analytics in nursing, data science with the reuse of big data is emerging as a timely and cost-effective approach to demonstrate nursing value. The Nursing Management Minimum Date Set (NMMDS) provides standard administrative data elements, definitions, and codes to measure the context where care is delivered and, consequently, the value of nursing. The integration of the NMMDS elements in the current health system provides evidence for nursing leaders to measure and manage decisions, leading to better patient, staffing, and financial outcomes. It also enables the reuse of data for clinical scholarship and research.

  10. Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases 2005-2050 with abatement potentials and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena

    2017-02-01

    This study uses the GAINS model framework to estimate current and future emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), their abatement potentials, and costs for twenty source sectors and 162 countries and regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. Global F-gas (HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) emissions are estimated at 0.7 Pg CO2 eq. in 2005 with an expected increase to 3.7 Pg CO2 eq. in 2050 if application of control technology remains at the current level. There are extensive opportunities to reduce emissions using existing technology and alternative substances with low global warming potential. Estimates show that it would be technically feasible to reduce cumulative F-gas emissions from 81 to 11 Pg CO2 eq. between 2018 and 2050. A reduction in cumulative emissions to 23 Pg CO2 eq. is estimated to be possible at a marginal abatement cost below 10 EUR t-1 CO2 eq. We also find that future F-gas abatement is expected to become relatively more costly for developing than developed countries due to differences in the sector contribution to emissions and abatement potentials.

  11. High-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Kahn, René S; Goñi, Joaquín; Sporns, Olaf

    2012-07-10

    Network studies of human brain structural connectivity have identified a specific set of brain regions that are both highly connected and highly central. Recent analyses have shown that these putative hub regions are mutually and densely interconnected, forming a "rich club" within the human brain. Here we show that the set of pathways linking rich club regions forms a central high-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of two sets of 40 healthy subjects were used to map structural brain networks. The contributions to network cost and communication capacity of global cortico-cortical connections were assessed through measures of their topology and spatial embedding. Rich club connections were found to be more costly than predicted by their density alone and accounted for 40% of the total communication cost. Furthermore, 69% of all minimally short paths between node pairs were found to travel through the rich club and a large proportion of these communication paths consisted of ordered sequences of edges ("path motifs") that first fed into, then traversed, and finally exited the rich club, while passing through nodes of increasing and then decreasing degree. The prevalence of short paths that follow such ordered degree sequences suggests that neural communication might take advantage of strategies for dynamic routing of information between brain regions, with an important role for a highly central rich club. Taken together, our results show that rich club connections make an important contribution to interregional signal traffic, forming a central high-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication.

  12. Benefit and cost competitiveness analysis of wind and solar power inter-continent transmission under global energy interconnection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the global energy Interconnection, considering the energy implementation, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, This research gives the global energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic and the Equation as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model and equator interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And take two continents connection as the prediction example, estimate these two continents cost benefit and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that under the global energy interconnection mode, the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and the landing cost is good to be used, can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  13. Global water marginal cost curves to battle the future water gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Hunink, Johannes; Buitink, Joost; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Karssenberg, Derek; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity affects a major part of the globe, and is expected to increase significantly until 2100 as a result of climate change and socioeconomic developments. Yet, global projections are unavailable on the effectiveness and costs of adaptation measures to close the future water gap under global change. Here, we present a 21st century projection of the closure of the water gap under two contrasting climate and socio-economic scenarios: RCP2.6/SSP1(s1) and RCP8.5/SSP5(s5). We coupled a global hydrological model to water demand and redistribution model, and forced them with five General Circulation Models (GCMs) to assess the future water gap for 1604 water provinces covering most of the global land mass. Subsequently, we determined the water gap reduction that could be achieved by adaptation measures aimed at improving agriculture, increasing water supply, and reducing water demands. Our results show that for s1, the water gap peaks around 2050 and declines towards 2100. Contrastingly, for s5, the gap increases linearly. Hotspots in water scarcity are found in the USA, India, and China. The adaptations reduce the water gap, but are not sufficient to close the water gap completely. The median annual adaptation costs amount to less than 2% of the GDP of the affected water provinces. Given the low toll on GDP, we conclude that there is certainly room for unorthodox measures to close the water gap.

  14. Do low-income Cypriots experience food stress? The cost of a healthy food basket relative to guaranteed minimum income in Nicosia, Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Stavri; Andreou, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cost, acceptability and affordability of the healthy food basket (HFB) among low-income families in Cyprus. HFBs were constructed based on the National Guidelines for Nutrition and Exercise for six different types of households. Acceptability was tested through focus groups. Affordability was defined as the cost of the HFB as a percentage of the guaranteed minimum income (GMI). The value of the GMI is set to be equal to €480 for a single individual and increases with the size of the recipient unit in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development equivalence scales. The Ministry of Labour estimates that, on average, nearly 50% of the GMI is required for food. The total monthly budget for HFB is 0.80, 1.11, 1.27, 1.28, 1.44 and 1.48 times higher than the GMI budget for food among different types of households in Cyprus (a single woman, a single man, a couple, a single woman with two children, a single man with two children and a couple with two children, respectively). In particular, a family with two children on GMI would need to spend a large proportion of their income on the HFB (71.68%). The GMI scheme appears not to consider the cost of healthy food, and thus, families on welfare payments in Cyprus are at a high risk of experiencing food stress. Therefore, additional research is required to measure the cost of the six HFBs in various settings. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  15. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  16. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  17. Global Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Indigenous Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Blake J.; Muhunthan, Janani; Irving, Michelle; Eades, Sandra; Jan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous populations around the world have consistently been shown to bear a greater burden of disease, death and disability than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Despite this, little is known about what constitutes cost-effective interventions in these groups. The objective of this paper was to assess the global cost-effectiveness literature in Indigenous health to identify characteristics of successful and unsuccessful interventions and highlight areas for further research. Methods and Findings A systematic review of the published literature was carried out. MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, ECONLIT, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched with terms to identify cost-effectiveness evaluations of interventions in Indigenous populations around the world. The WHO definition was followed in identifying Indigenous populations. 19 studies reporting on 27 interventions were included in the review. The majority of studies came from high-income nations with only two studies of interventions in low and middle-income nations. 22 of the 27 interventions included in the analysis were found to be cost-effective or cost-saving by the respective studies. There were only two studies that focused on Indigenous communities in urban areas, neither of which was found to be cost-effective. There was little attention paid to Indigenous conceptions of health in included studies. Of the 27 included studies, 23 were interventions that specifically targeted Indigenous populations. Outreach programs were shown to be consistently cost-effective. Conclusion The comprehensive review found only a small number of studies examining the cost-effectiveness of interventions into Indigenous communities around the world. Given the persistent disparities in health outcomes faced by these populations and commitments from governments around the world to improving these outcomes, it is an area where the health economics and public health fields can play an important role in improving the health of

  18. Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Bartram, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to “halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”. Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. Methods We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual 
increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Findings Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. Conclusion In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing. PMID:18235885

  19. Global Patterns of QALY and DALY Use in Surgical Cost-Utility Analyses: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Margarita S.; Moscoso, Andrea V.; Vaughn, Patrick; Zogg, Cheryl K.; Caterson, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical interventions are being increasingly recognized as cost-effective global priorities, the utility of which are frequently measured using either quality-adjusted (QALY) or disability-adjusted (DALY) life years. The objectives of this study were to: (1) identify surgical cost-effectiveness studies that utilized a formulation of the QALY or DALY as a summary measure, (2) report on global patterns of QALY and DALY use in surgery and the income characteristics of the countries and/or regions involved, and (3) assess for possible associations between national/regional-income levels and the relative prominence of either measure. Study Design PRISMA-guided systematic review of surgical cost-effectiveness studies indexed in PubMed or EMBASE prior to December 15, 2014, that used the DALY and/or QALY as a summary measure. National locations were used to classify publications based on the 2014 World Bank income stratification scheme into: low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle-, or high-income countries. Differences in QALY/DALY use were considered by income level as well as for differences in geographic location and year using descriptive statistics (two-sided Chi-squared tests, Fischer’s exact tests in cell counts <5). Results A total of 540 publications from 128 countries met inclusion criteria, representing 825 “national studies” (regional publications included data from multiple countries). Data for 69.0% (569/825) were reported using QALYs (2.1% low-, 1.2% lower-middle-, 4.4% upper-middle-, and 92.3% high-income countries), compared to 31.0% (256/825) reported using DALYs (46.9% low-, 31.6% lower-middle-, 16.8% upper-middle-, and 4.7% high-income countries) (p<0.001). Studies from the US and the UK dominated the total number of QALY studies (49.9%) and were themselves almost exclusively QALY-based. DALY use, in contrast, was the most common in Africa and Asia. While prominent published use of QALYs (1990s) in surgical cost-effectiveness studies began

  20. Global cost of child survival: estimates from country-level validation

    PubMed Central

    van Ekdom, Liselore; Scherpbier, Robert W; Niessen, Louis W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To cross-validate the global cost of scaling up child survival interventions to achieve the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG4) as estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 by using the latest country-provided data and new assumptions. Methods After the main cost categories for each country were identified, validation questionnaires were sent to 32 countries with high child mortality. Publicly available estimates for disease incidence, intervention coverage, prices and resources for individual-level and programme-level activities were validated against local data. Nine updates to the 2007 WHO model were generated using revised assumptions. Finally, estimates were extrapolated to 75 countries and combined with cost estimates for immunization and malaria programmes and for programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Findings Twenty-six countries responded. Adjustments were largest for system- and programme-level data and smallest for patient data. Country-level validation caused a 53% increase in original cost estimates (i.e. 9 billion 2004 United States dollars [US$]) for 26 countries owing to revised system and programme assumptions, especially surrounding community health worker costs. The additional effect of updated population figures was small; updated epidemiologic figures increased costs by US$ 4 billion (+15%). New unit prices in the 26 countries that provided data increased estimates by US$ 4.3 billion (+16%). Extrapolation to 75 countries increased the original price estimate by US$ 33 billion (+80%) for 2010–2015. Conclusion Country-level validation had a significant effect on the cost estimate. Price adaptations and programme-related assumptions contributed substantially. An additional 74 billion US$ 2005 (representing a 12% increase in total health expenditure) would be needed between 2010 and 2015. Given resource constraints, countries will need to

  1. Integrating food poverty and minimum cost diet methods into a single framework: a case study using a Nepalese household expenditure survey.

    PubMed

    Geniez, Perrine; Mathiassen, Astrid; de Pee, Saskia; Grede, Nils; Rose, Donald

    2014-06-01

    Current tools assessing affordability of nutritious diets are incomplete. "Food poverty" uses expenditure data to identify households unable to acquire a diet adequate in energy but does not consider other nutrients. The "minimum cost of a nutritious diet" method provides a threshold for purchasing a nutritious diet but must rely on other data to identify "nutrient-poor" households. Integrating both methods into a single framework using a common data source, we sought to jointly estimate the proportions of a population that are food and nutrient poor. Household expenditure data from the 2010/11 Nepal Living Standards Survey were used, focusing on representative samples of households from the mountain region (n = 401) and Kathmandu (n = 857). Food poverty thresholds were set at the cost for a low-income household to purchase a basket of foods providing adequate energy following the Cost of Basic Need method. Linear optimization was used to calculate a "nutrient poverty" threshold. Household expenditures were used to determine food and nutrient poverty rates. The food and nutrient poverty thresholds were 13,294 and 18,628 rupees/person/year, respectively, in the mountain region and 14,610 and 22,945 rupees/ person/year, respectively, in Kathmandu. In the mountain region, 34% of households were both food and nutrient poor and 24% were just nutrient poor. In Kathmandu the percentages were 7% and 14%, respectively. This approach, integrating two commonly used tools, provides a more nuanced interpretation of economic access to a nutritious diet and an opportunity to improve the design and targeting of nutrition and food security interventions.

  2. Complying with a corporate global noise health surveillance procedure--do the benefits outweigh the costs?

    PubMed

    Bertsche, Patricia K; Mensah, Edward; Stevens, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the benefits of early identification of work-related noise-induced hearing loss outweigh the costs of complying with a Global Noise Medical Surveillance Procedure of a large corporation. Hearing is fundamental to language, communication, and socialization. Its loss is a common cause of disability, affecting an estimated 20 to 40 million individuals in the United States (Daniell et al., 1998). NIOSH reported that approximately 30 million U.S. workers are exposed to noise on the job and that noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. It is irreversible (NIOSH, 2004). The average cost of a noise-induced hearing loss is reported to range from dollars 4,726 to dollars 25,500. Corporate history indicates a range of dollars 44 to dollars 20,157 per case. During this 4-year study in one plant, the average annual cost of complying with the Global Noise Medical Surveillance Procedure was dollars 19,509 to screen an average of 390 employees, or dollars 50 per worker. The study identified 11 non-work-related standard threshold shifts. All cases were referred for appropriate early intervention. Given the results, this hearing health program is considered beneficial to the corporation for both work- and non-work-related reasons.

  3. Issues to be addressed by the program for measuring incremental costs for the environment. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 8

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-12-01

    Describes the five key research areas to be addressed by the Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This paper outlines incremental cost concepts, operational interpretations, national climate change studies, country studies on ozone protection, and transaction costs. It also develops a broad interpretation of `incremental cost` that can be used across the range of issues covered by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Those issues include global warming, pollution of international waters, destruction of biodiversity, and ozone depletion. This is one of five GEF Working Papers to explore the PRINCE program and is co-published with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme.

  4. Costs and benefits of river flood risk management at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P.

    2015-12-01

    Floods cause billions of dollars of economic damage each year, and this is expected to increase in the future due to socioeconomic development and climate change‎. To limit these losses, and to protect people and their livelihoods from flooding, adaptation in flood risk management systems is required that takes into account both current and future risk. Whilst several global scale flood risk models have now been developed to assess both current and future river flood risk, to date none of these include currently installed or future flood risk management measures, nor their costs and benefits. In this contribution, a new modelling framework is presented for assessing both the costs and benefits of flood risk management at the global scale, which employs a cascade of models to provide first-cut estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation by means of hazard reduction through the construction of dikes. The modeling framework is first used to assess what protection standards would be required in the future per state, in order to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels, and the costs and benefits associated with such a strategy. In a second analysis, flood risk protection standards are calculated per state that optimize the net present value of adaptation. The potential usefulness and limitations of the results for practical applications are discussed, as well as key avenues for future developments. In particular, recent research has shown flood risk itself to be non-stationary, being influenced by oscillations in climate variability caused by phenomenon such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results of the research will be discussed within the context of climate-driven ENSO variability.

  5. Intraspecific scaling of the minimum metabolic cost of transport in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus): links with limb kinematics, morphometrics and posture

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kayleigh A.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The minimum metabolic cost of transport (CoTmin; J kg−1 m−1) scales negatively with increasing body mass (∝Mb−1/3) across species from a wide range of taxa associated with marked differences in body plan. At the intraspecific level, or between closely related species, however, CoTmin does not always scale with Mb. Similarity in physiology, dynamics of movement, skeletal geometry and posture between closely related individuals is thought to be responsible for this phenomenon, despite the fact that energetic, kinematic and morphometric data are rarely collected together. We examined the relationship between these integrated components of locomotion in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for large and bantam (miniature) varieties. Interspecific allometry predicts a CoTmin ∼16% greater in bantams compared with the larger variety. However, despite 38% and 23% differences in Mb and leg length, respectively, the two varieties shared an identical walking CoTmin, independent of speed and equal to the allometric prediction derived from interspecific data for the larger variety. Furthermore, the two varieties moved with dynamic similarity and shared geometrically similar appendicular and axial skeletons. Hip height, however, did not scale geometrically and the smaller variety had more erect limbs, contrary to interspecific scaling trends. The lower than predicted CoTmin in bantams for their Mb was associated with both the more erect posture and a lower cost per stride (J kg−1 stride−1). Therefore, our findings are consistent with the notion that a more erect limb is associated with a lower CoTmin and with the previous assumption that similarity in skeletal shape, inherently linked to walking dynamics, is associated with similarity in CoTmin. PMID:25657211

  6. Intraspecific scaling of the minimum metabolic cost of transport in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus): links with limb kinematics, morphometrics and posture.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kayleigh A; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    The minimum metabolic cost of transport (CoTmin; J kg(-1) m(-1)) scales negatively with increasing body mass (∝Mb (-1/3)) across species from a wide range of taxa associated with marked differences in body plan. At the intraspecific level, or between closely related species, however, CoTmin does not always scale with Mb. Similarity in physiology, dynamics of movement, skeletal geometry and posture between closely related individuals is thought to be responsible for this phenomenon, despite the fact that energetic, kinematic and morphometric data are rarely collected together. We examined the relationship between these integrated components of locomotion in leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) selectively bred for large and bantam (miniature) varieties. Interspecific allometry predicts a CoTmin ∼16% greater in bantams compared with the larger variety. However, despite 38% and 23% differences in Mb and leg length, respectively, the two varieties shared an identical walking CoTmin, independent of speed and equal to the allometric prediction derived from interspecific data for the larger variety. Furthermore, the two varieties moved with dynamic similarity and shared geometrically similar appendicular and axial skeletons. Hip height, however, did not scale geometrically and the smaller variety had more erect limbs, contrary to interspecific scaling trends. The lower than predicted CoTmin in bantams for their Mb was associated with both the more erect posture and a lower cost per stride (J kg(-1) stride(-1)). Therefore, our findings are consistent with the notion that a more erect limb is associated with a lower CoTmin and with the previous assumption that similarity in skeletal shape, inherently linked to walking dynamics, is associated with similarity in CoTmin. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and

  8. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and

  9. Preparedness for epidemic disease or bioterrorism: minimum cost planning for the location and staffing of urban point-of-dispensing centers.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William M; Chen, Jen-Yi; Tukel, Oya I

    2014-01-01

    Urban health authorities in the United States have been charged with developing plans for providing the infrastructure necessary to dispense prophylactic medications to their populations in the case of epidemic disease outbreak or bioterrorist attack. However, no specific method for such plans has been prescribed. This article formulates and demonstrates the use of an integer programming technique for helping to solve a part of the dispensing problem faced by cities, namely that of providing the federally required infrastructure at minimum cost, using their limited time and resources. Specifically, the technique minimizes the number of point-of-dispensing (POD) centers while covering every resident in all the census tracts within the city's jurisdiction. It also determines the optimal staffing requirement in terms of the number of nurses at each POD. This article includes a demonstration of the model using real data from Cleveland, OH, a mid-sized US city. Examples are provided of data and computational results for a variety of input parameter values such as population throughput rate, POD capacities, and distance limitations. The technique can be readily adapted to a wide range of urban areas.

  10. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  11. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  12. Cost analysis of management in acute appendicitis with CT scanning under a hospital global budgeting scheme.

    PubMed

    Lin, K-H; Leung, W-S; Wang, C-P; Chen, W-K

    2008-03-01

    CT scanning of the abdomen is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for acute appendicitis. However, it is still relatively expensive in Taiwan, especially in hospitals which have adopted a global budgeting scheme. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost of the management of this disease with and without CT scanning. A retrospective observational study was undertaken from 1 January to 30 June 2005. Patients with a working diagnosis of "acute appendicitis", "acute appendicitis should be ruled out" and "differential diagnosis including acute appendicitis" were enrolled in the study. Patient demographic data, chief complaints, working diagnoses, laboratory data, CT reports, surgical findings and costs in the emergency department (ED) and ward were collected. A total of 266 patients were admitted to an ED with symptoms suggesting acute appendicitis. Of these, 207 underwent an emergency appendectomy. An abdominal CT scan was performed in 71% of patients with a diagnosis of "differential diagnosis including acute appendicitis", which was higher than in the other two diagnostic groups (18% and 60%). Patient age, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration, ED stay, ED expenses and hospital stay were lower in the group that did not have a CT scan than in those who did. The net cost per patient with acute appendicitis in the group who underwent CT scanning was New Taiwan dollar (NT$)40,728, which was nearly equal to the net cost per patient in the group without CT scanning (NT$39,192). Routine CT scanning in patients with possible appendicitis is not necessary. History taking and physical examination combined with laboratory tests are still useful and cost-effective methods of diagnosing acute appendicitis.

  13. Study of the global corona evolution from the minimum to maximum of solar cycle 24 using 3D coronal electron density reconstructions with STEREO/COR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Reginald, Nelson Leslie; Davila, Joseph; St. Cyr, Orville Chris; Thompson, William T.

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at understanding the global corona evolution of the coronal activity during Solar Cycle 24 on both long-term and short-term time scales. By using a spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method described and validated in Wang and Davila (2014), the 3D coronal electron density in the height range of 1.5 to 3.7 Rsun is reconstructed based on STEREO/COR1-A and -B pB data. The reconstructions span a period from the Cycle 23/24 minimum to the Cycle 24 maximum, covering Carrington rotations (CRs) 2054-2153, for a total of 100 rotations. These 3D electron density distributions are validated by comparing with similar density models derived using other methods such as tomography and a MHD model as well as using data from SOHO/LASCO-C2. Uncertainties in the density reconstruction and estimated total coronal mass are analyzed. The cycle minimum-to-maximum modulation factors (MFs) of the coronal average electron density (or the total coronal mass) at different latitudinal ranges are quantified. Wavelet analysis of the cycle-long detrended density data reveals the existence of quasi-periodic short-term (7-8 months) variations during the rising and maximum activity phases. For the total mass of streamers the MFs depend on the changes in both their total area and average density, but the short-term oscillations are mainly caused by the streamer density fluctuations. A clear asymmetry is observed in the temporal evolution of the northern and southern hemispheres, with the former leading the latter by a lapse of 7-9 months, with a mild dependence on the latitude range.

  14. The global economic burden of diabetes in adults aged 20-79 years: a cost-of-illness study.

    PubMed

    Bommer, Christian; Heesemann, Esther; Sagalova, Vera; Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Atun, Rifat; Bärnighausen, Till; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    Differences in methods and data used in past studies have limited comparisons of the cost of illness of diabetes across countries. We estimate the full global economic burden of diabetes in adults aged 20-79 years in 2015, using a unified framework across all countries. Our objective was to highlight patterns of diabetes-associated costs as well as to identify the need for further research in low-income regions. Epidemiological and economic data for 184 countries were used to estimate the global economic burden of diabetes, regardless of diabetes type. Direct costs were derived using a top-down approach based on WHO general health expenditure figures and prevalence data from the 2015 International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas. Indirect costs were assessed using a human-capital approach, including diabetes-associated morbidity and premature mortality. We estimate the global cost of diabetes for 2015 was US$1·31 trillion (95% CI 1·28-1·36) or 1·8% (95% CI 1·8-1·9) of global gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, indirect costs accounted for 34·7% (95% CI 34·7-35·0) of the total burden, although substantial variations existed both in the share and the composition of indirect costs across countries. North America was the most affected region relative to GDP and also the largest contributor to global absolute costs. However, on average, the economic burden as percentage of GDP was larger in middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Our results suggest a substantial global economic burden of diabetes. Although limited data were available for low-income and middle-income countries, our findings suggest that large diabetes-associated costs are not only a problem in high-income settings but also affect poorer world regions. None. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Cost and Weight Evaluation of Fuselage Side Panel Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polland, D. R.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hafenrichter, J. L.; Hanson, C. T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Metschan, S. L.; Scholz, D. B.; Smith, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents preliminary design trades conducted under NASA contracts NAS1 18889 (Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, ATCAS) and NAS1-19349 (Task 3, Pathfinder Shell Design) for a subsonic wide body commercial aircraft fuselage side panel section utilizing composite materials. Included in this effort were (1) development of two complete design concepts, (2) generation of cost and weight estimates, (3) identification of technical issues and potential design enhancements, and (4) selection of a single design to be further developed. The first design concept featured an open-section stringer stiffened skin configuration while the second was based on honeycomb core sandwich construction. The trade study cost and weight results were generated from comprehensive assessment of each structural component comprising the fuselage side panel section from detail fabrication through airplane final assembly. Results were obtained in three phases: (1) for the baseline designs, (2) after global optimization of the designs, and (3) the results anticipated after detailed design optimization. A critical assessment of both designs was performed to determine the risk associated with each concept, that is the relative probability of achieving the cost and weight projections. Seven critical technical issues were identified as the first step towards side panel detailed design optimization.

  16. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  17. A global framework for future costs and benefits of river-flood protection in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Bates, Paul D.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kind, Jarl M.; Kwadijk, Jaap; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.

    2017-09-01

    Floods cause billions of dollars of damage each year, and flood risks are expected to increase due to socio-economic development, subsidence, and climate change. Implementing additional flood risk management measures can limit losses, protecting people and livelihoods. Whilst several models have been developed to assess global-scale river-flood risk, methods for evaluating flood risk management investments globally are lacking. Here, we present a framework for assessing costs and benefits of structural flood protection measures in urban areas around the world. We demonstrate its use under different assumptions of current and future climate change and socio-economic development. Under these assumptions, investments in dykes may be economically attractive for reducing risk in large parts of the world, but not everywhere. In some regions, economically efficient investments could reduce future flood risk below today’s levels, in spite of climate change and economic growth. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions and parameters. The framework can be used to identify regions where river-flood protection investments should be prioritized, or where other risk-reducing strategies should be emphasized.

  18. Global Positioning System Total Electron Content Variation over King Sejong Station in Antarctic under the Solar Minimum Condition Between 2005 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Geonhwa; Lee, Chi-Na

    2011-12-01

    The total electron content (TEC) using global positioning system (GPS) is analyzed to see the characteristics of ionosphere over King Sejong station (KSJ, geographic latitude 62°13' S, longitude 58° 47' W, corrected geomagnetic latitude 48° S) in Antarctic. The GPS operational ratio during the observational period between 2005 and 2009 is 90.1%. The annual variation of the daily mean TEC decreases from January 2005 to February 2009, but increase from the June 2009. In summer (December-February), the seasonal mean TEC values have the maximum of 26.2 ± 2.4 TEC unit (TECU) in 2005 and the minimum of 16.5 ± 2.8 TECU in 2009, and the annual differences decrease from 3.0 TECU (2005-2006) to 1.4 TECU (2008-2009). However, on November 2010, it significantly increases to 22.3 ± 2.8 TECU which is up to 5.8 TECU compared with 2009 in summer. In winter (June-August), the seasonal mean TEC slightly decreases from 13.7 ± 4.5 TECU in 2005 to 8.9 ± 0.6 TECU in 2008, and the a! nnual difference is constantly about 1.6 TECU, and increases to 10.3 ± 1.8 TECU in 2009. The annual variations of diurnal amplitude show the seasonal features that are scattered in summer and the enhancements near equinoxes are apparent in the whole years. In contrast, the semidiurnal amplitudes show the disturbed annual peaks in winter and its enhancements near equinoxes are unapparent. The diurnal phases are not constant in winter and show near 12 local time (LT). The semidiurnal phases have a seasonal pattern between 00 LT and 06 LT. Consequently, the KSJ GPS TEC variations show the significant semidiurnal variation in summer from December to February under the solar minimum between 2005 and 2009. The feature is considered as the Weddell Sea anomaly of larger nighttime electron density than a daytime electron density that has been observed around the Antarctica peninsula.

  19. Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing: A Cost-Effective Solution for Improving Global Accessibility to Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kyle; Rand, Stephanie; Cancel, David; Chen, Yuxi; Kathirithamby, Rani; Stern, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    The lack of access to prostheses is a global problem, partially caused by the high cost associated with the current manufacturing process. Three-dimensional printing is gaining use in the medical field, and one such area is prosthetics. In addition to using cost-effective materials, this technology allows for rapid prototyping, making it an efficient solution for the development of affordable prostheses. If the rehabilitation medicine community embraces this novel technology, we can help alleviate the global disparity of access to prostheses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sediment Cd and Mo accumulation in the oxygen-minimum zone off western Baja California linked to global climate over the past 52 kyr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Zheng, Yen; Ortiz, J.D.; VanGeen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organic carbon (orgC), cadmium (Cd), and molybdenum (Mo) were measured in two sediment cores raised from depths of 430 and 700 m within the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) off southern Baja California at a temporal resolution of e10.5 kyr over the past 52 kyr. These records are supplemented with diffuse spectral reflectance (DSR) measurements obtained on board ship soon after collection at a resolution of e10.05 kyr. In the core from 700 m depth, a component extracted from the DSR data and the three geochemical proxies generally vary in concert with each other and over a wide range (4-22% orgC; 1-40 mg/kg Cd; 5-120 mg/kg Mo). Intervals of increased orgC, Cd, and Mo accumulation generally correspond to warm periods recorded in the oxygen-isotopic composition of Greenland ice, with the exception of the Bolling/Allerod which is only weakly expressed off Baja California. Concentrations of the biogenic proxies are higher in the core from 430 m depth, but erratic sediment accumulation before 15 ka precludes dating of the older intervals that are laminated and contain elevated orgC, Cd, and Mo concentrations. The new data provide further evidence of an intimate teleconnection between global climate and the intensity of the OMZ and/or productivity along the western margin of North America. On the basis of a comparison with Cd and Mo records collected elsewhere in the region, we conclude that productivity may actually have varied off southern Baja California by no more than a factor of 2 over the past 52 kyr. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Accuracy of a low-cost global positioning system receiver for estimating grade during outdoor walking.

    PubMed

    de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; Chaudru, Ségolène; Gernigon, Marie; Mahé, Guillaume; Bickert, Sandrine; Prioux, Jacques; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Le Faucheur, Alexis

    2016-09-21

    The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the accuracy of a low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receiver for estimating grade during outdoor walking. Thirty subjects completed outdoor walks (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 km · h(-1)) in three randomized conditions: 1/level walking on a 0.0% grade; 2/graded (uphill and downhill) walking on a 3.4% grade; and 3/on a 10.4% grade. Subjects were equipped with a GPS receiver (DG100, GlobalSat Technology Corp., Taiwan; ~US$75). The GPS receiver was set to record at 1 Hz and its antenna was placed on the right shoulder. Grade was calculated from GPS speed and altitude data (grade  =  altitude variation/travelled distance  ×  100). Two methods were used for the grade calculation: one using uncorrected altitude data given by the GPS receiver and another one using corrected altitude data obtained using map projection software (CartoExploreur, version 3.11.0, build 2.6.6.22, Bayo Ltd, Appoigny, France, ~US$35). Linear regression of GPS-estimated versus actual grade with R (2) coefficients, bias with 95% limits of agreement (±95% LoA), and typical error of the estimate with 95% confidence interval (TEE (95% CI)) were computed to assess the accuracy of the GPS receiver. 444 walking periods were performed. Using uncorrected altitude data, we obtained: R (2)  =  0.88 (p  <  0.001), bias  =  0.0  ±  6.6%, TEE between 1.9 (1.7-2.2)% and 4.2 (3.6-4.9)% according to the grade level. Using corrected altitude data, we obtained: R (2)  =  0.98 (p  <  0.001), bias  =  0.2  ±  1.9%, TEE between 0.2 (0.2-0.3)% and 1.0 (0.9-1.2)% according to the grade level. The low-cost GPS receiver used was weakly accurate for estimating grade during outdoor walking when using uncorrected altitude data. However, the accuracy was greatly improved when using corrected altitude data. This study supports the potential interest of using GPS for estimating energy

  2. What could a strengthened right to health bring to the post-2015 health development agenda?: interrogating the role of the minimum core concept in advancing essential global health needs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global health institutions increasingly recognize that the right to health should guide the formulation of replacement goals for the Millennium Development Goals, which expire in 2015. However, the right to health’s contribution is undercut by the principle of progressive realization, which links provision of health services to available resources, permitting states to deny even basic levels of health coverage domestically and allowing international assistance for health to remain entirely discretionary. Discussion To prevent progressive realization from undermining both domestic and international responsibilities towards health, international human rights law institutions developed the idea of non-derogable “minimum core” obligations to provide essential health services. While minimum core obligations have enjoyed some uptake in human rights practice and scholarship, their definition in international law fails to specify which health services should fall within their scope, or to specify wealthy country obligations to assist poorer countries. These definitional gaps undercut the capacity of minimum core obligations to protect essential health needs against inaction, austerity and illegitimate trade-offs in both domestic and global action. If the right to health is to effectively advance essential global health needs in these contexts, weaknesses within the minimum core concept must be resolved through innovative research on social, political and legal conceptualizations of essential health needs. Summary We believe that if the minimum core concept is strengthened in these ways, it will produce a more feasible and grounded conception of legally prioritized health needs that could assist in advancing health equity, including by providing a framework rooted in legal obligations to guide the formulation of new health development goals, providing a baseline of essential health services to be protected as a matter of right against governmental claims of

  3. What could a strengthened right to health bring to the post-2015 health development agenda?: interrogating the role of the minimum core concept in advancing essential global health needs.

    PubMed

    Forman, Lisa; Ooms, Gorik; Chapman, Audrey; Friedman, Eric; Waris, Attiya; Lamprea, Everaldo; Mulumba, Moses

    2013-12-01

    Global health institutions increasingly recognize that the right to health should guide the formulation of replacement goals for the Millennium Development Goals, which expire in 2015. However, the right to health's contribution is undercut by the principle of progressive realization, which links provision of health services to available resources, permitting states to deny even basic levels of health coverage domestically and allowing international assistance for health to remain entirely discretionary. To prevent progressive realization from undermining both domestic and international responsibilities towards health, international human rights law institutions developed the idea of non-derogable "minimum core" obligations to provide essential health services. While minimum core obligations have enjoyed some uptake in human rights practice and scholarship, their definition in international law fails to specify which health services should fall within their scope, or to specify wealthy country obligations to assist poorer countries. These definitional gaps undercut the capacity of minimum core obligations to protect essential health needs against inaction, austerity and illegitimate trade-offs in both domestic and global action. If the right to health is to effectively advance essential global health needs in these contexts, weaknesses within the minimum core concept must be resolved through innovative research on social, political and legal conceptualizations of essential health needs. We believe that if the minimum core concept is strengthened in these ways, it will produce a more feasible and grounded conception of legally prioritized health needs that could assist in advancing health equity, including by providing a framework rooted in legal obligations to guide the formulation of new health development goals, providing a baseline of essential health services to be protected as a matter of right against governmental claims of scarcity and inadequate

  4. Costing of National STI Program Implementation for the Global STI Control Strategy for the Health Sector, 2016-2021

    PubMed Central

    Korenromp, Eline L.; Wi, Teodora; Resch, Stephen; Stover, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In 2016 the World Health Assembly adopted the global strategy on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) 2016–2021 aiming to reduce curable STIs by 90% by 2030. We costed scaling-up priority interventions to coverage targets. Methods Strategy-targeted declines in Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis were applied to WHO-estimated regional burdens at 2012. Syndromic case management was costed for these curable STIs, symptomatic Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2), and non-STI vaginal syndromes, with incrementally expanding etiologic diagnosis. Service unit costs were multiplied with clinic attendances and people targeted for screening or prevention, by income tier. Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening were costed for coverage increasing to 60% of 10-year-old girls for vaccination, and 60% of women 30–49 years for twice-lifetime screening (including clinical follow-up for positive screens), by 2021. Results Strategy implementation will cost an estimated US$ 18.1 billion over 2016–2021 in 117 low- and middle-income countries. Cost drivers are HPV vaccination ($3.26 billion) and screening ($3.69 billion), adolescent chlamydia screening ($2.54 billion), and antenatal syphilis screening ($1.4 billion). Clinical management—of 18 million genital ulcers, 29–39 million urethral discharges and 42–53 million vaginal discharges annually—will cost $3.0 billion, including $818 million for service delivery and $1.4 billion for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Global costs increase from $2.6 billion to $ 4.0 billion over 2016–2021, driven by HPV services scale-up, despite vaccine price reduction. Sub-Saharan Africa, bearing 40% of curable STI burdens, covers 44% of global service needs and 30% of cost, the Western Pacific 15% of burden/need and 26% of cost, South-East Asia 20% of burden/need and 18% of cost. Conclusions Costs of global STI control depend on price trends for HPV vaccines and

  5. Costing of National STI Program Implementation for the Global STI Control Strategy for the Health Sector, 2016-2021.

    PubMed

    Korenromp, Eline L; Wi, Teodora; Resch, Stephen; Stover, John; Broutet, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    In 2016 the World Health Assembly adopted the global strategy on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) 2016-2021 aiming to reduce curable STIs by 90% by 2030. We costed scaling-up priority interventions to coverage targets. Strategy-targeted declines in Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis were applied to WHO-estimated regional burdens at 2012. Syndromic case management was costed for these curable STIs, symptomatic Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2), and non-STI vaginal syndromes, with incrementally expanding etiologic diagnosis. Service unit costs were multiplied with clinic attendances and people targeted for screening or prevention, by income tier. Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening were costed for coverage increasing to 60% of 10-year-old girls for vaccination, and 60% of women 30-49 years for twice-lifetime screening (including clinical follow-up for positive screens), by 2021. Strategy implementation will cost an estimated US$ 18.1 billion over 2016-2021 in 117 low- and middle-income countries. Cost drivers are HPV vaccination ($3.26 billion) and screening ($3.69 billion), adolescent chlamydia screening ($2.54 billion), and antenatal syphilis screening ($1.4 billion). Clinical management-of 18 million genital ulcers, 29-39 million urethral discharges and 42-53 million vaginal discharges annually-will cost $3.0 billion, including $818 million for service delivery and $1.4 billion for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Global costs increase from $2.6 billion to $ 4.0 billion over 2016-2021, driven by HPV services scale-up, despite vaccine price reduction. Sub-Saharan Africa, bearing 40% of curable STI burdens, covers 44% of global service needs and 30% of cost, the Western Pacific 15% of burden/need and 26% of cost, South-East Asia 20% of burden/need and 18% of cost. Costs of global STI control depend on price trends for HPV vaccines and chlamydia tests. Middle-income and especially low

  6. A Mars environmental survey (MESUR) - Feasibility of a low cost global approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1991-01-01

    In situ measurements of Mars' surface and atmosphere are the objectives of a novel network mission concept called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). As envisioned, the MESUR mission will emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of 16 landers on the Martian surface over three launch opportunites using medium-lift (Delta-class) launch vehicles. The basic concept is to deploy small free-flying probes which would directly enter the Martian atmosphere, measure the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. Data will be returned via dedicated relay orbiter or direct-to-earth transmission. The mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on Mars science while providing a solid basis for future human presence; and (4) minimize overall project cost and complexity wherever possible.

  7. A Mars environmental survey (MESUR) - Feasibility of a low cost global approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1991-01-01

    In situ measurements of Mars' surface and atmosphere are the objectives of a novel network mission concept called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). As envisioned, the MESUR mission will emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of 16 landers on the Martian surface over three launch opportunites using medium-lift (Delta-class) launch vehicles. The basic concept is to deploy small free-flying probes which would directly enter the Martian atmosphere, measure the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. Data will be returned via dedicated relay orbiter or direct-to-earth transmission. The mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on Mars science while providing a solid basis for future human presence; and (4) minimize overall project cost and complexity wherever possible.

  8. Regional and temporal trends in malaria commodity costs: an analysis of Global Fund data for 79 countries.

    PubMed

    Wafula, Francis; Agweyu, Ambrose; Macintyre, Kate

    2013-12-30

    Although procurement consumes nearly 40% of Global Fund's money, no analyses have been published to show how costs vary across regions and time. This paper presents an analysis of malaria-related commodity procurement data from 79 countries, as reported through the Global Fund's price and quality reporting (PQR) system for the 2005-2012 period. Data were analysed for the three most widely procured commodities for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. These were long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and the artemether/lumefantrine (AL) combination treatment. Costs were compared across time (2005-2012), regions, and between individual procurement reported through the PQR and pooled procurement reported through the Global Fund's voluntary pooled procurement (VPP) system. All costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in US dollars. The data included 1,514 entries reported from 79 countries over seven years. Of these, 492 entries were for LLINs, 330 for RDTs and 692 for AL. Considerable variations were seen by commodity, although none showed an increase in cost. The costs for LLINs, RDTs and AL all dropped significantly over the period of analysis. Regional variations were also seen, with the cost for all three commodities showing significant variations. The median cost for a single LLIN ranged from USD 4.3 in East Asia to USD 5.0 in West and Central Africa. The cost of a single RDT was lowest in West and Central Africa at US$ 0.57, and highest in the Latin American region at US$ 1.1. AL had the narrowest margin of between US$ 0.06 per tablet in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and US$ 0.08 in the Latin American and Eastern Europe regions. This paper concludes that global procurement costs do vary by region and have reduced overall over time. This suggests a mature market is operating when viewed from the global level, but regional variation needs further attention. Such analyses should be done more often

  9. Achieving a “Grand Convergence” in Global Health: Modeling the Technical Inputs, Costs, and Impacts from 2016 to 2030

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Colin F.; Levin, Carol; Hatefi, Arian; Madriz, Solange; Santos, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The Commission on Investing in Health published its report, GlobalHealth2035, in 2013, estimating an investment case for a grand convergence in health outcomes globally. In support of the drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we estimate what the grand convergence investment case might achieve—and what investment would be required—by 2030. Methods and Findings Our projection focuses on a sub-set of low-income (LIC) or lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). We start with a country-based (bottom-up) analysis of the costs and impact of scaling up reproductive, maternal, and child health tools, and select HIV and malaria interventions. We then incorporate global (top-down) analyses of the costs and impacts of scaling up existing tools for tuberculosis, additional HIV interventions, the costs to strengthen health systems, and the costs and benefits from scaling up new health interventions over the time horizon of this forecast. These data are then allocated to individual countries to provide an aggregate projection of potential cost and impact at the country level. Finally, incremental costs of R&D for low-income economies and the costs of addressing NTDs are added to provide a global total cost estimate of the investment scenario. Results Compared with a constant coverage scenario, there would be more than 60 million deaths averted in LIC and 70 million deaths averted in LMIC between 2016 and 2030. For the years 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, the incremental costs of convergence in LIC would be (US billion) $24.3, $21.8, $24.7, and $27, respectively; in LMIC, the incremental costs would be (US billion) $34.75, $38.9, $48.7, and $56.3, respectively. Conclusion Key health outcomes in low- and low-middle income countries can significantly converge with those of wealthier countries by 2030, and the notion of a “grand convergence” may serve as a unifying theme for health indicators in the SDGs. PMID:26452263

  10. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  11. Screening, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer -- a global and regional generalized cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary Michael; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia

    2009-10-09

    The paper calculates regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of screening, prevention, treatment and combined interventions for cervical cancer. Using standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology, a cervical cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening, vaccination and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod) that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. In regions characterized by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of any screening programme to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective. However, based on projections of the future price per dose (representing the economic costs of the vaccination excluding monopolistic rents and vaccine development cost) vaccination is the most cost-effective intervention. In regions characterized by low income, low mortality and existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without combining it with screening appears to be cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening in a no-treatment scenario would not be cost-effective. Vaccination is usually the most cost-effective intervention. Penta or tri-annual PAP smears appear to be cost-effective, though when combined with HPV-DNA testing they are not cost-effective. In regions characterized by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, expanding treatment with or without adding screening would be very cost-effective. A one off vaccination plus expanding treatment was usually very cost-effective. One-off PAP or VIA screening at age 40 are more cost-effective than other interventions though less effective overall. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, consideration should be given to implementing

  12. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance costs; (d) Difference in warranties; (e) Passenger comfort; (f) Insurance costs; (g) Costs/savings...

  13. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance costs; (d) Difference in warranties; (e) Passenger comfort; (f) Insurance costs; (g) Costs/savings...

  14. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance costs; (d) Difference in warranties; (e) Passenger comfort; (f) Insurance costs; (g) Costs/savings...

  15. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance costs; (d) Difference in warranties; (e) Passenger comfort; (f) Insurance costs; (g) Costs/savings...

  16. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance costs; (d) Difference in warranties; (e) Passenger comfort; (f) Insurance costs; (g) Costs/savings...

  17. Comparative cost-effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing the global burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Dan; Doran, Chris; Shibuya, Kenji; Rehm, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of disease from these three risk factors. Although the number of published cost-effectiveness studies in the addictions field is now extensive (reviewed briefly here) there are a series of practical problems in using them for sector-wide decision making, including methodological heterogeneity, differences in analytical reference point and the specificity of findings to a particular context. In response to these limitations, a more generalised form of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is proposed, which enables like-with-like comparisons of the relative efficiency of preventive or individual-based strategies to be made, not only within but also across diseases or their risk factors. The application of generalised CEA to a range of personal and non-personal interventions for reducing the burden of addictive substances is described. While such a development avoids many of the obstacles that have plagued earlier attempts and in so doing opens up new opportunities to address important policy questions, there remain a number of caveats to population-level analysis of this kind, particularly when conducted at the global level. These issues are the subject of the final section of this review.

  18. Adapting a global cost-effectiveness model to local country requirements: posaconazole case study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, George; Hunt, Sheena; Prasad, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have various requirements for local economic analyses to assess the value of a new health technology and/or to secure reimbursement. This study presents a case study of an economic model developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole vs standard azole therapy (fluconazole/itraconazole) to prevent invasive fungal infections (IFIs), which was adapted by at least 11 countries. Modeling techniques were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole vs fluconazole/itraconazole as IFI prophylaxis in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. For the core model, the probabilities of experiencing an IFI, IFI-related death, and death from other causes were estimated from clinical trial data. Long-term mortality, drug costs, and IFI treatment costs were obtained from secondary sources. Locally changed parameters were probabilities of long-term death and survival, currency, drug costs, health utility, IFI treatment costs, and discount rate. Locally adapted cost-effective modeling studies indicate that prophylaxis with posaconazole, compared with fluconazole/itraconazole, prolongs survival, and, in most countries, is cost-saving. In all countries, the model predicted that prophylaxis with posaconazole would be associated with an increase in life-years, with increases ranging from 0.016-0.1 life-year saved. In all countries, use of the model led to posaconazole being approved by the appropriate reimbursement authority. The study did not have power to detect differences between posaconazole and fluconazole or itraconazole separately. The risk of death after 100 days was assumed to be equal for those who did and did not develop an IFI, and equal probabilities of IFI-related and other death during the trial period were used for both groups. A core economic model was successfully adapted locally by several countries. The model showed that posaconazole was cost-saving or cost

  19. Global warming and urban smog: The cost effectiveness of CAFE standards and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.; Collins, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative transportation policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ozone precursors. The net cost-effectiveness -- i.e., the cost per ton of greenhouse gas reduced, adjusted for ozone reduction benefits -- of substituting methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and reformulated gasoline for conventional gasoline is assessed and compared with the cost-effectiveness of raising the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard to 38 miles per gallon. Computing this [open quotes]net[close quotes] cost-effectiveness is one way of measuring the joint environmental benefits that these alternatives provide. Greenhouse gas emissions are assessed over the entire fuel cycle and include not only carbon dioxide emissions, but also methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide emissions. In computing cost-effectiveness, we account for the so-called [open quotes]rebound effect[close quotes] -- the impact on vehicle-miles traveled of higher or lower fuel costs. CNG is found to be the most cost-effective of these alternatives, followed by increasing the CAFE standard, substituting methanol for gasoline, and substituting reformulated for conventional gasoline. Including the ozone reduction benefits does not change the rankings of the alternatives, but does make the alternative fuels look better relative to increasing the CAFE standard. Incorporating the rebound effect greatly changes the magnitude of the estimates but does not change the rankings of the alternatives. None of the alternatives look cost-effective should a carbon tax of $35 per ton be passes (the proposal in the Stark bill, H.R. 1086), and only CNG under optimistic assumptions looks cost-effective if a tax of $100 per ton of carbon is passed.

  20. US Global Change Research Program Distributed Cost Budget Interagency Funds Transfer from DOE to NSF

    SciTech Connect

    Uhle, Maria

    2016-09-22

    These funds were transferred from DOE to NSF as DOE's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program in support of 4 internationalnactivities/programs as approved by the U.S. Global Change Research Program on 14 March 2014. The programs are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the DIVERSITAS programme, and the World Climate Research Program. All program awards ended as of 09-23-2015.

  1. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Design Global modeling study. Setting 183 countries. Population Full adult population in each country. Intervention A “soft regulation” national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness Main outcome measure Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Results Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction

  2. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-10

     To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide.  Global modeling study.  183 countries.  Full adult population in each country.  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years.  Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world

  3. The global monsoon definition using the difference of local minimum and maximum pentad precipitation rates associated with cross-equatorial flow reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Weihong; Jiang, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Since most previous attempts to establish monsoon indices have been limited to specific regions, they have lacked the applicability to universally describe the global monsoon domain. In this paper, we first review the history of global monsoon study and then identify the climatology of global precipitation associated with major systems of the atmospheric general circulation. A new index, based on the annual and semiannual harmonic precipitation rate difference between two local calendar maximal and minimal precipitation pentads, is used to identify the global monsoon domain focusing on where experienced and what caused the climatic dry-wet alteration. The global monsoon domain is defined by the regions where two pentad-mean precipitation difference exceeds 4 mm ṡday-1, which is also influenced by the low-level prevailing wind reversal associated with the cross-equatorial flow. This definition not only confirmed previous results of the classical global monsoon domain from the tropical Africa to Asia-Australia and non-classical monsoon region in the tropical America but also solved an issue of missing local summer monsoon spots.

  4. Global cost modeling analysis of HIV-1 and HCV viral load assays.

    PubMed

    Elbeik, Tarek; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Soutchkov, Serguei V; Loftus, Richard A; Beringer, Scott

    2003-08-01

    This review addresses hidden costs associated with the Bayer VERSANT assay, Roche AMPLICOR MONITOR test and COBAS AMPLICOR MONITOR test and how these influence the final per reportable cost to a testing laboratory in resource-rich and -poor countries. An in-depth evaluation and recommendation of the most cost-effective approach for these tests is presented. The analyses demonstrate the need for manufacturers to consider labor and supply costs when marketing a kit in resource-poor countries, noting that marketing strategies need to change. In the absence of any proven monitoring alternative, emphasis is placed on increasing market share to promote significant reduction in kit prices to suit the demands of markets in resource-poor countries. Finally, recommendations are made to improve the overall cost structure of viral load testing. This review is intended as a tool to optimize assay usage in attaining the lowest performance costs by assay and is not to endorse any test, as will become apparent.

  5. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2006-01-01

    • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations. PMID:16569240

  6. Post-appendectomy visits to the emergency department within the global period: a target for cost containment.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Francesco A; Gross, Erica R; Krajewski, Aleksandra; Fuller, Robert; Morgan, Anthony; Duffy, Andrew; Longo, Walter; Kozol, Robert; Chandawarkar, Rajiv

    2010-09-01

    Postoperative visits to the emergency department (ED) instead of the surgeon's office consume enormous cost. Postoperative ED visits can be avoided. Fully accredited, single-institution, 617-bed hospital affiliated with the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. Retrospective analysis of 597 consecutive patients with appendectomies over a 4-year period. Demographic and medical data, at initial presentation, surgery, and ED visit were recorded as categorical variables and statistically analyzed (Pearson chi(2) test, Fisher exact test, and linear-by-linear). Costs were calculated from the hospital's billing department. Forty-six patients returned to the ED within the global period with pain (n = 22, 48%), wound-related issues (n = 6, 13%), weakness (n = 4, 9%), fever (13%), and nausea and vomiting (n = 3, 6%). Thirteen patients (28%) required readmission. Predictive factors for ED visit postoperatively were perforated appendicitis (2-fold increase over uncomplicated appendicitis) and comorbidities (cardiovascular or diabetes). The cost of investigations during ED visits was $55,000 plus physician services. ED visits during the postoperative global period are avoidable by identifying patients who may need additional care; improving patient education, optimizing pain control, and improving patient office access. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2006-03-28

    Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  8. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices: the interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory.

    PubMed

    Otte, Willem M; van Diessen, Eric; Paul, Subhadip; Ramaswamy, Rajiv; Subramanyam Rallabandi, V P; Stam, Cornelis J; Roy, Prasun K

    2015-04-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely compromises the usefulness of network analysis to study the aging brain. We successfully circumvented this problem by focusing on the critical structural network backbone, using a robust tree representation. Whole-brain networks' minimum spanning trees were determined in a dataset of diffusion-weighted images from 382 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 20.2 to 86.2 years. Tree-based metrics were compared with classical network metrics. In contrast to the tree-based metrics, classical metrics were highly influenced by age-related changes in network density. Tree-based metrics showed linear and non-linear correlation across adulthood and are in close accordance with results from previous histopathological characterizations of the changes in white matter integrity in the aging brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Global warming and urban smog: Cost-effectiveness of CAFE standards and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.; Collins, C.T.

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we estimate the cost-effectiveness, in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, of increasing the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard to 38 miles per gallon and substituting methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and reformulated gasoline for conventional gasoline. Greenhouse gas emissions are assessed over the entire fuel cycle and include carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide emissions. To account for joint environmental benefits, the cost per ton of greenhouse gas reduced is adjusted for reductions in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, an ozone precursor. CNG is found to be the most cost-effective of these alternatives, followed by increasing the CAFE standard, substituting methanol for gasoline, and substituting reformulated for conventional gasoline. Including the VOC benefits does not change the ranking of the alternatives, but does make the alternative fuels look better relative to increasing the CAFE standard. None of the alternatives look cost-effective should a carbon tax of $35 per ton be passed, and only CNG under optimistic assumptions looks cost-effective with a tax of $100 per ton of carbon. 35 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Methanol clusters (CH3OH)n: putative global minimum-energy structures from model potentials and dispersion-corrected density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Bulusu, Satya; Thakkar, Ajit J

    2013-06-14

    Putative global minima are reported for methanol clusters (CH3OH)n with n ≤ 15. The predictions are based on global optimization of three intermolecular potential energy models followed by local optimization and single-point energy calculations using two variants of dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Recurring structural motifs include folded and/or twisted rings, folded rings with a short branch, and stacked rings. Many of the larger structures are stabilized by weak C-H···O bonds.

  11. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  12. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  13. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #15: WORKSHOP ON ANCILLARY BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Global Change Research Program is co-sponsoring a three-day workshop to examine possible ancillary benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The goals of the workshop are: (1)to establish a common basis of understanding about the conceptual and empiric...

  14. The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-08

    President stated that the number of troops in Afghanistan would halve to about 4,900 and then by the beginning of 2017 , settle at an embassy presence...10 Changing Troop Levels in Afghanistan, 2001- 2017 ...several revisions, including sunsetting the authority on December 31, 2016, rather than September 30, 2017 . The bill endorses the Administration cost

  15. Cost, energy, global warming, eutrophication and local human health impacts of community water and sanitation service options.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model.

    PubMed

    Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria; Andersson, Karin; Johnson, Hannes

    2014-11-04

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition model has been modified to include a more detailed shipping sector in order to assess what marine fuels and propulsion technologies might be cost-effective by 2050 when achieving an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 or 500 ppm by the year 2100. The robustness of the results was examined in a Monte Carlo analysis, varying uncertain parameters and technology options, including the amount of primary energy resources, the availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, and costs of different technologies and fuels. The four main findings are (i) it is cost-effective to start the phase out of fuel oil from the shipping sector in the next decade; (ii) natural gas-based fuels (liquefied natural gas and methanol) are the most probable substitutes during the study period; (iii) availability of CCS, the CO2 target, the liquefied natural gas tank cost and potential oil resources affect marine fuel choices significantly; and (iv) biofuels rarely play a major role in the shipping sector, due to limited supply and competition for bioenergy from other energy sectors.

  17. Efficacy and Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Global Environmental Cleaning Algorithm on Hospital-Acquired Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Everett, Barbara R; Sitton, J Tracy; Wilson, Marlene

    2014-09-02

    This study evaluates clinical outcomes and cost-benefit analysis before and after implementation of a global environmental cleaning algorithm on all hospital-acquired infection (HAI) rates. A retrospective, quasi-experimental study design was used to review the hospital's procedure and infection rate database for all HAIs from January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2011. We calculated the infection rates and did a cost-benefit analysis before and after the environmental cleaning algorithm was instituted on July 19, 2010. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates per 1000 patient days decreased 63%. The central line-associated bloodstream infection rate had a 72% reduction. The catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate dropped 79%. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus rate went down 53%. The hospital-acquired Acinetobacter baumanii infection rate had a 65% reduction. The medical intensive care unit ventilator-associated pneumonia rate was reduced 72%. Cardiothoracic sternal wound surgical site infection (SSI) rate dropped 93%, spinal fusion SSI decreased 56%, and total knee arthroplasty SSI was eliminated with a 100% reduction. The hospital avoided an estimated 13 deaths and $5,800,526 in costs during a 1-year period. This global environmental cleaning protocol was associated with decreased HAIs and hospital costs.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  18. Comparison of Low-Cost Computer Algorithms for Global Positioning System Users.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is a navigation system which relies on range and range-rate measurements between satellites and the GPS -user in...order to determine his position and velocity. Using extensive support equipment, GPS is anticipated to achieve extremely accurate results. However... position estimates (dead-reckoning) for the first two approaches. The Kalman filter was modelled with fixed covariance matrices. The approaches were

  19. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of global mitigation cost: INDCs and equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Yu; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-11-01

    Each country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) pledges an emission target for 2025 or 2030. Here, we evaluated the INDC inter-generational and inter-regional equity by comparing scenarios with INDC emissions target in 2030 and with an immediate emission reduction associated with a global uniform carbon price using Asian-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General Equilibrium. Both scenarios eventually achieve 2 °C target. The results showed that, as compared with an immediate emission reduction scenario, the inter-generational equity status is not favorable for INDC scenario and the future generation suffers more from delayed mitigation. Moreover, this conclusion was robust to the wide range of inequality aversion parameter that determines discount rate. On the other hand, the INDC scenario has better inter-regional equity in the early part of the century than does the immediate emission reduction scenario in which we assume a global carbon price during the period up to 2030. However, inter-regional equity worsens later in the century. The additional emissions reduction to the INDC in 2030 would improve both inter- and inter-regional equity as compared to the current INDC. We also suggest that countries should commit to more emissions reductions in the follow-up INDC communications and that continuous consideration for low-income countries is needed for global climate change cooperation after 2030.

  1. Global Least-cost User-friendly CLEWs Open-Source Exploratory (GLUCOSE) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taliotis, Constantinos; Roehrl, Richard Alexander; Howells, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A changing climate will force us to consider broad resource management questions. Land, energy and water are some of our most precious resources. The systems that provide them are highly interlinked, vulnerable and contribute to climate change. The UN recognizes the need for integrated assessment of the food-water-energy nexus in international negotiations; highlighted by the inclusion of the Climate, Land-use, Energy and Water (CLEW) nexus in the upcoming Global Sustainable Development Report. This effort provides a toolkit to assist in the formulation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Building on initial CLEW assessments, we propose the formulation of a fully integrated CLEW modelling tool to enable resource assessments, a global CLEW model, and focusing on scenarios with particular relevance to the climate change and sustainable development discourse. The aim of the overall effort is to create a transparent tool to act as a simplified testing ground for policies and allow the visualisation and assessment of different policy pathways in regards to sustainable development on a global scale. This tool will allow for the identification of potential trade-offs and synergies between sectors in CLEWs and material industry. It should be highlighted that we refrain from implying that this model will be characterized by a high predictive capacity; on the contrary, its main purpose is to provide an initial set of communicable insights and indications to facilitate decision-making on potential plans and strategies.

  2. Analysis of Global Radiotherapy Needs and Costs by Geographic Region and Income Level.

    PubMed

    Zubizarreta, E; Van Dyk, J; Lievens, Y

    2017-02-01

    Recent years have seen various reviews on the lack of access to radiotherapy often based on geographic regions of the world such as Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Countries are often defined by their national income per capita levels based on World Bank definitions of high income, upper middle income, lower middle income and low income. Within the world regions, there are significant variations in gross national income (GNI) per capita among the different countries, and even within similar income levels, large variations exist. This report presents the actual status of radiotherapy and analyses the current needs and costs to provide full access in the different regions of the world. Actual coverage of the needs ranges from 34% in Africa to over 92% in Europe to about double the needs in North America. In line with this, proportional additional investments and operational costs are as high as more than 200% in Africa to almost none in North America. Two world regions face substantial challenges: Africa, based on the important demands to build new capacity and subsequently to maintain operational capability; and Asia Pacific, due to its high population density, translating into large absolute needs in radiotherapy treatments and resources, and hence in associated costs. With the data highlighting a large variability of GNI/capita even within similar income levels in the various world regions, it is expected that additional investment in resources and costs may be more dependent on income level of the country than on the GNI group or the geographic region of the world.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds in Global Health: Taking a Multisectoral Perspective.

    PubMed

    Remme, Michelle; Martinez-Alvarez, Melisa; Vassall, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Good health is a function of a range of biological, environmental, behavioral, and social factors. The consumption of quality health care services is therefore only a part of how good health is produced. Although few would argue with this, the economic framework used to allocate resources to optimize population health is applied in a way that constrains the analyst and the decision maker to health care services. This approach risks missing two critical issues: 1) multiple sectors contribute to health gain and 2) the goods and services produced by the health sector can have multiple benefits besides health. We illustrate how present cost-effectiveness thresholds could result in health losses, particularly when considering health-producing interventions in other sectors or public health interventions with multisectoral outcomes. We then propose a potentially more optimal second best approach, the so-called cofinancing approach, in which the health payer could redistribute part of its budget to other sectors, where specific nonhealth interventions achieved a health gain more efficiently than the health sector's marginal productivity (opportunity cost). Likewise, other sectors would determine how much to contribute toward such an intervention, given the current marginal productivity of their budgets. Further research is certainly required to test and validate different measurement approaches and to assess the efficiency gains from cofinancing after deducting the transaction costs that would come with such cross-sectoral coordination.

  4. Estimating the costs of achieving the WHO–UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006–2015

    PubMed Central

    Gasse, François; Lee-Martin, Shook-Pui; Lydon, Patrick; Magan, Ahmed; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Johns, Benjamin; Hutubessy, Raymond; Salama, Peter; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO–UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. Methods A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis); and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. Findings The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8–4.2) billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9–1.6) billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9–6.7) billion. Total immunization costs for 2006–2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13–40) billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006–2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23–110) billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. Conclusion In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11–15 billion (30%–40%) of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap

  5. Global crowd data to understand risk taking behavior: Understanding the costs of crowd sourcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Crowd sourcing is an increasingly common approach to collect data from a large number of places, people, or both, for a given phenomenon or observation. It is often thought of as a very cost effective approach to collect data from large spatial domains, or from difficult to reach areas, or for spatially discrete observations. While crowd sourcing data can provide a wealth of data beyond that which most research teams can collect themselves, there are many associated, and sometime unexpected costs with this approach. We present a case study of a crowd-sourced data collection campaign to collect GPS tracks of back country recreationalists in avalanche terrain. We ask the volunteers to track their outings using the GPS on their smart phone using a free application, and on the completion of their trip email us their track. On receipt of this track we automatically reply with a link to a decision making survey. In this way we collect data on both the physical attributes of their trip, as well as the social, psychological and demographic data about the person. While this approach has been very successful, it has come at a high cost time-wise. Much like the role of an online course instructor, instructor (or in this case researcher) presence is essential. Replying to emails, updating webpages, posting on social media, and connecting with your volunteer data collectors can become a full time job - and that's even before you start the data analysis. We encourage future researchers to plan ahead for this when starting a crowd sourcing project involving the general public, and seek advice and training in social media, web site development and communication techniques like semi-automated email.

  6. The global historical and future economic loss and cost of earthquakes during the production of adaptive worldwide economic fragility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    macroseismic intensity, capital stock estimate, GDP estimate, year and the combined seismic building index (a created combination of the global seismic code index, building practice factor, building age and infrastructure vulnerability). The analysis provided three key results: a) The production of economic fragility functions from the 1900-2008 events showed very good correlation to the economic loss and cost from earthquakes from 2009-2013, in real-time. This methodology has been extended to other natural disaster types (typhoon, flood, drought). b) The reanalysis of historical earthquake events in order to check associated historical loss and costs versus the expected exposure in terms of intensities. The 1939 Chillan, 1948 Turkmenistan, 1950 Iran, 1972 Managua, 1980 Western Nepal and 1992 Erzincan earthquake events were seen as huge outliers compared with the modelled capital stock and GDP and thus additional studies were undertaken to check the original loss results. c) A worldwide GIS layer database of capital stock (gross and net), GDP, infrastructure age and economic indices over the period 1900-2013 have been created in conjunction with the CATDAT database in order to define correct economic loss and costs.

  7. The Power of Many: Nanosatellites For Cost Effective Global Weather Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, A.; Platzer, P.

    2015-12-01

    While weather processing technology through modeling and simulations has continued to advance, the amount of raw data available for analysis has dwindled. Most raw weather data is collected from satellites that are past their intended decommission date, and the likelihood of a catastrophic failure and diminishing reliability increases with each passing day. A United States government report released this year recognized the potential risk that this creates, citing a few alternatives to our aging satellite technology to at least maintain the level of raw weather data we currently have available. This report also highlighted nanosatellites as one of the most promising solutions, due in no small part to their standard form factor, translating into increased launch capabilities and better resiliency with fewer points of failure, rapidly advancing technology and low capital expenditure. Taking advantage of rapid advancements in sensor technology, these nanosatellites are replaced every two years or less and de-orbit quickly. Each new generation carries an improved payload and offers more network-wide resiliency. A constellation of just ten GPS-RO enabled nanosatellites taking measurements from every point on Earth, coupled with a globally distributed network of ground stations, can provide five times more radio occultation data than the combined efforts of current weather satellites. By the end of this year, Spire Global, Inc. will launch the world's first network of commercial weather satellites using GPS-RO for raw data collection.

  8. Towards a tipping point in responding to change: rising costs, fewer options for Arctic and global societies.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry P; Goodstein, Eban; Euskirchen, Eugénie

    2012-02-01

    Climate change incurs costs, but government adaptation budgets are limited. Beyond a certain point, individuals must bear the costs or adapt to new circumstances, creating political-economic tipping points that we explore in three examples. First, many Alaska Native villages are threatened by erosion, but relocation is expensive. To date, critically threatened villages have not yet been relocated, suggesting that we may already have reached a political-economic tipping point. Second, forest fires shape landscape and ecological characteristics in interior Alaska. Climate-driven changes in fire regime require increased fire-fighting resources to maintain current patterns of vegetation and land use, but these resources appear to be less and less available, indicating an approaching tipping point. Third, rapid sea level rise, for example from accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet, will create a choice between protection and abandonment for coastal regions throughout the world, a potential global tipping point comparable to those now faced by Arctic communities. The examples illustrate the basic idea that if costs of response increase more quickly than available resources, then society has fewer and fewer options as time passes.

  9. The impact of shale gas on the cost and feasibility of meeting climate targets—A global energy system model analysis and an exploration of uncertainties

    DOE PAGES

    Few, Sheridan; Gambhir, Ajay; Napp, Tamaryn; ...

    2017-01-27

    There exists considerable uncertainty over both shale and conventional gas resource availability and extraction costs, as well as the fugitive methane emissions associated with shale gas extraction and its possible role in mitigating climate change. This study uses a multi-region energy system model, TIAM (TIMES integrated assessment model), to consider the impact of a range of conventional and shale gas cost and availability assessments on mitigation scenarios aimed at achieving a limit to global warming of below 2 °C in 2100, with a 50% likelihood. When adding shale gas to the global energy mix, the reduction to the global energymore » system cost is relatively small (up to 0.4%), and the mitigation cost increases by 1%–3% under all cost assumptions. The impact of a “dash for shale gas”, of unavailability of carbon capture and storage, of increased barriers to investment in low carbon technologies, and of higher than expected leakage rates, are also considered; and are each found to have the potential to increase the cost and reduce feasibility of meeting global temperature goals. Finally, we conclude that the extraction of shale gas is not likely to significantly reduce the effort required to mitigate climate change under globally coordinated action, but could increase required mitigation effort if not handled sufficiently carefully.« less

  10. Towards collation and modelling of the global cost of armed violence on civilians.

    PubMed

    Taback, Nathan; Coupland, Robin

    2005-01-01

    A method is described which translates qualitative reports about armed violence into meaningful quantitative data allowing an evidence-based approach to the causes and effects of the global health impact of armed violence on unarmed people. Analysis of 100 randomly selected news reports shows that the type of weapon used, the psychological aspect of the violence, the number of weapons in use and the victims' vulnerability independently influence the mortality of victims. Data collated by the same method could be analysed together with indicators of poverty, development and health so illuminating the relationship between such indicators and degradation of peoples' physical security through acts of armed violence. The method could also help uphold the laws of war and human rights.

  11. Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

    2014-01-01

    A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage

  12. Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

    2013-09-01

    A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit-coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). Key conclusions are: (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration

  13. Dissociative Global and Local Task-Switching Costs Across Younger Adults, Middle-Aged Adults, Older Adults, and Very Mild Alzheimer Disease Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Mark J.; Balota, David A.; Minear, Meredith; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Duchek, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    A task-switching paradigm was used to examine differences in attentional control across younger adults, middle-aged adults, healthy older adults, and individuals classified in the earliest detectable stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large sample of participants (570) completed a switching task in which participants were cued to classify the letter (consonant/vowel) or number (odd/even) task-set dimension of a bivalent stimulus (e.g., A 14), respectively. A Pure block consisting of single-task trials and a Switch block consisting of nonswitch and switch trials were completed. Local (switch vs. nonswitch trials) and global (nonswitch vs. pure trials) costs in mean error rates, mean response latencies, underlying reaction time distributions, along with stimulus-response congruency effects were computed. Local costs in errors were group invariant, but global costs in errors systematically increased as a function of age and AD. Response latencies yielded a strong dissociation: Local costs decreased across groups whereas global costs increased across groups. Vincentile distribution analyses revealed that the dissociation of local and global costs primarily occurred in the slowest response latencies. Stimulus-response congruency effects within the Switch block were particularly robust in accuracy in the very mild AD group. We argue that the results are consistent with the notion that the impaired groups show a reduced local cost because the task sets are not as well tuned, and hence produce minimal cost on switch trials. In contrast, global costs increase because of the additional burden on working memory of maintaining two task sets. PMID:26652720

  14. The True Cost of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Analysis of 1,000 Global Companies

    PubMed Central

    Ishinabe, Nagisa; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidated the shadow price of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 1,024 international companies worldwide that were surveyed from 15 industries in 37 major countries. Our results indicate that the shadow price of GHG at the firm level is much higher than indicated in previous studies. The higher shadow price was found in this study as a result of the use of Scope 3 GHG emissions data. The results of this research indicate that a firm would carry a high cost of GHG emissions if Scope 3 GHG emissions were the focus of the discussion of corporate social responsibility. In addition, such shadow prices were determined to differ substantially among countries, among sectors, and within sectors. Although a number of studies have calculated the shadow price of GHG emissions, these studies have employed country-level or industry-level data or a small sample of firm-level data in one country. This new data from a worldwide firm analysis of the shadow price of GHG emissions can play an important role in developing climate policy and promoting sustainable development. PMID:24265710

  15. Relationship between global severity of patients with Alzheimer's disease and costs of care in Spain; results from the co-dependence study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Darbà, J; Kaskens, L; Lacey, L

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' global severity with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of global severity measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale on these costs for patients in Spain. The Codep-EA study is an 18-multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients (343) with AD according to the CDR score and their caregivers in Spain. The data obtained included (in addition to clinical measures) also socio-demographic data concerning the patient and its caregiver. Cost analyses were based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the resource utilization in dementia (RUD). Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of global severity and other socio-demographic and clinical variables on cost of care. The mean (standard deviation) costs per patient over 6 months for direct medical, social care, indirect and informal care costs, were estimated at €1,028.1 (1,655.0), €843.8 (2,684.8), €464.2 (1,639.0) and €33,232.2 (30,898.9), respectively. Dementia severity, as having a CDR score 0.5, 2, or 3 with CDR score 1 being the reference group were all independently and significantly associated with informal care costs. Whereas having a CDR score of 2 was also significantly related with social care costs, a CDR score of 3 was associated with most cost components including direct medical, social care, and total costs, all compared to the reference group. The costs of care for patients with AD in Spain are substantial, with informal care accounting for the greatest part. Dementia severity, measured by CDR score, showed that with increasing severity of the disease, direct medical, social care, informal care and total costs augmented.

  16. Search for global-minimum geometries of medium-sized germanium clusters. II. Motif-based low-lying clusters Ge21-Ge29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2006-05-01

    We performed a constrained search for the geometries of low-lying neutral germanium clusters GeN in the size range of 21⩽N⩽29. The basin-hopping global optimization method is employed for the search. The potential-energy surface is computed based on the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. A new series of low-lying clusters is found on the basis of several generic structural motifs identified previously for silicon clusters [S. Yoo and X. C. Zeng, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054304 (2006)] as well as for smaller-sized germanium clusters [S. Bulusu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 164305 (2005)]. Among the generic motifs examined, we found that two motifs stand out in producing most low-lying clusters, namely, the six/nine motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a tricapped trigonal prism Ge9, and the six/ten motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a bicapped antiprism Ge10. The low-lying clusters obtained are all prolate in shape and their energies are appreciably lower than the near-spherical low-energy clusters. This result is consistent with the ion-mobility measurement in that medium-sized germanium clusters detected are all prolate in shape until the size N ˜65.

  17. 7 CFR 1735.16 - Minimum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1735.16 Minimum loan amount. Recognizing plant costs, the borrower's cost of system design, and RUS's administrative costs, RUS will not consider applications for loans of less than $50,000....

  18. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  19. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  20. Topology Trivialization and Large Deviations for the Minimum in the Simplest Random Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Finding the global minimum of a cost function given by the sum of a quadratic and a linear form in N real variables over (N-1)-dimensional sphere is one of the simplest, yet paradigmatic problems in Optimization Theory known as the "trust region subproblem" or "constraint least square problem". When both terms in the cost function are random this amounts to studying the ground state energy of the simplest spherical spin glass in a random magnetic field. We first identify and study two distinct large-N scaling regimes in which the linear term (magnetic field) leads to a gradual topology trivialization, i.e. reduction in the total number {N}_{tot} of critical (stationary) points in the cost function landscape. In the first regime {N}_{tot} remains of the order N and the cost function (energy) has generically two almost degenerate minima with the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistics. In the second regime the number of critical points is of the order of unity with a finite probability for a single minimum. In that case the mean total number of extrema (minima and maxima) of the cost function is given by the Laplace transform of the TW density, and the distribution of the global minimum energy is expected to take a universal scaling form generalizing the TW law. Though the full form of that distribution is not yet known to us, one of its far tails can be inferred from the large deviation theory for the global minimum. In the rest of the paper we show how to use the replica method to obtain the probability density of the minimum energy in the large-deviation approximation by finding both the rate function and the leading pre-exponential factor.

  1. Knowledge sharing in global health research - the impact, uptake and cost of open access to scholarly literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Haustein, Stefanie; Mongeon, Philippe; Shu, Fei; Ridde, Valéry; Larivière, Vincent

    2017-08-29

    In 1982, the Annals of Virology published a paper showing how Liberia has a highly endemic potential of Ebola warning health authorities of the risk for potential outbreaks; this journal is only available by subscription. Limiting the accessibility of such knowledge may have reduced information propagation toward public health actors who were indeed surprised by and unprepared for the 2014 epidemic. Open access (OA) publication can allow for increased access to global health research (GHR). Our study aims to assess the use, cost and impact of OA diffusion in the context of GHR. A total of 3366 research articles indexed under the Medical Heading Subject Heading "Global Health" published between 2010 and 2014 were retrieved using PubMed to (1) quantify the uptake of various types of OA, (2) estimate the article processing charges (APCs) of OA, and (3) analyse the relationship between different types of OA, their scholarly impact and gross national income per capita of citing countries. Most GHR publications are not available directly on the journal's website (69%). Further, 60.8% of researchers do not self-archive their work even when it is free and in keeping with journal policy. The total amount paid for APCs was estimated at US$1.7 million for 627 papers, with authors paying on average US$2732 per publication; 94% of APCs were paid to journals owned by the ten most prominent publication houses from high-income countries. Researchers from low- and middle-income countries are generally citing less expensive types of OA, while researchers in high-income countries are citing the most expensive OA. Although OA may help in building global research capacity in GHR, the majority of publications remain subscription only. It is logical and cost-efficient for institutions and researchers to promote OA by self-archiving publications of restricted access, as it not only allows research to be cited by a broader audience, it also augments citation rates. Although OA does not

  2. Minimum entropy deconvolution and blind equalisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E. H.; Mulligan, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between minimum entropy deconvolution, developed primarily for geophysics applications, and blind equalization are pointed out. It is seen that a large class of existing blind equalization algorithms are directly related to the scale-invariant cost functions used in minimum entropy deconvolution. Thus the extensive analyses of these cost functions can be directly applied to blind equalization, including the important asymptotic results of Donoho.

  3. When cost-effective interventions are unaffordable: Integrating cost-effectiveness and budget impact in priority setting for global health programs.

    PubMed

    Bilinski, Alyssa; Neumann, Peter; Cohen, Joshua; Thorat, Teja; McDaniel, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A

    2017-10-01

    Potential cost-effective barriers in cost-effectiveness studies mean that budgetary impact analyses should also be included in post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal projects says Joshua Salomon and colleagues.

  4. Endgame implementations for the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Hugh L.; O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Kaanta, Bryan

    2009-05-01

    Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) is a competent evolutionary algorithm which can be useful for problems with expensive cost functions [1,2,3,4,5]. The goal is to find the global minimum using as few function evaluations as possible. Our research indicates that EGO requires far fewer evaluations than genetic algorithms (GAs). However, both algorithms do not always drill down to the absolute minimum, therefore the addition of a final local search technique is indicated. In this paper, we introduce three "endgame" techniques. The techniques can improve optimization efficiency (fewer cost function evaluations) and, if required, they can provide very accurate estimates of the global minimum. We also report results using a different cost function than the one previously used [2,3].

  5. Minimum weight structural sandwich

    Treesearch

    Edward W. Kuenzi

    1965-01-01

    This note presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

  6. Minimum weight structural sandwich

    Treesearch

    Edward W. Kuenzi

    1970-01-01

    This note presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

  7. A genetic technique for planning a control sequence to navigate the state space with a quasi-minimum-cost output trajectory for a non-linear multi-dimnensional system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, C.; Meystel, A.

    1994-01-01

    There are many multi-stage optimization problems that are not easily solved through any known direct method when the stages are coupled. For instance, we have investigated the problem of planning a vehicle's control sequence to negotiate obstacles and reach a goal in minimum time. The vehicle has a known mass, and the controlling forces have finite limits. We have developed a technique that finds admissible control trajectories which tend to minimize the vehicle's transit time through the obstacle field. The immediate applications is that of a space robot which must rapidly traverse around 2-or-3 dimensional structures via application of a rotating thruster or non-rotating on-off for such vehicles is located at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama. However, it appears that the development method is applicable to a general set of optimization problems in which the cost function and the multi-dimensional multi-state system can be any nonlinear functions, which are continuous in the operating regions. Other applications included the planning of optimal navigation pathways through a transversability graph; the planning of control input for under-water maneuvering vehicles which have complex control state-space relationships; the planning of control sequences for milling and manufacturing robots; the planning of control and trajectories for automated delivery vehicles; and the optimization and athletic training in slalom sports.

  8. Solar Effects on Climate and the Maunder Minimum: Minimum Certainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    2003-01-01

    The current state of our understanding of solar effects on climate is reviewed. As an example of the relevant issues, the climate during the Maunder Minimum is compared with current conditions in GCM simulations that include a full stratosphere and parameterized ozone response to solar spectral irradiance variability and trace gas changes. The GISS Global Climate/Middle Atmosphere Model coupled to a q-flux/mixed layer model is used for the simulations, which begin in 1500 and extend to the present. Experiments were made to investigate the effect of total versus spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes; spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes on the stratospheric ozone/climate response with both pre-industrial and present trace gases; and the impact on climate and stratospheric ozone of the preindustrial trace gases and aerosols by themselves. The results showed that: (1) the Maunder Minimum cooling relative to today was primarily associated with reduced anthropogenic radiative forcing, although the solar reduction added 40% to the overall cooling. There is no obvious distinguishing surface climate pattern between the two forcings. (2)The global and tropical response was greater than 1 C, in a model with a sensitivity of 1.2 C per W m-2. To reproduce recent low-end estimates would require a sensitivity 1/4 as large. (3) The global surface temperature change was similar when using the total and spectral irradiance prescriptions, although the tropical response was somewhat greater with the former, and the stratospheric response greater with the latter. (4) Most experiments produce a relative negative phase of the NAO/AO during the Maunder Minimum, with both solar and anthropogenic forcing equally capable, associated with the tropical cooling and relative poleward EP flux refraction. (5) A full stratosphere appeared to be necessary for the negative AO/NAO phase, as was the case with this model for global warming experiments, unless the cooling was very large

  9. Solar Effects on Climate and the Maunder Minimum: Minimum Certainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    2003-01-01

    The current state of our understanding of solar effects on climate is reviewed. As an example of the relevant issues, the climate during the Maunder Minimum is compared with current conditions in GCM simulations that include a full stratosphere and parameterized ozone response to solar spectral irradiance variability and trace gas changes. The GISS Global Climate/Middle Atmosphere Model coupled to a q-flux/mixed layer model is used for the simulations, which begin in 1500 and extend to the present. Experiments were made to investigate the effect of total versus spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes; spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes on the stratospheric ozone/climate response with both pre-industrial and present trace gases; and the impact on climate and stratospheric ozone of the preindustrial trace gases and aerosols by themselves. The results showed that: (1) the Maunder Minimum cooling relative to today was primarily associated with reduced anthropogenic radiative forcing, although the solar reduction added 40% to the overall cooling. There is no obvious distinguishing surface climate pattern between the two forcings. (2)The global and tropical response was greater than 1 C, in a model with a sensitivity of 1.2 C per W m-2. To reproduce recent low-end estimates would require a sensitivity 1/4 as large. (3) The global surface temperature change was similar when using the total and spectral irradiance prescriptions, although the tropical response was somewhat greater with the former, and the stratospheric response greater with the latter. (4) Most experiments produce a relative negative phase of the NAO/AO during the Maunder Minimum, with both solar and anthropogenic forcing equally capable, associated with the tropical cooling and relative poleward EP flux refraction. (5) A full stratosphere appeared to be necessary for the negative AO/NAO phase, as was the case with this model for global warming experiments, unless the cooling was very large

  10. Development of low-cost devices for image-guided photodynamic therapy treatment of oral cancer in global health settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Rudd, Grant; Daly, Liam; Hempstead, Joshua; Liu, Yiran; Khan, Amjad P.; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Thomas, Richard; Rizvi, Imran; Arnason, Stephen; Cuckov, Filip; Hasan, Tayyaba; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-based modality that shows promise for adaptation and implementation as a cancer treatment technology in resource-limited settings. In this context PDT is particularly well suited for treatment of pre-cancer and early stage malignancy of the oral cavity, that present a major global health challenge, but for which light delivery can be achieved without major infrastructure requirements. In recent reports we demonstrated that a prototype low-cost batterypowered 635nm LED light source for ALA-PpIX PDT achieves tumoricidal efficacy in vitro and vivo, comparable to a commercial turn-key laser source. Here, building on these reports, we describe the further development of a prototype PDT device to enable intraoral light delivery, designed for ALA- PDT treatment of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity. We evaluate light delivery via fiber bundles and customized 3D printed light applicators for flexible delivery to lesions of varying size and position within the oral cavity. We also briefly address performance requirements (output power, stability, and light delivery) and present validation of the device for ALA-PDT treatment in monolayer squamous carcinoma cell cultures.

  11. Global optimal vaccination in the SIR model: properties of the value function and application to cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Laguzet, Laetitia; Turinici, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on optimal vaccination policies for an Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model; the impact of the disease is minimized with respect to the vaccination strategy. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem and we show that the value function is the unique viscosity solution of an Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. This allows to find the best vaccination policy. At odds with existing literature, it is seen that the value function is not always smooth (sometimes only Lipschitz) and the optimal vaccination policies are not unique. Moreover we rigorously analyze the situation when vaccination can be modeled as instantaneous (with respect to the time evolution of the epidemic) and identify the global optimum solutions. Numerical applications illustrate the theoretical results. In addition the pertussis vaccination in adults is considered from two perspectives: first the maximization of DALY averted in presence of vaccine side-effects; then the impact of the herd immunity on the cost-effectiveness analysis is discussed on a concrete example.

  12. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink.

  13. The economic feasibility of seawater desalination over the global scale: assessment of the production cost development and national water price until 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Yoshikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    As many countries are suffering water scarcity due to the climate change and human activities, seawater desalination using reverse osmosis (SWRO) has shown to be a progressively promising countermeasure to satisfy the growing water demand. Therefore, the economic feasibility assessment of SWRO will be beneficial for the potential investors and policy-makers of government. In present study, it have proposed a systematic method to evaluate the economic feasibility of implementing SWRO in 140 counties and further estimated the potential future diffusion of SWRO over global scale by 2050. To the purpose, two models has been separately developed to simulate the production cost of SWRO and conventional water price, which are identified as the critical economic factors for feasibility evaluation of SWRO. These two models were firstly applied to historical validation in which proven to be able to well simulate both these two economic factors, and then were applied globally for future simulation over the period of 2015-2050 under three socioeconomic scenarios, i.e. SSP (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) 1-3. Basin on the estimated production cost and water price, the economic feasibility of adopting SWRO coupling with its future potentialities were carefully evaluated. As a result, it indicated that SWRO was expected to be cost-effectively adopted in more countries by 2050, especially in these developing countries. The significant potential diffusion of SWRO in countries was mainly attributed to both the diminishing production cost and the increasing conventional water price as a result of income growth globally in three SSPs scenarios.

  14. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Global Endometrial Ablation vs. Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Gregory M.; Bonafede, Machaon M.; Lukes, Andrea S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cost-effectiveness modeling studies of global endometrial ablation (GEA) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) from a US perspective are lacking. The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of GEA vs. hysterectomy for treatment of AUB in the United States from both commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. The study team developed a 1-, 3-, and 5-year semi-Markov decision-analytic model to simulate 2 hypothetical patient cohorts of women with AUB—1 treated with GEA and the other with hysterectomy. Clinical and economic data (including treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, direct costs, and productivity costs) came from analyses of commercial and Medicaid claims databases. Analysis results show that cost savings with simultaneous reduction in treatment complications and fewer days lost from work are achieved with GEA versus hysterectomy over almost all time horizons and under both the commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. Cost-effectiveness metrics also favor GEA over hysterectomy from both the commercial payer and Medicaid payer perspectives—evidence strongly supporting the clinical-economic value about GEA versus hysterectomy. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. (Population Health Management 2015;18:373–382) PMID:25714906

  16. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  17. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  18. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  19. Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of Modernizing the KC-10 to Meet Global Air Traffic Management Mandates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    performance with vertical guidance ( LPV ): – These pro- cedures identify WAAS vertical guidance approach minimums with electronic lateral and vertical...Wind shear WAAS LAAS MLS LPV LNAV/VNAV M-code Mode 5 SAASM Compliant Partially compliant Not compliant Not compliant, but no expected mandates CNS/ATM...Abbreviations xix LPV localizer performance with vertical guidance MLS microwave landing system Mode S Mode-Select NAS National Airspace System NPV net

  20. GDOP minimum in multi-GNSS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bi; Teng, Yunlong; Huang, Qi

    2017-10-01

    In positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) applications with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) offers an important index for selecting satellites from all tracked satellites for positioning calculation. In general, the lower the GDOP values are, the more accurate the PNT solution is. Therefore, the GDOP minimum should be pursued. In this paper, we mainly focused on the GDOP minimum when the single-point positioning is based on the integration of three GNSSs. The GDOP minimum for any number of tracked satellites is theoretically derived in this paper. In addition, when the number of the satellites is equal to that of the unknown parameters, the correctness of GDOP minimum obtained has also been validated from two different perspectives.

  1. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  2. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  3. Global patterns of workplace productivity for people with depression: absenteeism and presenteeism costs across eight diverse countries.

    PubMed

    Evans-Lacko, S; Knapp, M

    2016-11-01

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Research suggests that by far, the greatest contributor to the overall economic impact of depression is loss in productivity; however, there is very little research on the costs of depression outside of Western high-income countries. Thus, this study examines the impact of depression on workplace productivity across eight diverse countries. We estimated the extent and costs of depression-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the workplace across eight countries: Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, South Africa, and the USA. We also examined the individual, workplace, and societal factors associated with lower productivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of depression on workplace productivity across a diverse set of countries, in terms of both culture and GDP. Mean annual per person costs for absenteeism were lowest in South Korea at $181 and highest in Japan ($2674). Mean presenteeism costs per person were highest in the USA ($5524) and Brazil ($5788). Costs associated with presenteeism tended to be 5-10 times higher than those associated with absenteeism. These findings suggest that the impact of depression in the workplace is considerable across all countries, both in absolute monetary terms and in relation to proportion of country GDP. Overall, depression is an issue deserving much greater attention, regardless of a country's economic development, national income or culture.

  4. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  5. Minimum Conflict Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awen, Ed; And Others

    Computer technology is discussed as a tool for facilitating the implementation of the mainstreaming process. Minimum conflict mainstreaming/merging (MCM) is defined as an approach which utilizes computer technology to circumvent such structural obstacles to mainstreaming as transportation scheduling, screening and assignment of students, testing,…

  6. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  7. Reaching the Global Target to Increase Exclusive Breastfeeding: How Much Will It Cost and How Can We Pay for It?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lucy Martinez

    2016-10-01

    There is an urgent need for global action to increase the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. In 2012, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set a global target to increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50% by 2025. However, current investment levels are insufficient to drive the kind of progress that is needed to meet the target. Reaching the global nutrition target of increasing exclusive breastfeeding to 50% will require an average annual investment of $570 million over 10 years in addition to what is currently being spent. This investment is projected to result in an additional 105 million children being exclusively breastfed and at least 520,000 child deaths prevented over the next 10 years. This analysis was part of an investment framework developed by the World Bank, Results for Development Institute, and 1,000 Days to provide policy makers with a roadmap for how to reach four of the six WHA global nutrition targets: decreasing childhood stunting, decreasing childhood wasting, decreasing rates of anemia in women of reproductive age, and increasing exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months.

  8. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  9. The Economic Costs of Reserve Forces Utilization: An Analysis of Their Employment in Fighting the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Implementation of Total Force Policy A number of studies have addressed Total Force Policy since the creation of the All-Volunteer Force in 1973. John ...Policy and the All-Volunteer Force up to the Global War on Terrorism. 52 John B. Keeley. The All-Volunteer Force and American Society...relationship with the National Guard as well.57 As John Refuse notes, the distinction between National Guard and Reserve was blurred during World War I

  10. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  11. Minimum Drag Circulation Profile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    turbulent flow region is followed by a region of minimum skin friction which has a concave surface. The chord trailing edge is a coanda profile. A...tangential jet slot is placed at the trailing edge to blow over and around the coanda profile preventing flow separation and moving the stagnation region aft on the wing. The under surface is cambered to reduce the flow velocity.

  12. Treatment scale-up to achieve global HCV incidence and mortality elimination targets: a cost-effectiveness model.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma S; Thompson, Alexander; Doyle, Joseph S; Hellard, Margaret E

    2017-08-01

    The WHO's draft HCV elimination targets propose an 80% reduction in incidence and a 65% reduction in HCV-related deaths by 2030. We estimate the treatment scale-up required and cost-effectiveness of reaching these targets among injecting drug use (IDU)-acquired infections using Australian disease estimates. A mathematical model of HCV transmission, liver disease progression and treatment among current and former people who inject drugs (PWID). Treatment scale-up and the most efficient allocation to priority groups (PWID or patients with advanced liver disease) were determined; total healthcare and treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) compared with inaction were calculated. 5662 (95% CI 5202 to 6901) courses per year (30/1000 IDU-acquired infections) were required, prioritised to patients with advanced liver disease, to reach the mortality target. 4725 (3278-8420) courses per year (59/1000 PWID) were required, prioritised to PWID, to reach the incidence target; this also achieved the mortality target, but to avoid clinically unacceptable HCV-related deaths an additional 5564 (1959-6917) treatments per year (30/1000 IDU-acquired infections) were required for 5 years for patients with advanced liver disease. Achieving both targets in this way cost $A4.6 ($A4.2-$A4.9) billion more than inaction, but gained 184 000 (119 000-417 000) QALYs, giving an ICER of $A25 121 ($A11 062-$A39 036) per QALY gained. Achieving WHO elimination targets with treatment scale-up is likely to be cost-effective, based on Australian HCV burden and demographics. Reducing incidence should be a priority to achieve both WHO elimination goals in the long-term. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Low-cost photodynamic therapy devices for global health settings: Characterization of battery-powered LED performance and smartphone imaging in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempstead, Joshua; Jones, Dustin P.; Ziouche, Abdelali; Cramer, Gwendolyn M.; Rizvi, Imran; Arnason, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2015-05-01

    A lack of access to effective cancer therapeutics in resource-limited settings is implicated in global cancer health disparities between developed and developing countries. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-based treatment modality that has exhibited safety and efficacy in the clinic using wavelengths and irradiances achievable with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) operated on battery power. Here we assess low-cost enabling technology to extend the clinical benefit of PDT to regions with little or no access to electricity or medical infrastructure. We demonstrate the efficacy of a device based on a 635 nm high-output LED powered by three AA disposable alkaline batteries, to achieve strong cytotoxic response in monolayer and 3D cultures of A431 squamous carcinoma cells following photosensitization by administering aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we characterize challenges of battery-operated device performance, including battery drain and voltage stability specifically over relevant PDT dose parameters. Further motivated by the well-established capacity of PDT photosensitizers to serve as tumour-selective fluorescence contrast agents, we demonstrate the capability of a consumer smartphone with low-cost add-ons to measure concentration-dependent PpIX fluorescence. This study lays the groundwork for the on-going development of image-guided ALA-PDT treatment technologies for global health applications.

  14. Low-cost photodynamic therapy devices for global health settings: Characterization of battery-powered LED performance and smartphone imaging in 3D tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Hempstead, Joshua; Jones, Dustin P.; Ziouche, Abdelali; Cramer, Gwendolyn M.; Rizvi, Imran; Arnason, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A lack of access to effective cancer therapeutics in resource-limited settings is implicated in global cancer health disparities between developed and developing countries. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-based treatment modality that has exhibited safety and efficacy in the clinic using wavelengths and irradiances achievable with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) operated on battery power. Here we assess low-cost enabling technology to extend the clinical benefit of PDT to regions with little or no access to electricity or medical infrastructure. We demonstrate the efficacy of a device based on a 635 nm high-output LED powered by three AA disposable alkaline batteries, to achieve strong cytotoxic response in monolayer and 3D cultures of A431 squamous carcinoma cells following photosensitization by administering aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we characterize challenges of battery-operated device performance, including battery drain and voltage stability specifically over relevant PDT dose parameters. Further motivated by the well-established capacity of PDT photosensitizers to serve as tumour-selective fluorescence contrast agents, we demonstrate the capability of a consumer smartphone with low-cost add-ons to measure concentration-dependent PpIX fluorescence. This study lays the groundwork for the on-going development of image-guided ALA-PDT treatment technologies for global health applications. PMID:25965295

  15. 10 CFR 440.16 - Minimum program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... costs which may be used to abate such hazards which is reasonable in light of the primary energy... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum program requirements. 440.16 Section 440.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.16 Minimum...

  16. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: Principles and recommendations from the Global Campaign against Headache

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most of all, these recommendations seek to encourage collaborations between specialists in headache disorders and epidemiologists. The focus is on migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache, but they are not intended to be exclusive to these. The burdens arising from secondary headaches are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey instruments. PMID:24467862

  17. Towards an equitable allocation of the cost of a global change adaptation plan at the river basin scale: going beyond the perfect cooperation assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Adaptation to global change is a key issue in the planning of water resource systems in a changing world. Adaptation has to be efficient, but also equitable in the share of the costs of joint adaptation at the river basin scale. Least-cost hydro-economic optimization models have been helpful at defining efficient adaptation strategies. However, they often rely on the assumption of a "perfect cooperation" among the stakeholders, required for reaching the optimal solution. Nowadays, most adaptation decisions have to be agreed among the different actors in charge of their implementation, thus challenging the validity of a perfect command-and-control solution. As a first attempt to over-pass this limitation, our work presents a method to allocate the cost of an efficient adaptation programme of measures among the different stakeholders at the river basin scale. Principles of equity are used to define cost allocation scenarios from different perspectives, combining elements from cooperative game theory and axioms from social justice to bring some "food for thought" in the decision making process of adaptation. To illustrate the type of interactions between stakeholders in a river basin, the method has been applied in a French case study, the Orb river basin. Located on the northern rim of the Mediterranean Sea, this river basin is experiencing changes in demand patterns, and its water resources will be impacted by climate change, calling for the design of an adaptation plan. A least-cost river basin optimization model (LCRBOM) has been developed under GAMS to select the combination of demand- and supply-side adaptation measures that allows meeting quantitative water management targets at the river basin scale in a global change context. The optimal adaptation plan encompasses measures in both agricultural and urban sectors, up-stream and down-stream of the basin, disregarding the individual interests of the stakeholders. In order to ensure equity in the cost allocation

  18. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  19. Design for Minimum Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Design for Minimum Risk (DFMR) is a term used by NASA programs as an expansion of the general hazard reduction process where if an identified hazard cannot be eliminated, the design is modified to reduce the associated mishap risk to an acceptable level. DFMR is a set of specific requirements to minimize risk. DFMR is not well understood and there are many misconceptions concerning the meaning and use. This paper will provide insight into the use of DFMR for space applications; it s comparison to other hazard mitigation strategies and examples of how the approach has been used in the past. It will also highlight documents used by NASA on various programs to determine DFMR.

  20. Searching for giga-Jansky fast radio bursts from the Milky Way with a global array of low-cost radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    If fast radio bursts (FRBs) originate from galaxies at cosmological distances, then their all-sky rate implies that the Milky Way may host an FRB every 30-1500 yr, on average. If many FRBs persistently repeat for decades or more, a local giant FRB could be active now, with 1 GHz radio pulses of flux ˜3 × 1010 Jy, comparable with the fluxes and frequencies detectable by cellular communication devices (cell phones, Wi-Fi and GPS). We propose searching for Galactic FRBs using a global array of low-cost radio receivers. One possibility is the ˜1 GHz communication channel in cellular phones, through a Citizens-Science downloadable application. Participating phones would continuously listen for and record candidate FRBs and would periodically upload information to a central data-processing website which will identify the signature of a real, globe-encompassing, FRB from an astronomical distance. Triangulation of the GPS-based pulse arrival times reported from different Earth locations will provide the FRB sky position, potentially to arcsecond accuracy. Pulse arrival times versus frequency, from reports from phones operating at diverse frequencies, or from fast signal de-dispersion by the application, will yield the dispersion measure (DM). Compared to a Galactic DM model, it will indicate the source distance within the Galaxy. A variant approach uses the built-in ˜100 MHz FM-radio receivers present in cell phones for an FRB search at lower frequencies. Alternatively, numerous 'software-defined radio' devices, costing ˜$10 US each, could be deployed and plugged into USB ports of personal computers (particularly in radio-quiet locations) to establish the global network of receivers.

  1. A minimum income for healthy living.

    PubMed

    Morris, J N; Donkin, A J; Wonderling, D; Wilkinson, P; Dowler, E A

    2000-12-01

    Half a century of research has provided consensual evidence of major personal requisites of adult health in nutrition, physical activity and psychosocial relations. Their minimal money costs, together with those of a home and other basic necessities, indicate disposable income that is now essential for health. In a first application we identified such representative minimal costs for healthy, single, working men aged 18-30, in the UK. Costs were derived from ad hoc survey, relevant figures in the national Family Expenditure Survey, and by pragmatic decision for the few minor items where survey data were not available. Minimum costs were assessed at 131.86 pound sterling per week (UK April 1999 prices). Component costs, especially those of housing (which represents around 40% of this total), depend on region and on several assumptions. By varying these a range of totals from 106.47 pound sterling to 163.86 pound sterling per week was detailed. These figures compare, 1999, with the new UK national minimum wage, after statutory deductions, of pound 105.84 at 18-21 years and 121.12 pound sterling at 22+ years for a 38 hour working week. Corresponding basic social security rates are 40.70 pound sterling to 51.40 pound sterling per week. Accumulating science means that absolute standards of living, "poverty", minimal official incomes and the like, can now be assessed by objective measurement of the personal capacity to meet the costs of major requisites of healthy living. A realistic assessment of these costs is presented as an impetus to public discussion. It is a historical role of public health as social medicine to lead in public advocacy of such a national agenda.

  2. A minimum income for healthy living

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J; Donkin, A; Wonderling, D; Wilkinson, P; Dowler, E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Half a century of research has provided consensual evidence of major personal requisites of adult health in nutrition, physical activity and psychosocial relations. Their minimal money costs, together with those of a home and other basic necessities, indicate disposable income that is now essential for health.
METHODS—In a first application we identified such representative minimal costs for healthy, single, working men aged 18-30, in the UK. Costs were derived from ad hoc survey, relevant figures in the national Family Expenditure Survey, and by pragmatic decision for the few minor items where survey data were not available.
RESULTS—Minimum costs were assessed at £131.86 per week (UK April 1999 prices). Component costs, especially those of housing (which represents around 40% of this total), depend on region and on several assumptions. By varying these a range of totals from £106.47 to £163.86 per week was detailed. These figures compare, 1999, with the new UK national minimum wage, after statutory deductions, of £105.84 at 18-21 years and £121.12 at 22+ years for a 38 hour working week. Corresponding basic social security rates are £40.70-£51.40 per week.
INTERPRETATION—Accumulating science means that absolute standards of living, "poverty", minimal official incomes and the like, can now be assessed by objective measurement of the personal capacity to meet the costs of major requisites of healthy living. A realistic assessment of these costs is presented as an impetus to public discussion. It is a historical role of public health as social medicine to lead in public advocacy of such a national agenda.


Keywords: income; public health; lifestyle; nutrition; housing; exercise; social exclusion; inequalities PMID:11076983

  3. 77 FR 71735 - Minimum Altitudes for Use of Autopilots

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... change in present value, but not in total cost, because this type of training would have occurred in the... systems at current autopilot minimum use altitudes. The proposed rule would accomplish this through a... rule would not impose any additional costs on certificate holders that operate under parts 121, 125,...

  4. Global optimization methods for engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arora, Jasbir S.

    1990-01-01

    The problem is to find a global minimum for the Problem P. Necessary and sufficient conditions are available for local optimality. However, global solution can be assured only under the assumption of convexity of the problem. If the constraint set S is compact and the cost function is continuous on it, existence of a global minimum is guaranteed. However, in view of the fact that no global optimality conditions are available, a global solution can be found only by an exhaustive search to satisfy Inequality. The exhaustive search can be organized in such a way that the entire design space need not be searched for the solution. This way the computational burden is reduced somewhat. It is concluded that zooming algorithm for global optimizations appears to be a good alternative to stochastic methods. More testing is needed; a general, robust, and efficient local minimizer is required. IDESIGN was used in all numerical calculations which is based on a sequential quadratic programming algorithm, and since feasible set keeps on shrinking, a good algorithm to find an initial feasible point is required. Such algorithms need to be developed and evaluated.

  5. The science and technology case for a global network of compact, low cost ground-based laser heterodyne radiometers for column measurements of CO2 and CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Clarke, G.; Wilson, E. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Ott, L. E.; Duncan, B. N.; Melroy, H.; McLinden, M.; DiGregorio, A.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in determining Earth's climate is well established. Recent technological developments in space-borne instrumentation have enabled us to observe changes in these gases to a precision necessary to infer for the responsible geographical fluxes. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), comprising a network of upward-looking Fourier transform spectrometers, was established to provide an accurate ground truth and minimize regional systematic bias. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a compact, low-cost laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) for global column measurements CO2 and CH4. This Mini-LHR is a passive instrument that uses sunlight as the primary light source to measure absorption of CO2 and CH4in the shortwave infrared near 1.6 microns. It uses compact telecommunications lasers to offer a low cost (<$30K/unit), suitcase sized, highly sensitive (< 1 ppm for CO2 and <20 ppb for CH4) measurement solution to supplement TCCON measurements. We will deploy Mini-LHR instruments to accompany the NASA AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) which has more than 500 sites worldwide. In addition, the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) provides both column and vertically resolved aerosol and cloud data in active remote sensing at nearly 50 sites worldwide. Tandem operation with AERONET/MPLNET provides a clear pathway for the Mini-LHR to be expanded into a global monitoring network for carbon cycle science and satellite data validation, offering coverage in cloudy regions (e.g., Amazon basin) and key regions such as the Arctic where accelerated warming due to the release of CO2 and CH4from thawing tundra and permafrost is a concern. These vulnerable geographic regions are not well covered by current space-based CO2 and CH4 measurements. We will present an overview of our instrument development and the implementation of a network based on current and future resources. We will also present

  6. Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Economic losses and costs from 1900-2014: 115 years of the CATDAT database - Trends, Normalisation and Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Skapski, Jens-Udo; Vervaeck, Armand; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 12 years, an in-depth database has been constructed for socio-economic losses from earthquakes and volcanoes. The effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been documented in many databases, however, many errors and incorrect details are often encountered. To combat this, the database was formed with socioeconomic checks of GDP, capital stock, population and other elements, as well as providing upper and lower bounds to each available event loss. The definition of economic losses within the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database (Daniell et al., 2011a) as of v6.1 has now been redefined to provide three options of natural disaster loss pricing, including reconstruction cost, replacement cost and actual loss, in order to better define the impact of historical disasters. Similarly for volcanoes as for earthquakes, a reassessment has been undertaken looking at the historical net and gross capital stock and GDP at the time of the event, including the depreciated stock, in order to calculate the actual loss. A normalisation has then been undertaken using updated population, GDP and capital stock. The difference between depreciated and gross capital can be removed from the historical loss estimates which have been all calculated without taking depreciation of the building stock into account. The culmination of time series from 1900-2014 of net and gross capital stock, GDP, direct economic loss data, use of detailed studies of infrastructure age, and existing damage surveys, has allowed the first estimate of this nature. The death tolls in earthquakes from 1900-2014 are presented in various forms, showing around 2.32 million deaths due to earthquakes (with a range of 2.18 to 2.63 million) and around 59% due to masonry buildings and 28% from secondary effects. For the death tolls from the volcanic eruption database, 98000 deaths with a range from around 83000 to 107000 is seen from 1900-2014. The application of VSL life costing from death and injury

  7. COST Action ES1206 : Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.

    2013-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is under-sampled in the current meteorological and climate observing systems, obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The new COST Action, ES1206, will address new and improved capabilities from con-current developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research. In addition the Action will promote the use of meteorological data in GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services. The Action will stimulate knowledge transfer and data sharing throughout Europe.

  8. COST Action ES1206 : Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Guerova, Guergana; Dousa, Jan; de Haan, Siebren; Bock, Olivier; Dick, Galina; Pottiaux, Eric; Pacione, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is under-sampled in the current meteorological and climate observing systems, obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The new COST Action, ES1206, will address new and improved capabilities from con-current developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research. In addition the Action will promote the use of meteorological data in GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services. The Action will stimulate knowledge transfer and data sharing throughout Europe.

  9. The network of Subterranean Electric Observations: Exploiting Crowd-Sourced Low-Cost Multielectrode System Improving Views of Tectonic Hazards on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovskiy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The key challenge of B.Gutenberg's question "What is the connection between solar activity, cyclones and earthquakes?" is the developing and testing our understanding with proper instrumentation that obtains data characterizing the nonstationary process production. Our ability to validate such connections through nonstationary subterranean electric processes is limited with a technique developing from the end of 19 century. A couple of measuring lines, extended along magnetic meridian and parallel, are used to detect worldwide component of electrotelluric field and to recognize non-stationary processes occurring prior to earthquakes in seismic-hazardous areas. Rather poor attempts have been driven us to investigate results of subterranean electric measurements at the division of atmosphere and tectonosphere. In this talk, we discuss the network of low cost multielectrode systems (operated by Distant School Cosmic-Meteo-Tectonics cosmetecor.org). Active electrical signals in the surface soils have proton nature and provide a unique view into electric networks of currents (circuits) with non-stationary processes production. Exploiting the subterranean electric measurement technique specifically designed to be locally sensitive we had begun to measure the individual characteristics of non-stationary subterranean electric processes those preceded the greatest earthquakes with M≥7 on a global scale. We present and describe the rapid installations of dense sensor network, its operation, data processing and distribution.

  10. Comparing Library and User Related Costs of Print and Electronic Journal Collections; Open Citation Linking; Toward a Global Digital Library; Information Retrieval by Semantic Analysis and Visualization of the Concept Space of D-Lib[R] Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Carol Hansen; King, Donald W.; Hitchcock, Steve; Brody, Tim; Carr, Les; Gutteridge, Christopher; Hall, Wendy; Harnad, Stevan; Bergmark, Donna; Lagoze, Carl; Fox, Edward A.; Moore, Reagan W.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Myaeng, Sung Hyon; Kim, Sung-Hyuk; Zhang, Junliang; Mostafa, Javed; Tripathy, Himansu

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the impact of academic libraries' shift to electronic journals on staff and costs; open citation linking for improved access and the Open Archives Initiative; development of global digital libraries, particularly between the United States and Korea; and retrieving documents from a digital library through a…

  11. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  12. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  13. 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

  14. Ozone Minimums, 1979 to 2013

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Minimum concentration of ozone in the southern hemisphere for each year from 1979-2013 (there is no data from 1995). Each image is the day of the year with the lowest concentration of ozone. A grap...

  15. Arctic Sea Ice Minimum, 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Feb. 25, 2015, and was the lowest on record, to its apparent yearly minimum, ...

  16. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  17. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Pump/Control System Minimum Operating Cost Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of pump performance was initiated to determine the efficiencies of an arbitrary group of small pumps. Trends in factors affecting energy usage in typical prime movers which might be used in liquid transport solar systems were assessed. Comparisons of centrifugal pump efficiencies were made from one manufacturer to another. Tests were also made on two positive-displacement pumps and comparisons with centrifugal pumps were observed.

  19. Pseudo paths towards minimum energy states in network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatifar, L.; Hassanibesheli, F.; Shirazi, A. H.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of networks forming on Heider balance theory moves towards lower tension states. The condition derived from this theory enforces agents to reevaluate and modify their interactions to achieve equilibrium. These possible changes in network's topology can be considered as various paths that guide systems to minimum energy states. Based on this theory the final destination of a system could reside on a local minimum energy, ;jammed state;, or the global minimum energy, balanced states. The question we would like to address is whether jammed states just appear by chance? Or there exist some pseudo paths that bound a system towards a jammed state. We introduce an indicator to suspect the location of a jammed state based on the Inverse Participation Ratio method (IPR). We provide a margin before a local minimum where the number of possible paths dramatically drastically decreases. This is a condition that proves adequate for ending up on a jammed states.

  20. C-semiring Frameworks for Minimum Spanning Tree Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistarelli, Stefano; Santini, Francesco

    In this paper we define general algebraic frameworks for the Minimum Spanning Tree problem based on the structure of c-semirings. We propose general algorithms that can compute such trees by following different cost criteria, which must be all specific instantiation of c-semirings. Our algorithms are extensions of well-known procedures, as Prim or Kruskal, and show the expressivity of these algebraic structures. They can deal also with partially-ordered costs on the edges.

  1. The Maunder minimum: a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, Nadezhda; Ponyavin, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history in the past was the Maunder minimum (1645-1715). We estimated the daily nominal sunspot counts of each observer individually from 1610 to 1720. Simultaneous comparison of textual reports, tables, and sunspot drawings reveals a significant difference between them. Some observers (among whom were Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini, both from the Royal Observatory in Paris) systematically made gaps in reports when others noticed sunspots. Philippe de La Hire announced only fewer sunspot groups compared with the other observers. We argue that different points of view of observers of the seventeenth-century on the origin of sunspots resulted in strong underestimation of sunspot groups. Our findings suggest that the Maunder minimum was an ordinary secular minimum with reduced but non-stopped solar cyclicity.

  2. ACSB: A minimum performance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lloyd Thomas; Kissick, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Amplitude companded sideband (ACSB) is a new modulation technique which uses a much smaller channel width than does conventional frequency modulation (FM). Among the requirements of a mobile communications system is adequate speech intelligibility. This paper explores this aspect of minimum required performance. First, the basic principles of ACSB are described, with emphasis on those features that affect speech quality. Second, the appropriate performance measures for ACSB are reviewed. Third, a subjective voice quality scoring method is used to determine the values of the performance measures that equate to the minimum level of intelligibility. It is assumed that the intelligibility of an FM system operating at 12 dB SINAD represents that minimum. It was determined that ACSB operating at 12 dB SINAD with an audio-to-pilot ratio of 10 dB provides approximately the same intelligibility as FM operating at 12 dB SINAD.

  3. South Dakota Statewide Nursing Minimum Data Set Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpiuk, Kathryn L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Elements of the Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) were collected from 188 medical records in South Dakota acute care facilities. NMDS provided a description of nursing practice and enabled comparison among facilities and patients. Cost and time considerations in using the NMDS were identified. (SK)

  4. Minimum Competencies and the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Special Education.

    The paper presents guidelines to assist Virginia's local education agency (LEA) personnel, particularly teachers, administrators, counselors, and test providers, in the implementation of the minimum competency program for handicapped students. An introduction traces the history of graduation requirements, outlines revised graduation eligibility,…

  5. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  6. Minimum Cuts and Related Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper is concerned with an integer programming characterization of a cut in a network. This characterization provides a fundamental equivalence...between directed pseudosummetric networks and undirected networks. It also identifies a class of problems which can be solved as minimum cut problems on a network. (Author)

  7. On the Minimum Vocabulary Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekharan, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a directed graph model as a tool for finding desirable minimum vocabularies to be used in indexing and information retrieval. The basic algorithm is outlined, possible enhancements to the model are discussed, and further research questions are suggested. (Author/CLB)

  8. General Requirements and Minimum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This publication provides the General Requirements and Minimum Standards developed by the National Court Reporters Association's Council on Approved Student Education (CASE). They are the same for all court reporter education programs, whether an institution is applying for approval for the first time or for a new grant of approval. The first…

  9. Global searches in quadrupole geometry for minimum or chromaticity contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1985-10-01

    This note forms a condensed summary of work performed by S. Peck at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, which was reported in the proceedings of the 1984 Snowmass Workshop. It was originally presented as a series of viewgraphs, and has only been slightly modified and expanded, for the ease of the reader. Interested readers are encouraged by refer back to the original article.

  10. A Linear Time Algorithm for the Minimum Spanning Caterpillar Problem for Bounded Treewidth Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinneen, Michael J.; Khosravani, Masoud

    We consider the Minimum Spanning Caterpillar Problem (MSCP) in a graph where each edge has two costs, spine (path) cost and leaf cost, depending on whether it is used as a spine or a leaf edge. The goal is to find a spanning caterpillar in which the sum of its edge costs is the minimum. We show that the problem has a linear time algorithm when a tree decomposition of the graph is given as part of the input. Despite the fast growing constant factor of the time complexity of our algorithm, it is still practical and efficient for some classes of graphs, such as outerplanar, series-parallel (K 4 minor-free), and Halin graphs. We also briefly explain how one can modify our algorithm to solve the Minimum Spanning Ring Star and the Dual Cost Minimum Spanning Tree Problems.

  11. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  12. Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

  13. Globalization and world trade

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  14. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  15. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  16. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  17. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  18. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  19. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  20. 50 CFR 648.143 - Minimum sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum sizes. 648.143 Section 648.143... Fishery § 648.143 Minimum sizes. (a) The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm) total... latitude of Cape Hatteras Light, North Carolina, northward to the U.S.-Canadian border. The minimum size...

  1. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  2. The GEMnet (TM) global data communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung K.; Chitty, Richard; Walters, Dave; Howard, Regan

    1995-01-01

    The GEMnet(TM) (Global Electronics Message network) will provide global digital data communications anywhere in the world at any time for minimum cost. GEMnet(TM) is an end-to-end Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite (NVNG) (sometimes dubbed 'Little LEO') System which consists of a constellation of 38 low Earth orbiting small satellites and a ground segment. The GEMnet(TM) ground segment will consist of subscriber user terminals, gateway stations, a Network Operational Center(NOC), and a backbone network interconnecting the NOC and gateways. This paper will describe the GEMnet(TM) system concept including ground and space segments, system heritage, data communication services, and protocols.

  3. The GEMnet (TM) global data communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung K.; Chitty, Richard; Walters, Dave; Howard, Regan

    1995-01-01

    The GEMnet(TM) (Global Electronics Message network) will provide global digital data communications anywhere in the world at any time for minimum cost. GEMnet(TM) is an end-to-end Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite (NVNG) (sometimes dubbed 'Little LEO') System which consists of a constellation of 38 low Earth orbiting small satellites and a ground segment. The GEMnet(TM) ground segment will consist of subscriber user terminals, gateway stations, a Network Operational Center(NOC), and a backbone network interconnecting the NOC and gateways. This paper will describe the GEMnet(TM) system concept including ground and space segments, system heritage, data communication services, and protocols.

  4. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  5. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Chart / Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  6. Law of the Minimum paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Gorban, Alexander N; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I; Smirnova, Elena V; Tyukina, Tatiana A

    2011-09-01

    The "Law of the Minimum" states that growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor). This concept was originally applied to plant or crop growth (Justus von Liebig, 1840, Salisbury, Plant physiology, 4th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, 1992) and quantitatively supported by many experiments. Some generalizations based on more complicated "dose-response" curves were proposed. Violations of this law in natural and experimental ecosystems were also reported. We study models of adaptation in ensembles of similar organisms under load of environmental factors and prove that violation of Liebig's law follows from adaptation effects. If the fitness of an organism in a fixed environment satisfies the Law of the Minimum then adaptation equalizes the pressure of essential factors and, therefore, acts against the Liebig's law. This is the the Law of the Minimum paradox: if for a randomly chosen pair "organism-environment" the Law of the Minimum typically holds, then in a well-adapted system, we have to expect violations of this law.For the opposite interaction of factors (a synergistic system of factors which amplify each other), adaptation leads from factor equivalence to limitations by a smaller number of factors.For analysis of adaptation, we develop a system of models based on Selye's idea of the universal adaptation resource (adaptation energy). These models predict that under the load of an environmental factor a population separates into two groups (phases): a less correlated, well adapted group and a highly correlated group with a larger variance of attributes, which experiences problems with adaptation. Some empirical data are presented and evidences of interdisciplinary applications to econometrics are discussed.

  7. ONR Global

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    ONRG provides seed funding for innovative research CSP Liaison Visit VSP NICOP Proposal NICOP ADs Making a Difference Graphene • A...better than silicon. ONR Global partnered with UK’s Dr Geim, who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research on graphene . Reducing...total life-cycle costs • Pitch-Adapting Propeller - a propeller blade tip redesign deform as it rotates provides improved efficiency, lower

  8. A new imminent grand minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, Rodolfo G.; Compagnucci, Rosa H.

    2012-07-01

    The planetary hypothesis of solar cycle is an old idea by which the planetary gravity acting on the Sun might have a non-negligible effect on the solar magnetic cycle. The advance of this hypothesis is based on phenomenological correlations between dynamical parameters of the Sun's movement around the barycenter of the Solar System and sunspots time series. In addition, several authors have proposed, using different methodologies that the first Grand Minima (GM) event of the new millennium is coming or has already begun. We present new fully three dimensional N-body simulations of the solar inertial motion (SIM) around the barycentre of the solar system in order to perform a phenomenological comparison between relevant SIM dynamical parameters and the occurrences of the last GM events (i.e., Maunder and Dalton). Our fundamental result is that the Sun acceleration decomposed in a co-orbital reference system shows a very particular behaviour that is common to Maunder minimum, Dalton minimum and the maximum of cycle 22 (around 1990), before the present prolonged minimum. We discuss our results in terms of a dynamical characterization of GM with relation to Sun dynamics and possible implications for a new GM event.

  9. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  10. Cost Efficiency in Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John

    This study used the frontier cost function framework to examine cost efficiency in public higher education. The frontier cost function estimates the minimum predicted cost for producing a given amount of output. Data from the annual Almanac issues of the "Chronicle of Higher Education" were used to calculate state level enrollments at two-year and…

  11. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  12. EMISSIONS AND COST ESTIMATES FOR GLOBALLY SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NOX, N2O, CH4, CO AND CO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of emission factors for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and N2O for about 80 globally significant combustion sources in seven source categories: utility, industrial, fuel production, transportation, residential, commercial, and kilns/ovens/dryers. ecause o...

  13. EMISSIONS AND COST ESTIMATES FOR GLOBALLY SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NOX, N2O, CH4, CO AND CO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of emission factors for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and N2O for about 80 globally significant combustion sources in seven source categories: utility, industrial, fuel production, transportation, residential, commercial, and kilns/ovens/dryers. ecause o...

  14. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

  15. Resistance minimum and heavy fermions

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Kondo

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of the resistance minimum in dilute magnetic alloys is explained in terms of the s-d interaction which takes account of scattering of the conduction electron off the magnetic impurities in metals. Some of the intermetallic compounds which involve rare earth elements or uranium show a very large electronic specific heat and remain non-magnetic even though they show a Curie-like susceptibility at higher temperatures. These phenomena are also explained based on the s-d interaction model. PMID:25792794

  16. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  17. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.

  18. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  19. Software Development Cost Estimation Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identify simple fully validated cost models that provide estimation uncertainty with cost estimate. Based on COCOMO variable set. Use machine learning techniques to determine: a) Minimum number of cost drivers required for NASA domain based cost models; b) Minimum number of data records required and c) Estimation Uncertainty. Build a repository of software cost estimation information. Coordinating tool development and data collection with: a) Tasks funded by PA&E Cost Analysis; b) IV&V Effort Estimation Task and c) NASA SEPG activities.

  20. Minimum sliding mode error feedback control for fault tolerant reconfigurable satellite formations with J2 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lu; Chen, Xiaoqian; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-03-01

    Minimum Sliding Mode Error Feedback Control (MSMEFC) is proposed to improve the control precision of spacecraft formations based on the conventional sliding mode control theory. This paper proposes a new approach to estimate and offset the system model errors, which include various kinds of uncertainties and disturbances, as well as smoothes out the effect of nonlinear switching control terms. To facilitate the analysis, the concept of equivalent control error is introduced, which is the key to the utilization of MSMEFC. A cost function is formulated on the basis of the principle of minimum sliding mode error; then the equivalent control error is estimated and fed back to the conventional sliding mode control. It is shown that the sliding mode after the MSMEFC will approximate to the ideal sliding mode, resulting in improved control performance and quality. The new methodology is applied to spacecraft formation flying. It guarantees global asymptotic convergence of the relative tracking error in the presence of J2 perturbations. In addition, some fault tolerant situations such as thruster failure for a period of time, thruster degradation and so on, are also considered to verify the effectiveness of MSMEFC. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology to maintain and reconfigure the satellite formation with the existence of initial offsets and J2 perturbation effects, even in the fault-tolerant cases.

  1. A Minimum Data Set for Sharing Biobank Samples, Information, and Data: MIABIS.

    PubMed

    Norlin, Loreana; Fransson, Martin N; Eriksson, Mikael; Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Anderberg, Maria; Kurtovic, Sanela; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2012-08-01

    Numerous successful scientific results have emerged from projects using shared biobanked samples and data. In order to facilitate the discovery of underutilized biobank samples, it would be helpful if a global biobank register containing descriptive information about the samples existed. But first, for shared data to be comparable, it needs to be harmonized. In compliance with the aim of BBMRI (Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure), to harmonize biobanking across Europe, and the conclusion that the move towards a universal information infrastructure for biobanking is directly connected to the issues of semantic interoperability through standardized message formats and controlled terminologies, we have developed an updated version of the minimum data set for biobanks and studies using human biospecimens. The data set called MIABIS (Minimum Information About BIobank data Sharing) consists of 52 attributes describing a biobank's content. The aim is to facilitate data discovery through harmonization of data elements describing a biobank at the aggregate level. As many biobanks across Europe possess a tremendous amount of samples that are underutilized, this would help pave the way for biobank networking on a national and international level, resulting in time and cost savings and faster emergence of new scientific results.

  2. Oxygen and Temperature Effects on Vertically Migrating Animals in Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Large populations of oceanic nekton and zooplankton undergo daily migrations from shallow water at night to depths greater than 200 m during the daytime. In some regions, these migrations cross extreme gradients of temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are extensive and characterized by deep-water (100-800 m) oxygen partial pressures that would be lethal to most marine organisms, yet are tolerated by vertical migrators. Climate change is predicted to further deplete oxygen, and measurable reductions in oxygen have already been documented in some regions. Increases in shallow water temperature and carbon dioxide are occurring simultaneously. Oxygen levels and temperature are important drivers of biodiversity and distribution, and documented changes in community structure and function are reportedly associated with OMZ expansion and warming. Here I answer fundamental questions concerning zooplankton distributions, adaptations, and functions in oxygen minimum zones. In particular I report that metabolic suppression is a common strategy that facilitates diel occupancy of extreme hypoxia in many oceanic taxa. Anaerobic metabolic pathways play a minimal role in compensating for reduced aerobic ATP production. Numerous epigenetic mechanisms lead to reductions in energetically costly cellular processes, such as transcription and translation. Total metabolism is reduced by 50% or more during exposure to levels of hypoxia that characterize the daytime habitat for most vertically-migrating zooplankton. I further show that many migrators approach their upper thermal maximum in shallow water at night. Thus expanding OMZs and global warming may together compress the habitable depth range for many species.

  3. Minimum cut and shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Cramer, Andrew; Walker, David M.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the efficacy of network optimisation theory for minimum cut to quantify the evolution of granular fabric and its functionality as a transmission medium in deforming dense granular media. Our focus here is on force transmission in a sheared assembly of polydisperse particles, in a biaxial compression test under constant confining pressure. The granular fabric is examined with respect to the material's force-bearing contact network over that regime when the material has reached its residual strength, and is deforming under a near constant volume in the presence of a fully developed shear band. The structural evolution of the fabric is quantitatively characterized using a representative weighted-directed network that is similarly evolving as the sample deforms. The edges or links, representing the interparticle contacts, are each weighted by the capacity of the contact to transmit force: a scalar that depends solely on the relative motion of the contacting grains. In the large strain failure regime, the minimum cut which represents the bottleneck in force transmission is found to lie in the persistent shear band. This study paves the way for the future analysis of flows and force transmission through an evolving contact network and, in turn, the characterisation of the relationship between the material's contact topology and its capacity to transmit forces through its contact network.

  4. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  5. Minimum savings requirements in shared savings provider payment.

    PubMed

    Pope, Gregory C; Kautter, John

    2012-11-01

    Payer (insurer) sharing of savings is a way of motivating providers of medical services to reduce cost growth. A Medicare shared savings program is established for accountable care organizations in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, savings created by providers cannot be distinguished from the normal (random) variation in medical claims costs, setting up a classic principal-agent problem. To lessen the likelihood of paying undeserved bonuses, payers may pay bonuses only if observed savings exceed minimum levels. We study the trade-off between two types of errors in setting minimum savings requirements: paying bonuses when providers do not create savings and not paying bonuses when providers create savings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Development and prototyping of an autonomous, low-cost oceanographic drifter buoy with real-time global bi-directional satellite communication capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxey, L.; Ohta, A.

    2016-12-01

    This project designed and prototyped the electronics payload of an oceanographic drifter buoy relying on low-cost off-the-shelf hardware. The prototype drifter buoy, called "PISCES-A", featured bi-directional Iridium satellite communications capabilities that allows users to modify in real time the buoy's data collection and data transmission frequency and configuration, even after its ocean deployment. After being built, PISCES-A was deployed in the N. Pacific Ocean during a NOAA oceanographic research cruise, where it collected real time and archived oceanographic data (latitude & longitude, velocity, heading, sea-surface temperature, sea-surface salinity) and system diagnostics information (voltage, internal humidity, internal temperature). The buoy hardware cost $931, and yielded high resolution in situ oceanographic data. Comparisons with satellite-based sea-surface height and sea-surface temperature data showed good agreement between the locations of the mesoscale oceanographic features, regional surface currents and sea-surface temperatures (average difference of 0.31° C). The drifter buoy demonstrated the impact that carefully engineered, low-cost electronic systems can have in the sciences, particularly within the field of physical oceanography.

  7. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  8. Cost effectiveness of endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® system versus other global ablation modalities and hysterectomy for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Bonafede, Machaon M; Basinski, Cindy M; Lukes, Andrea S; Troeger, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) interferes with physical, emotional, and social well-being, impacting the quality of life of more than 10 million women in the USA. Hysterectomy, the most common surgical treatment of AUB, has significant morbidity, low mortality, long recovery, and high associated health care costs. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) provides a surgical alternative with reduced morbidity, cost, and recovery time. The NovaSure® system utilizes unique radiofrequency impedance-based GEA technology. This study evaluated cost effectiveness of AUB treatment with NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and versus hysterectomy from the US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Methods A health state transition (semi-Markov) model was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from commercial and Medicaid claims database analyses, supplemented by published literature. Three hypothetical cohorts of women receiving AUB interventions were simulated over 1-, 3-, and 5-year horizons to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for NovaSure, other GEA modalities, and hysterectomy. Results Model analyses show lower costs for NovaSure-treated patients than for those treated with other GEA modalities or hysterectomy over all time frames under commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. By Year 3, cost savings versus other GEA were $930 (commercial) and $3,000 (Medicaid); cost savings versus hysterectomy were $6,500 (commercial) and $8,900 (Medicaid). Coinciding with a 43%–71% reduction in need for re-ablation, there were 69%–88% fewer intervention/reintervention complications for NovaSure-treated patients versus other GEA modalities, and 82%–91% fewer versus hysterectomy. Furthermore, NovaSure-treated patients had fewer days of work absence and short-term disability. Cost-effectiveness metrics showed NovaSure treatment as economically dominant over other GEA modalities in all circumstances. With few exceptions, similar

  9. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  10. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  11. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  12. Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This brief overview of minimum competency testing and disabled high school students discusses: the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students in minimum competency testing programs; approaches to accommodating the individual needs of handicapped students; and legal issues. Surveys of states that have mandated minimum competency tests indicate…

  13. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  14. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  15. 30 CFR 202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 202.53 Section 202.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide for minimum...

  16. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum...

  17. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum...

  18. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum bid....

  19. 43 CFR 3923.10 - Minimum bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum bid. 3923.10 Section 3923.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Minimum Bid § 3923.10 Minimum...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  1. Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, N.

    2005-09-01

    We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order Lθ , where θ⩽0 is a universal d -dependent exponent. There is a similar form for the change in optimum cost under a change in boundary condition. At nonzero temperature T , there is a crossover length ξ˜T-ν , such that on length scales larger than ξ , the behavior becomes that of uniform spanning trees. There is a scaling relation θ=-1/ν , and we provide several arguments that show that ν and -1/θ both equal νperc , the correlation length exponent for ordinary percolation in the same dimension d , in all dimensions d⩾1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal’s greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of θ=-3/4 in two dimensions.

  2. The Cost of Conserved Carbon: Weighing the Monetary, Social, and Climactic Implications of Regional-, National-, and Global-Scale Carbon Abatement Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantner, J. W.; Hoffman, I.; Johnston, J. L.; Kammen, D. M.; Levin, J. E.; Komiyama, R.; Motschenbacher, A.; Gimon, E.

    2008-05-01

    Previous schema for analyzing carbon mitigation methods often have lacked realistic costs, comprehensive accounting of trade-offs, and methodological transparency. We offer a dynamic model for evaluating diverse carbon mitigation scenarios based on economics, policy traction, and interplay with climate, society and ecosystems. The model will test the impacts of policy changes across more than two dozen strategies for conserving or avoiding carbon emissions. Users will be able to access the model at rael-c3.berkeley.edu and change underlying assumptions as desired.

  3. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J

    2012-10-02

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future.

  4. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; DeLong, Edward F.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N2 production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two “end points” represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future. PMID:22967509

  5. DYPTOP: a cost-efficient TOPMODEL implementation to simulate sub-grid spatio-temporal dynamics of global wetlands and peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, B. D.; Spahni, R.; Joos, F.

    2014-12-01

    Simulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of inundation is key to understanding the role of wetlands under past and future climate change. Earlier modelling studies have mostly relied on fixed prescribed peatland maps and inundation time series of limited temporal coverage. Here, we describe and assess the the Dynamical Peatland Model Based on TOPMODEL (DYPTOP), which predicts the extent of inundation based on a computationally efficient TOPMODEL implementation. This approach rests on an empirical, grid-cell-specific relationship between the mean soil water balance and the flooded area. DYPTOP combines the simulated inundation extent and its temporal persistency with criteria for the ecosystem water balance and the modelled peatland-specific soil carbon balance to predict the global distribution of peatlands. We apply DYPTOP in combination with the LPX-Bern DGVM and benchmark the global-scale distribution, extent, and seasonality of inundation against satellite data. DYPTOP successfully predicts the spatial distribution and extent of wetlands and major boreal and tropical peatland complexes and reveals the governing limitations to peatland occurrence across the globe. Peatlands covering large boreal lowlands are reproduced only when accounting for a positive feedback induced by the enhanced mean soil water holding capacity in peatland-dominated regions. DYPTOP is designed to minimize input data requirements, optimizes computational efficiency and allows for a modular adoption in Earth system models.

  6. DYPTOP: a cost-efficient TOPMODEL implementation to simulate sub-grid spatio-temporal dynamics of global wetlands and peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, B. D.; Spahni, R.; Joos, F.

    2014-07-01

    Simulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of inundation is key to understanding the role of wetlands under past and future climate change. Earlier modelling studies have mostly relied on fixed prescribed peatland maps and inundation time series of limited temporal coverage. Here, we describe and assess the DYPTOP model that predicts the extent of inundation based on a computationally efficient TOPMODEL implementation. This approach rests on an empirical, gridcell-specific relationship between the mean soil water balance and the flooded area. DYPTOP combines the simulated inundation extent and its temporal persistency with criteria for the ecosystem water balance and the modelled peatland-specific soil carbon balance to predict the global distribution of peatlands. Here, we apply DYPTOP in combination with the LPX-Bern DGVM and benchmark the global-scale distribution, extent, and seasonality of inundation against satellite data. DYPTOP successfully predicts the spatial distribution and extent of wetlands and major boreal and tropical peatland complexes and reveals the governing limitations to peatland occurrence across the globe. Peatlands covering large boreal lowlands are reproduced only when accounting for a positive feedback induced by the enhanced mean soil water holding capacity in peatland-dominated regions. DYPTOP is designed to minimize input data requirements, optimizes computational efficiency and allows for a modular adoption in Earth system models.

  7. Integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to design a cost-effective and equitable programme of measures for adaptation of a river basin to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation to the multiple facets of global change challenges the conventional means of sustainably planning and managing water resources at the river basin scale. Numerous demand or supply management options are available, from which adaptation measures need to be selected in a context of high uncertainty of future conditions. Given the interdependency of water users, agreements need to be found at the local level to implement the most effective adaptation measures. Therefore, this work develops an approach combining economics and water resources engineering to select a cost-effective programme of adaptation measures in the context of climate change uncertainty, and to define an equitable allocation of the cost of the adaptation plan between the stakeholders involved. A framework is developed to integrate inputs from the two main approaches commonly used to plan for adaptation. The first, referred to as "top-down", consists of a modelling chain going from global greenhouse gases emission scenarios to local hydrological models used to assess the impact of climate change on water resources. Conversely, the second approach, called "bottom-up", starts from assessing vulnerability at the local level to then identify adaptation measures used to face an uncertain future. The methodological framework presented in this contribution relies on a combination of these two approaches to support the selection of adaptation measures at the local level. Outcomes from these two approaches are integrated to select a cost-effective combination of adaptation measures through a least-cost optimization model developed at the river basin scale. The performances of a programme of measures are assessed under different climate projections to identify cost-effective and least-regret adaptation measures. The issue of allocating the cost of the adaptation plan is considered through two complementary perspectives. The outcome of a negotiation process between the stakeholders is modelled through

  8. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus

  10. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.

  11. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  12. An Integrated Control and Minimum Mass Structural Optimization Algorithm for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messac, A.; Turner, J.; Soosaar, K.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach is discussed for solving dual structural control optimization problems for high-order flexible space structures, where reduced-order structural models are employed and minimum mass designs are sought. For a given initial structural design, a quadratic control cost is minimized subject to a constant-mass constraint. The sensitivity of the optimal control cost with respect to the structural design variables is then determined and used to obtain successive structural redesigns, using a constrained gradient optimization algorithm. This process is repeated until the constrained control cost sensitivity becomes negligible. The minimum mass design is obtained by solving a sequence of neighboring optimal constant mass designs, where the sequence of optimal performance indices has a minimum at the optimal minimum mass design. A numerical example is presented which demonstrates that this new approach effectively addresses the problem of dual optimization for potentially very high-order structures.

  13. National minimum standards for community equipment services.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Brian

    2010-04-01

    There are approximately 10 million pieces of community equipment delivered to 3.5 million clients every year in England and Wales. The service is key for moving people safely around the whole health and social care system, and is used by almost every clinical professional working in the community. It is an absolute essential part of the early intervention and prevention agenda. Unfortunately, the service currently has no standards in place nor is it regulated or inspected in its own right by any of the regulators. Recently enacted legislation impacts significantly on this service area, which has serious penalties for failure. There are some concerning aspects of service delivery, particularly regarding quality and patient safety issues. Widespread failings in service delivery are resulting in a significant number of unnecessary fatalities and incidents, and avoidable costs being incurred. Undue care in this area is resulting in health and social care organizations not fully realizing their strategic and policy objectives. Unless community equipment is addressed appropriately, these issues are likely to be intensified, especially with recent and proposed changes for community equipment services, such as 'choice and control'. It is proposed that national minimum standards will reduce risks and improve quality and safety, while saving public funds through a reduction in secondary episodes of care.

  14. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  15. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  16. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  17. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  18. The Global Youth Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alschuler, Alfred; Myers, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The Global Youth Academy began as a low-cost, private school that taught global citizenship to its own students and foreign students recruited enroute. The school-on-wings formula is simple: build the curriculum into a tour, integrate academic and personal growth, and stress community service. The program succeeds academically while promoting…

  19. Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiling, R. D.; de Boer, P. L.

    2011-12-01

    Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 μm-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

  20. An attempt of reduction of optimization costs of complex industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztangret, Łukasz; Kusiak, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of computational costs of optimization of real industrial processes is crucial, because the models of these processes are often complex and demand time consuming numerical computations. Iterative optimization procedures have to run the simulations many times and therefore the computational costs of the optimization may be unacceptable high. This is why a new optimization methods and strategies which need less simulation runs are searched. The paper is focused on the problem of reduction of computational costs of optimization procedure. The main goal is the presentation of developed by the Authors new, efficient Approximation Based Optimization (ABO) and Modified Approximation Based Optimization (MABO) methods which allow finding the global minimum in smaller number of objective function calls. Detailed algorithm of the MABO method as well as the results of tests using several benchmark functions are presented. The efficiency of MABO method was compared with heuristic methods and the results show that MABO method reduces the computational costs and improve the optimization accuracy.

  1. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly.

  2. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  3. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  4. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  5. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  6. Global transcriptomic profiling using small volumes of whole blood: a cost-effective method for translational genomic biomarker identification in small animals.

    PubMed

    Fricano, Meagan M; Ditewig, Amy C; Jung, Paul M; Liguori, Michael J; Blomme, Eric A G; Yang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Blood is an ideal tissue for the identification of novel genomic biomarkers for toxicity or efficacy. However, using blood for transcriptomic profiling presents significant technical challenges due to the transcriptomic changes induced by ex vivo handling and the interference of highly abundant globin mRNA. Most whole blood RNA stabilization and isolation methods also require significant volumes of blood, limiting their effective use in small animal species, such as rodents. To overcome these challenges, a QIAzol-based RNA stabilization and isolation method (QSI) was developed to isolate sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from 25 to 500 μL of rat whole blood. The method was compared to the standard PAXgene Blood RNA System using blood collected from rats exposed to saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The QSI method yielded an average of 54 ng total RNA per μL of rat whole blood with an average RNA Integrity Number (RIN) of 9, a performance comparable with the standard PAXgene method. Total RNA samples were further processed using the NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system and cDNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. The microarray QC parameters using RNA isolated with the QSI method were within the acceptable range for microarray analysis. The transcriptomic profiles were highly correlated with those using RNA isolated with the PAXgene method and were consistent with expected LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The present study demonstrated that the QSI method coupled with NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system is cost-effective and particularly suitable for transcriptomic profiling of minimal volumes of whole blood, typical of those obtained with small animal species.

  7. Minimum fuel horizontal flightpaths in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreindler, E.; Neuman, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of minimum fuel airplane trajectories from arbitrary initial states to be fixed final state is considered. There are four state variables (two position coordinates, heading, and constrained velocity) and two constrained controls (thrust and bank angle). The fuel optimality of circular and straight line flightpaths is examined. Representative extremals (trajectories satisfying the necessary conditions of the minimum principle) of various types are computed and used to evaluate trajectories generated by an on line algorithm. Attention is paid to the existence of Darboux points (beyond which an extremal ceases to be globally optimal). One fuel flow rate model includes a term quadratic in thrust; hence, the optimal thrust is continuous and nonsingular. The other fuel flow rate model is linear in thrust, and consequently the optimal thrust is discontinuous and singular.

  8. Potential and Challenges of Low-Cost and High-Tech Crowd-sensing Approaches in Hydrometeorology for Better Water Resources Management - Insights and Learnings from the Global iMoMo Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In developing and transition countries and despite significant global investments in hydrometeorology, data on water remain scarce/fragmented. One key reason is that traditional sensing in hydrology, hydro- and agro-meteorology does not scale because of high investment costs and difficult maintenance of traditional technology, esp. in remote and/or poor regions. Even where there are data, these are often difficult to access and interpret for local stakeholders due outdated data transmission and the lack of access to modern tools for data management/analysis/synthesis and exchange. In recent years, there have been substantial technology developments in environmental sensing and mobile communication technology that enable the application and deployment of affordable and scalable high-tech solutions for better water monitoring at different scales (local to transboundary levels). The WMO is acknowledging and promoting the potential for application of these technologies. One key aspect is to anchor these technologies in local communities that perform crowd-sensing tasks on a regular basis. The merits as well as challenges (including introduction of human factor, less accuracy as compared to traditional sensing, intermittency of data, …) of such approaches will be discussed in the context of the WMO-led Global iMoMo Initiative and its numerous activities on the ground in Eastern and Southern Africa as well as in Central Asia.

  9. Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet?

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.

  10. Wavelet minimum description length detrending for near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Tak, Sungho; Jung, Jinwook; Jang, Jaeduck; Jeong, Yong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2009-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to investigate brain activities associated with regional changes of the oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration by measuring the absorption of near-infrared light through the intact skull. NIRS is regarded as a promising neuroimaging modality thanks to its excellent temporal resolution and flexibility for routine monitoring. Recently, the general linear model (GLM), which is a standard method for functional MRI (fMRI) analysis, has been employed for quantitative analysis of NIRS data. However, the GLM often fails in NIRS when there exists an unknown global trend due to breathing, cardiac, vasomotion, or other experimental errors. We propose a wavelet minimum description length (Wavelet-MDL) detrending algorithm to overcome this problem. Specifically, the wavelet transform is applied to decompose NIRS measurements into global trends, hemodynamic signals, and uncorrelated noise components at distinct scales. The minimum description length (MDL) principle plays an important role in preventing over- or underfitting and facilitates optimal model order selection for the global trend estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that the new detrending algorithm outperforms the conventional approaches.

  11. Minimum alcohol pricing policies in practice: A critical examination of implementation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Giesbrecht, Norman; Thomas, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    There is an interest globally in using Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) of alcohol to promote public health. Canada is the only country to have both implemented and evaluated some forms of minimum alcohol prices, albeit in ways that fall short of MUP. To inform these international debates, we describe the degree to which minimum alcohol prices in Canada meet recommended criteria for being an effective public health policy. We collected data on the implementation of minimum pricing with respect to (1) breadth of application, (2) indexation to inflation and (3) adjustments for alcohol content. Some jurisdictions have implemented recommended practices with respect to minimum prices; however, the full harm reduction potential of minimum pricing is not fully realised due to incomplete implementation. Key concerns include the following: (1) the exclusion of minimum prices for several beverage categories, (2) minimum prices below the recommended minima and (3) prices are not regularly adjusted for inflation or alcohol content. We provide recommendations for best practices when implementing minimum pricing policy.

  12. Minimum alcohol pricing policies in practice: A critical examination of implementation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Giesbrecht, Norman; Thomas, Gerald

    2016-11-09

    There is an interest globally in using Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) of alcohol to promote public health. Canada is the only country to have both implemented and evaluated some forms of minimum alcohol prices, albeit in ways that fall short of MUP. To inform these international debates, we describe the degree to which minimum alcohol prices in Canada meet recommended criteria for being an effective public health policy. We collected data on the implementation of minimum pricing with respect to (1) breadth of application, (2) indexation to inflation and (3) adjustments for alcohol content. Some jurisdictions have implemented recommended practices with respect to minimum prices; however, the full harm reduction potential of minimum pricing is not fully realised due to incomplete implementation. Key concerns include the following: (1) the exclusion of minimum prices for several beverage categories, (2) minimum prices below the recommended minima and (3) prices are not regularly adjusted for inflation or alcohol content. We provide recommendations for best practices when implementing minimum pricing policy.

  13. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost without late arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Zhao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip cost without late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has significant effects on each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip costs and that the effects are dependent on its time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent effects on the minimum value of the system's total trip cost.

  14. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  15. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  16. The minimum flux corona; theory or concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The reply to the criticisms of the minimum flux theory is discussed. These criticisms are correct in substance, as well as in detail. Counter arguments that the minimum flux corona theory is untenable, because of errors in its formulation, are presented.

  17. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  18. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  19. Optimal shock isolation with minimum settling time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Lim, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how unique isolator forces and corresponding forces can be chosen by superimposing a minimum settling time onto the limiting performance of the shock isolation system. Basically, this means that the system which has reached the peak value of the performance index is settled to rest in minimum time.

  20. 30 CFR 202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 202.352 Section 202.352 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's annual...

  1. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  2. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  3. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the lessee's...

  4. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  5. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Minimum participation. Except as provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the recipient may...

  6. 5 CFR 630.206 - Minimum charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum charge. 630.206 Section 630.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.206 Minimum charge. (a) Unless an agency...

  7. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  8. 30 CFR 1202.352 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.352 Section 1202.352 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.352 Minimum royalty. In no event shall the...

  9. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum...

  10. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases...

  11. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide...

  12. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide...

  13. 30 CFR 1202.53 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 1202.53 Section 1202.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Oil, Gas, and OCS Sulfur, General § 1202.53 Minimum royalty. For leases that provide...

  14. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  15. Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Mann, Michael E.; Rind, David; Waple, Anne; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We examine the climate response to solar irradiance changes between the late 17th century Maunder Minimum and the late 18th century. Global average temperature changes are small (about 0.3 to 0.4 C) in both a climate model and empirical reconstructions. However, regional temperature changes are quite large. In the model, these occur primarily through a forced shift toward the low index state of the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation. This leads to colder temperatures over the Northern Hemisphere continents, especially in winter (1 to 2 C), in agreement with historical records and proxy data for surface temperatures.

  16. Solar forcing of regional climate change during the Maunder Minimum.

    PubMed

    Shindell, D T; Schmidt, G A; Mann, M E; Rind, D; Waple, A

    2001-12-07

    We examine the climate response to solar irradiance changes between the late 17th-century Maunder Minimum and the late 18th century. Global average temperature changes are small (about 0.3 degrees to 0.4 degrees C) in both a climate model and empirical reconstructions. However, regional temperature changes are quite large. In the model, these occur primarily through a forced shift toward the low index state of the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation as solar irradiance decreases. This leads to colder temperatures over the Northern Hemisphere continents, especially in winter (1 degrees to 2 degrees C), in agreement with historical records and proxy data for surface temperatures.

  17. Soil C and N minimum detectable changes and treatment differences in a multi-treatment forest experiment.

    Treesearch

    P.S. Homann; B.T. Bormann; J.R. Boyle; R.L. Darbyshire; R. Bigley

    2008-01-01

    Detecting changes in forest soil C and N is vital to the study of global budgets and long-term ecosystem productivity. Identifying differences among land-use practices may guide future management. Our objective was to determine the relation of minimum detectable changes (MDCs) and minimum detectable differences between treatments (MDDs) to soil C and N variability at...

  18. Using the pallet costing system to determine costs and stay competitive in the pallet industry

    Treesearch

    A. Jefferson Jr. Palmer; Bruce G. Hansen; Bruce G. Hansen

    2002-01-01

    In order to stay competitive and keep production costs at a minimum, wood pallet manufacturers must plan, monitor, and control their various production activities. Cost information on pallet manufacturing operations, must be gathered and analyzed so that the plant manager can determine whether certain activities are efficient and profitable. The Pallet Costing System (...

  19. Kinematically optimal robot placement for minimum time coordinated motion

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for determining the optimal placement of a robotic manipulator within a workcell for minimum time coordinated motion. The algorithm uses a simple principle of coordinated motion to estimate the time of a joint interpolated motion. Specifically, the coordinated motion profile is limited by the slowest axis. Two and six degree of freedom (DOF) examples are presented. In experimental tests on a FANUC S-800 arm, the optimal placement of the robot can improve cycle time of a robotic operation by as much as 25%. In high volume processes where the robot motion is currently the limiting factor, this increased throughput can result in substantial cost savings.

  20. Kinematically optimal robot placement for minimum time coordinated motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for determining the optimal placement of a robotic manipulator within a workcell for minimum time coordinated motion. The algorithm uses a simple principle of coordinated motion to estimate the time of a joint interpolated motion. Specifically, the coordinated motion profile is limited by the slowest axis. Two and six degrees of freedom examples are presented. In experimental tests on a FANUC S-800 arm, the optimal placement of the robot can improve the cycle time of a robotic operation by as much as 25%. In high volume processes where the robot motion is currently the limiting factor, this increased throughput can result in substantial cost savings.

  1. The "Myth" of the Minimum SAR Antenna Area Constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Huneycutt, B.; Jordan, R.; Hensley, S.; Siqueira, P.; Curlander, J.

    1998-01-01

    A design constraint traceable ot the early days of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known as the minimum antenna area constraint for SAR. In this paper, it is confirmed that this constraint strictly applies only to the case where both the best possible resolution and the widest possible swath are the design goals. SAR antennas with area smaller than the constraint allows are shown to be possible, have been used on spaceborne SAR missions in the past, and should permit further, lower-cost SAR mission in the future.

  2. Cosmic rays during the unusual solar minimum of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka

    during 2007-2008 evolved to longer period (up to 33-36 days) during 2009. Alania et al. (2014, submitted to JGR) have reported that the 2009 growth in the GCR intensity mostly was related with drop in the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field, and the drift during the negative polarity epoch. Frohlich (2009) argued that the recent minimum was caused by a global temperature decline of 0.2 K in the effective temperature of the Sun. Dikpati (2013) suggested that the reason of the prolonged and deep minimum was somehow different operation of solar dynamo. On the other hand, revisions of the proxies showed that the Maunder Minimum was the latest, but not the only, of the grand minimum ages of solar activity that occurred in the past (e.g. Jones et al., 2010). It might be the case that the last 23/24 solar minimum was the precursor of the end of the Modern grand maximum (e.g. Usoskin, 2013). References: 1.Alania M.V, R. Modzelewska, A. Wawrzynczak, 2014, submitted to JGR 2.Dikpati M., SSRv 176, 279-287, 2013 3.Fröhlich C., A&A 501, L27-L30, 2009 4.Gil A., R. Modzelewska, M.V Alania, AdSpR 50, 712-715, 2012 5.Jian L.K., C.T. Russell, J.G. Luhmann, SoPh 274, 321-344, 2011 6.Jones Ch.A., M.J. Thompson, S.M. Tobias, SSRv 152, 591-616, 2010 7.Kirk M. S., W.D. Pesnell, C. A. Young, S.A. Hess Webber, SoPh 257, 99-112, 2009 8.Leske R. A., A.C. Cummings, R.A. Mewaldt, E.C. Stone, SSRv 176, 253-263, 2013 9.McComas D.J., R.W. Ebert, H.A. Elliott, et al., GeoRL 35, CiteID L18103, 2008 10.Modzelewska R, M.V. Alania, SoPh 286, 593-607, 2013 11.Moraal H., P.H. Stoker, JGR 115, CiteID A12109, 2010 12.Smith E.J, JASTP 73, 277-289, 2011 13.Usoskin I.G., LRSP 10, doi 10.12942/lrsp-2013-1, 2013 14.Wang Y.-M., E. Robbrecht, N.R. Sheeley, ApJ. 707, 1372-1386, 2009

  3. Seeking Global Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajuddin, Wan Ahmad

    1994-02-01

    Ease in finding the configuration at the global energy minimum in a symmetric neural network is important for combinatorial optimization problems. We carry out a comprehensive survey of available strategies for seeking global minima by comparing their performances in the binary representation problem. We recall our previous comparison of steepest descent with analog dynamics, genetic hill-climbing, simulated diffusion, simulated annealing, threshold accepting and simulated tunneling. To this, we add comparisons to other strategies including taboo search and one with field-ordered updating.

  4. Global Sensitivity Measures from Given Data

    SciTech Connect

    Elmar Plischke; Emanuele Borgonovo; Curtis L. Smith

    2013-05-01

    Simulation models support managers in the solution of complex problems. International agencies recommend uncertainty and global sensitivity methods as best practice in the audit, validation and application of scientific codes. However, numerical complexity, especially in the presence of a high number of factors, induces analysts to employ less informative but numerically cheaper methods. This work introduces a design for estimating global sensitivity indices from given data (including simulation input–output data), at the minimum computational cost. We address the problem starting with a statistic based on the L1-norm. A formal definition of the estimators is provided and corresponding consistency theorems are proved. The determination of confidence intervals through a bias-reducing bootstrap estimator is investigated. The strategy is applied in the identification of the key drivers of uncertainty for the complex computer code developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) assessing the risk of lunar space missions. We also introduce a symmetry result that enables the estimation of global sensitivity measures to datasets produced outside a conventional input–output functional framework.

  5. Gradient gravitational search: An efficient metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Dash, Tirtharaj; Sahu, Prabhat K

    2015-05-30

    The adaptation of novel techniques developed in the field of computational chemistry to solve the concerned problems for large and flexible molecules is taking the center stage with regard to efficient algorithm, computational cost and accuracy. In this article, the gradient-based gravitational search (GGS) algorithm, using analytical gradients for a fast minimization to the next local minimum has been reported. Its efficiency as metaheuristic approach has also been compared with Gradient Tabu Search and others like: Gravitational Search, Cuckoo Search, and Back Tracking Search algorithms for global optimization. Moreover, the GGS approach has also been applied to computational chemistry problems for finding the minimal value potential energy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional off-lattice protein models. The simulation results reveal the relative stability and physical accuracy of protein models with efficient computational cost. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  7. Testable scenario for relativity with minimum length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, G.

    2001-06-01

    I propose a general class of spacetimes whose structure is governed by observer-independent scales of both velocity (/c) and length (Planck length), and I observe that these spacetimes can naturally host a modification of FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction such that lengths which in their inertial rest frame are bigger than a ``minimum length'' are also bigger than the minimum length in all other inertial frames. With an analysis in leading order in the minimum length, I show that this is the case in a specific illustrative example of postulates for relativity with velocity and length observer-independent scales.

  8. The transverse magnetic reflectivity minimum of metals.

    PubMed

    Hooper, I R; Sambles, J R; Bassom, A P

    2008-05-12

    Metal surfaces, which are generally regarded as excellent reflectors of electromagnetic radiation, may, at high angles of incidence, become strong absorbers for transverse magnetic radiation. This effect, often referred to as the pseudo-Brewster angle, results in a reflectivity minimum, and is most strongly evident in the microwave domain, where metals are often treated as perfect conductors. A detailed analysis of this reflectivity minimum is presented here and it is shown why, in the limit of very long wavelengths, metals close to grazing incidence have a minimum in reflectance given by (square root 2-1)2.

  9. An Investigation of Minimum Buy Policies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Remaining are 2393 items for which we make a minimum buy . We also converted the quarterly data into a series of requisitions more appropriate for our...AO80 399 ARMY INVENTORY RESEARCH OFFICE PHILADELPHIA PA F/B 5/3 AN INVESTIGATION OF MINIMUM BUY POLICIES.(U) AUG 79 S FRAZZA. A J KAPLAN...UNCLASSIFIED IRO-269 NL EEEEEEEEE///EEEflfllflfflfllflf EN AD- FINAL REPORT F0 REPORt NO269 AN INVESTIGATION OF o MINIMUM BUY POLICIES l.5S ARMY U.S. CUSTOM

  10. Two-dimensional Phase Unwrapping Method Using Cost Function of L0 Norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, J.; LI, L.; SHI, L.

    2017-02-01

    Considering cost model and convergence speed of the minimum norm unwrapping, a highly efficient two-dimensional global phase unwrapping method optimized with L0 norm is proposed. As analysing features of cost model in phase unwrapping with minimum norm, a cost function definition is provided in line with the L0 norm, which impose a stronger constraint in the tangent direction of phase discontinuity boundary than that in normal direction, in order to preserve integrity of discontinuity during iterative unwrapping processing for continuous phase. For the sake of slow speed of low-frequency error convergence during linear solving, a data partitioning strategy is introduced into unwrapping processing. Due to independence of minimum norm method in blocks, linear solving only focus on high-frequency information and improve efficiency of iterative work, and the low-frequency processing part is transferred to offsetting-aligning between blocks. With experiments and analysis, reliability and efficiency of the novel phase unwrapping method are certified comparing to existing methods.

  11. Cosmic ray particles behavior during last solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenbach, Marlos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Takao; Bieber, John; Schuch, Nelson; Duldig, Marc; Humble, John; Jassar, Hala Al; Sharma, Madan; Sabbah, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    The work presents the Heliosphere characterization during the minimum solar activity. It is possible to identify phenomena caused by the Corrotating Interaction Regions - CIRs, during this solar activity phase. CIRs can be visualized in satellite data for each 27 days, approximately, and it is frequently accompanied by the Earth crossing through the Heliospheric Current Sheath - HCS. These crossing occur in a period of time lower than a day, and it is possible to study the behavior of cosmic rays particles in two different regions with opposite magnetic field polarities. The last solar minimum was special because their long duration and it was the first that the Global Muon Detector Network - GMDN operated in its full capacity. This cosmic ray detectors network is composed by muon scintillators installed in Nagoya - Japan, Hobart - Australia, São Martinho da Serra - Brazil and Kuwait City - Kuwait. Analyzing the GMDN data together with data from SOHO and/or ACE satellites it is possible to study the behavior of the cosmic ray particles and presents a Heliosphere characterization during the minimum solar activity, giving a better understanding of the cosmic ray particles modulation.

  12. Cross Validation Through Two-dimensional Solution Surface for Cost-Sensitive SVM.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor; Tay, Keng; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2016-06-08

    Model selection plays an important role in cost-sensitive SVM (CS-SVM). It has been proven that the global minimum cross validation (CV) error can be efficiently computed based on the solution path for one parameter learning problems. However, it is a challenge to obtain the global minimum CV error for CS-SVM based on one-dimensional solution path and traditional grid search, because CS-SVM is with two regularization parameters. In this paper, we propose a solution and error surfaces based CV approach (CV-SES). More specifically, we first compute a two-dimensional solution surface for CS-SVM based on a bi-parameter space partition algorithm, which can fit solutions of CS-SVM for all values of both regularization parameters. Then, we compute a two-dimensional validation error surface for each CV fold, which can fit validation errors of CS-SVM for all values of both regularization parameters. Finally, we obtain the CV error surface by superposing K validation error surfaces, which can find the global minimum CV error of CS-SVM. Experiments are conducted on seven datasets for cost sensitive learning and on four datasets for imbalanced learning. Experimental results not only show that our proposed CV-SES has a better generalization ability than CS-SVM with various hybrids between grid search and solution path methods, and than recent proposed cost-sensitive hinge loss SVM with three-dimensional grid search, but also show that CV-SES uses less running time.

  13. Robustification and Optimization in Repetitive Control For Minimum Phase and Non-Minimum Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha

    repetitive control FIR compensator. The aim is to reduce the final error level by using real time frequency response model updates to successively increase the cutoff frequency, each time creating the improved model needed to produce convergence zero error up to the higher cutoff. Non-minimum phase systems present a difficult design challenge to the sister field of Iterative Learning Control. The third topic investigates to what extent the same challenges appear in RC. One challenge is that the intrinsic non-minimum phase zero mapped from continuous time is close to the pole of repetitive controller at +1 creating behavior similar to pole-zero cancellation. The near pole-zero cancellation causes slow learning at DC and low frequencies. The Min-Max cost function over the learning rate is presented. The Min-Max can be reformulated as a Quadratically Constrained Linear Programming problem. This approach is shown to be an RC design approach that addresses the main challenge of non-minimum phase systems to have a reasonable learning rate at DC. Although it was illustrated that using the Min-Max objective improves learning at DC and low frequencies compared to other designs, the method requires model accuracy at high frequencies. In the real world, models usually have error at high frequencies. The fourth topic addresses how one can merge the quadratic penalty to the Min-Max cost function to increase robustness at high frequencies. The topic also considers limiting the Min-Max optimization to some frequencies interval and applying an FIR zero-phase low-pass filter to cutoff the learning for frequencies above that interval.

  14. Enforcement Related to Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a product does not meet all the requirements of the minimum risk exemption, it must be registered unless eligible for some other exemption. Learn about enforcement actions EPA can take where unregistered products make pesticidal claims.

  15. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  16. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  17. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  18. Minimum Data Set--Maximum Yield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozarth, Jerold D.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1979-01-01

    Describes the minimum data-maxiumum yield concept as a tool leading to greater counselor accountability. Data sets are useful tools for improving services, answering questions, and encouraging meaningful outcome research. (JAC)

  19. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  20. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  1. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, C.T.; Jian, L.K.; Luhmann, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23–24 transition. PMID:25685425

  2. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.

  3. Minimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofouling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    identify by block number) The minimum release of tni-and dibutyltin has been determined for both barnacles and hydrozoans. The test method involved...prevented hydrozoans from attaching. No minimum release rate could be calculated for the dibutyltin because the flux rates were not high enoughi to achieve a...DATA FOR SETTLEMENT WITH TRI- AND DIBUTYLTIN ........................................... 13 FIGURES 1. Percent settlement of barnacles relative to

  4. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  5. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  6. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  7. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  8. California's Minimum Nurse Staffing Legislation: Results from a Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Barbara A; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne; Reiter, Kristin L; Pink, George H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether, following implementation of California's minimum nurse staffing legislation, changes in acuity-adjusted nurse staffing and quality of care in California hospitals outpaced similar changes in hospitals in comparison states without such regulations. Data Sources/Study Setting Data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey of Hospitals, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the Hospital Cost Report Information System, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Health Care Cost and Utilization Project's State Inpatient Databases from 2000 to 2006. Study Design We grouped hospitals into quartiles based on their preregulation staffing levels and used a difference-in-difference approach to compare changes in staffing and in quality of care in California hospitals to changes over the same time period in hospitals in 12 comparison states without minimum staffing legislation. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We merged data from the above data sources to obtain measures of nurse staffing and quality of care. We used Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicators to measure quality. Principal Findings With few exceptions, California hospitals increased nurse staffing levels over time significantly more than did comparison state hospitals. Failure to rescue decreased significantly more in some California hospitals, and infections due to medical care increased significantly more in some California hospitals than in comparison state hospitals. There were no statistically significant changes in either respiratory failure or postoperative sepsis. Conclusions Following implementation of California's minimum nurse staffing legislation, nurse staffing in California increased significantly more than it did in comparison states' hospitals, but the extent of the increases depended upon preregulation staffing levels; there were mixed effects on quality. PMID:22998231

  9. [The health costs of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Portella, E; Ridao, M; Salvat, M; Carrillo, E

    1998-09-30

    To evaluate the economic effect in terms of health costs of alcohol abuse in Spain. The most up-to-date available, secondary sources of information were used. The period for the costs calculation was a natural year, with the prices adjusted to pesetas in 1996. The focus was based on the prevalence of cases per period. All the information referred to the whole of Spain. Health costs were broken down into out-patient attendance, hospital emergencies, admissions, treatment at special centres and other health expenditure. The total health cost attributable to alcoholism was 177,084 million pesetas, broken down as follows: a) cost of hospital admissions: 93,644 million pesetas (52.88%); b) cost of out-patient attendance: 34,600 million (19.53%); c) cost of treatment at special centres: 18,029 million (10.18%); d) cost of hospital emergencies: 10,481 million (5.91%); and e) other health expenditure: 20,330 million pesetas (11.48%). The figures arrived at do not cover the total cost of alcohol abuse, since a conservative approach was adopted. They stand as a minimum of the expenditure in our country. Some are direct costs on health authorities, whereas others can be managed as a cost-opportunity problem.

  10. Where does all the money go? An audit of cost and waste distribution in a second-tier peri-urban hospital.

    PubMed

    Parrish, A G

    1997-10-01

    To determine the probable effect of increasing clinical frugality on health system expenditure by measuring cost distribution and waste at an individual patient level. Retrospective cost analysis evaluating the distribution of variable costs (i.e. costs excluding salaries and other fixed expenses) and wastage (i.e. expenditure without adequate clinical gain). A peri-urban regional referral (level 2) hospital and two district hospitals. 500 folders (350 inpatient and 150 outpatient). Accommodation costs accounted for the largest proportion of overall admission costs (42.3%), followed by drugs (19.5%), intravenous fluids (15.4%), laboratory investigations (12.9%) and radiology (10%). Waste accounted for 4.4% (R15.15, SD 41.92) of mean inpatient variable costs of R344.33 (median R208.89, minimum R19.06, maximum R5, 627.25) and this mean admission cost concealed a group of high-cost admissions, with the most expensive 5% accounting for 27.1% of total variable costs and 24.9% of waste. Four concepts important for economical bedside decision-making emerged: 1. Cumulative costs mount rapidly, even if individual items appear cheap. 2. The savings achieved by foregoing the use of an individual item (the variable cost) may be considerably less than the listed total cost to the State of that item (fixed costs are unaffected by reduced short-term utilisation.) 3. More care when ordering investigations and therapy may reduce waste. 4. Global views of hospital costs conceal a group of patients whose care is more expensive than average but who may be difficult to identify prospectively. Although the wastage rate in this group is about the same as the global rate, it may represent a useful target for future study.

  11. A nonlinear interval number programming method based on RBF global optimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ziheng; Han, Xu; Chao, Jiang

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear interval-based programming (NIP) method based on Radial basis function (RBF) approximation models and RBF global search technique method is proposed. In NIP, searching for the extreme responses of objective and constraints are integrated with the main optimization, which leads to extremely low efficiency. Approximation models are commonly used to promote the computational efficiency. Consequently, two inevitable problems are encountered. The first one is how to obtain the global minimum and maximum in the sub-optimizations. The second one is how to diminish the approximation errors on the response bounds of system. The present method combined with RBF global search technique shows a good feature to overcome these problems. High accuracy and low computational cost can be achieved simultaneously. Two numerical examples are used to test the effectiveness of the present method.

  12. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented.

  13. A cost-function approach to rival penalized competitive learning (RPCL).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinwen; Wang, Taijun

    2006-08-01

    Rival penalized competitive learning (RPCL) has been shown to be a useful tool for clustering on a set of sample data in which the number of clusters is unknown. However, the RPCL algorithm was proposed heuristically and is still in lack of a mathematical theory to describe its convergence behavior. In order to solve the convergence problem, we investigate it via a cost-function approach. By theoretical analysis, we prove that a general form of RPCL, called distance-sensitive RPCL (DSRPCL), is associated with the minimization of a cost function on the weight vectors of a competitive learning network. As a DSRPCL process decreases the cost to a local minimum, a number of weight vectors eventually fall into a hypersphere surrounding the sample data, while the other weight vectors diverge to infinity. Moreover, it is shown by the theoretical analysis and simulation experiments that if the cost reduces into the global minimum, a correct number of weight vectors is automatically selected and located around the centers of the actual clusters, respectively. Finally, we apply the DSRPCL algorithms to unsupervised color image segmentation and classification of the wine data.

  14. Future Global Cryosphere: Impacts of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T. Y.; Barry, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the Earth is undergoing potentially rapid changes in all cryospheric components, including Arctic sea ice shrinkage, mountain glacier recession, thawing permafrost, diminishing snow cover, and accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. This has significant implications for global climate, hydrology, water resources, and global sea level. Physical evidences of changes observed in the cryosphere are: (a) Duration of ice cover of rivers and lakes in high latitudes of N. H. decreased by about two weeks over the 20th Century; (b) Significant retreat of glaciers world wide during the 20th Century; (c) Thinning of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness by about 40% in late summer in recent decades, with the minimum sea ice concentration mapped by the SSM/I sensor of NASA in 2007; (d) Snow cover decreased in area by about 10% since global observations by satellites began in the late 1960s, in various places of the Northern Hemisphere; (e) In North America, snow water equivalent decreased by about 10mm since observations by passive microwave sensors began in the late 1970s; (f) Degradations of permafrost have been detected in some parts of the polar and sub-polar regions, and (g) The total 20th Century global average sea level rise was about 0.17m, likely due to decline in glaciers, snow, ice sheets, and losses from Greenland and Antarctica ice. Next, projected changes to the Cryosphere: northern hemisphere snow cover, avalanches, land ice, permafrost, freshwater ice, and sea ice changes, are presented.

  15. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  16. Optimization for minimum sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1994-01-01

    A procedure to design a structure for minimum sensitivity to uncertainties in problem parameters is described. The approach is to minimize directly the sensitivity derivatives of the optimum design with respect to fixed design parameters using a nested optimization procedure. The procedure is demonstrated for the design of a bimetallic beam for minimum weight with insensitivity to uncertainties in structural properties. The beam is modeled with finite elements based on two dimensional beam analysis. A sequential quadratic programming procedure used as the optimizer supplies the Lagrange multipliers that are used to calculate the optimum sensitivity derivatives. The method was perceived to be successful from comparisons of the optimization results with parametric studies.

  17. Image Data Compression Having Minimum Perceptual Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for performing color or grayscale image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  18. Minimum loss reconfiguration of unbalanced distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Borozan, V.; Rajicic, D.; Ackovski, R.

    1997-01-01

    A heuristic method for determining the configuration with minimum resistive line losses for three-phase unbalanced distribution networks is described. This method is based on previous papers dealing with balanced network. Using a fast and reliable load flow solution technique and also, efficient algorithms for network elements inspection, so that methodology becomes capable to solve the challenging problem while still maintaining a high execution speed. A developed algorithm is applied on a practical distribution network. Performed analysis highlight the influence of load imbalances on a solution of minimum loss reconfiguration problem.

  19. Image data compression having minimum perceptual error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for performing image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components is described. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The present invention adapts or customizes the quantization matrix to the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast techniques and by an error pooling technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  20. Thermal conductivity minimum: a new water anomaly.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-12-08

    We investigate the thermal conductivity of liquid water using computer simulations of the TIP5P model of water. Our simulations show that, in addition to the maximum at high temperatures at constant pressure that it exhibits in experiments, the thermal conductivity also displays a minimum at low temperatures. We find that the temperature of minimum thermal conductivity in supercooled liquid water coincides with the temperature of maximum specific heat. We discuss our results in the context of structural changes in liquid water at low temperatures. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Minimum induced drag configurations with jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for determining the optimum camber shape and twist distribution for the minimum induced drag in the wing-alone case without prescribing the span loading shape. The same method was applied to find the corresponding minimum induced drag configuration with the upper-surface-blowing jet. Lan's quasi-vortex-lattice method and his wing-jet interaction theory was used. Comparison of the predicted results with another theoretical method shows good agreement for configurations without the flowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  2. Optimized laser turrets for minimum phase distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Fuhs, A. E.; Blaisdell, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis and computer program which optimizes laser turret geometry to obtain minimum phase distortion is described. Phase distortion due to compressible, inviscid flow over small perturbation laser turrets in subsonic or supersonic flow is calculated. The turret shape is determined by a two dimensional Fourier series; in a similar manner, the flow properties are given by a Fourier series. Phase distortion is calcualted for propagation at serveral combinations of elevation and azimuth angles. A sum is formed from the set of values, and this sum becomes the objective function for an optimization computer program. The shape of the turret is varied to provide minimum phase distortion.

  3. Long-term performance of minimum-input oak restoration plantings

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Bernhardt; Tedmund J. Swiecki

    2015-01-01

    Starting in 1989, we used minimum-input methods to restore native oaks to parts of their former ranges in Vacaville, California. Each restoration site was analyzed, and only those inputs deemed necessary to overcome expected limiting factors for oak establishment were used. We avoided unnecessary inputs that added to cost and could have unintended negative consequences...

  4. 25 CFR 47.9 - What are the minimum requirements for the local educational financial plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.9 What are the minimum..., including each program funded through the Indian School Equalization Program; (2) A budget showing the costs...) Certification by the chairman of the school board that the plan has been ratified in an action of record by...

  5. 25 CFR 47.9 - What are the minimum requirements for the local educational financial plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.9 What are the minimum..., including each program funded through the Indian School Equalization Program; (2) A budget showing the costs...) Certification by the chairman of the school board that the plan has been ratified in an action of record by...

  6. 25 CFR 47.9 - What are the minimum requirements for the local educational financial plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.9 What are the minimum..., including each program funded through the Indian School Equalization Program; (2) A budget showing the costs...) Certification by the chairman of the school board that the plan has been ratified in an action of record by...

  7. 25 CFR 47.9 - What are the minimum requirements for the local educational financial plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.9 What are the minimum..., including each program funded through the Indian School Equalization Program; (2) A budget showing the costs...) Certification by the chairman of the school board that the plan has been ratified in an action of record by...

  8. A consistent combination of GNSS and SLR with minimum constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Susanne; Fritsche, Mathias; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Rodríguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Wang, Kan; Dach, Rolf; Hugentobler, Urs; Rothacher, Markus; Dietrich, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    In this article, the realization of a global terrestrial reference system (TRS) based on a consistent combination of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is studied. Our input data consists of normal equation systems from 17 years (1994-2010) of homogeneously reprocessed GPS, GLONASS and SLR data. This effort used common state of the art reduction models and the same processing software (Bernese GNSS Software) to ensure the highest consistency when combining GNSS and SLR. Residual surface load deformations are modeled with a spherical harmonic approach. The estimated degree-1 surface load coefficients have a strong annual signal for which the GNSS- and SLR-only solutions show very similar results. A combination including these coefficients reduces systematic uncertainties in comparison to the single-technique solution. In particular, uncertainties due to solar radiation pressure modeling in the coefficient time series can be reduced up to 50 % in the GNSS+SLR solution compared to the GNSS-only solution. In contrast to the ITRF2008 realization, no local ties are used to combine the different geodetic techniques. We combine the pole coordinates as global ties and apply minimum constraints to define the geodetic datum. We show that a common origin, scale and orientation can be reliably realized from our combination strategy in comparison to the ITRF2008.

  9. State Minimum Competency Testing Programs: Resource Guide. Legislation and State Policy Authorizing Minimum Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipho, Chris

    This guide to legislation and state board of education policy on minimum competency testing is designed to explain the legal basis for minimum competency testing mandates in the various states. Specifically, it explores: the differences between board mandates and state legislation; details of the requirements--subject areas, grade promotion and…

  10. Efficient global optimization of a limited parameter antenna design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Southall, Hugh L.; Kaanta, Bryan

    2008-04-01

    Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) is a competent evolutionary algorithm suited for problems with limited design parameters and expensive cost functions. Many electromagnetics problems, including some antenna designs, fall into this class, as complex electromagnetics simulations can take substantial computational effort. This makes simple evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms or particle swarms very time-consuming for design optimization, as many iterations of large populations are usually required. When physical experiments are necessary to perform tradeoffs or determine effects which may not be simulated, use of these algorithms is simply not practical at all due to the large numbers of measurements required. In this paper we first present a brief introduction to the EGO algorithm. We then present the parasitic superdirective two-element array design problem and results obtained by applying EGO to obtain the optimal element separation and operating frequency to maximize the array directivity. We compare these results to both the optimal solution and results obtained by performing a similar optimization using the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method. Our results indicate that, unlike the Nelder-Mead algorithm, the EGO algorithm did not become stuck in local minima but rather found the area of the correct global minimum. However, our implementation did not always drill down into the precise minimum and the addition of a local search technique seems to be indicated.

  11. Cost in Cost-Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Just to make sure we’re all talking about the same thing, I will run down the steps involved in conducting a cost -effectiveness study. The problem...systems, and forecasts of the costs of developing and producing the systems. Industry works closely with the prospective buying military departments...separate from the buying military department. These estimates are now done by the OSD Cost Analysis Improvement Group, a part of the OSD Staff

  12. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  13. Minimum Entropy Rate Simplification of Stochastic Processes.

    PubMed

    Henter, Gustav Eje; Kleijn, W Bastiaan

    2016-02-23

    This document contains supplemental material for the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence article "Minimum Entropy Rate Simplification of Stochastic Processes." The supplement is divided into three appen- dices: the first on MERS for Gaussian processes, and the remaining two on, respectively, the theory and the experimental results of MERS for Markov chains.

  14. 24 CFR 280.35 - Minimum participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum participation. 280.35 Section 280.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GRANT PROGRAMS NEHEMIAH HOUSING OPPORTUNITY GRANTS PROGRAM Program Operation §...

  15. Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Chris L.

    2008-01-01

    The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2005 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

  16. 2013 Missouri Minimum Standards for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    The revised minimum standards for school bus chassis and school bus bodies have been prepared in conformity with the Revised Statutes of Missouri (RSMo) for school bus transportation. The standards recommended by the 2010 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) promulgated by the U. S.…

  17. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  18. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  19. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  20. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  1. 24 CFR 35.155 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum requirements. 35.155 Section 35.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based...

  2. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  3. 44 CFR 62.6 - Minimum commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Issuance of Policies § 62.6 Minimum commissions. (a) The earned commission which shall be paid to any property or casualty insurance agent or broker duly licensed by a state insurance regulatory authority, with respect to each policy or renewal the agent duly procures on behalf of the...

  4. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease.

  5. Minimum Input Techniques for Valley Oak Restocking

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Tedmund J. Swiecki

    1991-01-01

    We set up experiments at four locations in northern California to demonstrate minimum input techniques for restocking valley oak, Quercus lobata. Overall emergence of acorns planted in 1989 ranged from 47 to 61 percent. Use of supplemental irrigation had a significant positive effect on seedling growth at two of three sites. Mulch, of organic...

  6. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the production...

  7. 7 CFR 905.141 - Minimum exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.141 Minimum exemption. Any shipment of fruit which meets each of the following requirements may be transported from the production...

  8. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... employee access to cash and cash equivalents within a casino. The rule contains standards and procedures...

  9. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... equivalents within a casino. The rule contains standards and procedures that govern cash handling...

  10. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any court...

  11. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any court...

  12. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any court...

  13. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any court...

  14. 5 CFR 838.133 - Minimum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.133 Minimum awards. Payments under this part will not be less than one dollar per month. Any court...

  15. Improving Attendance. Minimum Standards Implementation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One of a series of implementation documents prepared in conjunction with the revised minimum standards adopted in 1983 by the Ohio State Board of Education for elementary and secondary schools, this publication provides guidelines for developing attendance policies and procedures, reviews considerations related to attendance, and suggests…

  16. Minimum Licensing Requirements for Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock. Div. of Social Services.

    The standards outlined in this document compose the minimum licensing requirements for persons or organizations operating a child care facility in Arkansas. Sections of the guide concern the licensing authority and definition of units covered by the authority, center organization and administration, staff, program, discipline, records, nutrition,…

  17. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  18. Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Norma J.; Smith, James

    Common practices regarding competency testing for handicapped students have ranged from inclusion and exclusion to selective inclusion based on handicapping condition. Factors involved in deciding about minimum competency testing include conceptualizing the categories of handicaps into two groups: students who require a modified learning…

  19. What Vocational Students Think about Minimum Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schab, Fred

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey of Georgia high school students in the vocational curriculum on what they thought about minimum graduation requirements are summarized. Among the opinions were that the student who completes the twelfth grade should be able to read, write, and calculate at or close to that level. Seventy-five percent thought that paid…

  20. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... species table grapes unless such grapes meet the following quality and container marking requirements... shall meet each applicable minimum requirement of the U.S. Fancy Table grape grade as specified in the U...