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Sample records for global posture reeducation

  1. Effectiveness of Global Postural Re-education for Treatment of Spinal Disorders: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Garrido-Jaut, María Victoria; Rus, Alma; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of global postural re-education (GPR) on the treatment of spinal disorders by performing a systematic review and a meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PEDro databases were searched without language or publication date restrictions. Data on pain and function were used to evaluate the effectiveness of GPR. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials analyzing the effectiveness of GPR on spinal disorders were selected. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 3.3 software. Seven randomized controlled trials and 4 controlled clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed a medium improvement on pain (SMD = -0.63; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.83) and function (SMD = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.72) after GPR treatment. The positive effect, which was greater in patients with ankylosing spondylitis followed by low back pain and neck pain, was more significant during the intermediate follow-up than immediately after treatment. This meta-analysis provides reliable evidence that GPR may be an effective method for treating spinal disorders by decreasing pain and improving function.

  2. Global Postural Reeducation for patients with musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Giovanni E.; Barreto, Rodrigo G. P.; Robinson, Caroline C.; Plentz, Rodrigo D. M.; Silva, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To systematically review randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on patient-reported outcomes in conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Method An electronic search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SciELO was performed from their inception to June 2015. Randomized controlled trials that analyzed pain and patient-reported outcomes were included in this review. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias Tool was used to evaluate risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was rated following the GRADE approach. There were no language restrictions. Results Eleven trials were included totaling 383 patients. Overall, the trials had high risk of bias. GPR was superior to no treatment but not to other forms of treatment for pain and disability. No placebo-controlled trials were found. Conclusion GPR is not superior to other treatments; however, it is superior to no treatment. Due to the lack of studies, it is unknown if GPR is better than placebo. The quality of the available evidence ranges from low to very low, therefore future studies may change the effect estimates of GPR in musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:27437710

  3. Evaluation of the effects of Global Postural Reeducation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eliane Maria; Andrade, Sandra C; Vilar, Maria J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and compare GPR with group conventional segmental self-stretching and breathing exercises. This is a controlled interventional study of 38 patients divided into 2 groups: a GPR group (n = 22) and a control group (n = 16). Both groups were treated for more than 4 months. With the GPR group patients, positions that stretched the shortened muscle chains were used. With the control group patients, conventional segmental self-stretching and breathing exercises were performed. The variables analyzed were pain intensity, morning stiffness, spine mobility, chest expansion, functional capacity (Health Assessment Questionnaire-Spondyloarthropathies-HAQ-S), quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 Healthy Survey-SF-36), and disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index-BASDAI). Statistical analysis was used with a significance level of P < 0.05. There was a statistically significant improvement for all the parameters analyzed between pre-and post-treatment in both groups. In the intergroup comparison, the GPR group showed a significantly greater improvement in morning stiffness (P = 0.013), spine mobility parameters, except finger-floor distance (P = 0.118), in chest expansion (P = 0.028), and in the physical aspect component of the SF-36 (P = 0.001). The results of this study showed that individual treatment with GPR (overall stretching) seems to have better clinical outcomes than group treatment with conventional segmental self-stretching and breathing exercises for patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  4. Effects of Global Postural Reeducation on gait kinematics in parkinsonian patients: a pilot randomized three-dimensional motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Agosti, Valeria; Vitale, Carmine; Avella, Dario; Rucco, Rosaria; Santangelo, Gabriella; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Varriale, Pasquale; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) method is a physical therapy based on the stretching of antigravity muscle chains with the parallel enhancement of the basal tone of antagonistic muscles addressed to improve static and dynamic stability. Through a three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system, our study aims to investigate whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients a GPR program results in a more physiological gait pattern. The kinematic parameters of gait of twenty subjects with clinically diagnosed PD were calculated. The patients were randomly assigned to a study (10 or control (10) group. All subjects underwent neurological and 3DMA assessments at entry time (t 0), at 4 weeks (t 1, end of GPR program), and at 8 and 12 weeks (t 2 and t 3, follow-up evaluation). The study group underwent a four-week GPR program, three times a week, for 40 min individual sessions. Kinematic gait parameters of thigh (T), knee (K) and ankle (A) and UPDRS-III scores were evaluated. At the end of the GPR program, we observed an improvement of the kinematic gait pattern, documented by the increase in KΔc and TΔc values that respectively express the flexion amplitude of knee and thigh. The amelioration was persistent at follow-up assessments, with a parallel enhancement in clinical parameters. GPR intervention shows a long-term efficacy on gait pattern in PD patients. Furthermore, we validated 3DMA as a valuable tool to study the kinematics of gait thus refining the understanding of the effects of specific rehabilitation programs.

  5. Effect of Global Posture Reeducation and of Static Stretching on Pain, Range of Motion, and Quality of Life in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana Cláudia Violino; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15) performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16) performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale), range of motion (by goniometry), and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire). The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS Significant pain relief and range of motion improvement were observed after treatment in both groups, with a slight reduction at follow-up time. Quality of life also improved after treatment, except for the global posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients. PMID:19060998

  6. Effectiveness of a 'Global Postural Reeducation' program for persistent Low Back Pain: a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) program as compared to a Stabilization Exercise (SE) program in subjects with persistent low back pain (LBP) at short- and mid-term follow-up (ie. 3 and 6 months). Methods According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients with a primary complaint of persistent LBP were enrolled in the study: 50 were allocated to the GPR group and 50 to the SE group. Primary outcome measures were Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were lumbar Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Fingertip-to-floor test (FFT). Data were collected at baseline and at 3/6 months by health care professionals unaware of the study. An intention to treat approach was used to analyze participants according to the group to which they were originally assigned. Results Of the 100 patients initially included in the study, 78 patients completed the study: 42 in the GPR group and 36 in the SE group. At baseline, the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, BMI and outcome measures. Comparing the differences between groups at short- and mid-term follow-up, the GPR group revealed a significant reduction (from baseline) in all outcome measures with respect to the SE group. The ordered logistic regression model showed an increased likelihood of definitive improvement (reduction from baseline of at least 30% in RMDQ and VAS scores) for the GPR group compared to the SE group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.7). Conclusions Our findings suggest that a GPR intervention in subjects with persistent LBP induces a greater improvement on pain and disability as compared to a SE program. These results must be confirmed by further studies with higher methodological standards, including randomization, larger sample size, longer follow-up and subgrouping of the LBP subjects. Trial registration NCT

  7. An observational retrospective/horizontal study to compare oxygen-ozone therapy and/or global postural re-education in complicated chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Apuzzo, Dario; Giotti, Chiara; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Ferrazza, Paolo; Soldati, Paola; Zucco, Gesualdo M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acute low back pain (LBP) is the fifth most common reason for physician visits and about nine out of ten adults experience back pain at some point in their life. In a large number of patients LBP is associated with disc herniation (DH). Recently, oxygen-ozone (O2O3) therapy has been used successfully in the treatment of LBP, reducing pain after the failure of other conservative treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of O2O3 therapy in back pain rehabilitation, comparing three groups of patients suffering from chronic back pain associated with DH submitted to three different treatments: intramuscular O2O3 infiltrations, global postural re-education (GPR), or a combination of the two (O2O3+GPR). The data show that pain severity before treatment was significantly lower in the patients treated with GPR alone (VAS score 7.4) than in the O2O3+GPR patients (VAS score 8.5) and the O2O3 patients (VAS score 8.6). At the end of treatment, pain severity was lower in the O2O3 patients than in the GPR-alone patients. After some years of follow-up only the difference between O2O3+GPR and GPR-alone remained significant. PMID:25014047

  8. Effects in Short and Long Term of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Controlled Study with One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Francesca; Del Canto, Antonio; Paperini, Anita; Boni, Roberta; Pasquini, Guido; Vannetti, Federica; Macchi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Comparing global postural reeducation (GPR) to a standard physiotherapy treatment (PT) based on active exercises, stretching, and massaging for improving pain and function in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Design. Prospective controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants. Adult patients with diagnosis of nonspecific, chronic (>6 months) low back pain. Interventions. Both treatments consisted of 15 sessions of one hour each, twice a week including patient education. Measures. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire to evaluate disability, and Numeric Analog Scale for pain. A score change >30% was considered clinically significant. Past treatments, use of medications, smoking habits, height, weight, profession, and physical activity were also recorded on baseline, on discharge, and 1 year after discharge (resp., T0, T1, and T2). Results. At T0 103 patients with cLBP (51 cases and 52 controls) were recruited. The treatment (T1) has been completed by 79 (T1) of which 60 then carried out the 1-year follow-up (T2). Both GPR and PT at T1 were associated with a significant statistical and clinical improvement in pain and function, compared to T0. At T2, only pain in GPR still registered a statistically significant improvement. PMID:25945360

  9. Reeducating the Educator: Global Perspectives on Community Building. SUNY Series, Teacher Preparation and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Helen, Ed.; Ramadevi, S., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on community building within teacher education programs in Canada, Israel, Australia, and the United States, suggesting that teacher educators must go beyond localized experiences and reach out to each other in a global discussion. There are 12 chapters in 4 parts. Part 1, "Opening the Conversation,"…

  10. Reeducating the Educator: Global Perspectives on Community Building. SUNY Series, Teacher Preparation and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Helen, Ed.; Ramadevi, S., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on community building within teacher education programs in Canada, Israel, Australia, and the United States, suggesting that teacher educators must go beyond localized experiences and reach out to each other in a global discussion. There are 12 chapters in 4 parts. Part 1, "Opening the Conversation,"…

  11. Global Body Posture Evaluation in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS : Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder. PMID:19142549

  12. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  13. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  14. Reeducation Strategies in Conduction Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubelli, Roberto; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The article proposes a reeducation program for conduction aphasics with reproductive difficulties. Program characteristics include analysis and manipulation of visual stimuli (written words and syllables), suppression of the compensation effect of the spared lexical-semantic system; and progressive increase in length and complexity of phonological…

  15. Early compensatory sensory re-education.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Hugo R; Aguado, Leda

    2003-02-01

    After a neurorrhaphy, there will be a distal disconnection between the cortex and skin receptors, along with interruption of sensibility information. This report demonstrates the efficacy of a new sensory re-education program for achieving optimal sensation in a relatively short time. Between 1999 and 2001, in the authors' Hand Rehabilitation Department, 11 patients with previous neurorrhaphy were subjected to a program of early "compensatory sensory re-education." Lesions were caused by clean cut. There were 13 primary digital nerve procedures, 12 at the distal palmar MP level, and one at the radial dorsal branch of the index (just after emerging from the common digital nerve). The technique of compensatory sensory re-education was based on a previous, but modified, sensory re-education method. In order to evaluate the results in the compensatory sensory re-education series described, additional tests for evaluation of achieved functional sensibility were used. The authors' best results were achieved in a maximum of 8 weeks (4-8 weeks), much less time than with the original method (1-2 years). Using the British classification, it was possible to compare the achieved levels of sensibility and the time required for optimal results. The different methods of sensibility re-education may be similar, but with the authors' compensatory sensory re-education method, substantial time is saved.

  16. Fast increase of motor cortical inhibition following postural changes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Loriga, Rita; Pompa, Maria Novella; Versace, Viviana; Souchard, Philippe

    2012-11-14

    Postural reactions are associated with changes in the excitability of the motor system. In the present study we investigated the presence of neurophysiological changes of motor cortical areas targeting muscles of the inferior limbs following treatment with a physiotherapy technique aimed to treat postural dysfunctions by stretching postural muscles, global postural reeducation (GPR). Twenty healthy subjects were evaluated with paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and recording of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from peripheral muscles of the inferior limb before and after two GPR manoeuvres applied in different experiments (1 and 2). The effects of GPR were posture- and task-specific: indeed, a GPR manoeuvre applied in standing subjects increased inhibition in cortical areas controlling flexor muscles (Biceps Femoris: p<0.05) while increasing the excitation of cortical areas controlling extensor muscles (Tibialis Anterior: p<0.05). On the other hand, following a GPR manoeuvre applied in subjects in supine position, increased inhibition in cortical areas controlling flexor muscles (Biceps Femoris and Soleus) was not paralleled by excitation of extensor ones (F=12.2; p=0.005). These findings provide a neurophysiological basis to the clinical benefits associated to physiotherapy and suggest potential applications of treatments based on postural changes on motor cortical disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gravitational effects on global hemodynamics in different postures: A closed-loop multiscale mathematical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiancheng; Noda, Shigeho; Himeno, Ryutaro; Liu, Hao

    2017-06-01

    We present a novel methodology and strategy to predict pressures and flow rates in the global cardiovascular network in different postures varying from supine to upright. A closed-loop, multiscale mathematical model of the entire cardiovascular system (CVS) is developed through an integration of one-dimensional (1D) modeling of the large systemic arteries and veins, and zero-dimensional (0D) lumped-parameter modeling of the heart, the cardiac-pulmonary circulation, the cardiac and venous valves, as well as the microcirculation. A versatile junction model is proposed and incorporated into the 1D model to cope with splitting and/or merging flows across a multibranched junction, which is validated to be capable of estimating both subcritical and supercritical flows while ensuring the mass conservation and total pressure continuity. To model gravitational effects on global hemodynamics during postural change, a robust venous valve model is further established for the 1D venous flows and distributed throughout the entire venous network with consideration of its anatomically realistic numbers and locations. The present integrated model is proven to enable reasonable prediction of pressure and flow rate waveforms associated with cardiopulmonary circulation, systemic circulation in arteries and veins, as well as microcirculation within normal physiological ranges, particularly in mean venous pressures, which well match the in vivo measurements. Applications of the cardiovascular model at different postures demonstrate that gravity exerts remarkable influence on arterial and venous pressures, venous returns and cardiac outputs whereas venous pressures below the heart level show a specific correlation between central venous and hydrostatic pressures in right atrium and veins.

  18. Gravitational effects on global hemodynamics in different postures: A closed-loop multiscale mathematical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiancheng; Noda, Shigeho; Himeno, Ryutaro; Liu, Hao

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel methodology and strategy to predict pressures and flow rates in the global cardiovascular network in different postures varying from supine to upright. A closed-loop, multiscale mathematical model of the entire cardiovascular system (CVS) is developed through an integration of one-dimensional (1D) modeling of the large systemic arteries and veins, and zero-dimensional (0D) lumped-parameter modeling of the heart, the cardiac-pulmonary circulation, the cardiac and venous valves, as well as the microcirculation. A versatile junction model is proposed and incorporated into the 1D model to cope with splitting and/or merging flows across a multibranched junction, which is validated to be capable of estimating both subcritical and supercritical flows while ensuring the mass conservation and total pressure continuity. To model gravitational effects on global hemodynamics during postural change, a robust venous valve model is further established for the 1D venous flows and distributed throughout the entire venous network with consideration of its anatomically realistic numbers and locations. The present integrated model is proven to enable reasonable prediction of pressure and flow rate waveforms associated with cardiopulmonary circulation, systemic circulation in arteries and veins, as well as microcirculation within normal physiological ranges, particularly in mean venous pressures, which well match the in vivo measurements. Applications of the cardiovascular model at different postures demonstrate that gravity exerts remarkable influence on arterial and venous pressures, venous returns and cardiac outputs whereas venous pressures below the heart level show a specific correlation between central venous and hydrostatic pressures in right atrium and veins.

  19. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Carole; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Tanaka, Clarice; Houde, Michelle; Labelle, Hubert

    2012-05-28

    In the Global postural re-education (GPR) evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs) and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI). The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts' results (after consensus) were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K) and the percentage of agreement (%A) to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC) for determining agreement between PTs and experts. For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76) and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75) and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00). The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99) and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00). The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  20. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR) evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs) and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI). The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus) were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K) and the percentage of agreement (%A) to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC) for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76) and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75) and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00). The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99) and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00). Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns. PMID:22639838

  1. Counseling Families Using Principles of Re-EDucation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    When Nicholas Hobbs created the Re-EDucation model, he envisioned that this philosophy would inform multiple disciplines. Today, Re-ED is widely applied to work with troubled children in day treatment, school-based services, residential settings, and therapeutic wilderness programs. Hobbs outlined a dozen Principles of Re-EDucation that are…

  2. Postural Rehabilitation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc Michael; Borysov, Maksym; Lee, Sang Gil; Nan, Xiaofeng; Moramarco, Kathryn Ann

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) indicates that, with the exception of some extremely severe cases, AIS does not have a significant impact on quality of life and does not result in dire consequences. In view of the relatively benign nature of AIS and the long-term complications of surgery, the indications for treatment should be reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that scoliosis-specific exercises focusing on postural rehabilitation can positively influence the spinal curvatures in growing adolescents. Experiential postural re-education is a conservative, non-invasive approach, and its role in the management of AIS warrants further study. This article reviews current evidence for the inclusion of various forms of postural reeducation in the management of AIS. Recent comprehensive reviews have been researched including a manual and PubMed search for evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical/postural re-education/physiotherapy programs in growing AIS patients. This search revealed that there were few studies on the application of postural re-education in the management of AIS. These studies revealed that postural re-education in the form of exercise rehabilitation programs may have a positive influence on scoliosis; however, the various programs were difficult to compare. More research is necessary. There is at present Level 1 evidence for the effectiveness of Schroth scoliosis exercises in the management of AIS. Whether this evidence can be extrapolated to include other forms of scoliosis- pattern-specific exercises requires further investigation. Because corrective postures theoretically reduce the asymmetric loading of the spinal deformities and reverse the vicious cycle of spinal curvature progression, their integration into AIS programs may be beneficial and should be further examined. PMID:27340540

  3. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Vanswearingen, Jessie

    2008-05-01

    Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return of intended facial movement patterns and eliminating unwanted patterns of facial movement and expression, may provide patients with disorders of facial paralysis or facial movement control opportunity for the recovery of facial movement and function. We provide a brief overview of the scientific rationale for facial neuromuscular reeducation in the structure and function of the facial neuromotor system, the neuropsychology of facial expression, and relations among expressions, movement, and emotion. The primary purpose is to describe principles of neuromuscular reeducation, assessment and outcome measures, approach to treatment, the process, including surface-electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to reeducation, and the goal of enhancing the recovery of facial expression and function in a patient-centered approach to facial rehabilitation.

  4. Grounded Practice: Exploring Criticalities in a Job Reeducation Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxler, Heather Nash

    2004-01-01

    It can be difficult to think of teaching critically as a social responsibility within settings that do not appear closely related to larger social values, practices, and problems. The author uses an interpretive ethnographic method to study criticality in the classroom within a job reeducation program designed to prepare laid-off factory workers…

  5. Posture-Dependent Corticomotor Excitability Differs Between the Transferred Biceps in Individuals With Tetraplegia and the Biceps of Nonimpaired Individuals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carrie L; Rogers, Lynn M; Bednar, Michael S; Bryden, Anne M; Keith, Michael W; Perreault, Eric J; Murray, Wendy M

    2017-04-01

    Following biceps transfer to enable elbow extension in individuals with tetraplegia, motor re-education may be facilitated by greater corticomotor excitability. Arm posture modulates corticomotor excitability of the nonimpaired biceps. If arm posture also modulates excitability of the transferred biceps, posture may aid in motor re-education. Our objective was to determine whether multi-joint arm posture affects corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps similar to the nonimpaired biceps. We also aimed to determine whether corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps is related to elbow extension strength and muscle length. Corticomotor excitability was assessed in 7 arms of individuals with tetraplegia and biceps transfer using transcranial magnetic stimulation and compared to biceps excitability of nonimpaired individuals. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the motor cortex with the arm in functional postures at rest. Motor-evoked potential amplitude was recorded via surface electromyography. Elbow moment was recorded during maximum isometric extension trials, and muscle length was estimated using a biomechanical model. Arm posture modulated corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps differently than the nonimpaired biceps. Elbow extension strength was positively related and muscle length was unrelated, respectively, to motor-evoked potential amplitude across the arms with biceps transfer. Corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps is modulated by arm posture and may contribute to strength outcomes after tendon transfer. Future work should determine whether modulating corticomotor excitability via posture promotes motor re-education during the rehabilitative period following surgery.

  6. Music and 're-education' in the Soviet Gulag.

    PubMed

    Klause, Inna

    2013-01-01

    After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks announced a new human dimension of penal policy whose goal should be the so-called 're-education' of prisoners. The desired 're-education' was to be realised using two kinds of measures: the physical work of the prisoners, and 'cultural education work'. A varied musical life in groups, 'agitation brigades', ensembles, orchestras and choirs developed within the framework of the 'cultural education work'. Two camps responsible for building canals in the 1930s particularly adopted this musical life: Belbaltlag and Dmitlag. In the latter, a composition competition took place in 1936 in which, among others, the arrested composer Sergey Protopopov took part. Since the 1930s, the Gulag administration had publicised that the measures taken for 're-education' concerned primarily criminal prisoners, as opposed to 'political prisoners', who were labelled as foreign to socialist society. Although the 'cultural education work' would not have functioned as well as it did without the cooperation of 'political prisoners', since their participation did not fit into the prescribed ideology, they were often underappreciated or even completely concealed. The following is a depiction of the officially organised musical life in the Gulag in the 1920s and 1930s as a grey zone. Music making and listening represented not only a source of strength for the prisoners, but also brought about situations that meant physical and psychological torture for them.

  7. Neutral lumbar spine sitting posture in pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Dea, Patrick; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Clifford, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2010-12-01

    Sitting is a common aggravating factor in low back pain (LBP), and re-education of sitting posture is a common aspect of LBP management. However, there is debate regarding what is an optimal sitting posture. This pilot study had 2 aims; to investigate whether pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral sitting posture (slight lumbar lordosis and relaxed thorax); and to compare perceptions of neutral sitting posture to habitual sitting posture (HSP). The lower lumbar spine HSP of seventeen pain-free subjects was initially recorded. Subjects then assumed their own subjectively perceived ideal posture (SPIP). Finally, 2 testers independently positioned the subjects into a tester perceived neutral posture (TPNP). The inter-tester reliability of positioning in TPNP was very good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.91, mean difference = 3% of range of motion). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that HSP was significantly more flexed than both SPIP and TPNP (p <0.05). There was no significant difference between SPIP and TPNP (p > 0.05). HSP was more kyphotic than all other postures. This study suggests that pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral lumbar sitting posture. Further investigation into the role of neutral sitting posture in LBP subjects is warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Processes of Re-education: An Assessment of Kurt Lewin's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benne, Kenneth D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews and criticizes the ten principles of re-education articulated by Kurt Lewin in 1945 in light of major developments in re-education training through 25 years of experience and experimentation following their original publication. For journal availability, see SO 504 730. (Author)

  9. Web Instruction as Cultural Transformation: A Reeducation Model for Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frank

    This paper offers a model of faculty staff development for distance education that does not require, or permit, continuous change in instructional design. The model is based on the paradigm shift ideas of Thomas Kuhn and the reeducation model of Kurt Lewin. In the model offered reeducation implies not simply education or training, but involves…

  10. Elements of an Effective Re-EDucation Program for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bridget A.; Fecser, Frank A.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly ten years ago, the key ingredients of an effective Re-ED (Reeducation of Emotional Disturbed Children) classroom were outlined in "A Model Re-ED Classroom for Troubled Students." This article draws on recent research and best practices to update that statement of the principles of effective re-education. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  11. Reeducation for Design Engineers in Fukuoka System LSI College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Kazuyuki; Sasao, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Akira; Ito, Fumiaki

    Silicon Sea Belt Project started in 2001 on keeping context of East Asian economic growth. Fukuoka System LSI College, a subsidiary of the project, opened on December for supplying reeducated design engineers to the semiconductor industries after trying System LSI design training programs in cooperation with industry, academia, and government. The college approaches the PDCA, i.e., Plan, Do, Check, and Action, techniques making up quality control methodologies in manufacturing, and has applied the PDCA techniques to improving qualities of the training programs. The major semiconductor companies have adopted our programs for eight years from 2004, and given our programs excellent scores. We hope our PDCA process, useful for human resource development of other technological fields.

  12. Postural Re-Education of Scoliosis - State of the Art (Mini-review).

    PubMed

    Borysov, Maksym; Moramarco, Marc; Sy, Ng; Lee, Sang G

    2016-01-01

    A new development of correcting exercises has been derived from the original Schroth program in 2010 and the preliminary results have been published that year. Since then the program has been applied in some centers worldwide. As the original Schroth program was the only program so far to improve many signs and symptoms of scoliosis besides the angle of curvature (Cobb angle) it was interesting to look for the preliminary results of the recent development of scoliosis pattern specific corrective exercises derived from the original program, to see if similar effects can be achieved with this less complicated method. A manual search in Pubmed was conducted, using the key words, Schroth, rehabilitation, and idiopathic scoliosis. Three papers have been found describing the short-term results of this new development today called Schroth Best Practice program (SBP). The papers were reviewed and analyzed with respect to the outcome parameters used. Outcome parameters were Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR), Vital Capacity (VC), surface topography, electromyography, stabilometry and Cobb angle before and after a course of treatment. There was a significant improvement of all parameters after the application of this new program in all the three papers in the short- to mid-term. Scoliosis corrective exercises are supported by two randomized controlled trials (RCT) and should regularly be applied in mild scoliosis at risk for progression. Unspecific exercises such as Yoga, Dobomed cannot be regarded as effective as exercises using a well defined scoliosis pattern specific corrective routine.

  13. Validating Performance Models for Re-Educating Certified Urban Teachers in Multicultural Dimensions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Gilmary

    Performance models for re-educating certified urban teachers in multicultural dimensions were developed based upon: (1) the concept that colleges and instructors should adapt to the students; (2) critiques of the whole system of education given by multi-ethnic students of the five Consortium colleges; and, (3) interviews with talented scholars…

  14. Theatre for Re-Education: Experimenting with Documentary Form in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldhose, Adakkaravayalil; Das, Neethu

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a study of a Malayalam documentary play "Not Just the Victims" staged by Abhinaya Theatre Research Centre Trivandrum. Along with analyzing the documentary method of the play this study looks at how the theatre group employed the play for "re-educating" the people regarding certain existing norms. The play…

  15. PROJECT RE-ED, A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Mental Health, Raleigh.

    THE PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN (PROJECT RE-ED), A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT (1961-1968) TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS (SUNDAY THROUGH FRIDAY) FOR DISTURBED CHILDREN, IS DESCRIBED. THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE, TENNESSEE, AND USE OF CAREFULLY SELECTED…

  16. Beginning of Movement for Re-Education of Parents in Japan in the 1920's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Keiko

    In the late 1920s, in conjunction with a new passion for freedom and concern for human rights, two associations were formed in Japan to promote parents' education and children's welfare. In 1928, following a 2-year study of education in America, Tetsuya Kamimura started the Japan Parents' Re-education Association. The association's members…

  17. Education for Peace: A Neglected Aspect of Re-Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrs, Hermann

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the reconstruction of education in West Germany following World War II based on the author's personal experiences. Notes that the primary aim of re-education was to overcome nationalism, militarism, and the ideology of National Socialism, but that the efforts were not successful. Offers explanations for this lack of success. (KO)

  18. Theatre for Re-Education: Experimenting with Documentary Form in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldhose, Adakkaravayalil; Das, Neethu

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a study of a Malayalam documentary play "Not Just the Victims" staged by Abhinaya Theatre Research Centre Trivandrum. Along with analyzing the documentary method of the play this study looks at how the theatre group employed the play for "re-educating" the people regarding certain existing norms. The play…

  19. Powerful Environments for Underclass Youth: A Reeducational Plan for Inner-City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas E.; Forster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Described are the dehumanizing conditions of Black underclass life and possible improvements through creation of re-educative therapeutic communities, termed "powerful environments." Powerful environments include expectations, psychological distancing from negative culture, positive social integration, staff leadership, peer power, work, and…

  20. The impact of re-education of airway clearance techniques (REACT) on adherence and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Robert L; Sembrano, Eduardo U; Du, Doantrang T; Marra, Bridget; Bantang, Ronald

    2014-04-01

    Our centre's median forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) reported in the 2005 Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation Patient Registry was below the national median. The focus of our quality improvement initiative was to improve lung function through re-education of airway clearance techniques (REACT). The global aim was to improve the median FEV1 in our patients. The specific aim was to encourage adherence to airway clearance techniques (ACT). To achieve these goals we implemented the REACT programme for patients. Educational sessions introduced the concept of improving clinical outcomes and the importance of airway clearance in achieving optimal lung function. The REACT programme utilised an anonymous survey, in-clinic questionnaire and ACT demonstration to assess knowledge, practices and barriers to ACT. Patients were then categorised as non-adherent or adherent with correct or incorrect technique. Improper techniques were corrected. All patients were re-educated on the rationale for ACT. Our surveys revealed that 43% of patients had barriers to ACT and 53% were non-adherent. Following implementation of REACT, median FEV1 increased from 84% to 92% (national median 91-94%) from 2005 to 2010 for patients aged 6-17. For patients 18 and older, median FEV1 increased from 56% to 64% (national median 62-65%) from 2005 to 2010. By introducing a programme focused on technique and adherence, we were able to improve median FEV1 in patients with CF. Sustained improvement of FEV1 was accomplished by continued use of the REACT programme.

  1. Effects of Neuromuscular Reeducation on Hip Mechanics and Functional Performance in Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Dana L.; Winters, Joshua D.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Christiansen, Cory L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following total hip arthroplasty, patients demonstrate compensatory movement strategies during activities of daily living such as walking and stair climbing. Movement compensations are important markers of functional decline in older adults and are related to poor functional capacity. Despite increased utilization of hip arthroplasty, persistent movement compensation, and functional performance deficits, no consensus on postoperative rehabilitation exists. Neuromuscular reeducation techniques offer a strategy to improve movement quality by emphasizing hip abductor performance and pelvic stability. This case series illustrates changes in movement strategy around the hip in response to targeted neuromuscular reeducation techniques after hip arthroplasty. Methods Five participants received an 8-week exercise program following total hip arthroplasty, emphasizing targeted neuromuscular reeducation techniques hallmarked by specific, weight-bearing exercise to improve hip abductor performance and pelvic stability. Five additional participants were supervised and followed for comparison. Findings Participants in the neuromuscular reeducation program improved their internal hip abductor moments and vertical ground reaction forces during walking and stair climbing. They also improved their functional performance and hip abductor strength outcomes. Interpretation Targeted neuromuscular reeducation techniques after total hip arthroplasty provided a positive effect on biomechanical outcomes, functional performance, and muscle strength. Through focused use of the hip abductor muscles, increased internal hip abductor moments were observed. This intervention potentially promotes pelvic stability, and may contribute to improved performance on tasks such as stair climbing, fast walking, and balance. The results suggest that neuromuscular reeducation offers a unique effect on movement strategy and function for patients following total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26802531

  2. Effects of Age-Related Macular Degeneration on Postural Sway

    PubMed Central

    Chatard, Hortense; Tepenier, Laure; Jankowski, Olivier; Aussems, Antoine; Allieta, Alain; Beydoun, Talal; Salah, Sawsen; Bucci, Maria P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on postural sway, and the influence of different visual conditions. The hypothesis of our study was that the impact of AMD will be different between unilateral and bilateral AMD subjects compared to age-matched healthy elderly. Methods: Postural stability was measured with a platform (TechnoConcept®) in 10 elderly unilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 71.1 ± 4.6 years), 10 elderly bilateral AMD subjects (mean age: 70.8 ± 6.1 years), and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects (mean age: 69.8 ± 6.3 years). Four visual conditions were tested: both eyes viewing condition (BEV), dominant eye viewing (DEV), non-dominant eye viewing (NDEV), and eyes closed (EC). We analyzed the surface area, the length, the mean speed, the anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP). Results: Bilateral AMD subjects had a surface area (p < 0.05) and AP displacement of the CoP (p < 0.01) higher than healthy elderly. Unilateral AMD subjects had more AP displacement of the CoP (p < 0.05) than healthy elderly. Conclusions: We suggest that ADM subjects could have poor postural adaptive mechanisms leading to increase their postural instability. Further studies will aim to improve knowledge on such issue and to develop reeducation techniques in these patients. PMID:28408876

  3. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  4. [Therapeutic approach in the rehabilitation of chronic lower back pain. Comparative study of 3 techniques of lumbar reeducation].

    PubMed

    Amor, B; Heuleu, J N; Mery, C; Courtillon, A

    1979-12-01

    The short-term therapeutic effect of 3 techniques of rehabilitation of the lumbar spine (cyphosis gymnastics, kinebalneotherapy and differenciated rehabilitation) was studied out of 87 chronic lumbalgias selected at random and using one of the three techniques administered by 3 physical therapists. A comparison of these 9 couples (technique, technician) was based on criteria evaluated on a blind basis using the traditional unidimensional analysis and also multidimensional analysis. The cyphosis gymnastic reeducation gives less satisfactory results using 26 criteria out of 27. There is an underlying physical therapy factor. A certain number of prognostic factors with implications for any rehabilitation method and for all of the techniques, were disclosed. The comparative testing methods used in the study of drugs are applicable to rehabilitation techniques. However, it was not possible to carry out a comparative study of a reeducation method with a reeducation placebo.

  5. Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hakan; Ozturk, Kadir; Kurt, Omer

    2016-01-01

    We read the article “Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication: A prospective single-center study from China” written by Wang et al with great interest. It is reported in American and European guidelines that there is no sufficient test for the diagnosis of H. pylori except culture and that using at least two different tests for diagnosis of H. pylori is recommended. Patients who used antibiotics or bismuth salts in the previous 2 wk were excluded from study. But patients who used probiotics and antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E were not excluded. PMID:27099453

  6. [Risks of awkward posture].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G; Capodaglio, E; Panigazzi, M; Prestifilippo, E; Vercesi, C

    2010-01-01

    For posture we mean the position of the body in the space and the relationship with its segments. The correct posture is determined by neurophysiological, biomechanical, emotional, psychological and relation factors, enabling us to perform daily and working activities with the lowest energy expenditure. When possible we suggest during posture variation, a preventive measure where there are prolonged fixed activities.

  7. Posture in otoneurology. Volume I.

    PubMed

    Norré, M E

    1990-01-01

    In this study, posture is studied in the context of neuro-otological problems. In the several chapters, postural elements, postural influence upon balance aspects as well as postural components of the balance function in normal and pathological conditions are emphasized. Two main applications are put forward: rehabilitation by postural treatment techniques (REHAB) and examination techniques for the vestibulospinal aspects (posturography--PG). I. Balance function Balance is provided by automatic reflexes for stabilization of the visual field (vestibulo-ocular reflex--VOR) and for a correct posture, erect standing (vestibulo-spinal reflex--VSR) and head position (vestibulo-collic reflex--VCR). The fundamental characteristics of these reflexes are described, especially of those related to posture. The reflexes are elaborated on the basis of sensory inputs that inform about changed relations to space and environment, provided by visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The sensory signals are further processed by the centers to adequate reflexes and to some extent to a conscious awareness. II. Dysfunction and adaptation Dysfunction in the balance mechanisms leads to erroneous reflexes, but most importantly to frightening sensations of vertigo. The peripheral disturbances produce a sensory mismatch which is the primum movens of vertigo. Built-in adaptive mechanisms cope with this disturbance and restore global balance function. The mechanisms involved have been studied as vestibular compensation and habituation, VOR-reflex plasticity and sensory "substitutive" compensation. The mechanisms are set into action by the dysfunctional situation and constitute an error-controlled process. Emphasis is laid upon the items related to rehabilitation treatment and posturography. A survey of clinical entities of vestibular peripheral dysfunction is included. III. Examination techniques The logical approach to the patient with vertigo consists in an analysis of the complaints

  8. A Center for Re-Education of Teachers. End of Project Period Report, June 1969 to May 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine Unified School District 1, WI.

    This collection of materials and statements is the final project report of "Center for Re-Education of Teachers." The purpose of the project, which places teachers, consultants, supervisors, principals, and members of teacher training staffs in college and university laboratory settings during the summer, is stated as follows: individuals and…

  9. REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS, FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER FOR LEARNING AND RE-EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODSON, MAX R.; AND OTHERS

    THE 1ST YEAR OF OPERATION OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER FOR LEARNING AND RE-EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN WAS REVIEWED. BASIC RESEARCH IN CONCEPT LEARNING WAS CONDUCTED BY MEANS OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTER SIMULATION. CONCEPT LEARNING IN THE SUBJECT AREAS OF MATHEMATICS, ENGLISH COMPOSITION, SCIENCE, SPEECH, AND…

  10. Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.

    PubMed

    Antic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism.

  11. Bladder cancer cells re-educate TAMs through lactate shuttling in the microfluidic cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Degui; Xu, Ting; Liu, Pengfei; Cao, Yanwei; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Xuecheng; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xinsheng; Niu, Haitao

    2015-11-17

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of lactate shuttling on the functional polarization and spatial distribution of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCCB) cells and macrophages. We designed a microfluidic coculture chip for real-time integrative assays. The effect of lactate shuttling on the re-education of macrophages by TCCB cells was explored by measuring the levels of NO using a total NO assay kit and by evaluating the protein expression of iNOS, p-NFkB-p65, Arg-1 and HIF-1α via cell immunofluorescence and western blotting. Additionally, we examined TCCB cell viability using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and MitoTracker staining. Moreover, the concentration distributions of lactate and large signaling proteins in the culture chambers were measured using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran). Furthermore, the recruitment of macrophages and the influence of macrophages on BC metastasis were observed via light microscopy. We confirmed that TCCB cells reprogrammed macrophages into an M2 phenotype. Moreover, lactate inhibited M1 polarization and induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but blockade of cancer cell-macrophage lactate flux significantly inhibited the re-education of macrophages by TCCB cells. In addition, lactate diffused faster and deeper than large signaling proteins in the microfluidic tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, lactate alone induced the migration of macrophages, and M1, but not M2, macrophages reduced the motility of TCCB cells. TCCB cells reprogrammed macrophages into an M2 phenotype in a manner that depended on cancer cell-TAM lactate flux. Furthermore, the lactate shuttle may be a determinant of the density of TAMs in tumor tissue.

  12. Grasp posture alters visual processing biases near the hands

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Observers experience biases in visual processing for objects within easy reach of their hands that may assist them in evaluating items that are candidates for action. I investigated the hypothesis that hand postures affording different types of actions differentially bias vision. Across three experiments, participants performed global motion detection and global form perception tasks while their hands were positioned a) near the display in a posture affording a power grasp, b) near the display in a posture affording a precision grasp, or c) in their laps. Although the power grasp posture facilitated performance on the motion task, the precision grasp posture instead facilitated performance on the form task. These results suggest that the visual system weights processing based on an observer’s current affordances for specific actions: fast and forceful power grasps enhance temporal sensitivity, while detail-oriented precision grasps enhance spatial sensitivity. PMID:25862545

  13. Music and 're-education' in Greek prison camps: from Makronisos (1947-1955) to Giaros (1967-1968).

    PubMed

    Papaeti, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the policy of 're-education' for left-wing political prisoners in Greece during the military Junta (1967-1974) at the prison camp on the island of Giaros from 1967 to November 1968. Taking as its starting point the ways folk culture was used to substantiate the Colonels' ideological discourse and to give their rule aesthetic roots as a strategy of legitimization, the paper investigates how this kind of music was instrumentalized as a way of breaking political prisoners in exile. Music from loudspeakers was part of an attempt to make detainees sign Declarations of Loyalty, renouncing their values and their comrades. The 're-education' programme of Giaros is examined here as a remainder of the Greek Civil-War legacy (1946-1949), and particularly of the institutionalized 're-education' and 'rehabilitation' programme of the infamous prison camps on the island of Makronisos (1947-1955). Interviews with former detainees from both historical periods underline the damaging effects of the use of music, highlighting the need to understand music's capacity to degrade, but also torture, individuals instead of uplift and ennoble the soul.

  14. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  15. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  16. Reduced postural differences between phobic postural vertigo patients and healthy subjects during a postural threat.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Johan; Tjernström, Fredrik; Karlberg, Mikael; Fransson, Per Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-08-01

    Phobic postural vertigo is characterized by subjective imbalance and dizziness while standing or walking, despite normal values for clinical balance tests. Patients with phobic postural vertigo exhibit an increased high-frequency sway in posturographic tests. Their postural sway, however, becomes similar to the sway of healthy subjects during difficult balance tasks. Posturographic recordings of 30 s of quiet stance was compared to recordings of 30 s of quiet stance during a postural threat, which consisted of the knowledge of forthcoming vibratory calf muscle stimulation, in 37 consecutive patients with phobic postural vertigo and 24 healthy subjects. During quiet stance without the threat of forthcoming vibratory stimulation, patients with phobic postural vertigo exhibited a postural sway containing significantly more high-frequency sway than the healthy subjects. During the quiet stance with forthcoming vibratory stimulation, i.e., anticipation of a postural threat, the significant differences between groups disappeared for all variables except sagittal high-frequency sway. During postural threat, healthy subjects seemed to adopt a postural strategy that was similar to that exhibited by phobic postural vertigo patients. The lack of additional effects facing a postural threat among phobic postural vertigo patients may be due to an already maximized postural adaptation. Deviant postural reactions among patients with phobic postural vertigo may be considered as an avoidant postural response due to a constant fear of losing postural control.

  17. Gait re-education based on the Bobath concept in two patients with hemiplegia following stroke.

    PubMed

    Lennon, S

    2001-03-01

    This case report describes the use of gait re-education based on the Bobath concept to measure the changes that occurred in the gait of 2 patients with hemiplegia who were undergoing outpatient physical therapy. One patient ("NM"), a 65-year-old woman, was referred for physical therapy 6 weeks following a right cerebrovascular accident. She attended 30 therapy sessions over a 15-week period. The other patient ("SA"), a 71-year-old woman, was referred for physical therapy 7 weeks following a left cerebrovascular accident. She attended 28 therapy sessions over a 19-week period. Clinical indexes of impairment and disability and 3-dimensional gait data were obtained at the start of treatment and at discharge. Therapy was based on the Bobath concept. At discharge, NM demonstrated improvements in her hip and knee movements, reduced tone, and improved mobility. At discharge, SA demonstrated improved mobility. During gait, both patients demonstrated more normal movement patterns at the level of the pelvis, the knee, and the ankle in the sagittal plane. SA also demonstrated an improvement in hip extension. These cases demonstrate that recovery of more normal movement patterns and functional ability can be achieved following a cardiovascular accident and provide insight into the clinical decision making of experienced practitioners using Bobath's concept.

  18. Postural neck pain: an investigation of habitual sitting posture, perception of 'good' posture and cervicothoracic kinaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Edmondston, Stephen J; Chan, Hon Yan; Ngai, Gorman Chi Wing; Warren, M Linda R; Williams, Jonathan M; Glennon, Susan; Netto, Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Impairments of cervico-cephalic kinaesthesia and habitual forward head posture have been considered important in the aetiology of postural neck pain, yet these factors have not been specifically examined in a homogeneous clinical population. The objective of this study was to compare the habitual sitting posture (HSP), perception of good posture and postural repositioning error (PRE) of the cervico-thoracic (CT) spine in individuals with postural neck pain, with a matched group of asymptomatic subjects. Twenty-one subjects with postural neck pain and 22 asymptomatic control subjects were recruited into the study. An optical motion analysis system was used to measure the HSP and perceived 'good' sitting posture. PRE was measured over six trials where the subject attempted to replicate their self-selected 'good' posture. There was no difference between the groups in the HSP but significant differences were identified in the perception of 'good' posture. Posture repositioning error was higher for the head posture variables than for CT and shoulder girdle variables in both groups. However, there was no significant difference in posture repositioning error between groups for any of the posture measures. The findings suggest that individuals with postural neck pain may have a different perception of 'good' posture, but no significant difference in HSP or kinaesthetic sensibility compared with matched asymptomatic subjects.

  19. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Thaís C; Turci, Aline M; Pinheiro, Carina F; Sousa, Letícia M; Grossi, Débora B

    2014-01-01

    The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients.

  20. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Thaís C; Turci, Aline M; Pinheiro, Carina F; Sousa, Letícia M; Grossi, Débora B

    2014-10-31

    The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients.

  1. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  2. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Paula, Mayara H; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valéria M C; Rosén, Birgitta; Fonseca, Marisa C R

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. The primary outcome (Rosen score) values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5); 1.96 (SD=0.56) and 1.65 (SD=0.52); 1.51 (SD=0.62), respectively. No between-group differences were observed. Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Mayara H.; Barbosa, Rafael I.; Marcolino, Alexandre M.; Elui, Valéria M. C.; Rosén, Birgitta; Fonseca, Marisa C. R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score) values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5); 1.96 (SD=0.56) and 1.65 (SD=0.52); 1.51 (SD=0.62), respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26786080

  4. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  6. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W; Pettibon, Burl R; Schlappi, Heidi; Schlappi, Mark; Ireland, Trevor V

    2005-01-01

    either in Earth's gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. Discussion It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. Conclusion Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only from a segmental perspective, but

  7. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective.

    PubMed

    Morningstar, Mark W; Pettibon, Burl R; Schlappi, Heidi; Schlappi, Mark; Ireland, Trevor V

    2005-08-09

    in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only from a segmental perspective, but can also determine how spinal dysfunction may

  8. Integrated postural analysis in children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, E; Pasta, G; Mannucci, P M; Santagostino, E; Peyvandi, F; Seuser, A; Mancuso, M E; Solimeno, L P

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of a correct posture in haemophilic boys might contribute to prevent joint bleeds, chronic pain and dysfunction. This single-centre study was aimed at evaluating whether or not postural alterations are more common in haemophilic than in non-haemophilic boys and whether they are related to the orthopaedic status. Posture and balance were investigated in boys with severe/moderate haemophilia (cases) and in age-matched non-haemophilic peers (controls). Thirty-five cases (89% with haemophilia A: 74% with severe disease) were included in the study and compared with 57 controls. Posture was evaluated on digital pictures of anterior, lateral and posterior views of the habitual standing position. Balance was examined with a portable force platform with eyes open and closed. The trajectory of the total body centre of force (CoF) displacement over the platform was computed by multiple planes obtaining different measures: sway area, velocity, acceleration and body loads. The joint status of cases was assessed with the Haemophilia Joint Health Score. Cases were more disharmonic than controls (52% vs. 26% in controls; P = 0.04), swayed significantly less and more slowly than controls (P < 0.05 for several parameters of CoF displacement) revealing stiffness of the musculoskeletal system. However, they were able to maintain their stance within a similar sway area. Haemophilic boys have more postural disharmonies than non-haemophilic peers, hence a global evaluation of the orthopaedic status should include also balance and posture examination to identify early dysfunction and establish a tailored physical or rehabilitation programme.

  9. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct “evanescent hyperemia” disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud’s phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an

  10. Effects of re-education in eating habits and physical activity on the lipid profile of obese teenagers.

    PubMed

    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Hubler, Márcia; Santos, Marieta; Carolino, Idalina; Sonoo, Noriko; Botti, Berenice; Mota, Daniela; Takahachi, Gisele

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-five teenagers, 13 males and 12 females, some obese and others overweight, aged between 12 and 18 years, were studied over 8 months, under the supervision of a multidisciplinary team. Effects of re-education in eating habits and physical activity on the lipid profile were evaluated. Dyslipidaemia characterised by increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides was obeserved in 64%, 12% and 44% of the teenagers, respectively. Whereas decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in 28%, tendency to hypertension has been observed in 36% of the teenagers. After 8 months, the number of teenagers with total hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia decreased to 32% and 24%, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not vary significantly. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased in 17% of participants. Reduction of blood pressure occurred in most teenagers. These data suggest that re-education programmes in eating habits associated with changes in behaviour and physical activity can benefit obese teenagers and prevent various diseases.

  11. Postural dynamics in maximal isometric ramp efforts.

    PubMed

    Bouisset, Simon; Le Bozec, Serge; Ribreau, Christian

    2002-09-01

    Aglobal biomechanical model of transient push efforts is proposed where transient efforts are taken into consideration, with the aim to examine in greater depth the postural adjustments associated with voluntary efforts. In this context, the push effort is considered as a perturbation of balance, and the other reaction forces as a counter-perturbation which is necessary for the task to be performed efficiently. The subjects were asked to exert maximal horizontal two-handed isometric pushes on a dynamometric bar, as rapidly as possible. They were seated on a custom-designed device which measured global and partitive dynamic quantities. The results showed that the horizontal reaction forces and the horizontal displacement of the centre of pressure increased quasi-proportionally with the perturbation. In addition, it was established that vertical reaction forces increased at seat level whereas they decreased at foot level, resulting in minor vertical acceleration and displacement of the centre of gravity. On the contrary, the anteroposterior reaction forces increased both at foot and at seat levels. Based on a detailed examination of the various terms of the model, it is concluded that transient muscular effort induces dynamics of the postural chain. These observations support the view that there is a postural counter-perturbation which is associated with motor activity. More generally, the model helped to specify the effect of postural dynamic phenomena. It makes it possible to stress the importance of adherence at the contact level between the subject and the seat in the course of transient efforts.

  12. The Post-War British "Re-Education" Policy for German Universities and Its Application at the Universities of Göttingen and Cologne (1945-1947)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euros, Glesni

    2016-01-01

    The crux of British aims for Germany following the Second World War focused on "re-education" and democratisation. Well aware that the victors' policies following World War One had failed to prevent Germany from pursuing an expansionist path once again, the plan was to help Germany learn from her problematic past. These aims extended to…

  13. The Post-War British "Re-Education" Policy for German Universities and Its Application at the Universities of Göttingen and Cologne (1945-1947)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euros, Glesni

    2016-01-01

    The crux of British aims for Germany following the Second World War focused on "re-education" and democratisation. Well aware that the victors' policies following World War One had failed to prevent Germany from pursuing an expansionist path once again, the plan was to help Germany learn from her problematic past. These aims extended to…

  14. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Garg, R; Ritch, A; Sarkar, P

    2007-07-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic disturbance which has become better understood in recent years. It is now thought to encompass a group of disorders that have similar clinical features, such as orthostatic intolerance, but individual distinguishing parameters--for example, blood pressure and pulse rate. The clinical picture, diagnosis, and management of POTS are discussed.

  15. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  16. Clinical methods for quantifying body segment posture: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Carole; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians commonly assess posture in persons with musculoskeletal disorders and tend to do so subjectively. Evidence-based practice requires the use of valid, reliable and sensitive tools to monitor treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this article was to determine which methods were used to assess posture quantitatively in a clinical setting and to identify psychometric properties of posture indices measured from these methods or tools. We conducted a comprehensive literature review. Pertinent databases were used to search for articles on quantitative clinical assessment of posture. Searching keywords were related to posture and assessment, scoliosis, back pain, reliability, validity and different body segments. We identified 65 articles with angle and distance posture indices that corresponded to our search criteria. Several studies showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for measurements taken directly on the persons (e.g., goniometer, inclinometer, flexible curve and tape measurement) or from photographs, but the validity of these measurements was not always demonstrated. Taking measurements of all body angles directly on the person is a lengthy process and may affect the reliability of the measurements. Measurement of body angles from photographs may be the most accurate and rapid way to assess global posture quantitatively in a clinical setting.

  17. Stand Up Straight: Posture for Singers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Delores R.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of posture in music-making. Provides information on the importance of posture and the different types of posture stances to help students work toward better posture. Includes information on using kinesthetic experiences to help students improve their posture. (CMK)

  18. Posture Statement 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    dispersed, comprising formal, informal, family, and cultural associations tied by varied and sometimes near- invisible links. Th ey ex- ploit the...coordination, and communication between all levels of government. USSOCOM’s leadership, vision, and initiative in prosecuting the GWOT was validated most...Rather, the new vision expresses a need for low density, high demand SOF assets to be postured with a “presence for purpose”, to be at the “right place

  19. Treatment of an individual with piriformis syndrome focusing on hip muscle strengthening and movement reeducation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tonley, Jason C; Yun, Steven M; Kochevar, Ronald J; Dye, Jeremy A; Farrokhi, Shawn; Powers, Christopher M

    2010-02-01

    Case report. To describe an alternative treatment approach for piriformis syndrome using a hip muscle strengthening program with movement reeducation. Interventions for piriformis syndrome typically consist of stretching and/or soft tissue massage to the piriformis muscle. The premise underlying this approach is that a shortening or "spasm" of the piriformis is responsible for the compression placed upon the sciatic nerve. The patient was a 30-year-old male with right buttock and posterior thigh pain for 2 years. Clinical findings upon examination included reproduction of symptoms with palpation and stretching of the piriformis. Movement analysis during a single-limb step-down revealed excessive hip adduction and internal rotation, which reproduced his symptoms. Strength assessment revealed weakness of the right hip abductor and external rotator muscles. The patient's treatment was limited to hip-strengthening exercises and movement reeducation to correct the excessive hip adduction and internal rotation during functional tasks. Following the intervention, the patient reported 0/10 pain with all activities. The initial Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaire score of 65/80 improved to 80/80. Lower extremity kinematics for peak hip adduction and internal rotation improved from 15.9 degrees and 12.8 degrees to 5.8 degrees and 5.9 degrees, respectively, during a step-down task. This case highlights an alternative view of the pathomechanics of piriformis syndrome (overstretching as opposed to overshortening) and illustrates the need for functional movement analysis as part of the examination of these patients. Therapy, level 4.

  20. Postural development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  1. Vowel posture normalization.

    PubMed

    Hashi, M; Westbury, J R; Honda, K

    1998-10-01

    A simple normalization procedure was applied to point-parametrized articulatory data to yield quantitative speaker-general descriptions of "average" vowel postures. Articulatory data from 20 English and 8 Japanese speakers, drawn from existing x-ray microbeam database corpora, were included in the analysis. The purpose of the normalization procedure was to minimize the effects of differences in vocal tract size and shape on average postures derived from the raw data. The procedure resulted in a general reduction of cross-speaker variance in the y dimension of the normalized space, within both language groups. This result can be traced to a systematic source of variance in the y dimension of the raw data (i.e., palatal height) "successfully removed" from the normalized data. The procedure did not result in a comparable, general reduction in cross-speaker variance in the x dimension. This negative result can be traced partly to the new observation that some speakers within the English sample habitually placed their tongues in a fronted position for all vowels, whereas other speakers habitually placed their tongues in a rearward position. Methods for evaluating articulatory normalization schemes, and possible sources of interspeaker variability in vowel postures, are discussed.

  2. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexed Truncal Posture in Parkinson Disease: Measurement Reliability and Relationship With Physical and Cognitive Impairments, Mobility, and Balance.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Aimi L; Paul, Serene S; Allen, Natalie E; Sherrington, Catherine; Fung, Victor S C; Canning, Colleen G

    2017-04-01

    Flexed truncal posture is common in people with Parkinson disease (PD); however, little is known about the mechanisms responsible or its effect on physical performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to establish the reliability of a truncal posture measurement and explore relationships between PD impairments and truncal posture, as well as truncal posture and balance and mobility. A total of 82 people with PD participated. Truncal posture was measured in standing as the distance between vertebra C7 and a wall. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed with truncal posture and impairments, including global axial symptoms, tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, freezing of gait (FOG), reactive stepping and executive function, as well as truncal posture with balance and mobility measures. The truncal posture measure had excellent test-retest reliability (ICC3,1 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-0.89, P < 0.001). Global axial symptoms had the strongest association with truncal posture (adjusted R = 0.08, P = 0.01), although the majority of the variance remains unexplained. Post hoc analysis revealed that several impairments were associated with truncal posture only in those who did not report FOG. Flexed truncal posture was associated with poorer performance of most balance and mobility tasks after adjustment for age, gender, disease severity, and duration (adjusted R = 0.24-0.33, P < 0.001-0.03). The C7 to wall measurement is highly reliable in people with PD. Global axial symptoms were independently associated with truncal posture. Greater flexed truncal posture was associated with poorer balance and mobility. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for flexed truncal posture and the impact on activity.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A164).

  4. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Tim; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Burnett, Angus F; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. Methods One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx), Upper lumbar (ULx) and total lumbar (TLx) spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Results Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638), but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p < 0.001). Regional differences in range of motion from reference postures in sitting and standing were evident. BMI accounted for regional differences found in all sitting and some standing measures. LBP was not associated with differences in regional lumbar spine angles or range of motion, with the exception of maximal backward bending range of motion (F = 5.18, p = 0.007). Conclusion This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load. PMID:19014712

  5. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tim; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Burnett, Angus F; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2008-11-18

    Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx), Upper lumbar (ULx) and total lumbar (TLx) spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638), but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p < 0.001). Regional differences in range of motion from reference postures in sitting and standing were evident. BMI accounted for regional differences found in all sitting and some standing measures. LBP was not associated with differences in regional lumbar spine angles or range of motion, with the exception of maximal backward bending range of motion (F = 5.18, p = 0.007). This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load.

  6. Humanlike agents with posture planning ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Moon R.; Badler, Norman I.

    1992-11-01

    Human body models are geometric structures which may be ultimately controlled by kinematically manipulating their joints, but for animation, it is desirable to control them in terms of task-level goals. We address a fundamental problem in achieving task-level postural goals: controlling massively redundant degrees of freedom. We reduce the degrees of freedom by introducing significant control points and vectors, e.g., pelvis forward vector, palm up vector, and torso up vector, etc. This reduced set of parameters are used to enumerate primitive motions and motion dependencies among them, and thus to select from a small set of alternative postures (e.g., bend versus squat to lower shoulder height). A plan for a given goal is found by incrementally constructing a goal/constraint set based on the given goal, motion dependencies, collision avoidance requirements, and discovered failures. Global postures satisfying a given goal/constraint set are determined with the help of incremental mental simulation which uses a robust inverse kinematics algorithm. The contributions of the present work are: (1) There is no need to specify beforehand the final goal configuration, which is unrealistic for the human body, and (2) the degrees of freedom problem becomes easier by representing body configurations in terms of `lumped' control parameters, that is, control points and vectors.

  7. Determining posture from physiological tremor.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad P

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of body and limb posture is important to many clinical and research studies. Current approaches either directly measure posture (e.g., using optical or magnetic methods) or more indirectly measure it by integrating changes over time (e.g., using gyroscopes and/or accelerometers). Here, we introduce a way of estimating posture from movements without requiring integration over time and the resulting complications. We show how the almost imperceptible tremor of the hand is affected by posture in an intuitive way and therefore can be used to estimate the posture of the arm. We recorded postures and tremor of the arms of volunteers. By using only the minor axis in the covariance of hand tremor, we could estimate the angle of the forearm with a standard deviation of about 4° when the subject's elbow is resting on a table and about 10° when it is off the table. This technique can also be applied as a post hoc analysis on other hand-position data sets to extract posture. This new method allows the estimation of body posture from tremor, is complementary to other techniques, and so can become a useful tool for future research and clinical applications.

  8. Determining posture from physiological tremor

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark V.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of body and limb posture is important to many clinical and research studies. Current approaches either directly measure posture (e.g., using optical or magnetic methods) or more indirectly measure it by integrating changes over time (e.g., using gyroscopes and/or accelerometers). Here, we introduce a way of estimating posture from movements without requiring integration over time and the resultingcomplications. Weshow how the almost imperceptible tremor of the hand is affected by posture in an intuitive way and therefore can be used to estimate the posture of the arm. We recorded postures and tremor of the arms of volunteers. By using only the minor axis in the covariance of hand tremor, we could estimate the angle of the forearm with a standard deviation of about 4° when the subject's elbow is resting on a table and about 10° when it is off the table. This technique can also be applied as a post hoc analysis on other hand-position data sets to extract posture. This new method allows the estimation of body posture from tremor, is complementary to other techniques, and so can become a useful tool for future research and clinical applications. PMID:21997329

  9. Influence of immobilization and sensory re-education on the sensory recovery after reconstruction of digital nerves with direct suture or muscle-in-vein conduits.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Theodora; Schiefer, Jennifer Lynn; Schulz, Lukas; Fuchsberger, Thomas; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard

    2016-02-01

    The influence of duration of immobilization and postoperative sensory re-education on the final outcome after reconstruction of digital nerves with direct suture or muscle-in-vein conduits was investigated. The final sensory outcome of 35 patients with 41 digital nerve injuries, who either underwent a direct suture (DS) or a nerve reconstruction with muscle-in-vein conduits (MVC), was assessed the earliest 12 months postoperatively using static and moving two-point discrimination as well as Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. There was no significant difference in sensory recovery in cases with an immobilization of 3-7 days versus 10 days in the DS or MVC group. Moreover, no statistically significant difference in sensory recovery was found in cases receiving postoperative sensory re-education versus those not receiving in the DS or MVC group. An early mobilization does not seem to have a negative impact on the final outcome after digital nerve reconstruction. The effect of sensory re-education after digital nerve reconstruction should be reconsidered.

  10. Postural performance of vestibular loss patients under increased postural threat.

    PubMed

    Young, Laurence R; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Dumitrescu, Michel; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane; Lacour, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of increasing postural task difficulty on balance control was investigated in 9 compensated vestibular loss patients whose results were compared to 11 healthy adults. Subjects were tested in static (stable support) and dynamic (sinusoidal translation of the support) conditions, both at floor level and at height (62 cm above the floor), and with and without vision, to create an additional postural threat. Wavelet analysis of the center of foot pressure displacement and motion analysis of the body segments were used to evaluate the postural performance. Evaluation questionnaires were used to examine the compensation level of the patients (DHI test), their general anxiety level (SAST), fear of height (subjective scale), and workload (NASA TLX test). (Vestibular loss patients rely more on vision and spend more energy maintaining balance than controls, but they use the same postural strategy as normals in both static and dynamic conditions.) Questionnaire data all showed differences in behavior and perceptions between the controls and the patients. However, at height and without vision, a whole body strategy leading to rigid posture replaces the head stabilization strategy found for standing at floor level. The effects of height on postural control can be attributable to an increase in postural threat and attention changes resulting from modifications in perception.

  11. A new posture measurement method for measuring intrinsic standing posture.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kodama, Naoki; Maeda, Naoto; Sakamoto, Shunichi; Minagi, Shogo

    2014-04-01

    Although body posture in relation to the dental condition has been of great interest in the dental profession, rumination bias has been a substantial obstacle to achieving a reliable objective evaluation of the intrinsic body posture. The aim of this study was to establish a posture control protocol that would minimize the effect of bias. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23-33 years of age) participated in this study. The posture movement was recorded for 10 seconds by a three-dimensional motion capture system. The experiment was performed on four different days. The posture was most stable at 4-5 seconds after the start of the front bulb gaze (the mean coefficient of variation ranged from 0.1 to 44.1). The intraclass correlation coefficients for four days were 0.871-0.975 (P < or = 0.001). It was concluded that the use of this measurement method helped in producing a reliable intrinsic standing posture where unbiased evaluation of the effect of any intervention on the body posture is researched.

  12. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Su, Fong-Chin; Kuo, Huan-Ting; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2012-05-09

    Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB) prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6-60 months) were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033) in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005) than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009) than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced significant improvements in grip force modulation (p = 0.020) and

  13. Postural stability in altered and unaltered sensory environments following fatiguing exercise of lower extremity joints.

    PubMed

    Dickin, D C; Doan, J B

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of postural recovery following controlled external perturbations have provided models for healthy and pathological balance behavior. Less work, however, has investigated postural responses related to internal perturbations of the balance system. In this study, lower extremity joint (knee, or ankle) and overall fatigue of the dominant leg provided the internal perturbations to the balance system. Postural sway was examined during unilateral dominant leg standing before and immediately following fatiguing exercise, as well as at 10, 20, and 30 min post-fatigue activity. Sway was measured in both firm and sway-referenced support surface (external perturbation) conditions. Both joint-localized fatigue and overall fatigue were found to induce impairments in postural control, which were further exacerbated by external postural perturbations. Follow-up pairwise comparisons indicated that these impairments persisted at 10 and 30 min post-fatigue. No differences in postural sway were found between fatigue locations or across any interactions between sway and fatigue location. The results indicated that muscular fatigue imposed a prolonged internal perturbation to postural control, regardless of any individual or combined joint fatigue localization. This global effect, combined with the prolonged impairment in postural response, provides support for critical contributions from a central mechanism to postural deficits due to fatigue.

  14. [Menisci and posture].

    PubMed

    Sérgio, J S

    2000-01-01

    The first aim of this work is not only to review the localised perspective of meniscopathy, concerned with the consequences of meniscectomy, but to also view it in a broader dimension, in the behavioural aspect--related to postural activity. The second aim is to establish the relationship between these two dimensions. Meniscopathies invariably lead to degenerative alterations of the knee joint--not sufficiently explained by the local factors--that result in a situation of osteoarthritis. Some investigators established that the osteoarthritis process should not be confined only to the mechanical responsibility, due to some studies that also confirm the existence of biochemical alterations. However, others have also shown that the nervous system (NS) is likely to influence the inflammatory manifestations through the unmyelinated afferent fibers and sympathetic efferent fibers of the joints. These fibers can interact with non-neural elements, releasing some mediators, such as P substance (PS) and norepinephrine (NE), which, by themselves, or through other substances, contribute to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process. In order to relate the facts above, this longitudinal study comprised the following approaches clinical: anthropometric; biotechnical; and posturographic. It was characterised by five moments of data collection, the periodicity of which is related to the time of the surgery: the first moment is before surgery, followed by the remaining four, at six-week intervals, the sample being composed of--15 male caucasians, aged between 20 and 30 years, working for the Air Force. These Subjects were divided into two groups, according to the amount of meniscus removed in the longitudinal direction. Group A--meniscectomy < 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of 7 subjects, with an average age of 21.4 years; and Group B, meniscectomy > 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of: 8 subjects, with an average age of 24.1 years. The statistical analysis contained a

  15. Stabilizing posture through imagery.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Eleonora; Manzoni, Diego; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the general population, suppression of vision modulates body sway by increasing the center of pressure (CoP) velocity, while a light fingertip touch reduces the area of the CoP displacement in blindfolded subjects. This study assessed whether imagined fixation and fingertip touch differentially stabilize posture in subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability. Visual and tactile imageries were ineffective in lows. In highs, the effects of visual imagery could not be evaluated because the real information was ineffective; real tactile stimulation was effective only on velocity, but the imagery effects could not be definitely assessed owing to low effect size. The highs' larger variability could account for this and represents the most important finding.

  16. The effect of asymmetry of posture on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S

    2006-06-19

    The study investigates the effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects performed a task involving a standard load release induced by a shoulder abduction movement while standing symmetrically or in an asymmetrical stance with either their right or left leg in 45 degrees of external rotation. EMG activities of trunk and leg muscles were recorded during the postural perturbation and were quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were observed in all experimental conditions. It was found that asymmetrical body positioning was associated with significant asymmetrical patterns of APAs seen in the right and left distal muscles. These APA asymmetries were dependant upon the side in which the body asymmetry was induced: reduced APAs were observed in the leg muscles on the side of leg rotation, while increased APAs were seen in the muscles on the contralateral side. These findings stress the important role that body asymmetries play in the control of upright posture.

  17. [Evaluation of respiratory muscle strength and thoracic and abdominal amplitudes after a functional reeducation of breathing program for obese individuals].

    PubMed

    Costa, Dirceu; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; de Lorenzzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Maurício; Damaso, Ana Raimunda

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the elements of respiratory mechanics in obese individuals with respect to respiratory muscle strength determined by maximum respiratory pressure (PImax and PEmax) and the amplitude of thoracoabdominal movements at the levels: axillary (AAX), xiphoid (AXf) and abdominal (AAb). Twenty nine patients (43 +/- 13 years) were divided in two groups: Experimental group (E) and Control group (C). All patients were submitted to an initial evaluation and determination of PImax, PEmax, AAx, AXiph and AAb. The E group was submitted to 18 sessions of a Functional Reeducation of Breathing Program that consisted of respiratory orientation, respiratory coordination exercise associated to trunk and limb movements and muscle relaxation two times a week during 9 weeks. Student t-test showed a significant increase in PImax, Axif and Aabd in the experimental group, but when authors compared the two groups, they did not find any statistical difference. The results showed that the Program increased the respiratory muscle strength and the amplitude of abdominal movements in obese patients.

  18. PREP-T1 (Preteen Re-Education With Parents-Type 1 Diabetes) Feasibility Intervention Results.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Crawford, Sybil; Johnson, Kim; Ramchandani, Neesha; Quinn, Diane; D'Alesandro, Bianca; Stern, Kailyn; Lipman, Terry; Melkus, Gail; Streisand, Randi

    2016-11-01

    There has been a 2% to 3% increase in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children below 11 years old. Preteens (9-12 years old) with T1D are often overlooked regarding future diabetes self-management (DSM) expectations because parents are still in the "driver's seat." The study purpose was to explore feasibility/ability to recruit and conduct a two-arm trial on reeducation, collaboration, and social support. One component of DSM was reviewed (hypoglycemia) with preteens (n = 22) and parents (n = 22). The experimental preteens discussed hypoglycemia management with a teen mentor and nurse educator using a human patient simulator for practice, and working collaboratively with parents. Concurrently, mothers met with a parent mentor and psychologist to discuss growth and development, and collaborative shared management. Comparison dyads discussed hypoglycemia management with a nurse. Preteens slightly improved in diabetes knowledge; the experimental arm had higher problem-solving scores. Parents in the experimental arm had higher self-efficacy scores. Findings will inform future research.

  19. Lumbar spine postures in marines during simulated operational positions.

    PubMed

    Berry, David B; Rodríguez-Soto, Ana E; Su, Jeannie; Gombatto, Sara P; Shahidi, Bahar; Palombo, Laura; Chung, Christine; Jensen, Andrew; Kelly, Karen R; Ward, Samuel R

    2017-01-04

    Low back pain has a 70% higher prevalence in members of the armed forces than in the general population, possibly due to the loads and positions soldiers experience during training and combat. Although the influence of heavy load carriage on standing lumbar spine posture in this population is known, postures in other operationally relevant positions are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of simulated military operational positions under relevant loading conditions on global and local lumbar spine postures in active duty male US Marines. Secondary objectives were to evaluate if intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain affect lumbar spine postures. Magnetic resonance images were acquired on an upright scanner in the following operational positions: Natural standing with no external load, standing with body armor (11.3 kg), sitting with body armor, and prone on elbows with body armor. Custom software was used to measure global lumbar spine posture: Lumbosacral flexion, sacral slope, lordosis, local measures of intervertebral angles, and intervertebral distances. Sitting resulted in decreased lumbar lordosis at all levels of the spine except L1-L2. When subjects were prone on elbows, a significant increase in local lordosis was observed only at L5-S1 compared with all other positions. Marines with disc degeneration (77%) or history of low back pain (72%) had decreased lumbar range of motion and less lumbar extension than healthy Marines. These results indicate that a male Marine's pathology undergoes a stereotypic set of postural changes during functional tasks, which may impair performance. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2017.

  20. Effects of Four Days Hiking on Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Silva, Maria Sebastiana; Soares, Viviane; Lobo da Costa, Paula Hentschel

    2015-01-01

    Hiking is a demanding form of exercise that may cause delayed responses of the postural muscles and a loss of somatosensory information, particularly when repeatedly performed for several days. These effects may negatively influence the postural control of hikers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a four-day hike on postural control. Twenty-six adults of both sexes travelled 262 kilometers, stopping for lunch and resting in the early evening each day. Force platforms were used to collect center of pressure (COP) data at 100 Hz for 70 seconds before hiking started and immediately after arriving at the rest station each day. The COP time course data were analyzed according to global stabilometric descriptors, spectral analysis and structural descriptors using sway density curve (SDC) and stabilometric diffusion analysis (SDA). Significant increases were found for global variables in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions (COP sway area, COP total sway path, COP mean velocity, COP root mean square value and COP range). In the spectral analysis, only the 80% power frequency (F80) in the anterior-posterior direction showed a significant increase, reflecting the increase of the sway frequencies. The SDC revealed a significant increase in the mean distance between peaks (MD) and a significant decrease in the mean peak amplitudes (MP), suggesting that a larger torque amplitude is required for stabilization and that the postural stability is reduced. The SDA revealed a decrease in the long-term slope (Hl) and increases in the short-term (Ks) and the long-term (Kl) intercepts. We considered the likelihood that the presence of local and general fatigue, pain and related neuromuscular adaptations and somatosensory deficits may have contributed to these postural responses. Together, these results demonstrated that four days of hiking increased sway frequencies and deteriorated postural control in the standing position. PMID

  1. Effects of four days hiking on postural control.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Silva, Maria Sebastiana; Soares, Viviane; Lobo da Costa, Paula Hentschel

    2015-01-01

    Hiking is a demanding form of exercise that may cause delayed responses of the postural muscles and a loss of somatosensory information, particularly when repeatedly performed for several days. These effects may negatively influence the postural control of hikers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a four-day hike on postural control. Twenty-six adults of both sexes travelled 262 kilometers, stopping for lunch and resting in the early evening each day. Force platforms were used to collect center of pressure (COP) data at 100 Hz for 70 seconds before hiking started and immediately after arriving at the rest station each day. The COP time course data were analyzed according to global stabilometric descriptors, spectral analysis and structural descriptors using sway density curve (SDC) and stabilometric diffusion analysis (SDA). Significant increases were found for global variables in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions (COP sway area, COP total sway path, COP mean velocity, COP root mean square value and COP range). In the spectral analysis, only the 80% power frequency (F80) in the anterior-posterior direction showed a significant increase, reflecting the increase of the sway frequencies. The SDC revealed a significant increase in the mean distance between peaks (MD) and a significant decrease in the mean peak amplitudes (MP), suggesting that a larger torque amplitude is required for stabilization and that the postural stability is reduced. The SDA revealed a decrease in the long-term slope (Hl) and increases in the short-term (Ks) and the long-term (Kl) intercepts. We considered the likelihood that the presence of local and general fatigue, pain and related neuromuscular adaptations and somatosensory deficits may have contributed to these postural responses. Together, these results demonstrated that four days of hiking increased sway frequencies and deteriorated postural control in the standing position.

  2. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Robert T.; Raz, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay. Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy). Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition. PMID:27818629

  3. A short essay on posture and movement.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J P

    1977-01-01

    Certain statements concerning the relation of posture and movement which have become traditional are re-examined--in particular, the statement 'Movement (that is, pysiological movement) consists of a series of postures. The theme of the essay is the posture--that is, postural activity--should be regarded as a function in its own right and not merely as a component of movement and, secondly, that expressions such as a' series of postures' or 'a change of posture' are not valid as definitions of physiological movement is general, but describe only movement which is part of the postural function. Voluntary movement consists of much more than a series of postures and its significance, ordinarily, is not postural. PMID:845603

  4. Postural threat influences conscious perception of postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-05-04

    This study examined how changes in threat influenced conscious perceptions of postural sway. Young healthy adults stood on a forceplate mounted to a hydraulic lift placed at two heights (0.8m and 3.2m). At each height, subjects stood quietly with eyes open and eyes closed for 60s. Subjects were instructed to either stand normal, or stand normal and track their perceived sway in the antero-posterior plane by rotating a hand-held potentiometer. Participants reported an increased level of fear, anxiety, arousal and a decreased level of balance confidence when standing at height. In addition, postural sway amplitude decreased and frequency increased at height. However, there were no effects of height on perceived sway. When standing under conditions of increased postural threat, sway amplitude is reduced, while sway perception appears to remain unchanged. Therefore, when threat is increased, sensory gain may be increased to compensate for postural strategies that reduce sway (i.e. stiffening strategy), thereby ensuring sufficient afferent information is available to maintain, or even increase the conscious perception of postural sway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of patient audio-visual re-education through a smartphone on quality of bowel preparation before colonoscopy; a single-blinded randomized study.

    PubMed

    Back, Su Young; Kim, Hyun Gun; Ahn, Eu Mi; Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Im, Hee Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Oh; Ko, Bong Min; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Jun-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Preparation education is essential for successful colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of audio-visual (AV) re-education through a smartphone before colonoscopy on bowel preparation quality. A prospective, endoscopist-blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed. Patients who underwent colonoscopy with 3 purgatives, including 4 L polyethylene glycol (4L-PEG), 2 L PEG with ascorbic acid (2L-PEG/Asc) and sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC), were enrolled, and randomized into AV re-education through smartphone group (AV group, n=160) and a control group (n=160). The primary outcome was the quality of the bowel preparation according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). The secondary outcomes included instruction adherence using adherence score (AS) and patient satisfaction with education using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A total of 283 patients (AV group: n=139, control group: n=144) were analyzed per protocol. The mean BBPS (7.53 vs. 6.29, p<0.001) and the proportion of adequate preparation were higher in the AV group. The mean BBPS of the AV group was significantly higher than that of the control group in the 2L PEG/Asc and SPMC preparations, but not in the 4L-PEG preparation. The mean AS and the mean VAS score were all significantly higher in the AV group. Among the 3 purgatives, the mean AS was lowest in the 4L-PEG group (p=0.041). AV re-education via smartphone was easy and convenient, and enhanced preparation quality, patient adherence to instructions, and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Motor systems and postural instability.

    PubMed

    Vassar, Rachel L; Rose, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence alter the neurologic control of posture and motor function. Ethanol delays the conduction of electric signals from the central nervous system to the muscles controlling posture and impairs the integration of sensory inputs required for maintaining vertical stance. Consequently, alcohol intoxication delays the ability to detect postural changes and enact the appropriate response. Common signs of acute alcohol intoxication include spinocerebellar and vestibulocerebellar ataxia, oculomotor changes, and increased reliance on visuospatial clues. Chronic alcoholism results in postural tremors and excessive sway during quiet stance that can persist even after sobriety is achieved. Underlying neurologic changes due to chronic alcoholism have been found to be associated with these characteristic postural changes and include decreased volume of the anterior superior vermis of the cerebellum, decreased connectivity within the corpus callosum, and overall cortical atrophy. Severity of motor impairments and other symptoms from alcoholism relate to a variety of factors, including duration of alcoholism, age, sex, and other health determinants and comorbidities. Imaging studies highlight the potential for partial recovery from neurologic and motor deficits caused by alcoholism. Emerging evidence on the motor and neurologic changes caused by alcohol dependence may allow for improved treatment and prevention of the morbidities associated with alcoholism.

  7. Postural Complexity Influences Development in Infants Born Preterm With Brain Injury: Relating Perception-Action Theory to 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R.; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Case Description Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Outcomes Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Discussion Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. PMID:24903116

  8. Automatic and Interactive Key Posture Design by Combing the PIK with Parametric Posture Splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shilei; Wu, Bing; Liang, Jiahong; Su, Jiongming

    Key posture design is commonly needed in computer animation. This paper presents an automatic and interactive whole body posture designing technique by combining the PIK (prioritized inverse kinematics) with the proposed parametric human posture splicing technique. The key feature of PIK is that the user can design a posture by adding high level constraints with different priorities. However, the PIK is essentially a numerical IK algorithm which relies on the iterative optimization starting from a good enough initial posture to get the final result. To speed up the running efficiency and ensure the lifelikeness of the final posture, the parametric posture splicing technique is proposed to generate the initial guess of the PIK. According to the set of the high level constraints, the whole body is divided into some partial parts, whose postures are then generated by the parametric posture synthesis from a single posture database. Then an initial posture guess with some main characteristics of the finally acceptable posture can be generated approximately by splicing these partial body postures together. Starting from this initial guess and with all constraints considered at different priority levels, the PIK can be initialized with a bias defined by this particularly initial guess and iterated step by step to get a final posture. The total process of the whole body posture generation is automatic and interactive. The experimental results show that this combination method can not only improve the computation efficiency of the PIK but also can simultaneously ensure the naturalness of the final posture.

  9. Postural control in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Jackeline Yumi; Quitschal, Rafaela Maia; Doná, Flávia; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloísa Helena

    2014-01-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease. To evaluate postural balance in Parkinson's disease. Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease were compared with controls using Tetrax™ interactive balance system posturography. For different positions, patients with Parkinson's disease showed a significantly higher weight distribution index, fall index, Fourier transformation at low-medium frequencies (F2-F4), and significantly lower right/left and toe/heel synchronization versus controls. Postural imbalance in Parkinson's disease patients is characterized by the abnormalities of weight distribution index, synchronization index, Fourier transformation index, and fall index as measured by Tetrax™ posturography. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Postural synergies and their development.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L; Krishnamoorthy, Vijaya; Scholz, John P; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2005-01-01

    The recent developments of a particular approach to analyzing motor synergies based on the principle of motor abundance has allowed a quantitative assessment of multi-effector coordination in motor tasks involving anticipatory adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations and in voluntary postural sway. This approach, the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, is based on an assumption that the central nervous system organizes covariation of elemental variables to stabilize important performance variables in a task-specific manner. In particular, this approach has been used to demonstrate and to assess the emergence of synergies and their modification with motor practice in typical persons and persons with Down syndrome. The framework of the UCM hypothesis allows the formulation of testable hypotheses with respect to developing postural synergies in typically and atypically developing persons.

  11. Postural discomfort and perceived exertion in standardized box-holding postures.

    PubMed

    Olendorf, M R; Drury, C G

    2001-12-15

    To help in the design or redesign of workplaces it would be helpful to know in advance the postural stress consequences of a wide range of body postures. This experiment evaluated 168 postures chosen to represent those in the Ovako Working-posture Analysing System (OWAS) using Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) measures. The postures comprised all combinations of three arm postures, four back postures, seven leg postures and two forces (weights of held boxes). Twelve male subjects held each posture for a fixed duration (20 s) before providing RPE and BPD ratings. Analysis of the ratings gave highly significant main effects, with the major driver being the object weight. As each factor was varied, the largest effect was on the body region corresponding to that factor. A simple main-effects-only additive model explained 91% of the variance of RPE means for the postures.

  12. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  13. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  14. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  15. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  16. Postural analysis of nursing work.

    PubMed

    Hignett, S

    1996-06-01

    Back pain in the nursing profession is an acknowledged wide spread occupational hazard. This study used OWAS (Ovako Working posture Analysis System) to measure the severity of the working postures adopted by nurses on Care of the Elderly wards when carrying out manual handling operations for animate and inanimate loads. Twenty-six nurses were observed on 31 occasions to obtain 4299 observations, these data were collected and processed using the OWASCO and OWASAN programs, and then analysed by grouping the results into defined patient (animate) handling and non-patient (inanimate) handling tasks. A statistical comparison was made between the two groups using the percentage of action categories two, three and four, to the total number of action categories. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found, demonstrating that the percentage of harmful postures adopted during patient handling tasks was significantly higher than during non-patient handling tasks. This high level of postural stress and the poor track record of risk management within the Health Care Industry leads to the recommendation that an attitudinal change is needed to successfully address and reduce the manual handling burden which is currently being carried by the nursing staff.

  17. Recognizing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Daniel; Agnew, Donna; Stiles, Lauren; Ditoro, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a potentially debilitating autonomic disorder that can have many causes and presentations. POTS can be mistaken for panic disorder, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinician suspicion for the syndrome is key to prompt patient diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Berti, Lisa; Presti, Chiara; Frizziero, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies at lower limbs in flexed

  19. Regional volumes in brain stem and cerebellum are associated with postural impairments in young brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Drijkoningen, David; Leunissen, Inge; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Sunaert, Stefan; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suffer from postural control impairments that can profoundly affect daily life. The cerebellum and brain stem are crucial for the neural control of posture and have been shown to be vulnerable to primary and secondary structural consequences of TBI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphometric differences in the brain stem and cerebellum can account for impairments in static and dynamic postural control in TBI. TBI patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 30) completed three challenging postural control tasks on the EquiTest® system (Neurocom). Infratentorial grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were analyzed with cerebellum-optimized voxel-based morphometry using the spatially unbiased infratentorial toolbox. Volume loss in TBI patients was revealed in global cerebellar GM, global infratentorial WM, middle cerebellar peduncles, pons and midbrain. In the TBI group and across both groups, lower postural control performance was associated with reduced GM volume in the vermal/paravermal regions of lobules I-IV, V and VI. Moreover, across all participants, worse postural control performance was associated with lower WM volume in the pons, medulla, midbrain, superior and middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellum. This is the first study in TBI patients to demonstrate an association between postural impairments and reduced volume in specific infratentorial brain areas. Volumetric measures of the brain stem and cerebellum may be valuable prognostic markers of the chronic neural pathology, which complicates rehabilitation of postural control in TBI.

  20. [Faulty posture and selected respiratory indicators].

    PubMed

    Pawlicka-Lisowska, Agnieszka; Motylewski, Sławomir; Lisowski, Jacek; Michalak, Katarzyna; Poziomska-Piatkowska, Elzbieta

    2013-08-01

    Was to diagnose the body posture of physiotherapy students of the Medical University of Lodz and to determine the relationship between selected respiratory indicator and the incidence of faulty posture in the studied group. 196 students of Medical University of Lodz were included in the study. Posture assessment was conducted using Kasperczyk's points method. In the study authors indicated selected respiratory parameters, incuding: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure measured in the mouth (MIP, MEP). The results of the study showed a reduction of the respiratory parameters rates (FVC, FEV1) and respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP) in the group of students with a poor posture compared to students with a good posture. Although the statistical analysis showed no significant correlation between the presence of the faulty posture and respiratory parameters, there was a clear tendency for those parameters to decrease in the group of students with a poor posture. The results of the examined indicators showed a reduction of the respiratory parameters rates (FVC, FEV1) and respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP) in the group of students with a poor posture compared to students with a good posture. The posture classified by Kasperczyk as good is prevailing in the studied. The results obtained in this study suggest the need to take action on the prevention and correction of faulty posture.

  1. Does Observation of Postural Imbalance Induce a Postural Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Tia, Banty; Saimpont, Arnaud; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition), an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects. PMID:21423622

  2. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  3. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  4. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  5. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  6. Postural consistency in skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Atha, J

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of an archer's postural set at the moment of loose (arrow release) is commonly perceived to be an important determinant of success. The coach seeks, among other things, to provide the archer with information about postural consistency, details of which he acquires by eye or occasionally by video-recordings. The gains that might be achieved from more precise information are examined here. Nine skilled archers, classified into either skilled or elite groups according to their officially computed handicap, were continuously monitored and measured with a three-dimensional co-ordinate analyser (Charnwood Dynamics Coda-3 Scanner) while shooting two ends (series) of three arrows each. Considerable variability was observed in the precision with which the positions of head, elbow and bow at the moment of loose were replicated by archers of similar levels of skill. These results are interpreted to suggest that precise postural consistency may not be the primary feature distinguishing between the performance of archers at the higher skill levels.

  7. The use of stabilization exercises and movement reeducation to manage pain and improve function in a dancer with focal degenerative joint disease of the spine.

    PubMed

    Hagins, Marshall

    2011-09-01

    Little has been written about rehabilitation of low back pain (LBP) specific to the professional dancer. However, there is a rapidly increasing amount of rehabilitation research related to the care of LBP in the general population that may be applied to the dancer population. The purpose of this case report is to describe the physical therapy management of a 37-year-old female professional dancer with a 5-year history of spinal pain and loss of function in the presence of degenerative joint disease at a single segment (T12-L1). Patient interventions focused on stabilization exercises and movement reeducation. The dancer returned to limited dance performance at 6 weeks. At 5 months she had returned to complete dance function, with pain and functional (Oswestry) levels improved from initial values of 7/10 and 48%, respectively, to 1/10 and 26%.

  8. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  9. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Posture alters human resting-state.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Robert T; Lifshitz, Michael; Jones, Jennifer M; Raz, Amir

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging is ubiquitous; however, neuroimagers seldom investigate the putative impact of posture on brain activity. Whereas participants in most psychological experiments sit upright, many prominent neuroimaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) require participants to lie supine. Such postural discrepancies may hold important implications for brain function in general and for fMRI in particular. We directly investigated the effect of posture on spontaneous brain dynamics by recording scalp electrical activity in four orthostatic conditions (lying supine, inclined at 45°, sitting upright, and standing erect). Here we show that upright versus supine posture increases widespread high-frequency oscillatory activity. Our electroencephalographic findings highlight the importance of posture as a determinant in neuroimaging. When generalizing supine imaging results to ecological human cognition, therefore, cognitive neuroscientists would benefit from considering the influence of posture on brain dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Should a standing or seated reference posture be used when normalizing seated spine kinematics?

    PubMed

    Cotter, Brendan D; Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M

    2014-07-18

    Currently in the literature there is no consensus on which procedure for normalizing seated spine kinematics is most effective. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in the range of motion (ROM) of seated posture trials when expressed as a percent of maximum standing and seated ROM. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the typical maximum planar calibration movements (flexion, lateral-bend, and axial twist) elicited the respective maximum ROM values for each spine region versus postures with specific movement instruction. Thirteen male participants completed seven different movement trials. These consisted of the maximum planar movement trials, with the remaining four postures being combinations of specific lumbar and thoracic movements. Global and relative angles for the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, lower-thoracic, and lumbar regions were calculated and normalized to both a seated and standing reference posture. When normalizing both global and relative angles the standing reference appears optimal for flexion, twisting and lateral bend angles in all spine regions, with the exception of relative flexion angle in the mid-thoracic region. The maximum planar movement trials captured the greatest ROM for each global angle, relative lower-thoracic angle and relative lumbar flexion angle, but did not for all other relative angles in the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, and lumbar regions. If future researchers can only collect one reference posture these results recommend that a standing reference posture be collected for normalizing seated spine kinematics, although a seated reference posture should be collected if examining relative flexion angles at the mid-thoracic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of propranolol on postural stability.

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, O; Jansen, E C; Korsgaard Larsen, T

    1984-06-01

    In a double-blind cross-over study, the influence of propranolol on postural stability was investigated in 7 normals. The postural stability was measured by a computer-assisted quantitative Romberg test. A dose of 10 mg propranolol administered intravenously resulted in an impaired postural stability, with a delay of about half an hour. This delay could be responsible for the missing correlation between the sway and plasma-propranolol.

  13. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  14. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  15. Does forward head posture affect postural control in human healthy volunteers?

    PubMed

    Silva, Anabela G; Johnson, Mark I

    2013-06-01

    Proprioceptive afferent input from neck muscles plays an important role in postural control. Forward head posture has the potential to impair proprioceptive information from neck muscles and contribute to postural control deficits in patients with neck pain. This study investigated whether induced forward head posture affects postural control in healthy participants when compared to natural head posture. Centre of pressure sway area, distance covered and mean velocity were measured during 30s of static standing using a force platform with 25 healthy individuals (mean age ± SD = 20.76 ± 2.19 years) in 8 different conditions. Base of support, eyes open or closed and natural or forward head posture varied within these testing conditions. The majority of comparisons between natural and forward head posture were not statistically significant (p>0.05). This suggests that induced forward head posture in young healthy adults does not challenge them enough to impair postural control. Future studies should evaluate whether forward head posture affects postural control of individuals with chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices, and degree of forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin Seop

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to examine the correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices and the degree of forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects aged 19-24 years were selected for this study, and the craniovertebral angle was used to measure the degree of forward head posture in the standing and seated positions. Vernier calipers were used to measure rounded shoulder posture in the supine position, and neck pain and functional disability were assessed using neck disability indices. [Results] Angle and neck disability indices in both standing and sitting posture positions exhibited a significant inverse relationship. However, no significant correlation was detected between the craniovertebral angle and rounded shoulder posture for the standing and sitting posture positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, it was demonstrated in the present study that, depending on the degree of forward head posture, changes were detected in the neck disability indices. However, even an increase in the forward head tilt angle did not lead to rounded shoulder posture. Therefore, maintaining proper posture may prevent postural pain syndrome, functional disability, and postural deformity.

  17. Correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices, and degree of forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to examine the correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices and the degree of forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects aged 19–24 years were selected for this study, and the craniovertebral angle was used to measure the degree of forward head posture in the standing and seated positions. Vernier calipers were used to measure rounded shoulder posture in the supine position, and neck pain and functional disability were assessed using neck disability indices. [Results] Angle and neck disability indices in both standing and sitting posture positions exhibited a significant inverse relationship. However, no significant correlation was detected between the craniovertebral angle and rounded shoulder posture for the standing and sitting posture positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, it was demonstrated in the present study that, depending on the degree of forward head posture, changes were detected in the neck disability indices. However, even an increase in the forward head tilt angle did not lead to rounded shoulder posture. Therefore, maintaining proper posture may prevent postural pain syndrome, functional disability, and postural deformity. PMID:27821964

  18. A reliable technique for the assessment of posture: assessment criteria for aspects of posture.

    PubMed

    Watson, A W; Mac Donncha, C

    2000-09-01

    The purposes of this study were: a) to describe assessment criteria for 10 separate aspects of posture; b) to describe the development and use of a qualitative posture rating scale based on the above; and c) to establish the reliability of the assessment technique. Experimental design. Observation and photographic record of the posture of a sample of adolescent males. Reliability determined using two observations separated by a period of seven days. 114 adolescent males (age, 15-17 yrs) randomly selected from two post-primary schools. Ten different aspects of posture assessed according to defined criteria. Assessments made from four photographs: anterior, posterior, lateral and oblique views. Through examination of the photographs a qualitative postural assessment scale was developed. This consisted of three categories for each aspect of posture, corresponding to: good posture, moderate defect, and severe defect. Definite assessment criteria for each of the 10 aspects of posture have been described. The above has resulted in an assessment procedure in which the reproducibility of the posture scores exceeded 85 % for all aspects assessed. Definite criteria for the examination of 10 different aspects of posture have been described and clear diagrams representing good posture, moderate and severe defects have been produced. The reproducibility of the assessment procedure described makes it suitable for investigating the relationships between posture and other health variables such as musculo-skeletal disorders.

  19. Postural behavior in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Fallang, Bjørg; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical follow-up studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  20. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  1. Posture and movement in very preterm infants at term age in and outside the nest.

    PubMed

    Zahed, M; Berbis, J; Brevaut-Malaty, V; Busuttil, M; Tosello, B; Gire, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of nests on general movements (GM) and posture in very preterm infants at term age. Seventeen high-risk preterm infants-less than 30 weeks of gestation (GA)-underwent a video recording, lying in supine position, with or without nest. Posture, GM quality, and movements made around the child's midline, as well as abrupt movements and frozen postures-in extension or flexion of the four limbs-were analyzed. Nest did not modify quality of GM. Children significantly adopted a curled-up position. The nest system was associated with an increase in movements toward or across the midline, as well as reduction of the hyperextension posture and head rotation movements. Frozen postures in flexion or extension, as well as abrupt movements of the four limbs, were reduced but not significantly. Nest helps very preterm infants to adopt semi-flexed posture and facilitates movements across the midline and reduces movements of spine hyperextension, without GM global quality modifications.

  2. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  3. [Postural examination in daily occlusodontology].

    PubMed

    Serviere, F

    1989-03-01

    According to the osteopathic and chiropractic concepts, facing a TMJ problem, the practitioner has to determine if the trouble observed in the stomatognatic apparatus is the cause or the effect of the structural problems present anywhere else in the body. The postural examination allows to answer this question. Tow techniques can be used. First a static and dynamic posture test proposed by Bricot. The level of the cranium, the eyes, the shoulders, the wrists, the pelvis and the ankles is analysed, from a front view; from the side, the gravity line is inspected: vertex, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip joint, anterior side of the tibia, ankle joint. The vertical posture can be studied from the front: the arms are held straight and the antero-posterior length between the fingers is measured. From the back, one notes the recoil of the buttocks on one side. An ocular convergence test is performed. Then one uses a Romberg test (oscillation of the body when the eyes are closed), and a Fukuda stepping test. The patient is then asked to bite on a compress, and the same exams are redone. If no change occurs, we are dealing with an ascending problem: the origin of the problem is not the stomatognathic system. The second technique is the Meerssemann test that needs the practice of Applied Kinesiology muscle testing. The patient is lying supine and one tests: the dental occlusion, the two TMJs, the temporal muscles, masseters, pterygoids, sterno-cleido-mastoids, upper tapezius, left and right sacro-iliac joints, psoas muscles bilaterally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Human-like agents with posture planning ability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Moon R.; Badler, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Human body models are geometric structures which may be ultimately controlled by kinematically manipulating their joints, but for animation, it is desirable to control them in terms of task-level goals. We address a fundamental problem in achieving task-level postural goals: controlling massively redundant degrees of freedom. We reduce the degrees of freedom by introducing significant control points and vectors, e.g., pelvis forward vector, palm up vector, and torso up vector, etc. This reduced set of parameters are used to enumerate primitive motions and motion dependencies among them, and thus to select from a small set of alternative postures (e.g., bend vs. squat to lower shoulder height). A plan for a given goal is found by incrementally constructing a goal/constraint set based on the given goal, motion dependencies, collision avoidance requirements, and discovered failures. Global postures satisfying a given goal/constraint set are determined with the help of incremental mental simulation which uses a robust inverse kinematics algorithm. The contributions of the present work are: (1) There is no need to specify beforehand the final goal configuration, which is unrealistic for the human body, and (2) the degrees of freedom problem becomes easier by representing body configurations in terms of 'lumped' control parameters, that is, control points and vectors.

  5. Human-like agents with posture planning ability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Moon R.; Badler, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Human body models are geometric structures which may be ultimately controlled by kinematically manipulating their joints, but for animation, it is desirable to control them in terms of task-level goals. We address a fundamental problem in achieving task-level postural goals: controlling massively redundant degrees of freedom. We reduce the degrees of freedom by introducing significant control points and vectors, e.g., pelvis forward vector, palm up vector, and torso up vector, etc. This reduced set of parameters are used to enumerate primitive motions and motion dependencies among them, and thus to select from a small set of alternative postures (e.g., bend vs. squat to lower shoulder height). A plan for a given goal is found by incrementally constructing a goal/constraint set based on the given goal, motion dependencies, collision avoidance requirements, and discovered failures. Global postures satisfying a given goal/constraint set are determined with the help of incremental mental simulation which uses a robust inverse kinematics algorithm. The contributions of the present work are: (1) There is no need to specify beforehand the final goal configuration, which is unrealistic for the human body, and (2) the degrees of freedom problem becomes easier by representing body configurations in terms of 'lumped' control parameters, that is, control points and vectors.

  6. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. Results We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. Conclusions We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment. PMID:22507595

  7. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Liebetrau, Anne; Schinowski, David; Wulf, Thomas; de Lussanet, Marc H E

    2012-04-16

    Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  8. Postural orientation and standing postural alignment in ambulant children with bilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej

    2017-08-16

    Standing postural alignment in children with cerebral palsy is usually altered by central postural control disorders. The primary aim of this study is to describe body alignment in a quiet standing position in ambulatory children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared with children with typical development. Fifty-eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy (aged 7-13years) and 45 age-matched children with typical development underwent a surface topography examination based on Moiré topography and were classified according to their sagittal postural profiles. The following eight grouping variables were extracted using a data reduction technique: angle of trunk inclination, pelvic tilt, and lordosis, the difference between kyphosis and lordosis, angle of vertebral lateral curvature, shoulder inclination, and shoulder and pelvic rotation. According to the cluster analysis results, 25% of the participants were classified into Cluster 1, 9% into Cluster 2, 49% in Cluster 3, and 17% in Cluster 4. Three different postural patterns emerged in accordance with the sagittal postural profiles in children with bilateral cerebral palsy and were defined as follows: 1) a lordotic postural pattern corresponding to forward-leaning posture; 2) a swayback postural pattern corresponding to backward-leaning posture; and 3) a balanced postural pattern corresponding to balanced posture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postural stability in symmetrical gaits.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Teresa; Trojnacki, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the method of stability analysis of dynamic symmetrical gaits is discussed. The problem of dynamic postural equilibrium, taking into account the role of compliant feet, is solved. The equilibrium conditions are split between the foot attachment points and the points within the foot-end area. The present method is useful for motion synthesis, taking into account robot parameters. It also helps in the robot foot design. As an illustrative example a four-legged diagonal gait is considered. The theoretical results were verified by implementing and observing the diagonal gait in four-legged machine with and without feet.

  10. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  11. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    PubMed Central

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling. PMID:28122432

  12. Variations in Writing Posture and Cerebral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre; Reid, Marylou

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between hand writing posture and cerebral dominance of 48 left handed writers and 25 right handed writers. Determined that cerebral dominance is related to handedness and to whether or not the writing hand posture is normal or inverted. (SL)

  13. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  14. Articulatory Constraints on Interpersonal Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kevin; Baker, Aimee A.; Richardson, Michael J.; Fowler, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative conversation has been shown to foster interpersonal postural coordination. The authors investigated whether such coordination is mediated by the influence of articulation on postural sway. In Experiment 1, talkers produced words in synchrony or in alternation, as the authors varied speaking rate and word similarity. Greater shared…

  15. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  16. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  17. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control.

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  18. Fear of falling modifies anticipatory postural control.

    PubMed

    Adkin, Allan L; Frank, James S; Carpenter, Mark G; Peysar, Gerhard W

    2002-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of fear of falling or postural threat on the control of posture and movement during a voluntary rise to toes task for 12 healthy young adults. Postural threat was modified through alterations to the surface height at which individuals stood (low or high platform) and changes in step restriction (away from or at the edge of the platform) creating four levels of postural threat: LOW AWAY, LOW EDGE, HIGH AWAY and HIGH EDGE. To rise to the toes, an initial postural adjustment must destabilise the body so that it can be moved forward and elevated to a new position of support over the toes. Centre of pressure and centre of mass profiles, as well as tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscle activity patterns were used to describe this behaviour. The results showed that the performance of the rise to toes task was significantly modified when positioned at the edge of the high platform. In this situation, the central nervous system reduced the magnitude and rate of the postural adjustments and subsequent voluntary movement. Although the duration of the movement was lengthened for this most threatening condition, the sequencing and relative timing of TA, SO and GA muscle activity was preserved. These changes in rise to toes behaviour were accompanied by evidence of increased physiological arousal and participant reports of decreased confidence, increased anxiety and decreased stability. Evidence of fear of falling effects on anticipatory postural control is clinically relevant as it may explain deficits in this control observed in individuals with balance disorders. For example, individuals with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar dysfunction demonstrate impaired performance on the rise to toes task as reflected in alterations of both the timing and magnitude of their anticipatory postural adjustments. Our findings suggest alterations in the magnitude of postural adjustments may be magnified by fear of falling while

  19. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  20. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  1. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  2. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  3. Acute effects of cryotherapy on postural control.

    PubMed

    Giemza, Czesław; Czech, Piotr; Paluszak, Adam; Bieć, Ewa; Borzucka, Dorota; Kuczyński, Michał

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the acute effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on postural control, we measured postural sway (COP) in a quiet stance with eyes open in four consecutive 20-second tests: before and 1, 6 and 11min after the WBC. Twenty-four healthy young subjects aged 19.3±0.9 were exposed to WBC (-110°C) for 2min. The time series recorded with a sampling rate of 100Hz was used to evaluate postural performance (COP variability) and strategies (COP frequency and entropy). There were no differences between the pre- and post-WBC values of these measurements in the frontal plane; however, in the sagittal plane postural sway increased immediately after WBC (p<0.05) and remained elevated throughout the experiment. Deteriorated performance brought about lagged changes in postural strategies, including a decrease in frequency and entropy. These changes remained sustained until the end of the experiment. In conclusion, the WBC caused a drop in complexity, adaptability, and automaticity in postural control, which accounted for specific constraints imposed on the postural system due to cooling.

  4. Optimization of the examination posture in spinal curvature assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the influence of postural sway during spinal measurements, an instrumented fixation posture (called G) was proposed and tested in comparison with the free standing posture (A) using the DTP-3 system in a group of 70 healthy volunteers. The measurement was performed 5 times on each subject and each position was tested by a newly developed device for non-invasive spinal measurements called DTP-3 system. Changes in postural stability of the spinous processes for each subject/the whole group were evaluated by employing standard statistical tools. Posture G, when compared to posture A, reduced postural sway significantly in all spinous processes from C3 to L5 in both the mediolateral and anterioposterior directions. Posture G also significantly reduced postural sway in the vertical direction in 18 out of 22 spinous processes. Importantly, posture G did not significantly influence the spinal curvature. PMID:22546519

  5. Optimization of the examination posture in spinal curvature assessment.

    PubMed

    Krejci, Jakub; Gallo, Jiri; Stepanik, Petr; Salinger, Jiri

    2012-04-30

    To decrease the influence of postural sway during spinal measurements, an instrumented fixation posture (called G) was proposed and tested in comparison with the free standing posture (A) using the DTP-3 system in a group of 70 healthy volunteers. The measurement was performed 5 times on each subject and each position was tested by a newly developed device for non-invasive spinal measurements called DTP-3 system. Changes in postural stability of the spinous processes for each subject/the whole group were evaluated by employing standard statistical tools. Posture G, when compared to posture A, reduced postural sway significantly in all spinous processes from C3 to L5 in both the mediolateral and anterioposterior directions. Posture G also significantly reduced postural sway in the vertical direction in 18 out of 22 spinous processes. Importantly, posture G did not significantly influence the spinal curvature.

  6. Reversible postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Aza; Rajeevan, Thirumagal

    2015-07-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a relatively rare syndrome recognised since 1940. It is a heterogenous condition with orthostatic intolerance due to dysautonomia and is characterised by rise in heart rate above 30 bpm from base line or to more than 120 bpm within 5-10 min of standing with or without change in blood pressure which returns to base line on resuming supine position. This condition present with various disabling symptoms such as light headedness, near syncope, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, tremor, palpitations and mental clouding, etc. However there are no identifiable signs on clinical examination and patients are often diagnosed to have anxiety disorder. The condition predominantly affects young female between the ages of 15-50 but is rarely described in older people. We describe an older patient who developed POTS which recovered over 12 mo. Recognising this condition is important as there are treatment options available to alleviate the disabling symptoms.

  7. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Bharat; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Rattu, Noman; Mitra, Shanta

    2013-09-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by autonomic dysfunction and an exaggerated sympathetic response to assuming an upright position. Up till recently, it was largely under-recognised as a clinical entity. There is now consensus about the definition of POTS as a greater than 30/min heart rate increase on standing from a supine position (greater than 40/min increase in 12-19-year-old patients) or an absolute heart rate of greater than 120/min within 10 min of standing from a supine position and in the absence of hypotension, arrhythmias, sympathomimetic drugs or other conditions that cause tachycardia. We present two cases of POTS, followed by a discussion of its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology and management.

  8. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Bharat; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Rattu, Noman; Mitra, Shanta

    2013-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by autonomic dysfunction and an exaggerated sympathetic response to assuming an upright position. Up till recently, it was largely under-recognised as a clinical entity. There is now consensus about the definition of POTS as a greater than 30/min heart rate increase on standing from a supine position (greater than 40/min increase in 12–19-year-old patients) or an absolute heart rate of greater than 120/min within 10 min of standing from a supine position and in the absence of hypotension, arrhythmias, sympathomimetic drugs or other conditions that cause tachycardia. We present two cases of POTS, followed by a discussion of its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology and management. PMID:24042210

  9. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  10. Trunk posture monitoring with inertial sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man Sang

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of human posture and movement is an important area of research in the bioengineering and rehabilitation fields. Various attempts have been initiated for different clinical application goals, such as diagnosis of pathological posture and movements, assessment of pre- and post-treatment efficacy and comparison of different treatment protocols. Image-based methods for measurements of human posture and movements have been developed, such as the radiography, photogrammetry, optoelectric technique and video analysis. However, it is found that these methods are complicated to set up, time-consuming to operate and could only be applied in laboratory environments. This study introduced a method of using a posture monitoring system in estimating the spinal curvature changes during trunk movements on the sagittal and coronal planes and providing trunk posture monitoring during daily activities. The system consisted of three sensor modules, each with one tri-axial accelerometer and three uni-axial gyroscopes orthogonally aligned, and a digital data acquisition and feedback system. The accuracy of this system was tested with a motion analysis system (Vicon 370) in calibration with experimental setup and in trunk posture measurement with nine human subjects, and the performance of the posture monitoring system during daily activities with two human subjects was reported. The averaged root mean squared differences between the measurements of the system and motion analysis system were found to be <1.5° in dynamic calibration, and <3.1° for the sagittal plane and ≤2.1° for the coronal plane in estimation of the trunk posture change during trunk movements. The measurements of the system and the motion analysis system was highly correlated (>0.999 for dynamic calibration and >0.829 for estimation of spinal curvature change in domain planes of movement during flexion and lateral bending). With the sensing modules located on the upper trunk, mid-trunk and the pelvic

  11. Postural correlates with painful situations.

    PubMed

    Lelard, Thierry; Montalan, Benoît; Morel, Maria F; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Ahmaidi, Said; Godefroy, Olivier; Mouras, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation. Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years) participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the center of pressure (COP), leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations. The anteroposterior path was shorter (p < 0.05) when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm) compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm). Higher tibialis anterior (TA) activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95% vs. 3.24 ± 1.85%; p < 0.001) and higher variability of soleus (SO) activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2% vs. M = 9.0 ± 7.2%; p < 0.05) were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data. This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results.

  12. Acute systematic and variable postural adaptations induced by an orthopaedic shoe lift in control subjects.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, L; Zabjek, K F; Leroux, M A; Coillard, C; Rivard, C H

    1999-01-01

    A small leg length inequality, either true or functional, can be implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous spinal disorders. The correction of a leg length inequality with the goal of treating a spinal pathology is often achieved with the use of a shoe lift. Little research has focused on the impact of this correction on the three-dimensional (3D) postural organisation. The goal of this study is to quantify in control subjects the 3D postural changes to the pelvis, trunk, scapular belt and head, induced by a shoe lift. The postural geometry of 20 female subjects (X = 22, sigma = 1.2) was evaluated using a motion analysis system for three randomised conditions: control, and right and left shoe lift. Acute postural adaptations were noted for all subjects, principally manifested through the tilt of the pelvis, asymmetric version of the left and right iliac bones, and a lateral shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. The difference in the version of the right and left iliac bones was positively associated with the pelvic tilt. Postural adaptations were noted to vary between subjects for rotation and postero-anterior shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. No notable differences between conditions were noted in the estimation of kyphosis and lordosis. The observed systematic and variable postural adaptations noted in the presence of a shoe lift reflects the unique constraints of the musculoskeletal system. This suggests that the global impact of a shoe lift on a patient's posture should also be considered during treatment. This study provides a basis for comparison of future research involving pathological populations.

  13. Influence of postural threat on postural responses to aversive visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lelard, Thierry; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Montalan, Benoît; Longin, Estelle; Bucchioni, Giulia; Ahmaidi, Said; Godefroy, Olivier; Mouras, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Recent research has shown that emotion influences postural control. The objective of the present study was to establish whether or not postural threat influences postural and physiological responses to aversive visual stimuli. In order to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions, motivated behavior and postural responses, we studied the displacement of the subject's center of pressure (COP) and the changes in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR) and postural muscle activation. Thirty-two participants (15 males, 17 females; mean ± SD age: 21.4 ± 2.3) viewed affective and neutral pictures while standing still on a force platform in the presence or absence of postural threat. The HR and EDA data revealed that the emotional state varied as a function of the postural condition. The mean displacement in the anteroposterior (AP) axis was more rearwards in response to aversive stimuli that in response to neutral stimuli, in both the absence of postural threat (-0.65 mm and +0.90 mm for aversive and neutral stimuli, respectively) and the presence of postural threat (-0.00 mm vs. +0.89 mm, respectively). An aversive stimulus was associated with a shorter AP COP sway path than a neutral stimulus in the presence of a postural threat (167.26 mm vs. 174.66 mm for aversive and neutral stimuli, respectively) but not in the latter's absence (155.85 mm vs. 154.48 mm, respectively). Our results evidenced withdrawal behavior in response to an aversive stimulus (relative to a neutral stimulus) in the absence of postural threat. Withdrawal behavior was attenuated (but nevertheless active) in the presence of a postural threat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    PubMed

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  15. Sitting postural control affects the development of focused attention in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Surkar, Swati M; Edelbrock, Christina; Stergiou, Nicholas; Berger, Sarah; Harbourne, Regina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether focused attention (FA) changes over time as sitting postural control improves and whether an impairment in sitting postural control affects the development of FA in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Nineteen children with CP, mean ages 21.47 months, were assessed for FA and sitting scores pre- and postintervention. Longest, total, and global FA increased and frequency of FA decreased in children who achieved independent sitting. However, children who achieved mobility postintervention exhibited a decrease in longest FA and an increase in frequency of FA. Sitting postural control and the development of FA appear associated in children with CP. The increase in FA may signal a key opportunity for learning and attending to objects. However, the time of early mobility may interrupt these long periods of attention, resulting in less sustained attention to objects.

  16. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  17. Postural Control of Elderly Adults on Inclined Surfaces.

    PubMed

    da Costa Barbosa, Renata; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the postural control of older adults on inclined surfaces, and was conducted in 17 elderly adults and 18 young adults of both genders. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two AMTI force platforms, one of which was in a horizontal position (HOR), while the other was inclined 14° in relation to the horizontal plane. Each participant executed three 70 s-trials of bipedal standing with their eyes open and eyes closed in three inclination conditions: the HOR, the inclined position at ankle dorsi-flexion (UP), and the inclined position at ankle plantar-flexion (DOWN). Spectral analysis, global (mean velocity-Velm, ellipse area-Area and F80), and structural stabilometric descriptors (sway density curve-SDC, detrended fluctuation analysis-DFA, sample entropy-SEn) were employed to assess the center of pressure sway. Velm and F80 were greater for the elderly, whereas SDC, DFA, and SEn were smaller for this group. Global, SDC and DFA variables were sensitive to visual deprivation, however the relative difference from the EO to EC condition was higher in young than in elderly. The DOWN condition was more stable than the UP condition for both young and older adults. With regard to the UP condition, the challenge observed is essentially associated with the corresponding biomechanical constraints. In conclusion, the elderly showed significant differences compared to the young, but age per se may not necessarily result in compromised postural control.

  18. Cognitive re-education and early functional mobilisation in hand therapy after bilateral hand transplantation and heterotopic hand replantation--two case reports.

    PubMed

    Piza-Katzer, H; Estermann, D

    2007-01-01

    The main challenge for a successful hand therapy after heterotopic hand replantation is the reeducation of patients' sensory and motor perception. The case of a 28-year-old patient is described. After resection of a tumour and amputation of the elbow, tendons of the hand had to be joined to only three muscles of the upper arms. Elbow extension and flexion had to be trained to control the wrist, fingers, and thumb movements. In a similar way, the main focus after ortotopic hand transplantation lies on retraining the wrist, finger, and thumb functions. This is illustrated by a second case of a patient who had lived for 5 years with myoelectric protheses on both lower arms and had forgotten these functions. The final aim in both cases was regaining of daily living and working skills. The therapy was started with fitting supporting thermoplastic splints. Early motioned passive and passive-assistive active mobilisation prevented tendons adherences and initiated hand-functions. An intense sensory remaining programme and cognitive therapeutic exercises ensured the sensory and motoric activation of the referring cortical hand areals. At conclusion of therapy it can be said that both patients have fully taken up their professional duties again and that they are able to manage successfully their activities of daily living on their own.

  19. Quantitative postural analysis and pain in children and adolescents victims of burns

    PubMed Central

    Valenciano, Paola Janeiro; Itakussu, Edna Yukimi; Trelha, PhD, Celita Salmaso; Fujisawa, PhD, Dirce Shizuko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to quantitatively assess postural alignment in both frontal and sagittal planes, as well as pain in children and adolescents victims of burn injuries. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study included 21 victims of burns, nine children (age [mean ± SD], 7.3 ± 1.1 yrs) and 12 adolescents (12,0 ± 1.4 yrs), classified as medium and large burns, being investigated on pain and postural alignment evaluated by photogrammetry. Pain intensity was assessed by face scales and postural examination included the assessment of global and thoraco-lumbo-pelvic alignment by previously designed protocols. [Results] Only two adolescents reported mild pain associated with burn injuries, whereas deviations of the projection of the gravity center; forward head posture, and scapular asymmetry were observed in both groups. In the analysis of the thoraco-lumbo-pelvic alignment, children tended to have anterior inclination trunk, increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, while in adolescents, increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were observed. [Conclusion] The results indicate that due to the postural alterations and asymmetries in both frontal and sagittal planes, there is an increased risk of developing scoliosis and possible future pain. Thus, physiotherapy is indicated and should be maintained until complete growth is reached. PMID:26834321

  20. Mobility as the Purpose of Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Le Mouel, Charlotte; Brette, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Counteracting the destabilizing force of gravity is usually considered to be the main purpose of postural control. However, from the consideration of the mechanical requirements for movement, we argue that posture is adjusted in view of providing impetus for movement. Thus, we show that the posture that is usually adopted in quiet standing in fact allows torque for potential movement. Moreover, when performing a movement—either voluntarily or in response to an external perturbation—we show that the postural adjustments are organized both spatially and temporally so as to provide the required torque for the movement. Thus, when movement is performed skillfully, the force of gravity is not counteracted but actually used to provide impetus to movement. This ability to move one's weight so as to exploit the torque of gravity seems to be dependent on development and skill learning, and is impaired in aging. PMID:28798679

  1. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome for the otolaryngologist.

    PubMed

    Bogle, Jamie M; Goodman, Brent P; Barrs, David M

    2017-05-01

    To describe the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), including clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, and current management models. PubMed, Cochrane Library were searched for articles available prior to October 30, 2015. Review of the available English-language literature. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome presentation is discussed, along with underlying associated physiology for POTS and recommended nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management strategies. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients commonly present with complaints of postural lightheadedness, or dizziness, which can be associated with various other conditions. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment methods are available to improve the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. Laryngoscope, 127:1195-1198, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting “problems” to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant “tuning” of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, “passive” response to perturbations as well as the delayed, “active” responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach. PMID:19566271

  3. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects “stood” supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control. PMID:28443004

  4. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  5. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  6. An effect of posture on anticipatory anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Byrne, Don G

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of body posture on state anxiety and psychological stress. Twenty normal adults performed a demanding mental arithmetic task in both standing and supine conditions, with subjective measures of anxiety and stress obtained before, immediately, and 10 min after the task. Participants were found to experience anticipatory anxiety when standing, although not when supine. The mechanism underlying this effect remains to be determined, although it could involve a postural difference in baroreceptor load.

  7. Postural Control in Man: The Phylogenetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phyiogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  8. Systematic review: craniocervical posture and craniofacial morphology.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Liliane de C Rosas; Horta, Karla O Carpio; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Santos-Pinto, Ary Dos

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the published evidence regarding the association between head and cervical posture and craniofacial morphology. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane databases up to 23 March 2012. Abstracts that seemed to correspond with the goals of this review were selected by a consensus between two independent reviewers. The original articles were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they match the inclusion criteria. Only articles that directly compared head and/or cervical posture with craniofacial morphology were included. A total of 84 articles were found of which 12 matched all inclusion criteria. Detailed analysis of the methodology in selected articles revealed quality scores ranging from 'weak' to 'moderate'. Nine articles were cross-sectional studies, whereas only three were longitudinal studies. The findings of selected articles were linked together in order to clarify the evidence on sagittal and vertical craniofacial features as well as growth prediction regarding different postures of the head and neck. On the basis of the data obtained from the literature, significant associations were found between variables concerning head and cervical posture and craniofacial morphology. However, the results of this systematic review suggest that such associations should be carefully interpreted, considering that correlation coefficients found ranged from low to moderate. Moreover, conflicting results were observed regarding some postural variables. Further longitudinal studies are required to elucidate the relationship between the development of craniofacial morphology and functional aspects of head and cervical posture.

  9. Posture strategies generated by constrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Robert; Bartonek, Åsa; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2012-02-02

    For people with motion disorders, posture can impact fatigue, discomfort or deformities in the long term. Orthopedic treatments such as orthoses or orthopedic surgeries which change geometric properties can improve posture in these individuals. In this study, a model has been created to study posture strategies in such situations. A 3D mechanical model consisting of eight rigid segments and 30 muscle groups is used in which varying moment arms along the ranges of motion and biarticular muscles are considered. The method is based on static optimization, both to solve the load sharing in the muscle system and to choose posture strategy. The optimization computes the specific posture with minimal required effort (level of muscle activations), while fulfilling constraints containing subject specific ranges of motion, muscle strength/weakness and external support if present. Anthropometry and strength were scaled to each individual, based on reported pediatric anthropometry and strength values, combined with each individual's physical assessment. A control group of 10 able-bodied subjects as well as three subjects with motion disorders were studied, and simulated posture was compared with experimental data. The simulation showed reasonable to good agreement and ability to predict the effect of motion disorders and of external support. An example of application in parameter studies was also presented wherein ankle orthosis angles were varied. The model allows the user to study muscle activity at the muscle group level, position of center of mass and moments at joints in various situations.

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the Posture and Postural Ability Scale for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet; Persson-Bunke, Måns; Czuba, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate construct validity, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the Posture and Postural Ability Scale for children with cerebral palsy. Evaluation of psychometric properties. Five child rehabilitation centres in the south of Sweden, in November 2013 to March 2014. A total of 29 children with cerebral palsy (15 boys, 14 girls), 6-16 years old, classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels II (n = 10), III (n = 7), IV (n = 6) and V (n = 6). Three independent raters (two physiotherapists and one orthopaedic surgeon) assessed posture and postural ability of all children in supine, prone, sitting and standing positions, according to the Posture and Postural Ability Scale. Construct validity was evaluated based on averaged values for the raters relative to known-groups in terms of GMFCS levels. Internal consistency was analysed with Cronbach's alpha and corrected Item-Total correlation. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using weighted kappa scores. The Posture and Postural Ability Scale showed construct validity and median values differed between GMFCS levels (p < 0.01). There was a good internal consistency (alpha = 0.95-0.96; item-total correlation = 0.55-0.91), and an excellent inter-rater reliability (kappa score = 0.77-0.99). The Posture and Postural Ability Scale shows high psychometric properties for children with cerebral palsy, as previously seen when evaluated for adults. It enables detection of postural deficits and asymmetries indicating potential need for support and where it needs to be applied. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Influence of forward head posture on condylar position.

    PubMed

    Ohmure, H; Miyawaki, S; Nagata, J; Ikeda, K; Yamasaki, K; Al-Kalaly, A

    2008-11-01

    There are several reports suggesting that forward head posture is associated with temporomandibular disorders and restraint of mandibular growth, possibly due to mandibular displacement posteriorly. However, there have been few reports in which the condylar position was examined in forward head posture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the condyle moves posteriorly in the forward head posture. The condylar position and electromyography from the masseter, temporal and digastric muscles were recorded on 15 healthy male adults at mandibular rest position in the natural head posture and deliberate forward head posture. The condylar position in the deliberate forward head posture was significantly more posterior than that in the natural head posture. The activity of the masseter and digastric muscles in the deliberate forward head posture was slightly increased. These results suggest that the condyle moves posteriorly in subjects with forward head posture.

  12. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  13. Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture.

    PubMed

    Hlavenka, Thomas M; Christner, Vanessa F K; Gregory, Diane E

    2017-07-01

    Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn in posteriorly; recently gaining popularity among coaches, trainers, and physical therapists to reduce neck pain during lifting, and freestyle neck posture (no instructions given). The retracted neck resulted in less lumbar spine flexion and increased lumbar erector spinae, external oblique, and sternocleidomastoid activity. The retracted posture also resulted in decreased activity in the thoracic erector spinae and dorsal neck musculature. The increased trunk and sternocleidomastoid activity and decreased spine flexion observed in the seven participants of this study when lifting with a retracted neck may have the potential to help lower the risk of spine pain/injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired Synergic Control of Posture in Parkinson’s Patients without Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Falaki, Ali; Huang, Xuemei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural instability is one of most disabling motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Indices of multi-muscle synergies are new measurements of movement and postural stability. Objectives Multi-muscle synergies stabilizing vertical posture were studied in Parkinson’s disease patients without clinical symptoms of postural instability (Hoehn-Yahr- ≤ II) and age-matched controls. We tested the hypothesis that both synergy indices during quiet standing and synergy adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations would be reduced in patients. Methods Eleven Parkinson’s disease patients and 11 controls performed whole-body tasks while standing. Surface electromyography was used to quantify synergy indices stabilizing center of pressure shifts in the anterior-posterior direction during a load-release task. Results Parkinson’s disease patients showed a significantly lower percentage of variance in the muscle activation space accounted for by the first four principal components, significantly reduced synergy indices during steady state, and significantly reduced anticipatory synergy adjustments (a drop in the synergy index prior to the self-triggered unloading). Conclusions The study demonstrates for the first time that impaired synergic control in Parkinson’s disease can be quantified in postural tasks, even in patients without clinical manifestations of postural instability. Synergy measurements may provide a biomarker sensitive for early problems with postural stability in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27004660

  15. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    muscles associated with producing a specific synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We conclude that generalization of function across postures does not arise from limb biomechanics or a single optimality criterion. Muscle synergies may reflect acquired motor solutions globally tuned for generalizability across biomechanical contexts, facilitating rapid motor adaptation.

  16. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    muscles associated with producing a specific synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We conclude that generalization of function across postures does not arise from limb biomechanics or a single optimality criterion. Muscle synergies may reflect acquired motor solutions globally tuned for generalizability across biomechanical contexts, facilitating rapid motor adaptation. PMID:26869914

  17. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  18. Postural tremor of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J M; Yiannikas, C; Morris, J G; Einstein, R; Jackson, D; Byth, K

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have reported the resting tremor (RT) of Parkinson's disease to occur at frequencies between 3-7 Hz and to be characterised by an alternating pattern of electromyographic (EMG) bursting activity between opposing muscles. A postural tremor (PT), of higher frequency (> 6 Hz) and with a synchronous pattern of EMG activity, has also been previously described in Parkinson's disease. We investigated the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of both the RT and PT of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 patients with essential tremor in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-Dopa/benserazide and propranolol. Tremor amplitude and frequency were assessed via bidirectional accelerometry, and the pattern of activation of the antagonist muscles of the forearm was determined with use of surface EMG. In the Parkinson's disease group studied, the frequency, EMG pattern of bursts, and response to L-Dopa were similar for the two tremors (median improvement of RT by 70% and PT by 61%). Despite some overlap between the Parkinson's disease and essential tremor groups in the electrophysiology of the tremor, there was no such dramatic pharmacological response in the latter group. These results suggest that the RT and PT of Parkinson's disease share a common pathophysiology and are distinct from essential tremor.

  19. 3D quantitative evaluation of spine proprioceptive perception/motor control through instinctive self-correction manoeuvre in healthy young subjects' posture: an observational study.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Moreno; Kinel, Edyta; Roncoletta, Piero

    2017-07-18

    reach a higher thoracic spine extension (μ=36.4±8.3) than Females (μ=40.8±8.7). When changes occurred, subjects were not able to focus and control their posture globally, but only on few aspects at a time. Instinctive Posture proprioception and motor control do not produce an effective Self-correction manoeuvre yielding a global improvement of body posture and spine shape. Self-correction manoeuvre producing an improvement of body posture and spine shape has to be learned with specific postural training. The 3D stereo-photogrammetric approach is effective in quantitatively describe subject's posture, motor control and proprioceptive capability.

  20. Relationship between morphologic somatotypes and standing posture equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Allard, P; Nault, M L; Hinse, S; LeBlanc, R; Labelle, H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have identified height and weight as important factors affecting quiet standing stability but studies have not addressed body morphology as a global factor. Using anthropometric measurements, the morphologic somatotypes were defined in terms of body composition and structure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that morphologic somatotypes were related to standing posture equilibrium in able-bodied girls. A total of 43 able-bodied girls having a mean age of 13.8 +/- 2.2 years participated in this study. Somatotype measurements were taken to determine their endomorphic, mesomorphic or ectomorphic components. Then, subjects were asked to stand still on a force platform for 64 s with their eyes opened, feet about 23 cm apart and arms aligned with the trunk. Afterwards, subjects were grouped based on the highest value of their somatotype component. There was no statistical difference in age, height and weight among the groups. The surface area of an ellipse delineated by the displacement of the centre of pressure (COP) was statistically larger (236.9 +/- 134.3 mm2) for the ectomorphs than for the endomorphs 137.7 +/- 71.4 mm2). The minor axis was longer (8.1 +/- 2.9 mm) for the ectomorphs than for the endomorphs (5.7 +/- 2.2 mm). The decrease in standing posture stability of the ectomorphic group was attributed to a relatively low muscle component, a high height weight ratio and an elevated position of the body centre of mass in this population of girls. Somatotypes should be considered when assessing standing posture in both able-bodied subjects and patients.

  1. A new posture-correcting system using a vector angle model for preventing forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hojun; Lim, Juhun; Yoo, Sung Hak; Lee, Woocheol

    2014-11-14

    In modern society many people are afflicted with muscle pain in the neck and shoulders mainly caused by incorrect posture. The number of patients having neck pain is increasing as usage of digital devices becomes more frequent. If patients could be notified how inappropriate their postures are in real time, the number of patients could be lower. Unfortunately, there is no digitized standard way of diagnosis for forward head posture. This study applies a concept based on a vector related to two angles which are acquired from the neck and the head, so that a device can diagnose the posture by measuring and analysing the angles. To obtain the vector, integral calculations of displacement of the head are needed. As a result, with this device, patients' faulty posture can be easily detected.

  2. A new posture-correcting system using a vector angle model for preventing forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Hojun; Lim, Juhun; Yoo, Sung Hak; Lee, Woocheol

    2014-01-01

    In modern society many people are afflicted with muscle pain in the neck and shoulders mainly caused by incorrect posture. The number of patients having neck pain is increasing as usage of digital devices becomes more frequent. If patients could be notified how inappropriate their postures are in real time, the number of patients could be lower. Unfortunately, there is no digitized standard way of diagnosis for forward head posture. This study applies a concept based on a vector related to two angles which are acquired from the neck and the head, so that a device can diagnose the posture by measuring and analysing the angles. To obtain the vector, integral calculations of displacement of the head are needed. As a result, with this device, patients’ faulty posture can be easily detected. PMID:26019611

  3. Axially evoked postural reflexes: influence of task.

    PubMed

    Govender, Sendhil; Dennis, Danielle L; Colebatch, James G

    2015-01-01

    Postural reflexes were recorded in healthy subjects (n = 17) using brief axial accelerations and tap stimuli applied at the vertebra prominens (C7) and manubrium sterni. Short latency (SL) responses were recorded from the soleus, hamstrings and tibialis anterior muscles and expressed as a percentage of the background EMG prior to stimulus onset. In the majority of postural conditions tested, subjects were recorded standing erect and leaning forward with their feet together. The SL response was larger for soleus than for the hamstrings during standing (soleus vs hamstrings; 70.4 vs 28.1%), whereas the opposite occurred during kneeling (25.3 vs 127.3%). Concordant head and trunk accelerations produced larger SL responses than discordant accelerations for soleus and hamstrings, but the evoked excitatory response was independent of head direction and as expected for the direction of truncal acceleration. Postural reflexes for soleus and tibialis anterior were strongly affected by conditions that posed a significant threat to postural stability; stimulation at C7 was associated with significant SL enhancement for soleus during anterior lean while sternal stimulation showed SL enhancement for tibialis anterior during posterior lean. Cutaneous anaesthesia applied over the C7 stimulation site had no significant effect on EMG responses, nor did vision or surface type (rigid or compliant). This study provides further evidence that postural reflexes produced by brief axial accelerations are independent of cutaneous receptors, vestibular afferents and ankle proprioceptors, and demonstrates that postural tasks and truncal orientation significantly affect the evoked response, consistent with a role in stabilising posture.

  4. Scapular bracing and alteration of posture and muscle activity in overhead athletes with poor posture.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Randomized controlled clinical trial. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in overhead athletes with poor posture.

  5. Postural stability in children with hemiplegia estimated for three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of the presented study was to compare the effects of body posture asymmetry alone (i.e., in children with mild scoliosis) with the effects of body posture impairment (i.e., in children with hemiplegia) on postural stability. Forty-five outpatients with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis were assessed using a posturography device. The examination comprised two parts: (1) analysis of the static load distribution; and (2) a posturographic test (CoP measurements) conducted in three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling. Based on the asymmetry index of the unaffected/affected body sides while standing, the children with hemiplegia were divided into two different postural patterns: a pro-gravitational postural pattern (PGPP) and an anti-gravitational postural pattern (AGPP) (Domagalska-Szopa & Szopa (2013). BioMed Research International, 2013, 462094; (2014). Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 113). The group of children with mild scoliosis, considered as a standard for static body weight distribution, was used as the reference group. The results of present study only partially confirmed that children with hemiplegia have increased postural instability. Strong weight distribution asymmetry was found in children with an AGPP, which induced larger lateral-medial CoP displacements compared with children with scoliosis. In children with hemiplegia, distinguishing between their postural patterns may be useful to improve the guidelines for early therapy children with an AGPP before abnormal patterns of weight-bearing asymmetry are fully established.

  6. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  7. Active self-correction of spinal posture in pain-free women in response to the command "straighten your back".

    PubMed

    Barczyk-Pawelec, Katarzyna; Sipko, Tomasz

    2016-10-04

    Evidence is limited regarding the regional changes in spinal posture after self-correction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether active self-correction improved standing and sitting spinal posture. Photogrammetry was used to assess regional spinal curvatures and vertical global spine orientation (GSO) in 42 asymptotic women aged 20-24 years. Upper thoracic spine angle and GSO increased in response to self-correction, while the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral angles decreased. Self-correction in the standing position resulted in decreased inclination of the upper thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal angles. Correction of sitting posture reduced the angle of the upper thoracic spine and GSO. The effects of active self-correction on spinal curvature and GSO were different for the standing versus sitting position; the greatest effects of active correction were noted in the thoracic spine. Balanced and lordotic postures were most prevalent in the habitual and actively self-corrected standing positions, whereas the kyphotic posture was most prevalent in the habitual sitting position, indicative that self-correction back posture in the standing position could be an important health-related daily activity, especially during prolonged sitting.

  8. Coupling of postural and manual tasks in expert performers.

    PubMed

    Amado, A C; Palmer, C J; Hamill, J; van Emmerik, R E A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the integration of bimanual rhythmic movements and posture in expert marching percussionists. Participants (N=11) performed three rhythmic manual tasks [1:1, 2:3, and 2:3-F (2:3 rhythm played faster at a self-selected tempo)] in one of three postures: sitting, standing on one foot, and standing on two feet. Discrete relative phase, postural time-to-contact, and coherence analysis were used to analyze the performance of the manual task, postural control, and the integration between postural and manual performance. Across all three rhythms, discrete relative phase mean and variability results showed no effects of posture on rhythmic performance. The complexity of the manual task (1:1 vs. 2:3) had no effect on postural time-to-contact. However, increasing the tempo of the manual task (2:3 vs. 2:3-F) did result in a decreased postural time-to-contact in the two-footed posture. Coherence analysis revealed that the coupling between the postural and manual task significantly decreased as a function of postural difficulty (going from a two-footed to a one-footed posture) and rhythmic complexity (1:1 vs. 2:3). Taken together, these results demonstrate that expert marching percussionists systematically decouple postural and manual fluctuations in order to preserve the performance of the rhythmic movement task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability of a quantitative clinical posture assessment tool among persons with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Carole; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Cheriet, Farida; Gravel, Denis; Gauthier, Frédérique; Labelle, Hubert

    2012-03-01

    To determine overall, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of posture indices among persons with idiopathic scoliosis. A reliability study using two raters and two test sessions. Tertiary care paediatric centre. Seventy participants aged between 10 and 20 years with different types of idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle 15 to 60°) were recruited from the scoliosis clinic. Based on the XY co-ordinates of natural reference points (e.g., eyes) as well as markers placed on several anatomical landmarks, 32 angular and linear posture indices taken from digital photographs in the standing position were calculated from a specially developed software program. Generalisability theory served to estimate the reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) for the overall, test-retest and inter-rater designs. Bland and Altman's method was also used to document agreement between sessions and raters. In the random design, dependability coefficients demonstrated a moderate level of reliability for six posture indices (ϕ=0.51 to 0.72) and a good level of reliability for 26 posture indices out of 32 (ϕ≥0.79). Error attributable to marker placement was negligible for most indices. Limits of agreement and SEM values were larger for shoulder protraction, trunk list, Q angle, cervical lordosis and scoliosis angles. The most reproducible indices were waist angles and knee valgus and varus. Posture can be assessed in a global fashion from photographs in persons with idiopathic scoliosis. Despite the good reliability of marker placement, other studies are needed to minimise measurement errors in order to provide a suitable tool for monitoring change in posture over time. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of sounds on posture control.

    PubMed

    Siedlecka, Bożena; Sobera, Małgorzata; Sikora, Aleksandra; Drzewowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    It is still not clear which parameters of sound are the most significant for body reactions and whether the way of sound reception plays a role in body control. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of frequency, spectrum and loudness of sounds on posture control in healthy women and men. The study subjects were 29 young adults who were submitted to a 60-second standing test in the bipedal stance on the force platform (AMTI). During the tests, 3 sinusoidal sounds with various timing and 2 musical sounds (guitar and piano) of the frequency 225 Hz, 1000 Hz and 4000 Hz were applied through headphones. The centre of pressure (COP) amplitude was registered. The sway area and COP mean velocity were computed. It was found that high frequency sounds contributed to a significant decrease of sway area values. No significant influence of low frequency sounds on posture control was observed. The influence of the sound spectrum (timbre) on posture control is limited; only the crescendo spectrum improves the body stability in the bipedal stance and not the music spectrum as guitar and piano. The loudness of sound, although extremely high, is not the cause of postural control changing in relation to lower loudness. No effect of gender was found in terms of body stability under different sound conditions. Based on the results, it can be argued that, in general, in a bipedal stance in terms of stability high sound frequency improves posture control, whereas sound spectrum and intensity show a limited impact.

  11. Transfer of dynamic learning across postures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaa A; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently.

  12. Transfer of Dynamic Learning Across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently. PMID:19710374

  13. Postural sway following cryotherapy in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Duarte, Marcos; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the wide use of cryotherapy and its potential negative effects on postural stability, little is known about how postural sway is affected, particularly when the whole lower limb is immersed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy on postural sway in healthy males. Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned into two intervention groups: control (tepid water at ∼26°C) or ice (cold water at ∼11°C). Postural sway was measured through the center of pressure (COP) position while they stood on a force plate during bipedal (70 s) and unipedal (40 s) conditions before and after the subjects were immersed in a water tub up to the umbilical level for 20 min. COP standard deviation (SD) and COP velocity were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Statistical analysis showed that in the bipedal condition cryotherapy increased the COP SD and COP velocity in the ML direction. During the unipedal condition, a higher COP velocity in the AP and ML directions was also reported. Our findings indicate that cryotherapy by immersing the whole lower limb should be used with caution before engaging in challenging postural control activities.

  14. U.S. Global Defense Posture, 1783-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Empire, 1901–1914,” in Hagan and McMaster, 2008. “U.S. Abandons Last Base in Africa with Quiet Handover to Moroccans ,” Washington Post, October 1, 1978...1986; Bowyer, 1994; Sandars, 2000; Berry, 1989; Coletta and Bauer, 1985; Lawrence R. Benson, USAF Aircraft Basing in Europe, North Africa , and the...1994, p. 248; Linn, 2007, p. 20. 6 Weigley, 1973, pp. 69–71. 7 Sprout and Sprout, 1990, p. 117. 8 The Africa Squadron had briefly been established

  15. Global meaning in people with stroke: Content and changes

    PubMed Central

    Littooij, Elsbeth; Dekker, Joost; Vloothuis, Judith; Leget, Carlo JW; Widdershoven, Guy AM

    2016-01-01

    After a traumatic event like a stroke, people need to find meaning and control again. This study enhances knowledge on one of the driving principles behind meaning-making processes: global meaning. Global meaning refers to individuals’ general orienting systems, comprising fundamental beliefs and life goals. Little is known about global meaning in people with stroke and whether global meaning changes after stroke. In this qualitative study, five aspects of global meaning were found: core values, relationships, worldview, identity and inner posture. Continuity in all aspects was reported, but worldview, identity and inner posture were also subjected to change. PMID:28815054

  16. Good Posture--An Aid to Learning and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciante, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of promoting children's good health and proper posture through encouragement and the efforts of parents, physical education teachers, and classroom instructors. Outlines precise roles and responsibilities of each in improving children's posture. (DMM)

  17. Sagittal evaluation of usual standing and sitting spinal posture.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Kurt; Brumagne, Simon; Deklerck, Jan; Vanderhaeghen, Jacques; Dankaerts, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Postural rehabilitation often plays an important role in the management of non-specific low back pain. While cervical and lumbar correlations have been demonstrated previously, the different role of the pelvis and the thoracic spine for postural control in sitting and standing remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate postural correlations between all spinal regions in standing and sitting. Based on digital photographs eight postural angles were analyzed in 99 young healthy persons. Pearson correlations between different postural angles were calculated. In sitting pelvic tilt demonstrated mostly medium correlations with five out of seven other postural angles, compared to three in standing. In standing trunk angle showed five out of seven mostly medium correlations with other regions compared to four out of seven in usual sitting. The low and different correlations suggest a large between-subject variability in sagittal spinal posture, without the existence of any optimal sagittal posture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Good Posture--An Aid to Learning and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciante, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of promoting children's good health and proper posture through encouragement and the efforts of parents, physical education teachers, and classroom instructors. Outlines precise roles and responsibilities of each in improving children's posture. (DMM)

  19. Is 'ideal' sitting posture real? Measurement of spinal curves in four sitting postures.

    PubMed

    Claus, Andrew P; Hides, Julie A; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-08-01

    There is a lack of quantitative evidence for spinal postures that are advocated as 'ideal' in clinical ergonomics for sitting. This study quantified surface spinal curves and examined whether subjects could imitate clinically 'ideal' directions of spinal curve at thoraco-lumbar and lumbar regions: (i) flat - at both regions (ii) long lordosis - lordotic at both regions (iii) short lordosis - thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. Ten healthy male subjects had 3-D motion sensors adhered to the skin so that sagittal spinal curves were represented by angles at thoracic (lines between T1-T5 and T5-T10), thoraco-lumbar (T5-T10 and T10-L3) and lumbar regions (T10-L3 and L3-S2). Subjects attempted to imitate pictures of spinal curves for the flat, long lordosis, short lordosis and a slumped posture, and were then given feedback/manual facilitation to achieve the postures. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare spinal angles between posture and facilitation conditions. Results show that although subjects imitated postures with the same curve direction at thoraco-lumbar and lumbar regions (slumped, flat or long lordosis), they required feedback/manual facilitation to differentiate the regional curves for the short lordosis posture. Further study is needed to determine whether the clinically proposed 'ideal' postures provide clinical advantages.

  20. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  1. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  2. Postural sway during retinal image stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Rushton, D N; Brandt, T; Paulus, W; Krafczyk, S

    1989-03-01

    Posturographic measurements using a piezoelectric platform were made in normal subjects while wearing a combination of spectacle and contact lens providing partial stabilisation of the retinal image (RIS). The amount of postural sway seen while wearing the device at rest is intermediate between the "normal vision" and "eyes closed" conditions, and increases with increasing amounts of RIS. However, when large active head-and-eye movements are performed, postural sway is dramatically increased when using RIS, and is then worse than while performing the same task in the "eyes closed" condition. It is concluded that patients who use the partial-RIS device for the treatment of severe oscillopsia may benefit only when performing tasks in which the head is relatively still, such as reading, writing or watching TV. It is also proposed that the partial-RIS device can serve as a model in normal free-standing subjects for the postural effects of oculomotor disorders.

  3. Smart garment to help children improve posture.

    PubMed

    Lou, E; Moreau, M J; Hill, D L; Raso, V J; Mahood, J K

    2006-01-01

    Many of the aches and pains of adults are the result not of injuries, but of the long-term effects of distortions in posture or alignment. Postural kyphosis in adolescence may be one of the effects of poor standing and sitting habits. Kyphosis is an excessive rounding of the upper spine. A smart garment that can monitor and provide vibration feedback to children has been developed to investigate an alternative treatment possibility. Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system was +/-2 degrees within the full 180 degrees range. A clinical trial has been conducted and it showed that the system can aid subjects to improve by 20% the proportion of time in a more balanced posture. The long term effect is still under investigation.

  4. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  5. The effect of the forward head posture on postural balance in long time computer based worker.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Park, Rae-Young; Lee, Su-Jin; Kim, Ja-Young; Yoon, Seo-Ra; Jung, Kwang-Ik

    2012-02-01

    To estimate the effects of a relatively protruded head and neck posture on postural balance, in computer based worker. Thirty participants, who work with computers for over 6 hrs per day (Group I), and thirty participants, who rarely work with computers (Group II), were enrolled. The head and neck posture was measured by estimating angles A and B. A being the angle between the tragus of the ear, the lateral canthus of the eye, and horizontal line and B the angle between the C7 spinous process, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal line. The severity of head protrusion with neck extension was assessed by the subtraction of angle A from angle B. We also measured the center of gravity (COG) and postural balance by using computerized dynamic posturography to determine the effect of computer-based work on postural balance. Results indicated that group I had a relatively more protruded head with extensive neck posture (angle B-A of group I and group II, 28.2±8.3, 32.9±6.0; p<.05). The COG of group I tended more toward the anterior than that of group II. Postural imbalance and impaired ability to regulate movement in forward and backward direction were also found. The results of this study suggest that forward head postures during computer-based work may contribute to some disturbance in the balance of healthy adults. These results could be applied to education programs regarding correct postures when working at a computer for extended periods of time.

  6. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Yin; Wong, Man Sang

    2008-05-20

    Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is < 1 degrees and < 1.5 degrees in static and dynamic tilting measurements respectively. The results showed that the smart garment could facilitate subjects to prevent prolonged poor postures of the spine, especially the posture of the lumbar spine in which at least 40% of the time in poor posture were reduced. The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.

  7. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai Yin; Wong, Man Sang

    2008-01-01

    Background Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. Methods A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Results Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is < 1° and < 1.5° in static and dynamic tilting measurements respectively. The results showed that the smart garment could facilitate subjects to prevent prolonged poor postures of the spine, especially the posture of the lumbar spine in which at least 40% of the time in poor posture were reduced. Conclusion The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as

  8. Strategic Joint Staff Force Posture and Readiness Process Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    STRATEGIC JOINT STAFF FORCE POSTURE AND READINESS PROCESS ANALYSIS 31 March 2014 Dan Kennedy, Consultant for Alcea Technologies Inc... Posture and Readiness Process Analysis 1 Executive Summary 1. The purpose of this report is to examine the process used by the Strategic Joint...Staff to determine the Force Posture and Readiness (FP&R) of the Canadian Armed Forces. The CDS Directive for CAF Force Posture and Readiness 2013

  9. The effect of posture on diffusion into lumbar intervertebral discs.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, M A; Hutton, W C

    1986-01-01

    The diffusion of small solutes into the intervertebral discs of cadaveric lumbar motion segments was measured using a radioactive tracer technique. The motion segments were wedged and loaded to simulate erect posture and flexed sitting postures. The results show that erect posture favours diffusion into the anterior half of the disc compared to the posterior half. Flexed posture, by deforming the annulus fibrosus, reverses this imbalance. PMID:3693067

  10. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  11. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  12. An OWAS-based analysis of nurses' working postures.

    PubMed

    Engels, J A; Landeweerd, J A; Kant, Y

    1994-05-01

    The working postures of Dutch nurses (n = 18) in an orthopaedic ward and a urology ward were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and activities were recorded. A specially developed computer program was used for data analysis. By means of this program, it was possible to calculate the working posture load for each activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This study shows that some activities of the nurses in both wards were performed with poor working postures. In the orthopaedic (resp. urology) ward two (resp. one) out of 19 observed postures of parts of the body were classified as Action Category 2. Moreover, 20% (resp. 16%) of the so-called typical working postures was classified in Action Category 2. This suggests, that in both wards working postures that are slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system, occur during a substantial part of the working day. Differences between both wards with respect to working posture load and time expenditure were determined. Activities causing the workload to fall into OWAS higher Action Categories were identified. The data show that poor working postures in the nursing profession not only occur during patient handling activities but also during tasks like 'administration'. Focusing on patient-handling (i.e., lifting patients) in order to determine the load on the musculoskeletal system would therefore lead to an underestimation of the total working posture load of nurses.

  13. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  14. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  15. Pseudodystonic Posture Secondary to Klippel–Feil Syndrome and Diastematomyelia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Vicchi, Martin; Da Prat, Gustavo; Gatto, Emilia Mabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Dystonic postures possess a great number of differential diagnoses. Phenomenology Shown We describe a pseudodystonic posture in a 61-year-old woman with skeletal and extra-skeletal abnormalities. Educational Value Klippel–Feil syndrome represents an unusual cause of pseudodystonic posture to be considered in the differential diagnosis of dystonia. PMID:27352284

  16. Achieving an Effective National Security Posture in an Age of Austerity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-14

    Achieving an Effective National Security Posture in an Age of Austerity * Dr. Gansler served as Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology ...Maintain Technological Leadership - - in all areas e.g. in cybersecurity, in intelligence, and in logistics (e.g. from “Big Data Analytics”); while...recognizing that technology , industry, and labor today are globalized (and, in many areas, the technological leadership exists in commercial or

  17. Evolution of Sports-medical Team Management in the Program of Posture Correction in Children.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Aldvin; Muftic, Mirsad; Radjo, Izet; Talovic, Munir; Mahmutovic, Ifet

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the organization and coordination of multidisciplinary team consisted of health and kinesiology professionals at the correction of posture among girls in the period of the second phase of intense growth and development. Testing was conducted on a sample of 70 girls, aged 11.9±2.3 years, in which by the expert evaluation is recorded weakness of individual muscle groups, but also of the whole musculature. For the assessment of posture we applied the method of Napoleon Wolanski. Used are 9 variables that included the observed region of the body and an overall assessment of posture. The subjects were included in the program of kinesiology treatment with duration of 28 weeks. For all the parameters have been applied statistical procedures at univariate and multivariate level. Data on subjects were obtained by measuring the same variables at two time points, i.e. before and after the application of kinesiology treatments. Analyses of differences arithmetic mean and mean values were done with the t-test for paired samples. In order to determine global quantitative differences of tested variables tested discriminant analysis was applied. The results showed that the models which complement the experience and practical application of expert health professionals and kinesiology knowledge is a very effective tool for improving posture of girls in the second phase of intensive growth and development. In this way can be prevented health problems that might arise later in life.

  18. Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on competency judgements.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Daniel J; Howlett, Neil; Pine, Karen; Tracey, Megan; Moggridge, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Under-Foot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-03-24

    Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not been adequately addressed. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. Thirty-six male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turn-out position, under six different conditions: 1. "relaxed" posture; 2. "ballet" posture; 3. barefoot; 4. ballet shoes with textured insoles; 5. barefoot on a textured mat; 6. barefoot on a spiky mat. A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the "ballet" posture compared with standing in the "relaxed" posture, and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p<.05); and, Static PB in the "relaxed" posture was significantly better than PB in all the other five conditions tested. Dynamic PB was significantly better while standing in ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat, compared with all other conditions (p<.05). The practical implications derived from the present study are that both male and female dancers should try to be "relaxed" in their postural muscles when practicing a "ballet" aligned position; including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces; and, both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

  20. Kinect based body posture detection and recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisharady, Pramod K.; Saerbeck, Martin

    2013-03-01

    A multi-class human posture detection and recognition algorithm using Kinect based geometric features is presented. The three dimensional skeletal data from the Kinect is converted to a set of angular features. The postures are classified using a support vector machines classifier with polynomial kernel. Detection of posture is done by thresholding the posture probability. The algorithm provided a recognition accuracy of 95.78% when tested using a 10 class dataset containing 6000 posture samples. The precision and recall rates of the detection system are 100% and 98.54% respectively.

  1. Methods of Postural Assessment Used for Sports Persons

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of postural defects has become very common now-a-days not only in general population but also in sports persons. There are various methods which can be used to assess these postural defects. These methods have evolved over a period of many years. This paper is first of its kind to summarize the methods of postural assessment which have been used and which can be used for evaluation of postural abnormalities in sports persons such as the visual observation, plumbline, goniometry, photographic, radiographic, photogrammetric, flexiruler, electromagnetic tracking device etc. We recommend more and more postural evaluation studies to be done in future based on the photogrammetric method. PMID:24959470

  2. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  3. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  4. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  5. Automated contingent reinforcement of correct posture.

    PubMed

    Burch, M R; Clegg, J C; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a mercury switch as a self-monitoring device to improve the sitting posture of an adult male. The participant in this study was a 31 year old man who was blind, nonambulatory, and who had been classified in the moderate range of intellectual functioning and in the severe range of adaptive functioning due to physical impairments. After determining that music practice and listening to a game show on the television channel of a radio were powerful reinforcers, a multiple baseline across the two reinforcing activities was implemented. The participant wore a mercury switch inside of a baseball cap which activated a Casio keyboard during music practice and a radio during the independent leisure activity of listening to a game show. During the treatment condition, the keyboard and radio were activated automatically by upright sitting posture. Results indicated that the participant's sitting posture increased from an average of almost 0% correct upright posture during baseline to an average of 52% during treatment.

  6. Posture and movement: coordination and control.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, F; Maioli, C; Borghese, N A; Bianchi, L

    1997-09-01

    Studies are reviewed that address the problem of the variables controlled in the maintenance of body posture and generation of limb movement. Vestibulospinal and neck reflexes cancel each other in response to roll, but not in response to pitch of the animal. In pitch trunk orientation is not effectively stabilized in space. Instead, limb length and orientation relative to the vertical are accurately controlled in normal cats pitched statically and dynamically by variable angles. Control of limb geometry may even take precedence over the control of the projected centre of mass. Coordinate transformation results in a constraint of planar covariation of the elevation angles at all limb segments in cat posture. Because the same constraint applies also to human locomotion, we suggest that sharing the same laws of intersegmental coordination for the control of posture and locomotion helps to assure the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium during movement. Moreover, because several neural sites encode posture and movement in gravity-based reference frames, alignment in register of spatial information derived from multiple sensors and directed to multiple effectors is made possible.

  7. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Mack, Kenneth J; Kuntz, Nancy L; Brands, Chad K; Porter, Coburn J; Fischer, Philip R

    2010-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome was defined in adult patients as an increase >30 beats per minute in heart rate of a symptomatic patient when moving from supine to upright position. Clinical signs may include postural tachycardia, headache, abdominal discomfort, dizziness/presyncope, nausea, and fatigue. The most common adolescent presentation involves teenagers within 1-3 years of their growth spurt who, after a period of inactivity from illness or injury, cannot return to normal activity levels because of symptoms induced by upright posture. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is complex and likely has numerous, concurrent pathophysiologic etiologies, presenting along a wide spectrum of potential symptoms. Nonpharmacologic treatment includes (1) increasing aerobic exercise, (2) lower-extremity strengthening, (3) increasing fluid/salt intake, (4) psychophysiologic training for management of pain/anxiety, and (5) family education. Pharmacologic treatment is recommended on a case-by-case basis, and can include beta-blocking agents to blunt orthostatic increases in heart rate, alpha-adrenergic agents to increase peripheral vascular resistance, mineralocorticoid agents to increase blood volume, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An interdisciplinary research approach may determine mechanistic root causes of symptoms, and is investigating novel management plans for affected patients.

  8. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  9. Forearm Posture and Mobility in Quadrupedal Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Collin S.; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy. PMID:24058633

  10. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words “body”, “posture”, “blind” and “absence of vision”. References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  11. Posture in people with shoulder impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skolimowski, Jarosław; Barczyk, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Skolimowska, Beata; Demczuk-Włodarczyk, Ewa; Anwajler, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The posture of people with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) is a result of adaptive defensive posturing to decrease the intensity of pain in the affected joint. The aim of this work is to characterise trunk and shoulder girdle positioning in patients with SIS. The study involved 58 patients treated for SIS in the years 2004-2006. Symptoms had been present for 40 months on average. A photogrammetric study was performed with the use of a MORA 4G system. It consisted in measuring lordosis and kyphosis, as well as the symmetry of some selected anthropometric points in the frontal plane. Changes in posture presenting as an increased angle of trunk inclination in the sagittal plane and in the frontal plane were observed in all patients. There was asymmetry of bony points as regards the position of the scapula and the waist triangles. The impingement syndrome is associated with displacement of all bony points analysed. Changes in posture are a result of adaptive mechanisms. Trunk asymmetry is secondary to changes in the spatial position of the scapula.

  12. [Maternal postures and epidural analgesia during labour].

    PubMed

    Ducloy-Bouthors, A-S; De Gasquet, B; Davette, M; Cuisse, M

    2006-06-01

    The evolution of birth is of interest for obstetricians and midwives. Postures with asymmetric stretching and balance, kneeling, or sitting have been claimed to be able to help foetal head rotation. Although walking during labour have no influence on the outcome of labour, hip-flexed postures enlarging the pelvic diameter are yet evaluated to improve the obstetric course of labour. In a prospective randomised study including 93 parturients, we compared the supine 30 degrees lateral tilt (control group) to three hip-flexed postures: sitting (S), right hip-flexed left lateral position (L) and left hip-flexed right lateral position (R). Epidural analgesia with 12 ml ropivacaine 0.1% and sufentanil 0.5 microg/ml was administered over a period of six minutes. The total epidural spread was 15+/-0.3 dermatomes and the upper level of thermo-analgesic blockade reached T7-T8 (T5 to T10) in each group. There were no differences between groups for the left and right total spread and upper level of epidural blockade, for the time to maximal block and pain relief. There was no motor block and no maternal or foetal side effects. We conclude that, for the three hip-flexed postures tested, position does not influence local anesthetic spread or symmetry of analgesia after induction of obstetric epidural anaesthesia.

  13. Evaluation of postural mechanisms under dynamic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A stimulus delivery and data acquisition system for assessment of human posture was developed based on a digital computer and a translating platform. The movement of the platform acts to displace the subject's base of support while the computer tracks the corrections which are made by the subject to maintain balance. Various stimuli are used ranging from fast transients to sine waves.

  14. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  15. Posture Training for Special Needs Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Terrance N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Educable mentally handicapped adolescents with and without additional health problems (N=24) participated in a three-month fitness intervention program. Pre- and post-measures revealed a high incidence of poor posture in both groups. Related topics discussed include subsequent biomechanical interventions, subjective symptomatology, and the need…

  16. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  17. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  18. Posture and the circulation: the age effect.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Porth, C J

    1991-01-01

    The primary instigator of circulatory response to the upright posture is the rapid displacement of about 10% of blood volume from the thorax to the lower body. The resultant hemodynamic deficit induces postural intolerance, especially orthostatic hypotension, in elderly over 70 years of age and in some young subjects after exposure to weightlessness. In this review, our objectives have been: 1) to describe in the normal subject the hemodynamic consequences of the headup posture, as well as lower body negative pressure, the compensatory responses intended to cope with these stresses, and their mechanisms; 2) to outline the effect of age on the circulatory responses to these stresses; and (3) to analyze and compare the tests currently used to assess circulatory tolerance. Our ability to design effective countermeasures to orthostatic circulatory intolerance is severely handicapped by our inadequate knowledge of the basic hemodynamic events incident to normal and abnormal orthostatic tolerance. We believe that better understanding and standardization of the postural tests, better experimental design to include greater emphasis on inter and intra-individual variability, and wider application of currently available noninvasive circulatory techniques would greatly improve the prospects for success in this research area.

  19. Control of posture during tasks representing common work-related postures - a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ramakrishnan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Sullivan, S John

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of control of posture using a task battery that represents work-related postural conditions is highly recommended for providing a comprehensive understanding of collective postural demands. However, dearth of evidence exists on the reliability of a task battery, thus precluding its use as an outcome measure in field research. This study investigated the intrasession reliability and systematic variation of force plate derived centre of pressure (COP) measures obtained during repeated performance of a task battery (lifting task, limits of stability and bipedal and unipedal stance). COP signals obtained during each task performance were processed to derive various time-domain COP measures. Statistical analyses revealed that 13 of the 19 COP measures displayed excellent relative (ICC(2,3) ≥ 0.75) and acceptable absolute reliability (SEM%: ≤ 10). Although COP measures displayed systematic variation, the differences were less or equal to the measurement error, except COP measures of unipedal stance and limits of stability. The chosen task battery is reliable and can be used for comprehensive evaluation of control of posture, in both field and laboratory research. Practitioner Summary: Repeated evaluation of multiple tasks together sequentially could introduce measurement variability. This study investigated intrasession reliability of a task battery representing common work-related postures. The chosen task battery was found to be reliable with acceptable measurement error and can be used in field research settings for evaluation of control of posture.

  20. The evaluation of upright posture caused by simple movement test.

    PubMed

    Jelínková, Ivana; Řorfová, Monika; Wagner, Heiko; Puta, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Actual studies show increasing poor posture especially in the cervical-thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to develop a model-based evaluation of posture and the amount of segmental spinal movement using a simple movement test. Twenty-five subjects with forward head posture were recruited. We were interested in the external humeral rotation with the adduction of the shoulder, its influence on posture of the cervical thoracic spine and the evaluation of upright posture. Upright posture was determined as the change in the gradient of the trunk from forward posture to erect posture. The kinematics of the cervical-thoracic spine and the inclination of the pelvis and thorax were measured in the sagittal plane with a motion analysis system. The kinematic model for the evaluation of upright posture and as a control the electromyography was presented. Correlation (Pearson r = 0.89; p < 0.01) was achieved between the gradients of the trunk in the initial and final position. The postural quality was more important than the quantity of spinal movement. Upright posture of the cervical-thoracic spine was provoked only if there was horizontal position of the pelvis and thorax. This should be considered in clinical practice.

  1. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  2. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Raggi, Gabriela Cristina; dos Santos Cardoso Sá, Cristina; Costa, Márcio Paulino; de Lima, Jonas Eraldo; Tanaka, Clarice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement. PMID:22892919

  3. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID

  4. The reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System.

    PubMed

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Johnson, Vicky Saliba; Godwin, Ellen M; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System (SPCS). Two physical therapists classified pictures of 100 volunteer participants standing in their habitual posture for inter and intra-tester reliability. For validity, 54 participants stood on a force plate in a habitual and a corrected posture, while a vertical force was applied through the shoulders until the clinician felt a postural give. Data were extracted at the time the give was felt and at a time in the corrected posture that matched the peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) in the habitual posture. Inter-tester reliability demonstrated 75% agreement with a Kappa = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.524-0.756, SE = 0.059). Intra-tester reliability demonstrated 87% agreement with a Kappa = 0.8, (95% CI = 0.702-0.898, SE = 0.05) and 80% agreement with a Kappa = 0.706, (95% CI = 0.594-0818, SE = 0.057). The examiner applied a significantly higher (p < 0.001) peak vertical force in the corrected posture prior to a postural give when compared to the habitual posture. Within the corrected posture, the %VGRF was higher when the test was ongoing vs. when a postural give was felt (p < 0.001). The %VGRF was not different between the two postures when comparing the peaks (p = 0.214). The SPCS has substantial agreement for inter- and intra-tester reliability and is largely a valid postural classification system as determined by the larger vertical forces in the corrected postures. Further studies on the correlation between the SPCS and diagnostic classifications are indicated.

  5. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Cíntia Detsch; Cardoso dos Santos, Antônio; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Noll, Matias; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Corso, Carlos Otávio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of the spine and posture among adolescent female students and to determine if they had access to postural education in or outside school. [Subjects and Methods] This was an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of 495 female students aged 14 to 18 years attending a regular secondary school in São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire. [Results] The results showed that 16.8% of teens did not know what a spine was, 8.3% had no knowledge of posture, and 61% reported receiving no posture education. Posture awareness was associated only with posture while using a computer, while having postural education class was not associated with any postural behavior. [Conclusion] The results showed that, although most students are familiar with the spine and posture, a sizable group is not, and over half had no postural education. These findings suggest that inclusion of postural education programs in schools should be encouraged in order to promote health and prevent diseases related to the spine. PMID:26504322

  6. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers. PMID:28861000

  7. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  8. Effects of medio-lateral postural perturbation induced by voluntary arm raising on the biomechanical organization of rapid step initiation.

    PubMed

    Yiou, Eric; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2011-10-01

    This study examined how the central nervous system organizes mediolateral (ML) "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APAs) for stepping initiation (SI) to take into account the postural perturbation induced by voluntary lateral arm raising. Subjects purposely stepped in isolation ("isolated stepping") or in combination with lateral raising of dominant arm ("motor sequence"). SI was carried out with the leg ipsilateral or controlateral to raising arm. Results showed that APA amplitude increased from "ipsilateral isolated stepping" to "ipsilateral sequence", but did not change in conditions involving controlateral leg; ML instability increased from "ipsilateral isolated stepping" to "ipsilateral sequence", but decreased from "controlateral isolated stepping" to "controlateral sequence". These changes were exacerbated when inertia was added at the hand during raising. These results suggest that APAs for SI are globally scaled as a function of the biomechanical consequences of forthcoming arm movement on ML postural stability.

  9. Postural Cueing to Increase Lumbar Lordosis Increases Lumbar Multifidus Activation During Trunk Stabilization Exercises: Electromyographic Assessment Using Intramuscular Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Beneck, George J; Story, John W; Donald, Shelby

    2016-04-01

    Controlled laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Diminished multifidus activation and cross-sectional area are frequent findings in persons with low back pain. Increasing lumbar lordosis has been shown to increase activation of the multifidus with a minimal increase in activation of the long global extensors during unsupported sitting. To examine the influence of postural cueing to increase lumbar lordosis on lumbar extensor activation during trunk stabilization exercises. Thirteen asymptomatic participants (9 male, 4 female) were instructed to perform 6 trunk stabilization exercises using a neutral position and increasing lumbar lordosis. Electrical activity of the deep multifidus and longissimus thoracis was recorded using fine-wire intramuscular electrodes. The mean root-mean-square of the electromyography (EMG) signal obtained during each exercise was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance (posture by exercise) was performed for each muscle. When averaged across the 6 exercises, postural cueing to increase lumbar lordosis resulted in greater multifidus EMG activity compared to performing the exercises in a neutral posture (35.3% ± 15.1% versus 29.5% ± 11.2% MVIC). No significant increase in longissimus thoracis EMG activity was observed when exercising with cueing to increase lumbar lordosis. This study suggests that postural cueing to increase lumbar lordosis during trunk stabilization exercises may better promote multifidus activation than traditional stabilization exercises alone. Future studies are needed to determine whether increasing lumbar lordosis improves multifidus activation in persons with low back pain.

  10. Fear of falling and postural control in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Adkin, Allan L; Frank, James S; Jog, Mandar S

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between fear of falling (FOF) and qualitative and quantitative postural control in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight nondemented PD patients were studied along with age-matched healthy controls. The degree of FOF was estimated using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Qualitative postural control was evaluated using a component of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Postural control was quantified, using centre of pressure measures obtained from a force plate, for eight standing balance tests of different challenges. The results showed that FOF was more evident for PD patients when compared with healthy individuals of similar age. Furthermore, FOF was significantly associated with a qualitative estimate of postural control in PD; individuals with PD who had a greater degree of posture impairment reported greater FOF. The results also showed that an estimate of FOF may help to explain quantitative postural instability in PD. FOF, when coupled with a qualitative estimate of postural control, was able to explain a greater amount of variation in quantitative balance performance for five of the eight balance tests. When considered independently, the qualitative measure of postural control, in general, could not well predict quantitative balance performance. The greater degree of FOF and its possible association with altered postural control suggests that FOF should be considered as an important, independent risk factor in the assessment and treatment of postural instability in patients with PD. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

  11. Evaluation of forward head posture in sitting and standing positions.

    PubMed

    Shaghayegh Fard, B; Ahmadi, Amir; Maroufi, N; Sarrafzadeh, J

    2016-11-01

    Head postural assessment is part of the orthopaedic physical examination process and could help to identify faulty head postures. One of the most common faulty postures of the craniocervical region is the forward head posture (FHP). There are several methods to evaluate FHP but it is not clear which method is more precise. The aim of this study was to compare the craniovertebral angle (CVA) between a FHP and a healthy group in sitting and standing positions. Twenty-five subjects with FHP (22.9 ± 2 years) and 25 normal subjects (21.9 ± 5 years) participated in this case-control study. Photography of the sagittal view was done in standing and relaxed sitting postures to determine the amount of the FHP. The results of independent t test showed a significant difference in the CVA between the FHP and healthy groups (P < 0.001). The result of paired t test showed a significant difference between CVA in standing and sitting postures for both groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the BMI had a significant negative correlation with CVA in standing position (P < 0.01). Our results indicated that the CVA was increased in the sitting posture compared to the standing posture and introduced the standing posture as a more sensitive posture to evaluate the FHP.

  12. Relationship between Postural Sway and Dynamic Balance in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kihun; Lee, Kyoungsuk; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Hwangjae; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between postural sway and dynamic balance in post stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-one stroke patients (20 men and 11 women; age 64.25 years; stroke duration 12.70 months; MMSE-K score 26.35) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. A Good Balance system was used for measurement of the postural sway velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral) and velocity moment of subjects under the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in a standing posture. The postural sway of subjects was measured under two surface conditions (stable and unstable surfaces). [Results] On the unstable surface (foam), no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance except for the berg balance scale (BBS) score and anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes open condition, anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes closed condition, and postural sway velocity moment. In addition, in the stable condition, no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that a decrease in postural sway does not necessarily reflect improvement of dynamic balance ability. We believe that this finding may be useful in balance rehabilitation for prevention of falls after a stroke.

  13. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    PubMed

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  14. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  15. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  16. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-02-06

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=<0.001), stiffness (p=0.001) and physical function (p<0.001) were found for the OAG. Moderate and negative correlations were found between the AP COP amplitude of displacement and physical function (ρ=-0.40, p=0.02). Moderate and negative correlations were observed between the AP COP

  17. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 1. Electromyographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    Anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments are the two principal mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to maintain equilibrium while standing. We studied the role of APAs in compensatory postural adjustments. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level, while standing with eyes open and closed. Electrical activity of leg and trunk muscles was recorded and analyzed during four epochs representing the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural control. No anticipatory activity of the trunk and leg muscles was seen in the case of unpredictable perturbations; instead, significant compensatory activation of muscles was observed. When the perturbations were predictable, strong anticipatory activation was seen in all the muscles: such APAs were associated with significantly smaller compensatory activity of muscles and COP displacements after the perturbations. The outcome of the study highlights the importance of APAs in control of posture and points out the existence of a relationship between the anticipatory and the compensatory components of postural control. It also suggests a possibility to enhance balance control by improving the APAs responses during external perturbations.

  18. The relationship between perceived discomfort of static posture holding and posture holding time.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated mathematical characteristics of the discomfort-time relationship during prolonged static posture holding (SPH) on an individual basis. Consequently, the discomfort-time relationship is not clearly understood at individual trial level. The objective of this study was to examine discomfort-time sequence data obtained from a large number of maximum-duration SPH trials to understand the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship at the individual SPH trial level. Thirty subjects (15 male, 15 female) participated in this study as paid volunteers. The subjects performed maximum-duration SPH trials employing 12 different wholebody static postures. The hand-held load for all the task trials was a ``generic'' box weighing 2 kg. Three mathematical functions, that is, linear, logarithmic and power functions were examined as possible mathematical models for representing individual discomfort-time profiles of SPH trials. Three different time increase patterns (negatively accelerated, linear and positively accelerated) were observed in the discomfort-time sequences data. The power function model with an additive constant term was found to adequately fit most (96.4%) of the observed discomfort-time sequences, and thus, was recommended as a general mathematical representation of the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship in SPH. The new knowledge on the nature of the discomfort-time relationship in SPH and the power function representation found in this study will facilitate analyzing discomfort-time data of SPH and developing future posture analysis tools for work-related discomfort control.

  19. Smart Rehabilitation Garment for posture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Chen, W; Timmermans, A A A; Karachristos, C; Martens, J B; Markopoulos, P

    2015-08-01

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and development of Smart Rehabilitation Garment (SRG) a wearable system designed to support posture correction. The SRG combines a number of inertial measurement units (IMUs), controlled by an Arduino processor. It provides feedback with vibration on the garment, audible alarm signals and visual instruction through a Bluetooth connected smartphone. We discuss the placement of sensing modules, the garment design, the feedback design and the integration of smart textiles and wearable electronics which aimed at achieving wearability and ease of use. We report on the system's accuracy as compared to optical tracker method.

  20. [Posture and movement analysis and sports medicine].

    PubMed

    Viton, J M; Mesure, S; Bensoussan, L; Mattei, J P; Coudreuse, J M; Delarque, A

    2004-08-01

    The use of posture and movement analysis methods has developed during the past 15 years. These methods are of special interest in the field of sport sciences and have allowed to improve the understanding of physiology of posture and movement in athletes. More recently these methods have been used in the field of sport medicine. In some cases, they have helped to identify abnormalities which cannot be seen on standard clinical examination and to understand the mechanism of lesions occurring during sport activities. For the future these methods should provide useful information for understanding the physiopathology of lesions, for developing prevention of pathologies related to sport and for elaborating and assessing new treatment protocols in the field of sport medicine.

  1. Model-based visual hand posture tracking for guiding a dexterous robotic hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jinshi; Sun, Zengqi

    2004-05-01

    Visual hand gesture based interfaces have been widely used for navigation of virtual environments and control of a robot arm in robotic systems. In fact, hand movement has abundant powers of expression with complex finger joint motions. In this paper, the full degree-of-freedom hand motion is tracked in a vision-based mode towards natural and intuitive control of a dexterous robotic hand. The main obstacle to handle human hand posture tracking is the high dimensionality. A novel three-dimensional model-based approach is proposed. It utilizes a genetic algorithm-based global optimization procedure after each particle-filtering step, which deals with the tracking in high-dimensional and multi-modal state space reasonably well. Experimental results show that present approach improves performance of hand posture tracking significantly and provides a feasible solution for guiding a dexterous hand.

  2. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  3. Effects of caffeine on postural stability.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Ashlee; Sklaar, Jessica; Viirre, Erik; Chase, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a caffeine-containing "energy drink" on postural stability. Twenty-three young adult participants stood on a balance-measuring platform for two intervals of 30 seconds each, once with eyes open and once with eyes closed. Subjects performed the tasks before and 1 hour after consumption. Results showed no significant effect, either with eyes open or eyes closed, on movement of the body's center of pressure.

  4. Spinal postural training: Comparison of the postural and mobility effects of electrotherapy, exercise, biofeedback trainer in addition to postural education in university students.

    PubMed

    Çelenay, Şeyda Toprak; Kaya, Derya Özer; Özüdoğru, Anıl

    2015-01-01

    Spinal posture and mobility are significant for protecting spine. The aim was to compare effects of different postural training interventions on spinal posture and mobility. Ninety-six university students (ages: 18–25 years) were allocated into Electrical Stimulation (ES) (n = 24), Exercise (n = 24), Biofeedback Posture Trainer (Backtone) (n = 24), and Postural Education (n = 24, Controls) groups. All the groups got postural education. The interventions were carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Spinal Mouse device (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland) was used to detect thoracic and lumbar curvatures and mobility (degrees) in standing and sitting positions. Paired Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, and pairwise post-hoc tests were used. ES decreased thoracic curvature, the exercise decreased thoracic and lumbar curvature and increased thoracic mobility in standing position between pre-post training (p < 0.05). Exercise and Backtone improved thoracic curvature in sitting (p <0.05). In Exercise Group, thoracic curvature decreased compared to Backtone and Education Groups, and thoracic mobility increased compared to all groups (p < 0.05). The exercise was effective and superior in improving thoracic and lumbar curves, and mobility among university students. ES decreased thoracic curve. Biofeedback posture trainer improved sitting posture. A prospective randomized controlled trial, Level 1.

  5. The influence of foot posture on dorsiflexion range of motion and postural control in those with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Kathleen K; Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Matthew C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effect of foot posture on postural control and dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with chronic ankle instability. The study employed a cross-sectional, single-blinded design. Twenty-one individuals with self-reported chronic ankle instability (male=5; age=23.76(4.18)years; height=169.27(11.46)cm; weight=73.65(13.37)kg; number of past ankle sprains=4.71(4.10); episode of giving way=17.00(18.20); Cumberland Ankle Instability Score=18.24(4.52); Ankle Instability Index=5.86(1.39)) participated. The foot posture index was used to categorize subjects into pronated (n=8; Foot Posture Index=7.50(0.93)) and neutral (n=13; Foot Posture Index=3.08(1.93)) groups. The dependent variables of dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic and static postural control were collected for both groups at a single session. There were no significant differences in dorsiflexion range of motion between groups (p=0.22) or any of the eyes open time-to-boundary variables (p>0.13). The pronated group had significantly less dynamic postural control than the neutral group as assessed by the anterior direction of the Star Excursion Balance Test (p<0.04). However, the pronated group had significantly higher time-to-boundary values than the neutral group for all eyes closed time-to-boundary variables (p≤0.05), which indicates better eyes closed static postural control. Foot posture had a significant effect on dynamic postural control and eyes closed static postural control in individuals with chronic ankle instability. These findings suggest that foot posture may influence postural control in those with chronic ankle instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  7. Postural dynamics and habituation to seasickness.

    PubMed

    Tal, Dror; Bar, Ronen; Nachum, Zohar; Gil, Amnon; Shupak, Avi

    2010-07-26

    The computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) test examines the response pattern to simultaneous, multimodal sensory stimulation. The purpose of this prospective, controlled study was to investigate whether postural dynamics evaluated by CDP are related to seasickness severity and the process of habituation to sea conditions. Subjects included 74 naval personnel assigned to service aboard ship and 29 controls designated for shore-based positions. Study participants performed a baseline CDP test, and subsequent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after completion of their training. On those occasions they also completed a seasickness severity questionnaire. Longitudinal changes in postural parameters were examined, as well as a possible correlation between baseline CDP results and final seasickness severity scores. The results indicated longitudinal habituation to seasickness. Reduced scores were found for sensory organization sub-tests 3 and 5 in the first follow-up examination, reflecting increased weighting of visual and somatosensory input in the maintenance of balance. Scores in the second follow-up examination were above baseline values, indicating increased reliance on vestibular cues. These significant bimodal changes were found only in study subjects having the highest degree of habituation to seasickness. A significant decrease in motor response strength was found in parallel with increased habituation to seasickness. Baseline CDP results and postural control dynamics were not correlated with subjects' final seasickness severity score. These results suggest a potential role for CDP in monitoring the process of habituation to unusual motion conditions.

  8. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  9. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. ); Keith, R. )

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  10. [Primary neurogenic and myogenic disorders of posture].

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Meinck, H-M

    2004-05-01

    Disturbance of posture may occur in a variety of neurological disorders and occasionally is the presenting or even the only sign. In the majority of cases, the head or the trunk or both are bent forward (bent spine syndrome, dropped head syndrome). A feature of these primary neurogenic or myogenic postural disturbances that is in contrast to antalgic contraction or ankylosis is that they are not fixed, but the trunk or head are easily erected by the examiner and show a characteristic sagging. Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause. They may be confined to the paraspinal muscles. Axial computed tomography of the spine, electromyography of the involved muscles, and muscle biopsy help to make the diagnosis. However, also central movement disorders may lead to a sagging of the head or trunk or of both due to a lessened tone of the head and trunk extensors. This is frequently seen in the various parkinsonian syndromes which may, however, occur in association with a focal myopathy of the paraspinal muscles. Occasionally, sagging of the trunk is seen as a side effect of neuropharmacologic medication. Sagging of the trunk or head should be differentiated from a pathologically increased innervation of the ventral muscles in dystonic movement disorders such as antecollis or camptocormia. Pathologic reclination of the head or trunk or both is a rare disturbance of posture. It may occur in dystonia (retrocollis) or, occasionally, as a consequence of musculotendinous contractures secondary to certain neuromuscular disorders such as the rigid spine syndrome.

  11. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P < 0.05) or when performing a functional reach test (P < 0.001). This is the first study showing significantly enhanced balance performance after ice skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training.

  12. The evolution of NATO's conventional force posture

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation has three objectives. The first is to describe the evolution of NATO's conventional force posture in greater detail than has previously been possible by drawing upon recently declassified government documents. The author's focus is on changes that have occurred in the role of conventional forces in NATO strategy as well as in the structure and actual capabilities of NATO's conventional forces. He examines five episodes in NATO history during which significant change in the alliance's conventional forces was seriously contemplated, attempted, or actually took place. The second objective is to explain this history. To this end, he examines several leading theories of international relations: balance of power and balance of threat, public goods, and regimes. By comparing the predictions of these theories with the historical record, he was able to identify the factors most important in shaping NATO's conventional force posture over the years. Since these factors are likely to continue to be important, this analysis allows assessing prospects for future change, the third objective. This study suggests that NATO's conventional force posture has become increasingly static over the years.

  13. Re-Educating the Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This article means to investigate the philosophical concept of human embodiment in relation to physical education. As human beings not only do we have a body that we can control, but we "are" our body and live embodied in the world, as the German thinker, Helmuth Plessner, puts it in one of his many contributions to the philosophical…

  14. Re-Educating the Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This article means to investigate the philosophical concept of human embodiment in relation to physical education. As human beings not only do we have a body that we can control, but we "are" our body and live embodied in the world, as the German thinker, Helmuth Plessner, puts it in one of his many contributions to the philosophical…

  15. Postural steadiness and ankle force variability in peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin; Trabert, Megan K.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Reiser, Raoul F.; Tracy, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients. Methods Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness. Results O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Discussion The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN. PMID:26284897

  16. Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Geoffroy; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless, 30s approaching motion, and 20s motionless. The centre of pressure and head displacements were analysed. The postural adaptations were characterised by the variability of movements for the flow conditions and by the postural latencies for the flow transitions. The results showed that the gymnasts tended to minimise their body movements and were more stationary (head) but not more stable (COP) than the non-gymnasts. These results suggest that gymnastics experience develops a specific postural adaptability relative to the perceptive configuration. We conclude that a specific postural experience could be considered as an intrinsic constraint, which leads to modification in the patterns of functional adaptation in the perceptive motor space.

  17. Sagittal standing posture and its association with spinal pain: a school-based epidemiological study of 1196 Flemish adolescents before age at peak height velocity.

    PubMed

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Coorevits, Pascal; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Cardon, Greet; Dʼhooge, Roseline; Danneels, Lieven

    2012-09-01

    Cross-sectional baseline data set on the sagittal standing posture of 1196 adolescents. To describe and quantify common variations in the sagittal standing alignment in boys and girls who are in the same phase of growth and to explore the association between habitual standing posture and measures for spinal pain. Data on postural characteristics and spinal pain measures in adolescence are sparse, especially when somatic and biological maturity status is to be considered. Our understanding of the relationship between standing posture in the sagittal plane and spinal pain is also deficient. A total of 639 boys (age [mean ± SD], 12.6 ± 0.54 yr) and 557 girls (10.6 ± 0.47 yr), with predicted years from peak height velocity (PHV) being 1.2 ± 0.71 and 1.2 ± 0.59 pre-PHV, respectively, were studied. Postural examination included the assessment of global alignment and local spinopelvic characteristics, using post hoc analyses of digital images and direct body measurements (palpation, digital inclinometry, and wheeled accelerometry). Spinal pain experience was assessed by questionnaire. A wide interindividual variation in sagittal posture characteristics was observed. Logistic regression analyses yielded global alignment parameters to be associated with low back pain (lifetime prevalence), neck pain (lifetime prevalence, 1-mo prevalence, and doctor visit), and thoracic spine pain (doctor visit) outcome measures. None of the included local spinopelvic parameters could be identified as an associated factor with measures of spinal pain. The orientation of gross body segments with respect to the gravity line seems superior to local spinopelvic features in terms of clinical importance, at least in the current pre-PHV cohort. Opportunities may exist for postural subgrouping strategies to begin with global alignment parameters in order to gain further insight into the relationship between sagittal alignment and the relative risk of developing spinal pain/seeking medical

  18. The School of Posture as a postural training method for Paraíba Telecommunications Operators.

    PubMed

    Cardia, M C; Soares Màsculo, F

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes to show the experience of posture training accomplished in the Paraíba State Telecommunication Company, using the knowledge of the Back School. The sample was composed of 12 operators, employees of the company, representing 31% of this population. The model applied in TELPA (Paraíba Telecommunication Company, Brazil) was based on the models of Sherbrooke, Canada, and of the School of Posture of Paraìba Federal University. Fifty-eight point four percent of participants showed a reduction of column pain, 25% improved the quality of the rest and the received training was considered enough for the learning of correct postures at work in 75% of the cases. The whole population approved of the training, and 83.3% of the cases considered that this training influenced their lives very positively.

  19. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  20. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-02-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine postural control during walking in elderly patients with FP, and to investigate the relationship with geriatric phenomena that may cause FP, such as increased TK, VFs, frailty, polypharmacy and cognitive impairments. Fifty-six elderly patients (aged 80 ± 5.2 years; 70% female) walked 160 m at self-selected speed while trunk accelerations were recorded. Walking speed, mean stride time and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time were recorded. In addition, postural control during walking was quantified by time-dependent variability measures derived from the theory of stochastic dynamics, indicating smoothness, degree of predictability, and local stability of trunk acceleration patterns. Twenty-five patients (45%) had FP and demonstrated a more variable and less structured gait pattern, and a more irregular trunk acceleration pattern than patients with normal posture. FP was significantly associated with an increased TK, but not with other geriatric phenomena. An increased TK may bring the body's centre of mass forward, which requires correcting responses, and reduces the ability to respond on perturbation, which was reflected by higher variation in the gait pattern in FP-patients. Impairments in postural control during walking are a major risk factor for falling: the results indicate that patients with FP have impaired postural control during walking and might therefore be at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Postural responses explored through classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A D; Dakin, C J; Carpenter, M G

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) requires the sensory feedback generated by balance perturbations in order to trigger postural responses (PRs). In Experiment 1, twenty-one participants experienced toes-up support-surface tilts in two blocks. Control blocks involved unexpected balance perturbations whereas an auditory tone cued the onset of balance perturbations in Conditioning blocks. A single Cue-Only trial followed each block (Cue-Only(Control) and Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials) in the absence of balance perturbations. Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials were used to determine whether postural perturbations were required in order to trigger PRs. Counter-balancing the order of Control and Conditioning blocks allowed Cue-Only(Control) trials to examine both the audio-spinal/acoustic startle effects of the auditory cue and the carryover effects of the initial conditioning procedure. In Experiment 2, six participants first experienced five consecutive Tone-Only trials that were followed by twenty-five conditioning trials. After conditioning, five Tone-Only trials were again presented consecutively to first elicit and then extinguish the conditioned PRs. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded muscle activity in soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF). EMG onset latencies and amplitudes were calculated together with the onset latency, peak and time-to-peak of shank angular accelerations. Results indicated that an auditory cue could be conditioned to initiate PRs in multiple muscles without balance-relevant sensory triggers generated by balance perturbations. Postural synergies involving excitation of TA and RF and inhibition of SOL were observed following the Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials that resulted in shank angular accelerations in the direction required to counter the expected toes-up tilt. Postural synergies were triggered in response to the auditory cue even 15 min post-conditioning. Furthermore

  2. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  3. Effect of Posture on Hip Angles and Moments during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cara L.; Sahrmann, Shirley A.

    2014-01-01

    Anterior hip pain is common in young, active adults. Clinically, we have noted that patients with anterior hip pain often walk in a swayback posture, and that their pain is reduced when the posture is corrected. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential mechanism for the reduction in pain by testing the effect of posture on movement patterns and internal moments during gait in healthy subjects. Fifteen subjects were instructed to walk while maintaining three postures: 1) natural, 2) swayback, and 3) forward flexed. Kinematic and force data were collected using a motion capture system and a force plate. Walking in the swayback posture resulted in a higher peak hip extension angle, hip flexor moment and hip flexion angular impulse compared to natural posture. In contrast, walking in a forward flexed posture resulted in a decreased hip extension angle and decreased hip flexion angular impulse. Based on these results, walking in a swayback posture may result in increased forces required of the anterior hip structures, potentially contributing to anterior hip pain. This study provides a potential biomechanical mechanism for clinical observations that posture correction in patients with hip pain is beneficial. PMID:25262565

  4. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    PubMed

    Rabiul Ahasan, M; Väyrynen, Seppo; Kirvesoja, Heli

    1996-01-01

    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, therefore, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted not only for lifting or hammering operation but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from eight different units (M age = 37 years) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 subtasks. Altogether, 1,534 postures were selected for analysis and then classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all observations, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III, and 3.3% as OAC IV), were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  5. Potentially risky postural behaviors during worksite keyboard use

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nancy A.; Redfern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study describes the frequency and distribution of potentially risky postural behaviors of keyboard users. Method Forty-three subjects’ keyboard postural behaviors were rated with the Keyboard – Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS) while they worked at their own workstations. The frequency and distribution of keyboard postural behaviors, and the associations and differences between the right and left sides were assessed. Results Generally, each static body posture had a single criterion that occurred most frequently, (e.g. elbow flexion posture 80 – 120 degrees), while dynamic postures of the wrists and hands were distributed throughout their criteria. Right and left side postural behaviors were significantly associated for shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, hand displacement, wrist extension, forearm rotation, isolated 5th digit, MCP hyperextension, and wrist support use, and significantly different for hand displacement, isolated thumb, number of digits used, and MCP hyperextension. Conclusion Potentially problematic keyboard postural behaviors are common among keyboard users. Our results suggest that occupational therapists must systematically assess body, arm, wrist, and hand postures on both the right and left sides to be able to develop the most effective intervention strategies. PMID:19708467

  6. Dynamical patterns of human postural responses to emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    PERAKAKIS, PANDELIS E.; IDRISSI, SOFIA; VILA, JAIME; IVANOV, PLAMEN CH.

    2012-01-01

    Postural displacements in response to emotional activation have recently been proposed as a direct and objective index of approach–avoidance behavior in humans. Here, we present the results of an experiment designed to assess spontaneous postural responses to discrete affective pictures, briefly presented in random order of valence. Our findings question the interpretation of phasic postural responses to emotional stimuli as approach–avoidance behavior. Further, we identify a robust dynamical pattern, characterized by specific features indicating that attentional processes may play a role in human postural responses to emotional stimuli. PMID:22758597

  7. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  8. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration. PMID:26162071

  9. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  10. Investigation of compensatory postures with videofluoromanometry in dysphagia patients

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, Antonio; Monaco, Luigi; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Tamburrini, Stefania; Iacobellis, Francesca; Berritto, Daniela; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Reginelli, Alfonso; Di Martino, Natale; Grassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of head compensatory postures to ensure safe oropharyngeal transit. METHODS: A total of 321 dysphagia patients were enrolled and assessed with videofluoromanometry (VFM). The dysphagia patients were classified as follows: safe transit; penetration without aspiration; aspiration before, during or after swallowing; multiple aspirations and no transit. The patients with aspiration or no transit were tested with VFM to determine whether compensatory postures could correct their swallowing disorder. RESULTS: VFM revealed penetration without aspiration in 71 patients (22.1%); aspiration before swallowing in 17 patients (5.3%); aspiration during swallowing in 32 patients (10%); aspiration after swallowing in 21 patients (6.5%); multiple aspirations in six patients (1.9%); no transit in five patients (1.6%); and safe transit in 169 patients (52.6%). Compensatory postures guaranteed a safe transit in 66/75 (88%) patients with aspiration or no transit. A chin-down posture achieved a safe swallow in 42/75 (56%) patients, a head-turned posture in 19/75 (25.3%) and a hyperextended head posture in 5/75 (6.7%). The compensatory postures were not effective in 9/75 (12%) cases. CONCLUSION: VFM allows the speech-language the-rapist to choose the most effective compensatory posture without a trial-and-error process and check the effectiveness of the posture. PMID:22736921

  11. Effect of posture on hip angles and moments during gait.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cara L; Sahrmann, Shirley A

    2015-02-01

    Anterior hip pain is common in young, active adults. Clinically, we have noted that patients with anterior hip pain often walk in a swayback posture, and that their pain is reduced when the posture is corrected. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential mechanism for the reduction in pain by testing the effect of posture on movement patterns and internal moments during gait in healthy subjects. Fifteen subjects were instructed to walk while maintaining three postures: 1) natural, 2) swayback, and 3) forward flexed. Kinematic and force data were collected using a motion capture system and a force plate. Walking in the swayback posture resulted in a higher peak hip extension angle, hip flexor moment and hip flexion angular impulse compared to natural posture. In contrast, walking in a forward flexed posture resulted in a decreased hip extension angle and decreased hip flexion angular impulse. Based on these results, walking in a swayback posture may result in increased forces required of the anterior hip structures, potentially contributing to anterior hip pain. This study provides a potential biomechanical mechanism for clinical observations that posture correction in patients with hip pain is beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Postural control during visual and kinesthetic motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Grangeon, M; Guillot, A; Collet, C

    2011-03-01

    Despite the accumulating evidence supporting an interaction between cognitive functions and postural control, little is known about the selective impact of the mental representation of an action, i.e., motor imagery (MI) on postural control. As postural oscillations are reduced during a cognitive task of backward silent counting, a greater stability is also expected during MI compared to a no-task condition (standing). Twenty participants took part in this experiment, which aimed at providing evidence that MI may improve postural stability. They were requested to mentally imagine a movement while standing on a force-plate. Results showed a decrease in both path length and postural sway variability on the anterior-posterior and lateral axes during all dual-task sessions, as compared to the motionless condition. These postural adjustments might result from both central and peripheral processes, and/or increased muscle stiffness. Conversely, postural oscillation amplitude increased on the vertical axis during MI of three vertical jumps, hence suggesting that postural regulations remain task-related during MI. Finally, our data showed that kinesthetic and visual imagery differentially impacted the postural regulation.

  13. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  14. Transfer of postural adaptation depends on context of prior exposure.

    PubMed

    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Barletta, Anthony J; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2014-04-01

    Postural control is significantly affected by the postural base of support; however, the effects on postural adaptation are not well understood. Here we investigated how adaptation and transfer of anticipatory postural control are affected by stance width. Subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment while holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. Each subject initially adapted to the dynamics while standing in a wide stance and then switched to a narrow stance, or vice versa. Our hypothesis is that anticipatory postural control, reflected in center of pressure (COP) movement, is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within functional limits; therefore we predicted that subjects in either stance would show similar COP movement by the end of adaptation and immediately upon transfer to the other stance. We found that both groups showed similar adaptation of postural control, by using different muscle activation strategies to account for the differing stance widths. One group, after adapting in wide stance, transferred similar postural control to narrow stance, by modifying their muscle activity to account for the new stance. Interestingly, the other group showed an increase in postural control when transferring from narrow to wide stance, associated with no change in muscle activity. These results confirm that adaptation of anticipatory postural control is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within biomechanical limits. However, transfer of control between stance widths is affected by the initial context in which the task is learned.

  15. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  16. Saccades Improve Postural Control: A Developmental Study in Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. Materials and Methods Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®). Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. Results During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades) in comparison with a simple task of fixation. Discussion - Conclusion These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway. PMID:24278379

  17. Observations of working postures in garages using the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS) and consequent workload reduction recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kant, I; Notermans, J H; Borm, P J

    1990-02-01

    The working postures of mechanics (n = 84) in 42 garages were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and work activities were recorded. A computer program was developed for the data analyses. Using this program it is possible to calculate the working posture load for each work activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This is a substantial extension of the original OWAS method. Five out of 19 observed postures of the body members were classified as Action Category 2, which suggests they were slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system and likely to cause discomfort. Of the so-called typical working postures, 31.9% was classified in Action Category 2, suggesting that during a substantial part of the working day typical working postures occur which are at least slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system. Moreover, those work activities principally causing the workload to fall in OWAS' higher Action Categories were identified. For each of these three work activities an alternative work method was observed. The data show that in all three work activities the use of a vehicle lift reduces the number of poor working postures thereby reducing the load on the musculoskeletal system.

  18. Postural visual dependence in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy during a postural challenging task.

    PubMed

    Abdul Razzak, Rima; Hussein, Wiam

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that diabetes may negatively affect vestibular function, and postural control more so under postural challenging conditions. Healthy and diabetic subjects were compared on visual control of posture during a postural challenging task. Forty-eight asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes free of peripheral neuropathy and 29 age-matched normal subjects were compared on postural stability on a high-density foam block with computerized posturography. Sway parameters were measured and Romberg ratios calculated and compared between the two groups. For subjects who succeeded in maintaining balance, all sway parameters were larger in the diabetics with vision available. With eye closure, only the sway area was almost significantly larger and of greater variability in diabetics, but with a smaller and less variable Romberg ratio. Among the two groups and visual conditions, the tightest anterioposterior-mediolateral (AP-ML) coupling was found in diabetics during eye closure. Differences in anthropometric factors did not influence postural sway. Despite the smaller Romberg ratios in diabetics than controls, findings still suggest greater but masked postural visual dependence in diabetics faced with postural challenging situations due to subclinical vestibular deficits. They also indicate that diabetics may be vulnerable before any clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy arise to falls on unstable surfaces especially in poorly lit areas, and may require to employ other complex postural tactics such as stiffening to maintain their balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New hypotheses about postural control support the notion that all dystonias are manifestations of excessive brain postural function

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Anne J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper postulates that all forms of the neurological movement disorder, dystonia, can be argued to reflect excessive function of one or more components of the brain postural system. This is based on four central arguments. First, because some forms of postural control are already known to be dynamic, rather than static, it is suggested that hyperkinetic dystonias reflect excessive function of dynamic postures, rather than abnormal movements. Second, the range of functional roles served by the postural system is hypothesized to include direct control of movement, suggesting a postural basis for task-specific dystonias. Third, by defining posture as a neural system that maintains body stabilization, it can be shown that the range of mechanical means of implementing stabilization, including co-contraction of antagonistic muscles, matches the range of presentations of dystonia. Fourth, it is shown that the above premises are able to account for previously unexplained observations in dystonia. Based on the inhibitory influence that stabilizing mechanisms exert on movement, it is suggested that the broad functional role that is here referred to as posture may be the function served by the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Specifically, it is proposed that this pathway centrally coordinates function of the distributed network of brain regions controlling posture and, in conjunction with the direct pathway, coordinates posture and movement. PMID:19180244

  20. Postural Stability in Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Normala; Perry, Meredith; Hill, Keith D; Kaur, Mandeep; Hale, Leigh

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) aged >65 years is increasing and estimated to quadruple by 2051. The aim of this study was to investigate postural stability in people with mild to moderate AD and factors contributing to postural instability compared with healthy peers (controls). A computerized systematic search of databases and a hand search of reference lists for articles published from 1984 onward (English-language articles only) were conducted on June 2, 2015, using the main key words "postural stability" and "Alzheimer's disease." Sixty-seven studies were assessed for eligibility (a confirmed diagnosis of AD, comparison of measured postural stability between participants with AD and controls, measured factors potentially contributing to postural instability). Data were extracted, and Downs and Black criteria were applied to evaluate study quality. Eighteen articles were analyzed using qualitative synthesis and reported based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Strength of evidence was guided by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Strong evidence was found that: (1) older adults with mild to moderate AD have reduced static and functional postural stability compared with healthy peers (controls) and (2) attentional demand during dual-task activity and loss of visual input were key factors contributing to postural instability. Deta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity of the data. Postural stability is impaired in older adults with mild to moderate AD. Decreasing visual input and concentrating on multiple tasks decrease postural stability. To reduce falls risk, more research discerning appropriate strategies for the early identification of impairment of postural stability is needed. Standardization of population description and consensus on outcome measures and the variables used to measure postural -instability and its contributing factors

  1. The role of central vision in posture: Postural sway adaptations in Stargardt patients.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Sbrollini, Agnese; Cavallini, Chanda; Busso, Alessandra; Pignata, Giulia; Knaflitz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The role of central and peripheral vision in the maintenance of upright stance is debated in literature. Stargardt disease causes visual deficits affecting the central field, but leaving unaltered a patient's peripheral vision. Hence, the study of this rare pathology gives the opportunity to selectively investigate the role of central vision in posture. Postural sway in quiet stance was analyzed in 10 Stargardt patients and 10 control subjects, in three different conditions: (1) eyes closed, (2) eyes open, gazing at a fixed target, and (3) eyes open, tracking a moving target. Stargardt patients outperformed controls in the condition with eyes closed, showing a reduced root mean square (RMS) of the medio-lateral COP displacement, while their performance was not significantly different from controls in the antero-posterior direction. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in open eyes conditions. These results suggest that Stargardt patients adapted to a different visual-somatosensory integration, relying less on vision, especially in the medio-lateral direction. Hence, the central vision seems to affect mostly the medio-lateral direction of postural sway. This finding supports the plausibility of the "functional sensitivity hypothesis", that assigns complementary roles to central and peripheral vision in the control of posture.

  2. Both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments are adapted while catching a ball in unstable standing posture.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Vanessa; Rios, Jaqueline L; Claudino, Renato; dos Santos, Eloá C; Angulski, Hanna B B; dos Santos, Marcio J

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the role of balance exercises on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in different conditions of postural stability. Sixteen subjects were required to catch a ball while standing on rigid floor, trampoline and foam cushion surfaces. Electromyographic activities (EMG) of postural muscles were analyzed during time windows typical for APAs and CPAs. Overall there were a reciprocal activation of the muscles around the ankle and co-activations between ventral and dorsal muscles of the thigh and trunk during the catching a ball task. Compared to the rigid floor, the tibialis anterior activation was greater during the trampoline condition (CPA: p = 0.006) and the soleus muscle inhibition was higher during foam cushion condition (APA: p = 0.001; CPA: p = 0.007). Thigh and trunk muscle activities were similar across the conditions. These results advance the knowledge in postural control during body perturbations standing on unstable surfaces.

  3. Posture support improves object individuation in infants.

    PubMed

    Woods, Rebecca J; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuohaptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants' sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant.

  4. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants’ ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2001; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants’ sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuo-haptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants’ sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant. PMID:23046431

  5. Postural reorganization induced by torso cutaneous covibration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Martin, Bernard J; Ho, Allison; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous information from joints has been attributed proprioceptive properties similar to those of muscle spindles. This study aimed to assess whether vibration-induced changes in torso cutaneous information contribute to whole-body postural reorganization in humans. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the left and right external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle locations at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. Vibrations around the torso were randomly applied at two locations simultaneously (covibration) or at all locations simultaneously. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that covibration applied to the skin over the internal oblique muscles induced shifts of both the head and torso in the anterior direction (torso flexion) while the hips shifted in the posterior direction (ankle plantar flexion). Conversely, covibration applied to the skin over the erector spinae muscle locations produced opposite effects. However, covibration applied to the skin over the left internal oblique and left erector spinae, the right internal oblique and right erector spinae, or at all locations simultaneously did not induce any significant postural changes. In addition, the center of pressure position as measured by the force plate was unaffected by all covibration conditions tested. These results were independent of stance and suggest an integrated and coordinated reorganization of posture in response to vibration-induced changes in cutaneous information. In addition, combinations of vibrotactile stimuli over multiple locations exhibit directional summation properties in contrast to the individual responses we observed in our previous work.

  6. Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  7. Postural Stability When Leaning from Perceived Upright

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanya, Robert D.; Grounds, John F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The transition between quiet stance and gait requires the volitional movement of one?s center of mass (COM) toward a limit of stability (LOS). The goal of this study was to measure the effect of leaning from perceived upright on postural stability when voluntarily maintaining fixed stance positions and during perturbations of the support surface. The COM was derived from force plate data in 12 healthy subjects while standing with feet positioned so that lateral base of support was equal to foot length. For all conditions, arms were folded and subjects were instructed to lean without bending at the hips or lifting their feet. The LOS was determined during maximal voluntary leans with eyes open and closed. The COM was then displayed on a monitor located in front of the subject. Subjects were visually guided to lean toward a target position, maintain this position for 10s, return to upright, and then repeat the same targeted lean maneuver with eyes closed. Targets were randomly presented at 2? in 8 directions and between 2-6? in these same directions according to the asymmetric LOS. Subjects were then verbally guided to lean between 2? back and 4? forward prior to a perturbation of the support surface in either a forward or backward direction. The average LOS was 5.8? forward, 2.9? back, and 4.8? in left/right directions, with no significant difference between eyes open and closed. Center of pressure (COP) velocity increased as subjects maintained fixed stance positions farther from upright, with increased variability during eyes closed conditions. The time to stability and COP path length increased as subjects leaned opposite to the direction of the support surface perturbations. We conclude that postural stability is compromised as subjects lean away from perceived upright, except for perturbations that induce sway in the direction opposite the lean. The asymmetric LOS relative to perceived upright favors postural stability for COM movements in the forward direction.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  9. Postural deformities in congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, G; Postlethwaite, R J; Lendon, M; Houston, I B; Savage, J M

    1981-01-01

    Six successive cases of congenital nephrotic syndrome are described. Each one showed flexion deformities of the knees and hips, widely open anterior and posterior fontanelles, and wide separation of the skull sutures. These abnormalities were present not only in cases in which the renal histology was of the microcystic Finnish type of congenital nephrotic syndrome, but also in those in which the histological picture was one of the variants associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. It is suggested that such abnormalities are postural deformities, possibly produced by the large placenta. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7332344

  10. Postural motor learning in Parkinson's disease: The effect of practice on continuous compensatory postural regulation.

    PubMed

    Van Ooteghem, Karen; Frank, James S; Horak, Fay B

    2017-09-01

    Although balance training is considered the most effective treatment for balance impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies have examined if learning for balance control remains intact with PD. This study aimed to determine if learning for automatic postural responses is preserved in people with PD. Eleven participants with moderate PD (68±6.4years; H&Y: 2-3) on their usual medication maintained balance on a platform that oscillated forward and backward with variable amplitude and constant frequency. Participants completed 42 trials during one training session, and retention and transfer tests following a 24-h delay. Performance was measured by comparing spatial and temporal measures of whole-body centre of mass (COM) with platform displacements. Learning was compared between participants with PD and previously reported, age-matched older adults (Van Ooteghem et al., 2010). Although postural responses in participants with PD were impaired compared to control participants, a majority of PD participants improved their postural responses with practice as revealed by reduced COM displacements and improved phase relationships between COM and platform motion. Rates of improvement were comparable between groups demonstrating preserved adaptive capacity for participants with PD. Similar to control participants, the PD group moved toward anticipatory COM control as a strategy for improving stability, exhibited short-term retention of performance improvements, and demonstrated generalizability of the learned responses. Rate of improvement with practice, but not retention, was related to severity of motor impairments. Patients with moderate PD on medication demonstrate retention of improvements in automatic postural responses with practice suggesting that intrinsic postural motor learning is preserved in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship Among Foot Posture, Core and Lower Extremity Muscle Function, and Postural Stability

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Stephen C.; Bazett-Jones, David M.; Joshi, Mukta N.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; James, C. Roger

    2014-01-01

    Context: Identification of impaired balance as a risk factor for lower extremity injury regardless of injury history has led to subsequent investigation of variables that may adversely affect balance in healthy individuals. Objectives: To investigate the relationship among core and lower extremity muscle function, foot posture, and balance. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Musculoskeletal injury biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 108 individuals (40 men, 68 women; age = 22.8 ± 4.7 years, height = 168.5 ± 10.4 cm, mass = 69.9 ± 13.3 kg) participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core endurance was assessed during 1 time-to-failure trial, and isometric hip and ankle strength were assessed using a handheld dynamometer and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. Foot structure was quantified using the digital photographic measurement method. Single-limb–stance time to boundary was assessed using a force plate during an eyes-closed condition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict balance using lower extremity strength, foot posture, and core endurance. Results: Foot posture (β = −0.22, P = .03) and ankle-inversion strength (β = −0.29, P = .006) predicted mediolateral balance. Increasing arch posture and ankle-inversion strength were associated with decreased mediolateral single-limb–stance balance. Conclusions: Increasing arch height was associated with decreased mediolateral control of single-limb stance. The relationship between time to boundary and injury risk, however, has not been explored. Therefore, the relationship between increasing arch height and injury due to postural instability cannot be determined from this study. If authors of future prospective studies identify a relationship between decreased time to boundary and increased injury risk, foot structure may be an important variable to assess during preparticipation physical examinations. The relationship

  12. Static Postural Stability Is Normal in Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brian; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An experiment on 15 dyslexic and 23 carefully matched control subjects (10- to 12-year-old males), examining their ability to maintain standing posture with eyes open and closed and with standard and tandem foot placement, revealed no differences under any condition tested and no differences in use of visual information to maintain their posture.…

  13. Prevalence of Common Postural Disorders Among Academic Dental Staff

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Leila; Halabchi, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Irandoost, Shahla; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems among dentists. These conditions may lead to inappropriate postures and impairment in physical and psychological function. On the other hand, poor postures and inappropriate ergonomic may result in a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common postural disorders of the spine and shoulder girdle among the dentists and possible correlations between demographic, anthropometric and occupational characteristics with these abnormal postures. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 96 dental staff including academic staff, residents and senior students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire and posture assessment tools such as plumb-line, checkerboard and flexible ruler. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 17. Results The prevalence of the forward head posture (FHP), rounded shoulder posture (RSP), scoliosis and hyperlordosis were reported in 85.5%, 68.8%, 18.8% and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. A significant correlation was found between gender and FHP (P = 0.04) and also scoliosis (P = 0.009). On the other hand, a significant correlation was seen between weight and hyperlordosis (P = 0.007). Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of postural disorders especially FHP, RSP and scoliosis among Iranian dental staff. The female dentists were less susceptible to FHP and scoliosis. PMID:27625751

  14. Severe postural hypotension following home canoe construction from polyester resins.

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, I. A.; Wilkinson, R.; Harrington, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    On two occasions a 36-year-old man developed severe postural hypotension and neurological signs after working with a polyester resin canoe building kit in an unventilated shed. It is likely that his recurrent illness was caused by styrene intoxication. Postural hypotension secondary to styrene exposure has not previously been reported. PMID:6463006

  15. Postural stability and occlusal status among Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Song-Yu, Xuan; Rodis, Omar M M; Ogata, Sagiri; Can-Hu, Jin; Nishimura, Michiko; Matsumura, Seishi

    2012-06-01

    There are still no data available on the relationship between postural stability and occlusal status among the elderly. To examine relationships between postural stability and occlusal status through a cohort study among elderly Japanese. Oral examination, occlusal status, postural stability and a questionnaire were conducted and given to 87 community-dwelling Japanese at enrolment. The average occlusal pressure of the female group was statistically higher than the male group while average occlusal pressure and postural stability length were lesser in the group with more remaining teeth. Postural stability area and number of remaining teeth showed statistically significant correlations. Postural stability length was lesser in the group with strong occlusal force. Furthermore, the number of decayed teeth was fewer in the good hygiene group. This study identified a close relationship between occlusal status and postural stability of Japanese older individuals. Occlusal hypofunction was observed more in those with occlusal problems, and a decrease in their occlusal functions resulted in postural instability. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Static Postural Stability Is Normal in Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brian; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An experiment on 15 dyslexic and 23 carefully matched control subjects (10- to 12-year-old males), examining their ability to maintain standing posture with eyes open and closed and with standard and tandem foot placement, revealed no differences under any condition tested and no differences in use of visual information to maintain their posture.…

  17. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  18. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Igarashi, M.; Guedry, F.; Anderson, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  19. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Igarashi, M.; Guedry, F.; Anderson, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  20. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  1. Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi and Down Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano; Vismara, Luca; Precilios, Helmer; Albertini, Giorgio; Rigoldi, Chiara; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Down (DS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterised by some common clinical and functional features including gait disorders and reduced postural control. The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare postural control in adult PWS and DS. We studied 12 PWS and 19 DS adult patients matched for age, height, weight…

  2. Turning Configural Processing Upside Down: Part and Whole Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Stone, Valerie E.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; McGoldrick, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of…

  3. The effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness on postural equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Miller, E. F., II

    1977-01-01

    A postflight postural equilibrium rail tests on spacecrews was used to prove a pronounced decrement in ability to maintain an upright posture after prolonged exposure to weightlessness. Support for the hypothesis that central neural reorganization occurs in response to environmental change is obtained when postflight decrease in stability on the rails and the time course for recovery are compared with preflight performance.

  4. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  5. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  6. Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi and Down Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano; Vismara, Luca; Precilios, Helmer; Albertini, Giorgio; Rigoldi, Chiara; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Down (DS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterised by some common clinical and functional features including gait disorders and reduced postural control. The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare postural control in adult PWS and DS. We studied 12 PWS and 19 DS adult patients matched for age, height, weight…

  7. Antisaccades in Parkinson disease: A new marker of postural control?

    PubMed

    Ewenczyk, Claire; Mesmoudi, Salma; Gallea, Cécile; Welter, Marie-Laure; Gaymard, Bertrand; Demain, Adèle; Yahia Cherif, Lydia; Degos, Bertrand; Benali, Habib; Pouget, Pierre; Poupon, Cyril; Lehericy, Stéphane; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Vidailhet, Marie

    2017-02-28

    To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades). We identified correlations between the clinical and physiologic parameters that best characterized patients with postural instability. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in 2 pathways involving the frontal oculomotor cortices and the MLR and sought correlations with saccadic behavior. Patients with PD with postural instability showed altered antisaccade latencies that correlated with the stand-walk-sit time (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and the duration of anticipatory postural adjustments before gait initiation (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). Functional connectivity between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the frontal eye field correlated with antisaccade latency in the HCs (r = -0.54, p = 0.02) but not in patients with PD. In PD, impairment of antisaccade latencies, a simple and robust parameter, may be an indirect marker correlated with impaired release of anticipatory postural program. PPN alterations may account for both antisaccade and postural impairments. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Turning Configural Processing Upside Down: Part and Whole Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Stone, Valerie E.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; McGoldrick, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of…

  9. Back to the Basics--Whatever Happened to Posture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Sally A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Data collected about 387 students mostly aged 18 to 34 participating in the Portland State University posture screening program revealed that, while almost 60 percent of students had postural asymmetrics, nearly half of the students were unaware of problems. Most students found the screening program valuable. (CB)

  10. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight.

    PubMed

    Black, F O; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F; Igarashi, M; Guedry, F; Anderson, D J

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  11. Group Rapport: Posture Sharing as a Nonverbal Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Marianne; Broadbent, Maida

    1976-01-01

    Systematic observation and a questionnaire format were used to investigate the relationship between posture sharing and self-report indications of rapport in a group situation--college seminar classrooms. The greater the amount of mirroring and congruent postures evidenced by students vis-a-vis the teacher, the higher the ratings of involvement.…

  12. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  13. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does.

  14. Biomechanical assessment of human posture: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rosário, José Luís Pimentel do

    2014-07-01

    Postural deviations have been linked to a series of different kinds of pain and dysfunction. However, posture is not an easy subject to study, mainly because postural assessments are still scientifically inaccurate, such as photography, or expensive, such as MRI, whereas others, such as X-ray, involve radiation problems. The aim of this literature review was to search for new scientific methods for assessing posture and to discuss which among both new and old methods are best for scientific and clinical objectives. The Medline and Lilacs databases were searched for the period 2003 to 2013 with the use of the following keywords: "posture" and "postural." A total of 452 articles that assessed posture in some way were found. Twenty-two articles were selected, and 11 relevant types of technologies were described. The relevant technologies discussed were force plate; pictures; goniometers, inclinometers, tape, and other devices; 3D analysis; 3D X-ray; sensors; electromyography; Kinect; magnetic resonance imaging; 4D computed tomography; and infrared. There is enough technology to make a very good quantitative evaluation possible. For example, the 3D MRI or the 4D CT can register static and dynamic posture. Other cheaper solutions may use combined and synchronized equipments. However, these synchronizations still require validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILD AND HIS POSTURE PATTERNS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIES, EVELYN A.

    A CHILD'S POSTURE PATTERNS MAY LEAD TO AN ADULT'S PHYSICAL HANDICAP. THE MAIN THEME OF THIS BOOK IS TO SERVE AS A GUIDE FOR THE ELEMENTARY TEACHER OR PARENT IN THE DETECTION AND UNDERSTANDING OF DEVIATIONS FROM THE NORMAL POSTURE PATTERNS WHILE THE CHILD IS SITTING, STANDING, OR MOVING ABOUT SO AS TO PREVENT FUTURE HANDICAPPING CONDITIONS.…

  16. Evolution of Sports-medical Team Management in the Program of Posture Correction in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torlakovic, Aldvin; Muftic, Mirsad; Radjo, Izet; Talovic, Munir; Mahmutovic, Ifet

    2014-01-01

    Goals: The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the organization and coordination of multidisciplinary team consisted of health and kinesiology professionals at the correction of posture among girls in the period of the second phase of intense growth and development. Material and methods: Testing was conducted on a sample of 70 girls, aged 11.9±2.3 years, in which by the expert evaluation is recorded weakness of individual muscle groups, but also of the whole musculature. For the assessment of posture we applied the method of Napoleon Wolanski. Used are 9 variables that included the observed region of the body and an overall assessment of posture. The subjects were included in the program of kinesiology treatment with duration of 28 weeks. For all the parameters have been applied statistical procedures at univariate and multivariate level. Results: Data on subjects were obtained by measuring the same variables at two time points, i.e. before and after the application of kinesiology treatments. Analyses of differences arithmetic mean and mean values were done with the t-test for paired samples. In order to determine global quantitative differences of tested variables tested discriminant analysis was applied. The results showed that the models which complement the experience and practical application of expert health professionals and kinesiology knowledge is a very effective tool for improving posture of girls in the second phase of intensive growth and development. In this way can be prevented health problems that might arise later in life. PMID:24944533

  17. Clinical working postures of bachelor of oral health students.

    PubMed

    Horton, S J; Johnstone, C L; Hutchinson, C M W; Taylor, P A; Wade, K J

    2011-09-01

    To observe and describe the clinical working postures of final-year Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH) students. Pilot observational study. The University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry and School of Physiotherapy. Eight final-year BOH students voluntarily participated in this study, where postural data were collected using a digital video camera during a standard clinical treatment session. The postural data were analysed using 3D Match biomechanical software. Final-year BOH students who work in the seated position are exposed to neck flexion of greater than 35 degrees, together with trunk flexion greater than 20 degrees and bilateral elbow flexion greater than 90 degrees. The findings of this study agree with the findings of previous postural studies of dental professionals. Dental hygiene students, together with their clinical supervisors, need to be aware of the importance of good working posture early in their careers, and pay particular attention to the degree of neck flexion occurring for prolonged periods.

  18. Ergonomic intervention for improving work postures during notebook computer operation.

    PubMed

    Jamjumrus, Nuchrawee; Nanthavanij, Suebsak

    2008-06-01

    This paper discusses the application of analytical algorithms to determine necessary adjustments for operating notebook computers (NBCs) and workstations so that NBC users can assume correct work postures during NBC operation. Twenty-two NBC users (eleven males and eleven females) were asked to operate their NBCs according to their normal work practice. Photographs of their work postures were taken and analyzed using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique. The algorithms were then employed to determine recommended adjustments for their NBCs and workstations. After implementing the necessary adjustments, the NBC users were then re-seated at their workstations, and photographs of their work postures were re-taken, to perform the posture analysis. The results show that the NBC users' work postures are improved when their NBCs and workstations are adjusted according to the recommendations. The effectiveness of ergonomic intervention is verified both visually and objectively.

  19. Selection and control of limb posture for stability.

    PubMed

    Franklin, David W; Selen, Luc P J; Franklin, Sae; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Impedance control can be used to stabilize the limb against both instability and unpredictable perturbations. Limb posture influences motor noise, energy usage and limb impedance as well as their interaction. Here we examine whether subjects use limb posture as part of a mechanism to regulate limb stability. Subjects performed stabilization tasks while attached to a two dimensional robotic manipulandum which generated a virtual environment. Subjects were instructed that they could perform the stabilization task anywhere in the workspace, while the chosen postures were tracked as subjects repeated the task. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the chosen limb postures, simulations of the neuro-mechanical system were performed. The results indicate that posture selection is performed to provide energy efficiency in the presence of force variability.

  20. Posture and performance: sitting vs. standing for security screening.

    PubMed

    Drury, C G; Hsiao, Y L; Joseph, C; Joshi, S; Lapp, J; Pennathur, P R

    2008-03-01

    A classification of the literature on the effects of workplace posture on performance of different mental tasks showed few consistent patterns. A parallel classification of the complementary effect of performance on postural variables gave similar results. Because of a lack of data for signal detection tasks, an experiment was performed using 12 experienced security operators performing an X-ray baggage-screening task with three different workplace arrangements. The current workplace, sitting on a high chair viewing a screen placed on top of the X-ray machine, was compared to a standing workplace and a conventional desk-sitting workplace. No performance effects of workplace posture were found, although the experiment was able to measure performance effects of learning and body part discomfort effects of workplace posture. There are implications for the classification of posture and performance and for the justification of ergonomics improvements based on performance increases.

  1. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture. PMID:23071672

  2. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  3. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Congcong; Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Fortino, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN)—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI), useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment. PMID:28353684

  4. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users.

    PubMed

    Ma, Congcong; Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Fortino, Giancarlo

    2017-03-29

    The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user's posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques-Decision Tree (J48), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN)-are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI), useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  5. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-01-01

    Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a “final common pathway” for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies, but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support. PMID:26198889

  6. Head posture in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Solow, B; Ovesen, J; Nielsen, P W; Wildschiødtz, G; Tallgren, A

    1993-04-01

    In growing subjects, obstruction of the upper airway may lead to excessive vertical facial development. According to the soft-tissue stretching hypothesis (Solow and Kreiborg, 1977) this could be due to an increased cranio-cervical angulation triggered by the airway obstruction. The present study aimed to examine the effect of airway obstruction on cranio-cervical posture in a sample of adult patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in the natural head position (mirror position) were obtained from 50 male patients aged 28-70 with polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. The Apnoea Index ranged from 21 to 98 episodes per hour with a mean of 54.6. Control samples were available from previous cephalometric studies of head posture in five samples of healthy subjects and one sample of congenitally blind subjects. The average cranio-cervical angle, NSL/OPT, was found to be extremely large (mean 104.1, SD 9.1) exceeding the average values in the control samples by 1-2 standard deviations (P < 0.001). It is suggested that the large cranio-cervical angle in OSA patients is a physiological adaptation aiming to maintain airway adequacy while the head, and thus the visual axis, is kept in its natural relationship to the true vertical. The findings thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that upper airway obstruction may trigger an increase in the cranio-cervical angulation.

  7. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  8. Automated assessment of postural stability system.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Ward, Christian R; Glass, Stephen M; Tucker, Carole; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-08-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is one of the most commonly used clinical tests to evaluate static postural stability deficits resulting from traumatic brain events and musculoskeletal injury. This test requires a trained operator to visually assess balance and give the subject a performance score based on the number of balance "errors" they committed. Despite being regularly used in several real-world situations, the BESS test is scored by clinician observation and is therefore (a) potentially susceptible to biased and inaccurate test scores and (b) cannot be administered in the absence of a trained provider. The purpose of this research is to develop, calibrate and field test a computerized version of the BESS test using low-cost commodity motion tracking technology. This `Automated Assessment of Postural Stability' (AAPS) system will quantify balance control in field conditions. This research goal is to overcome the main limitations of both the commercially available motion capture systems and the standard BESS test. The AAPS system has been designed to be operated by a minimally trained user and it requires little set-up time with no sensor calibration necessary. These features make the proposed automated system a valuable balance assessment tool to be utilized in the field.

  9. Artificial balancer - supporting device for postural reflex.

    PubMed

    Wojtara, Tytus; Sasaki, Makoto; Konosu, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masashi; Shimoda, Shingo; Alnajjar, Fady; Kimura, Hidenori

    2012-02-01

    The evolutionarily novel ability to keep ones body upright while standing or walking, the human balance, deteriorates in old age or can be compromised after accidents or brain surgeries. With the aged society, age related balance problems are on the rise. Persons with balance problems are more likely to fall during their everyday life routines. Especially in elderly, falls can lead to bone fractures making the patient bedridden, weakening the body and making it more prone to other diseases. Health care expenses for a fall patient are often very high. There is a great deal of research being done on exoskeletons and power assists. However, these technologies concentrate mainly on the amplifications of human muscle power while balance has to be provided by the human themself. Our research has been focused on supporting human balance in harmony with the human's own posture control mechanisms such as postural reflexes. This paper proposes an artificial balancer that supports human balance through acceleration of a flywheel attached to the body. Appropriate correcting torques are generated through our device based on the measurements of body deflections. We have carried out experiments with test persons standing on a platform subject to lateral perturbations and ambulatory experiments while walking on a balance beam. These experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of our device in supporting balance and the possibility of enhancing balance-keeping capability in human beings through the application of external torque.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of laryngeal posturing muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Fariborz; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo

    2003-10-01

    Viscoelastic properties of canine laryngeal muscles were measured in a series of in vitro experiments. Laryngeal posturing that controls vocal fold length and adduction/abduction is an essential component of the voice production. The dynamics of posturing depends on the viscoelastic and physiological properties of the laryngeal muscles. The time-dependent and nonlinear behaviors of these tissues are also crucial in the voice production and pitch control theories. The lack of information on some of these muscles such as posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA), and intraarytenoid muscle (IA) was the major incentive for this study. Samples of PCA and LCA muscles were made from canine larynges and mounted on a dual-servo system (Ergometer) as described in our previous works. Two sets of experiments were conducted on each muscle, a 1-Hz stretch and release experiment that provides stress-strain data and a stress relaxation test. Data from these muscles were fitted to viscoelastic models and Young's modulus and viscoelastic constants are obtained for each muscle. Preliminary data indicates that elastics properties of these muscles are similar to those of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. The relaxation response of these muscles also shows some similarity to other laryngeal muscles in terms of time constants.

  11. [Orthostatic postural tachycardia: study of 8 patients].

    PubMed

    Santiago Pérez, S; Ferrer Gila, T

    1998-02-07

    The occurrence of syncopal episodes is a very frequent event. In the absence of a structural systemic or cardiac disease, syncope is resulting of an anomalous cardiovascular response neurally mediated by the autonomic nervous system. It is the final common manifestation of different abnormal mechanisms and is frequently precipitated by orthostatism. Orthostatic intolerance syndrome refers to the development of symptoms during the upright posture that disappear in supine position. Tachycardia may be one of the clinical features of the syndrome. During orthostatic stress a hyperadrenergic response, with maintained increment of heart rate and associated symptoms, is developed. Changes in blood pressure may be diverse and in some cases hypotension and syncope occurs. Eight patients with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance who underwent autonomic evaluation and were diagnosed from postural tachycardia are presented. In all the cases an abnormal increment of heart rate during tilting was found and it was associated to hyperadrenergic symptoms. Evidence of restricted sympathetic impairment was observed in six cases with distal reduction of sudomotor function and abnormal adrenergic response during Valsalva manoeuvre. Symptoms disappeared or mostly subsided with pharmacological (amitriptyline in one case, phenobarbital in another one and non-cardioselective beta-blockers in six patients) and non-pharmacological treatment. In further examinations heart rate and blood pressure were normal.

  12. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  13. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

    PubMed

    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  14. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marília Fernandes; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Miguel, Michele Rita Oliveira; Simão, Talita Prado; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (p< 0.00), except for the angle of the Thales triangle. Reassessment of these students evidenced significant differences in the angles of the acromioclavicular joint (p=0.03), knee flexion (p< 0.00) and in the tibiotarsal angle (p< 0.00). All the students presented alterations when compared to the normality values. The segments that presented significant differences between before and after practice were the acromioclavicular angle, knee flexion, and tibiotarsal angle; the latter two were in the rolling position. Investigar a postura dos estudantes de enfermagem antes e após a prática clínica. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas etapas, inicialmente com estudantes (2º, 4°, 6° e 8º períodos) tiveram sua postural corporal avaliada por meio da fotogrametria. Todas as imagens foram analisadas, de maneira aleatória e mascarada, por meio do software CorporisPro® 3.1.3. Foram realizadas três avaliações para cada ângulo e calculada a média. Dois anos depois, quando os estudantes do 4º período desenvolveram os estágios clínicos, foram novamente avaliados quanto à postura corporal. A amostra total foi composta por 112 estudantes. Comparando-se os estudantes com o padrão de normalidade, todos os ângulos apresentaram diferença significativa (p< 0,00), com exce

  15. Effect of Seated Trunk Posture on Eye Blink Startle and Subjective Experience: Comparing Flexion, Neutral Upright Posture, and Extension of Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.; Dankaerts, Wim; Van Diest, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the current study was to explore this. Participants in the present study were requested to assume three different sitting postures: with the spine flexed (slouched), neutral upright, and extended. Each posture was assumed for four minutes, and was followed by the administration of brief self-report questionnaires before proceeding to the next posture. The same series of postures and measures were repeated prior to ending the experiment. Results indicate that, relative to the other postures, the extended sitting posture was associated with an increased startle, was more unpleasant, arousing, had smaller levels of dominance, induced more discomfort, and was perceived as more difficult. The upright and flexed sitting postures differed in the level of self-reported positive affect, but not in eye blink startle amplitudes. PMID:24516664

  16. Effect of seated trunk posture on eye blink startle and subjective experience: comparing flexion, neutral upright posture, and extension of spine.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Dankaerts, Wim; Van Diest, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the current study was to explore this. Participants in the present study were requested to assume three different sitting postures: with the spine flexed (slouched), neutral upright, and extended. Each posture was assumed for four minutes, and was followed by the administration of brief self-report questionnaires before proceeding to the next posture. The same series of postures and measures were repeated prior to ending the experiment. Results indicate that, relative to the other postures, the extended sitting posture was associated with an increased startle, was more unpleasant, arousing, had smaller levels of dominance, induced more discomfort, and was perceived as more difficult. The upright and flexed sitting postures differed in the level of self-reported positive affect, but not in eye blink startle amplitudes.

  17. Spino-pelvic postural changes between the standing and sitting human position: proposal of a method for its systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Berthonnaud, E; Hilmi, R; Labelle, H; Dimnet, J

    2011-09-01

    This study presents numerical tools, based on biplanar radiography, allowing to analyze the 3D changes in position and length of the various spinal segments with respect to the pelvis which occur between the standing and sitting positions. Three asymptomatic adult subjects and twelve adult patients with low back pain or scoliosis had biplanar calibrated radiographs in the erect posture and sitting position. The 3D points of the spinal curve were then reconstructed from their plane projections using a standard photogrammetric technique. A technical data form has been formulated to present and summarize the complex 3D spino-pelvic changes occurring between both postures. The spine and pelvis are displayed as a chain of linear articulated segments, in their plane of maximum curvature, allowing users to compare both postures and to assess the global and local spinal mobility between the two fixed postures. Examples of asymptomatic volunteers and of subjects with low back pain or scoliosis demonstrate that different strategies can be adopted to perform this simple task and are presented to illustrate these new techniques and their clinical potential to discriminate between and within normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Trunk postures and peak and cumulative low back kinetics during upright posture sheep shearing.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Diane E; Laughton, Carla; Carman, Allan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Callaghan, Jack P

    2009-12-01

    Sheep shearing is the most demanding occupation in the wool harvesting industry and is known to have a high prevalence of low back pain. While use of a commercially available trunk harness reduces load on the low back, the extreme trunk flexion associated with shearing still remains. A novel, upright posture shearing technique has been designed to allow a more neutral spine posture. This study assessed this upright technique and found significant reductions in both trunk flexion and cumulative low back loading when compared to either the traditional method or the use of the trunk harness. Moments about the shoulder tended to be higher while using the upright shearing technique and further investigation of shoulder kinetics will be required to assess whether this creates injury risk to the upper extremity. Despite increased shoulder moments, the reduction in flexion and cumulative loading with the use of the upright technique has the potential to reduce risk of low back pain among shearers.

  19. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  20. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control.

    PubMed

    Peterka, R J

    2002-09-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  1. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  2. Hemodynamic response to the upright posture.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Porth, C M; Erickson, M

    1994-05-01

    The authors' objective was to review previous studies of immediate (first 30 seconds) and stabilized (30 seconds to 20 minutes) hemodynamic responses of healthy adults to the head-up posture, with particular reference to alteration of such responses in the elderly and the usefulness of such data in the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. The immediate response in healthy young adults is characterized by a prompt rise in heart rate, which peaks at about 8 to 15 seconds and then tapers; the arterial pressure and total vascular resistance decrease sharply at 5 to 10 seconds, followed by a rapid rebound and overshoot. Over the first 30 seconds there is a steady parallel decline of thoracic blood volume and stroke volume; there is also an initial surge of cardiac output followed by a steady decrease. During the stabilized response (30 seconds to 20 minutes), the hemodynamic variables are relatively steady, showing average increases in heart rate of about 15 to 30%, in diastolic pressure of 10 to 15%, and in total vascular resistance of 30 to 40%; during the 5th to 20th minutes there are also decreases in thoracic blood volume averaging about 25 to 30%, in cardiac output 15 to 30%, and in pulse pressure about 5 to 10%. It is evident that in normal human subjects, assumption of the upright posture results in profound hemodynamic changes, most of them occurring during the first 30 seconds. In elderly subjects (aged 60-69 years), there are, in the upright posture, lesser increments of heart rate and diastolic pressure, but no significant differences from younger age groups in the response of thoracic blood volume, cardiac output or total vascular resistance. However, beginning at about age 75, there is an increasing incidence of orthostatic hypotension, which averages about 14 to 20% at age 75 and older. The tendency toward orthostatic hypotension in the elderly is due (1) to the structural and functional changes in the circulation itself, (2) to a decline in autonomic

  3. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  4. Postural perturbations: new insights for treatment of balance disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horak, F. B.; Henry, S. M.; Shumway-Cook, A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the neural control of posture as understood through studies of automatic responses to mechanical perturbations. Recent studies of responses to postural perturbations have provided a new view of how postural stability is controlled, and this view has profound implications for physical therapy practice. We discuss the implications for rehabilitation of balance disorders and demonstrate how an understanding of the specific systems underlying postural control can help to focus and enrich our therapeutic approaches. By understanding the basic systems underlying control of balance, such as strategy selection, rapid latencies, coordinated temporal spatial patterns, force control, and context-specific adaptations, therapists can focus their treatment on each patient's specific impairments. Research on postural responses to surface translations has shown that balance is not based on a fixed set of equilibrium reflexes but on a flexible, functional motor skill that can adapt with training and experience. More research is needed to determine the extent to which quantification of automatic postural responses has practical implications for predicting falls in patients with constraints in their postural control system.

  5. Postural orientation in microgravity depends on straightening up movement performed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2009-08-01

    Whether the vertical body orientation depends on the initial posture and/or the type of straightening up movement is the main question raised in this paper. Another objective was to specify the compensatory role of visual input while adopting an erected posture during microgravity. The final body orientation was analysed in microgravity during parabolic flights. After either (1) straightening up movement from a crouching or (2) a sitting posture, with and without vision. The main results are the following: (1) a vertical erected final posture is correctly achieved after sit to stand movement, whereas all subjects were tilted forward after straightening up from a crouching posture and (2) vision may contribute to correct final posture. These results suggest the existence of a re-weighting of the remaining sensory information, visual information, contact cutaneous cues and proprioceptive information under microgravity condition. We can put forward the alternative hypothesis that the control of body orientation under microgravity condition may also be achieved on the basis of a postural body scheme, that seems to be dependant on the type of movement and/ or the initial position of the whole body.

  6. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  7. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postural perturbations: new insights for treatment of balance disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horak, F. B.; Henry, S. M.; Shumway-Cook, A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the neural control of posture as understood through studies of automatic responses to mechanical perturbations. Recent studies of responses to postural perturbations have provided a new view of how postural stability is controlled, and this view has profound implications for physical therapy practice. We discuss the implications for rehabilitation of balance disorders and demonstrate how an understanding of the specific systems underlying postural control can help to focus and enrich our therapeutic approaches. By understanding the basic systems underlying control of balance, such as strategy selection, rapid latencies, coordinated temporal spatial patterns, force control, and context-specific adaptations, therapists can focus their treatment on each patient's specific impairments. Research on postural responses to surface translations has shown that balance is not based on a fixed set of equilibrium reflexes but on a flexible, functional motor skill that can adapt with training and experience. More research is needed to determine the extent to which quantification of automatic postural responses has practical implications for predicting falls in patients with constraints in their postural control system.

  9. Postural control in nurses with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Froom, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in nurses, but it is unclear if the pain is associated with measurements of postural control. Objective measurements of function might be useful in the evaluation of patients with LBP in order to evaluate and predict disability, and in the study of the pathophysiology of chronic LBP. In a cross-sectional study, we measured the number of postural adjustments, and degree of posterior-lateral sway in 81 nurses, using a computerized postural sway four-platter measurement system. There were 41 (56.6%) nurses who complained of LBP at the time of testing, and another 12 (14.8%) with a past history of LBP. Nurses with LBP consistently used more postural adjustments to keep their balance (p<0.003), and in some positions postural adjustments were positively associated with the degree of past and present pain. LBP was not significantly associated with the degree of lateral sway. Nurses either with present or a past history of LBP use an increased number of postural adjustments to maintain balance. Studies are warranted to determine if postural testing can predict the development of LBP or aid in determining appropriate preventive measures.

  10. Postural alterations and pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Waleska da; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Menezes, Sara Lucia Siveira de

    2010-01-01

    Mouth-breathing children have changes in their stomatognathic system, which result in head projection, stress increase in the scapular belt muscles and postural adaptations. Although thoracic shape and posture can influence ventilatory dynamics, we didn't find studies addressing pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children. this study aimed at analyzing the posture of mouth-breathing children, and studying the existence of correlations between posture and pulmonary volumes. prospective, observational and cross-sectional study, where the posture and pulmonary function of 17 mouth-breathing children and of 17 nasal-breathing children were evaluated by means of photogrammetry and forced spirometry. when compared to nasal-breathing, mouth-breathing subjects presented an increment in head projection and cervical lordosis, forwarded gravity center and reduced pulmonary volumes. There was an association between head projection and forced vital capacity, and between postural alterations and age. mouth-breathing children have postural alterations which increases with age and also reduced spirometry values. The vital capacity reduction correlates negatively with head projection.

  11. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  12. Emotional and movement-related body postures modulate visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Maier, Martin E.; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others’ emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body images with neutral, fearful or happy expressions. At the early stage of visual structural encoding (N190), we found a difference in the sensitivity of the two hemispheres to observed body postures. Specifically, the right hemisphere showed a N190 modulation both for the motion content (i.e. all the observed postures implying body movements elicited greater N190 amplitudes compared with static postures) and for the emotional content (i.e. fearful postures elicited the largest N190 amplitude), while the left hemisphere showed a modulation only for the motion content. In contrast, at a later stage of perceptual representation, reflecting selective attention to salient stimuli, an increased early posterior negativity was observed for fearful stimuli in both hemispheres, suggesting an enhanced processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. The observed modulations, both at the early stage of structural encoding and at the later processing stage, suggest the existence of a specialized perceptual mechanism tuned to emotion- and action-related information conveyed by human body postures. PMID:25556213

  13. Emotional and movement-related body postures modulate visual processing.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Maier, Martin E; Avenanti, Alessio; Bertini, Caterina

    2015-08-01

    Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others' emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body images with neutral, fearful or happy expressions. At the early stage of visual structural encoding (N190), we found a difference in the sensitivity of the two hemispheres to observed body postures. Specifically, the right hemisphere showed a N190 modulation both for the motion content (i.e. all the observed postures implying body movements elicited greater N190 amplitudes compared with static postures) and for the emotional content (i.e. fearful postures elicited the largest N190 amplitude), while the left hemisphere showed a modulation only for the motion content. In contrast, at a later stage of perceptual representation, reflecting selective attention to salient stimuli, an increased early posterior negativity was observed for fearful stimuli in both hemispheres, suggesting an enhanced processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. The observed modulations, both at the early stage of structural encoding and at the later processing stage, suggest the existence of a specialized perceptual mechanism tuned to emotion- and action-related information conveyed by human body postures. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Posture and aging. Current fundamental studies and management concepts].

    PubMed

    Mourey, F; Camus, A; Pfitzenmeyer, P

    2000-02-19

    FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE OF POSTURE: In the elderly subject, preservation of posture is fundamental to maintaining functional independence. In recent years, there has been much progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying strategies used to control equilibrium in the upright position. Physiological aging, associated with diverse disease states, dangerously alters the postural function, particularly anticipated adjustments which allow an adaptation of posture to movement. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF POSTURE: Several tests have been developed to assess posture in the elderly subject, particularly the time it takes to start walking. We selected certain tests which can be used in everyday practice to predict falls: the stance test, the improved Romberg test, the "timed get up and go test", measurement of walking cadence, assessment of balance reactions, sitting-standing and standing-sitting movements and capacity to get up off the floor. PATIENT CARE: Elderly patients with equilibrium disorders can benefit from specific personalized rehabilitation protocols. Different techniques have been developed for multiple afferential stimulation, reprogramming postural strategies, and correcting for deficient motor automatisms.

  15. Directional specificity of postural threat on anticipatory postural adjustments during lateral leg raising.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Manon; Yiou, Eric; Gélat, Thierry; Honeine, Jean-Louis; Deroche, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the directional specificity of fear of falling (FoF) effects on the stabilizing function of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). Participants (N = 71) performed a series of lateral leg raises from an elevated surface in three conditions: in the "Control condition", participants stood at the middle of the surface; in the two test conditions, participants were positioned at the lateral edge of the surface so that the shift of the whole-body centre-of-mass during APA for leg raising was directed towards the edge ("Approach condition") or was directed away from the edge ("Avoidance condition"). Results showed that the amplitude of APA was lower in the "Approach condition" than in the "Control condition" (p < .01); this reduction was compensated for by an increase in APA duration (p < .05), so that both postural stability and motor performance (in terms of peak leg velocity, final leg posture and movement duration) remained unchanged. These changes in APA parameters were not present in the "Avoidance condition". Participants further self-reported a greater FoF (p < .001) and a lower ability to avoid a fall (p < .001) in the "Approach condition" (but not in the "Avoidance condition") than in the "Control condition". The results of this study show that the effects of FoF do not solely depend on initial environmental conditions, but also on the direction of APA relative to the location of the postural threat. These results support the so-called Motivational Direction Hypothesis, according to which approach and avoidance behaviours are primed by emotional state.

  16. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 2. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) utilizes anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments to maintain equilibrium while standing. It is known that these postural adjustments involve displacements of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between APAs and CPAs from a kinetic and kinematic perspective. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed during the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. When the perturbations were unpredictable, the COM and COP displacements were larger compared to predictable conditions with APAs. Thus, the peak of COM displacement, after the pendulum impact, in the posterior direction reached 28+/-9.6mm in the unpredictable conditions with no APAs whereas it was 1.6 times smaller, reaching 17+/-5.5mm during predictable perturbations. Similarly, after the impact, the peak of COP displacement in the posterior direction was 60+/-14 mm for unpredictable conditions and 28+/-3.6mm for predictable conditions. Finally, the times of the peak COM and COP displacements were similar in the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This outcome provides additional knowledge about how body balance is controlled in presence and in absence of information about the forthcoming perturbation. Moreover, it suggests that control of posture could be enhanced by better utilization of APAs and such an approach could be considered as a valuable modality in the rehabilitation of individuals with balance impairment.

  17. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    2017-07-05

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (<14) for all the studies. The main areas of weakness were a clear description of the participants, of the methods used to access posture, of the principal confounders and lack of power analysis. External and internal validity were also threatened by the lack of a representative sample and blinding of the participants and assessors, respectively. The review provides low evidence that mouth-breathing pattern in children between the ages 5-14 years is associated with postural deviations. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional muscle synergies constrain force production during postural tasks.

    PubMed

    McKay, J Lucas; Ting, Lena H

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a set of five functional muscle synergies were sufficient to characterize both hindlimb muscle activity and active forces during automatic postural responses in cats standing at multiple postural configurations. This characterization depended critically upon the assumption that the endpoint force vector (synergy force vector) produced by the activation of each muscle synergy rotated with the limb axis as the hindlimb posture varied in the sagittal plane. Here, we used a detailed, 3D static model of the hindlimb to confirm that this assumption is biomechanically plausible: as we varied the model posture, simulated synergy force vectors rotated monotonically with the limb axis in the parasagittal plane (r2=0.94+/-0.08). We then tested whether a neural strategy of using these five functional muscle synergies provides the same force-generating capability as controlling each of the 31 muscles individually. We compared feasible force sets (FFSs) from the model with and without a muscle synergy organization. FFS volumes were significantly reduced with the muscle synergy organization (F=1556.01, p<0.01), and as posture varied, the synergy-limited FFSs changed in shape, consistent with changes in experimentally measured active forces. In contrast, nominal FFS shapes were invariant with posture, reinforcing prior findings that postural forces cannot be predicted by hindlimb biomechanics alone. We propose that an internal model for postural force generation may coordinate functional muscle synergies that are invariant in intrinsic limb coordinates, and this reduced-dimension control scheme reduces the set of forces available for postural control.

  19. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    PubMed

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (p<0.0001), and these improvements were significantly more pronounced for students starting loupes immediately on entering the program compared with students who delayed until the second session (p<0.1). These results suggest a significant postural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  20. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  1. Postural motor programming in paraplegic patients during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Seelen, H A; Potten, Y J; Adam, J J; Drukker, J; Spaans, F; Huson, A

    1998-03-01

    One of the basic aims in the rehabilitation of thoracic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients concerns the regaining of sitting posture control. This implies the development of new postural strategies requiring the adjustment of motor programming processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of postural reorganization during active, clinical rehabilitation of thoracic SCI patients with different SCI levels. Thus changes in motor programming in sitting balance control were investigated in two groups of complete low or high thoracic SCI patients. At several stages during the rehabilitation process an experiment was held in which sitting posture was perturbed systematically using submaximal reaching movements over four reaching distances. This bimanual reaching task was presented as a visual precue choice reaction time (RT) task in which reaching distance (i.e. grade of postural perturbation) was precued. Results indicated that in both high and low thoracic SCI patients RTs in movements involving postural perturbation became shorter during the course of the rehabilitation period. However, low thoracic SCI patients were generally slower in the programming of balance perturbing movements than high thoracic SCI patients, a phenomenon that did not change over time. Furthermore, initial differences in RTs as a function of grade of postural perturbation disappeared in both groups in the course of the rehabilitation phase. Precue benefit, equally large for both groups, did not change as a function of rehabilitation time. It is concluded that the observed phenomena signify the gradual development of new central postural control processes in both SCI groups during rehabilitation. Low thoracic SCI patients, having more residual sensorimotor functions, seem to adopt more complex strategies in maintaining and restoring sitting balance that take longer to specify and to programme. High thoracic SCI patients seem to rely on simpler strategies using more passive

  2. The relationship between a child's postural stability and manual dexterity.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Mushtaq, Faisal; Hill, Liam J B; Holt, Raymond J; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The neural systems responsible for postural control are separate from the neural substrates that underpin control of the hand. Nonetheless, postural control and eye-hand coordination are linked functionally. For example, a stable platform is required for precise manual control tasks (e.g. handwriting) and thus such skills often cannot develop until the child is able to sit or stand upright. This raises the question of the strength of the empirical relationship between measures of postural stability and manual motor control. We recorded objective computerised measures of postural stability in stance and manual control in sitting in a sample of school children (n = 278) aged 3-11 years in order to explore the extent to which measures of manual skill could be predicted by measures of postural stability. A strong correlation was found across the whole sample between separate measures of postural stability and manual control taken on different days. Following correction for age, a significant but modest correlation was found. Regression analysis with age correction revealed that postural stability accounted for between 1 and 10% of the variance in manual performance, dependent on the specific manual task. These data reflect an interdependent functional relationship between manual control and postural stability development. Nevertheless, the relatively small proportion of the explained variance is consistent with the anatomically distinct neural architecture that exists for 'gross' and 'fine' motor control. These data justify the approach of motor batteries that provide separate assessments of postural stability and manual dexterity and have implications for therapeutic intervention in developmental disorders.

  3. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses.

    PubMed

    Deliagina, Tatiana G; Beloozerova, Irina N; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Zelenin, Pavel V

    2014-01-01

    Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey) and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat). In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS) neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms - spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed.

  4. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses

    PubMed Central

    Deliagina, Tatiana G.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Zelenin, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey) and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat). In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS) neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms – spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed. PMID:25324741

  5. Postural dependence of human locomotion during gait initiation

    PubMed Central

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Simoneau, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of human walking involves postural motor actions for body orientation and balance stabilization that must be effectively integrated with locomotion to allow safe and efficient transport. Our ability to coordinately adapt these functions to environmental or bodily changes through error-based motor learning is essential to effective performance. Predictive compensations for postural perturbations through anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that stabilize mediolateral (ML) standing balance normally precede and accompany stepping. The temporal sequencing between these events may involve neural processes that suppress stepping until the expected stability conditions are achieved. If so, then an unexpected perturbation that disrupts the ML APAs should delay locomotion. This study investigated how the central nervous system (CNS) adapts posture and locomotion to perturbations of ML standing balance. Healthy human adults initiated locomotion while a resistance force was applied at the pelvis to perturb posture. In experiment 1, using random perturbations, step onset timing was delayed relative to the APA onset indicating that locomotion was withheld until expected stability conditions occurred. Furthermore, stepping parameters were adapted with the APAs indicating that motor prediction of the consequences of the postural changes likely modified the step motor command. In experiment 2, repetitive postural perturbations induced sustained locomotor aftereffects in some parameters (i.e., step height), immediate but rapidly readapted aftereffects in others, or had no aftereffects. These results indicated both rapid but transient reactive adaptations in the posture and gait assembly and more durable practice-dependent changes suggesting feedforward adaptation of locomotion in response to the prevailing postural conditions. PMID:25231611

  6. Postural adjustment after an unexpected perturbation in children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    De Souza, F M B; Pereira, R P; Minuque, N P; Do Carmo, C M; De Mello, M H M; Villaça, P; Tanaka, C

    2012-05-01

    Children with haemophilia often bleed inside joints and muscles, which may impair postural adjustments. These postural adjustments are necessary to control postural balance during daily activities. The inability to quickly recover postural balance could elevate the risk of bleeding. To determine whether children with haemophilia have impaired postural adjustment after an unexpected perturbation compared with healthy children. Twenty children with haemophilia comprised the haemophilic group (HG), and 20 healthy, age-paired children comprised the control group (CG). Subjects stood on a force plate, and 4% of the subjects' body weight was applied via a pulley system to a belt around the subjects' trunks. The centre of pressure (COP) displacement was measured after the weight was unexpectedly released to produce a controlled postural perturbation followed by postural adjustment to recover balance. The subjects' postural adjustments in eight subsequent intervals of 1 s (t1-t8), beginning with the moment of weight removal, were compared among intervals and between groups. The applied perturbation magnitudes were the same for both groups, and no difference was observed between the groups in t1. However, the COP displacement in t2 in the HG was significantly higher than in the CG. No differences were observed between the groups in the other intervals. Within-group analysis showed that the COP was higher in t2 than in t4 (P = 0.016), t5 (P = 0.001) and t8 (P = 0.050) in the HG. No differences were observed among intervals in the CG. Children with haemophilia demonstrated differences in postural adjustment while undergoing unexpected balance perturbations when compared with healthily children.

  7. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture. PMID:27390405

  8. Microcomputer video image processing technology in working posture analysis: application to seated postures of keyboard operators.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, T V; Green, R A; Briggs, C A

    1991-02-01

    A new two-dimensional video-based technique for the recording and analysis of working posture has been developed and applied to seated work. After initial set-up of the portable equipment in the workplace, and attachment of small adhesive retroreflective joint markers on the subject, an operator is not required for the remainder of the recording session. Analysis of the video recording is conducted in the laboratory using custom-written software and a commercially available image-processing package running on an IBM AT-compatible computer. After interactive set-up of a reference frame, the system is able to analyse the full video tape automatically, extracting video frames for analysis at approximately 30-s intervals. Poor image quality may occasionally necessitate interactive analysis. The system is capable of determining postural angles to an accuracy of 1-2 degrees , and thus represents a substantial improvement on other postural analysis systems which are able to be used readily in the workplace.

  9. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture.

  10. Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Zellweger, René

    2007-01-01

    Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral, non-fatiguing geotropic positional nystagmus and a mild ataxia together with dysdiadochokinesis. He also had a mild chronic encephalopathy. Following treatment with clonazepam, the tremors subsided, but were not completely controlled.

  11. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  12. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  13. Prephonatory chest wall posturing in stutterers.

    PubMed

    Baken, R J; McManus, D A; Cavallo, S A

    1983-09-01

    The possibility that prephonatory chest wall posturing is abnormal in stutterers was explored by observing rib cage and abdominal hemicircumference changes during the interval between the presentation of a stimulus and the production of/alpha/by a group of stutterers (N = 5). It was found that the patterns of chest wall adjustment for phonation were qualitatively identical in the stutterers and in a comparable group of normal men studied previously. There was, however, a significant difference in the way in which lung volume changed during the execution of the chest wall adjustment. This was considered to be indicative of delayed glottal closure among the stutterers rather than representative of a primary ventilatory disturbance.

  14. Design of posture and activity detector (PAD).

    PubMed

    Bliley, Kara E; Schwab, Daniel J; Zahn, Sharon K; Rowley, Katharine L; Kane, Paul H; Levine, James A; Daniel, Erik S; Gilbert, Barry K

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much research and development of wearable devices using accelerometers for studying physical activity. Previously, we have described the development of the Posture and Activity Detector (PAD). After demonstrating success with PAD, we were motivated to improve the design by taking the device one step further and implementing all of these components on a single printed circuit board, adding a few additional features to make the system more flexible, and custom-designing an outer case. We have continued our efforts in improving PAD with respect to software development as well as making PAD more physically robust and mass producible. In this paper, the specifications for PAD will be outlined including its hardware and software components, and clinical research applications.

  15. Posture kinematics reconstruction and body model creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, M.; Schmid, M.; Conforto, S.; Carli, Marco; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2004-05-01

    Postural ability can be evaluated through the analysis of body oscillations, by estimating the displacements of selected sets of body segments. The analysis of human movement is generally achieved through the exploitation of stereophotogrammetric systems that rely on the use of markers. Marker systems show a high cost and patient settings which can be uncomfortable. On the other hand, the use of force platform has some disadvantages: the acquisition of dynamics data permits to estimate only the body oscillations as a whole, without any information about individual body segment movements. Some of these drawbacks can be overcome by the use of video systems, applying a marker-free sub-pixel algorithm. In this paper, a novel method to evaluate balance strategies that utilises commercial available systems and applies methods for feature extraction and image processing algorithms is presented.

  16. Functional asymmetry of posture and body system regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boloban, V. N.; Otsupok, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The manifestation of functional asymmetry during the regulation of an athlete's posture and a system of bodies and its effect on the execution of individual and group acrobatic exercises were studied. Functional asymmetry of posture regulation was recorded in acrobats during the execution of individual and group exercises. It was shown that stability is maintained at the expense of bending and twisting motions. It is important to consider whether the functional asymmetry of posture regulation is left or right sided in making up pairs and groups of acrobats.

  17. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria P.; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  18. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  19. Posture and posterior crossbite in oral and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jecilene Rosana; Pereira, Silvia Regina Amorim; Pignatari, Shirley S N; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    The most known etiologic factors of oral breathing may influence the craniofacial development leading to anatomical and functional alterations. A proper head and cervical spine posture allows a well functioning of the stomatognathic system structures and vice versa. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of posterior crossbite in a group of oral breathing children (OB) and nasal (NB) and associate the type of bite with the head and cervical spine posture. It was concluded that most of the children, either oral or nasal breathers, did not present a crossbite and any kind of head posture and cervical spine can vary independently of a posterior crossbite.

  20. Distal Sudomotor Findings in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Amanda C.; Garland, Emily; Raj, Satish R.; Sato, Kyoko; Black, Bonnie; Song, Yanna; Wang, Lily; Biaggioni, Italo; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David

    2011-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by excessive orthostatic tachycardia in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and by sympathetic nervous system activation. Postganglionic sudomotor deficits have been used to define a neurogenic postural tachycardia POTS subtype. Norepinephrine levels above 600 pg/ml have also been used to delineate patients with a hyperadrenergic state. This study aims to determine the relationship of sudomotor abnormalities to other aspects of dysautonomia in POTS. Autonomic function was quantified in thirty women through tests of cardiovagal, adrenergic, and sudomotor function including quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) and spectral indices. Differences between patients with and without sudomotor dysfunction as defined by QSART and between patients with and without hyperadrenergic POTS were assessed with Mann Whitney U test and Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square test using a p value of 0.01 for significance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test raw sweat volume correlations with other variables. Of thirty women (ages 20–58), seventeen patients (56%) had an abnormal QSART which was typically patchy and involved the lower extremity, while thirteen patients had normal QSART results. Other autonomic tests, catecholamines or spectral indices did not correlate with QSART results. No differences in autonomic tests or spectral indices were observed between hyperadrenergic and non-hyperadrenergic POTS. Our findings confirm that a large subset of POTS patients have sudomotor abnormalities which are typically patchy in distribution but do not correlate with other tests of autonomic function. Further studies are needed to determine the best method of endophenotyping patients with POTS. PMID:20035362

  1. Shoulder posture and median nerve sliding

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Andrea; Lees, Rebecca; Dilley, Andrew; Lynn, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Background Patients with upper limb pain often have a slumped sitting position and poor shoulder posture. Pain could be due to poor posture causing mechanical changes (stretch; local pressure) that in turn affect the function of major limb nerves (e.g. median nerve). This study examines (1) whether the individual components of slumped sitting (forward head position, trunk flexion and shoulder protraction) cause median nerve stretch and (2) whether shoulder protraction restricts normal nerve movements. Methods Longitudinal nerve movement was measured using frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis from high frequency ultrasound images during individual components of slumped sitting. The effects of protraction on nerve movement through the shoulder region were investigated by examining nerve movement in the arm in response to contralateral neck side flexion. Results Neither moving the head forward or trunk flexion caused significant movement of the median nerve. In contrast, 4.3 mm of movement, adding 0.7% strain, occurred in the forearm during shoulder protraction. A delay in movement at the start of protraction and straightening of the nerve trunk provided evidence of unloading with the shoulder flexed and elbow extended and the scapulothoracic joint in neutral. There was a 60% reduction in nerve movement in the arm during contralateral neck side flexion when the shoulder was protracted compared to scapulothoracic neutral. Conclusion Slumped sitting is unlikely to increase nerve strain sufficient to cause changes to nerve function. However, shoulder protraction may place the median nerve at risk of injury, since nerve movement is reduced through the shoulder region when the shoulder is protracted and other joints are moved. Both altered nerve dynamics in response to moving other joints and local changes to blood supply may adversely affect nerve function and increase the risk of developing upper quadrant pain. PMID:15282032

  2. Postural support by a standing aid alleviating subjective discomfort among cooks in a forward-bent posture during food preparation.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Kunisue, Reiko; Sotoyama, Midori; Udo, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects on subjective discomfort among cooks during food preparation through use of a standing aid that we developed to alleviate the workload on the low back in the forward-bent posture. Twelve female cooks who worked in a kitchen in a nursing home were asked to prepare foods in 2 working postures: (a) supported by the standing aid (Aid) and (b) without the aid (No aid). They were instructed to evaluate discomfort in 13-body regions during food preparation and the degree of fatigue at the day's end and to enter their ratings after the end of the workday. Since a significant correlation was observed between body height and the improvement effect of discomfort through use of the standing aid, cooks were divided into two groups according to the height, and ratings were analyzed in each group. Among the tall cooks, subjective discomfort in the low back and the front and back of thighs was significantly less with the Aid posture than with the No aid posture. However, in short cooks these values tended to increase in the Aid posture compared with the No aid posture. The results suggest that the standing aid was effective in alleviating tall cooks' workload on the low back in the forward-bent posture.

  3. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  4. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  5. Dual task interference on postural sway, postural transitions and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B

    2017-07-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The validity of the first and second generation Microsoft Kinect™ for identifying joint center locations during static postures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; McGorry, Raymond W

    2015-07-01

    The Kinect™ sensor released by Microsoft is a low-cost, portable, and marker-less motion tracking system for the video game industry. Since the first generation Kinect sensor was released in 2010, many studies have been conducted to examine the validity of this sensor when used to measure body movement in different research areas. In 2014, Microsoft released the computer-used second generation Kinect sensor with a better resolution for the depth sensor. However, very few studies have performed a direct comparison between all the Kinect sensor-identified joint center locations and their corresponding motion tracking system-identified counterparts, the result of which may provide some insight into the error of the Kinect-identified segment length, joint angles, as well as the feasibility of adapting inverse dynamics to Kinect-identified joint centers. The purpose of the current study is to first propose a method to align the coordinate system of the Kinect sensor with respect to the global coordinate system of a motion tracking system, and then to examine the accuracy of the Kinect sensor-identified coordinates of joint locations during 8 standing and 8 sitting postures of daily activities. The results indicate the proposed alignment method can effectively align the Kinect sensor with respect to the motion tracking system. The accuracy level of the Kinect-identified joint center location is posture-dependent and joint-dependent. For upright standing posture, the average error across all the participants and all Kinect-identified joint centers is 76 mm and 87 mm for the first and second generation Kinect sensor, respectively. In general, standing postures can be identified with better accuracy than sitting postures, and the identification accuracy of the joints of the upper extremities is better than for the lower extremities. This result may provide some information regarding the feasibility of using the Kinect sensor in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  7. Postural changes following sensory reinterpretation as an analog to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Doxey, D. D.; Skinner, N. C.; Michaud, L. J.; Parker, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Postural control changes noted in astronauts immediately following spaceflight are thought to be caused by inflight adaptative changes in Central Nervous System (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. In order to elicit these adaptative changes in ground based studies, a Tilt Translation Device (TTD) which causes the CNS of exposed subjects to reinterpret tilt generated sensory inputs from the otolith organs as linear translation of the subject was developed. This device was designed to simulate partially the stimulus rearrangement experienced by astronauts during microgravity. Postural stability is assessed in ten subjects before and after 30 minutes of exposure to TTD. The resulting data suggests that exposure to TTD causes decreases in postural stability and shifts in postflight studies of astronauts. It is concluded that the TTD may be an effective weightlessness simulator, and that the postural changes following TTD exposure may provide a useful dependent measure for evaluation of this apparatus.

  8. Models of the vestibular system and postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Weiss, A.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of control theory and systems analysis to the problem of orientation and posture control are discussed, with the possible long range goals of contributing to the development of hardware for rehabilitation of the handicapped.

  9. Correcting working postures in industry: A practical method for analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhu, O; Kansi, P; Kuorinka, I

    1977-12-01

    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie, the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), is presented. The method consists of two parts. The first is an observational technique for evaluating working postures. It can be used by work-study engineers in their daily routine and it gives reliable results after a short training period. The second part of the method is a set of criteria for the redesign of working methods and places. The criteria are based on evaluations made by experienced workers and ergonomics experts. They take into consideration factors such as health and safety, but the main emphasis is placed on the discomfort caused by the working postures. The method has been extensively used in the steel company which participated in its development. Complete production lines have already been redesigned on the basis of information gathered from OWAS, the result being more comfortable workplaces as well as a positive effect on production quality.

  10. Observing working postures in industry: Examples of OWAS application.

    PubMed

    Karhu, O; Härkönen, R; Sorvali, P; Vepsäläinen, P

    1981-03-01

    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), was presented in an earlier paper (Karhu et al, 1977). The application of the method is here described by means of two examples. One is a case study undertaken by members of an ergonomics training course, in which a marked improvement in working posture was achieved by OWAS analysis of critical activities. The second illustrates the effect of setting up a multidisciplinary group in order to develop an alternative method for the installation and maintenance of steel mill equipment. In both examples, application of the OWAS method led to improved posture in the situations studied, and to the likelihood of its wider industrial use.

  11. Models of the vestibular system and postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Weiss, A.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of control theory and systems analysis to the problem of orientation and posture control are discussed, with the possible long range goals of contributing to the development of hardware for rehabilitation of the handicapped.

  12. Postural changes following sensory reinterpretation as an analog to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Doxey, D. D.; Skinner, N. C.; Michaud, L. J.; Parker, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Postural control changes noted in astronauts immediately following spaceflight are thought to be caused by inflight adaptative changes in Central Nervous System (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. In order to elicit these adaptative changes in ground based studies, a Tilt Translation Device (TTD) which causes the CNS of exposed subjects to reinterpret tilt generated sensory inputs from the otolith organs as linear translation of the subject was developed. This device was designed to simulate partially the stimulus rearrangement experienced by astronauts during microgravity. Postural stability is assessed in ten subjects before and after 30 minutes of exposure to TTD. The resulting data suggests that exposure to TTD causes decreases in postural stability and shifts in postflight studies of astronauts. It is concluded that the TTD may be an effective weightlessness simulator, and that the postural changes following TTD exposure may provide a useful dependent measure for evaluation of this apparatus.

  13. Human Energy Expenditure and Postural Coordination on the Mechanical Horse.

    PubMed

    Baillet, Héloïse; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vérin, Eric; Tourny, Claire; Benguigui, Nicolas; Komar, John; Leroy, David

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated and compared the energy expenditure and postural coordination of two groups of healthy subjects on a mechanical horse at 4 increasing oscillation frequencies. Energy expenditure was assessed from the oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, and heart rate values, and postural coordination was characterized by relative phase computations between subjects (elbow, head, trunk) and horse. The results showed that the postural coordination of the riders was better adapted (i.e., maintenance of in-phase and antiphase) than that of the nonriders, but the energy expenditure remains the same. Likewise, we observed an energy system shifting only for nonriders (from aerobic to lactic anaerobic mode). Finally, cross-correlations showed a link between energy expenditure and postural coordination in the riders (i.e., effectiveness).

  14. Turning configural processing upside down: part and whole body postures.

    PubMed

    Reed, Catherine L; Stone, Valerie E; Grubb, Jefferson D; McGoldrick, John E

    2006-02-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of inversion effects were compared for body parts, scrambled bodies, and body halves relative to whole bodies and to corresponding conditions for faces and houses. Results suggest that configural body posture recognition relies on the structural hierarchy of body parts, not the parts themselves or a complete template match. Configural recognition of body postures based on information about the structural hierarchy of parts defines an important point on the configural processing continuum, between recognition based on first-order spatial relations and recognition based on holistic undifferentiated template matching. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Communicating hands: ERPs elicited by meaningful symbolic hand postures.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Thomas C; Bach, Patric

    2004-11-30

    Meaningful and meaningless hand postures were presented to subjects who had to carry out a semantic discrimination task while electrical brain responses were recorded. Both meaningful and control sets of hand postures were matched as closely as possible. The ERPs elicited by meaningless hand postures showed an anteriorly distributed N300 and a centro-posteriorly distributed N400 component. The N300 probably reflects picture-specific processes, whereas the N400-effect probably reflects processing in an amodal semantic network. The scalp-distribution of the N400-effect, which is more posterior than usually reported in picture processing, suggests that the semantic representations of the concepts expressed by meaningful hand postures have similar properties to those of abstract words.

  16. Movement plans for posture selection do not transfer across hands.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christoph; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In a sequential task, the grasp postures people select depend on their movement history. This motor hysteresis effect results from the reuse of former movement plans and reduces the cognitive cost of movement planning. Movement plans for hand trajectories not only transfer across successive trials, but also across hands. We therefore asked whether such a transfer would also be found in movement plans for hand postures. To this end, we designed a sequential, continuous posture selection task. Participants had to open a column of drawers with cylindrical knobs in ascending and descending sequences. A hand switch was required in each sequence. Hand pro/supination was analyzed directly before and after the hand switch. Results showed that hysteresis effects were present directly before, but absent directly after the hand switch. This indicates that, in the current study, movement plans for hand postures only transfer across trials, but not across hands.

  17. Transition from Rocking to Crawling: Postural Constraints on Infant Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated postural constraints on movement of 15 6-month-old infants. Results suggested that each of the developing capabilities of orienting, reaching, and kicking assumed a specific function for locomotion at the stage of crawling. (RJC)

  18. Changes in Habitual and Active Sagittal Posture in Children and Adolescents with and without Visual Input – Implications for Diagnostic Analysis of Posture

    PubMed Central

    Mazet, Carola; Mazet, Dirk; Hammes, Annette; Schmitt, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor posture in children and adolescents has a prevalence of 22-65% and is suggested to be responsible for back pain. To assess posture, photometric imaging of sagittal posture is widely used, but usually only habitual posture positions (resting position with minimal muscle activity) are analysed. Aim The objective of this study was 1) to investigate possible changes in posture-describing parameters in the sagittal plane, when the subjects changed from a habitual passive posture to an actively corrected posture, and 2) to investigate the changes in posture parameters when an actively corrected posture was to be maintained with closed eyes. Materials and Methods In a group of 216 male children and adolescents (average 12.4 ± 2.5 years, range 7.0 – 17.6 years), six sagittal posture parameters (body tilt BT, trunk incline TI, posture index PI, horizontal distances between ear, shoulder and hip and the perpendicular to the ankle joint) were determined by means of photometric imaging in an habitual passive posture position, in an actively erect posture with eyes open, and in active stance with eyes closed. The change in these parameters during the transition between the posture positions was analysed statistically (dependent t-Test or Wilcoxon-Test) after Bonferroni correction (p<0.004). Results When moving from a habitual passive to an active posture BT, TI, PI, dEar, dShoulder, and dHip decreased significantly(p< 0.004). When the eyes were closed, only the perpendicular distances (dEar, dShoulder, and dHip) increased significantly. The parameters that describe the alignment of the trunk sections in relation to each other (BT, TI, PI), remained unchanged in both actively regulated posture positions. Conclusion Changes in sagittal posture parameters that occur when a habitual passive posture switches into an active posture or when an active posture is to be maintained while the eyes are closed can be used for diagnostic purposes regarding poor posture

  19. Postural orientation modifications in autism in response to ambient lenses.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carmody, D P; Gaydos, A

    1996-01-01

    Autistic children often display abnormal postures, head tilts, and other spatial management dysfunctions. Methods were introduced to measure spatial orientation in tasks in a group of fourteen autistic children in Montreal, Canada. Ambient lenses were found to improve posture, correct head tilts, and improve ball catching abilities. A model of spatial orientation is described and recommendations are made to incorporate ambient lenses in treatment programs.

  20. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body’s center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase “posturo-respiratory synchronization;” which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86±5yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85±6yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  1. The Relationship of Military Posture to National Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    suspicious, and uncertain in their international relationships , and if anything seem to be pursuing a more obscurantist and even romantic foreign...4 "Copy 9 of 100 copies AD-A239 144 IDA PAPER P-1588 THE RELATIONSHIP OF MILITARY POSTURE TO NATIONAL POLICY William J. Schultis Herschel Kanter John...FINAL: SEPTEMBER 1981 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS THE RELATIONSHIP OF MILITARY POSTURE TO NATIONAL POLICY NONE 6. AUTHOR(S) W. Schultis

  2. Real-time posture reconstruction for Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Shum, Hubert P H; Ho, Edmond S L; Jiang, Yang; Takagi, Shu

    2013-10-01

    The recent advancement of motion recognition using Microsoft Kinect stimulates many new ideas in motion capture and virtual reality applications. Utilizing a pattern recognition algorithm, Kinect can determine the positions of different body parts from the user. However, due to the use of a single-depth camera, recognition accuracy drops significantly when the parts are occluded. This hugely limits the usability of applications that involve interaction with external objects, such as sport training or exercising systems. The problem becomes more critical when Kinect incorrectly perceives body parts. This is because applications have limited information about the recognition correctness, and using those parts to synthesize body postures would result in serious visual artifacts. In this paper, we propose a new method to reconstruct valid movement from incomplete and noisy postures captured by Kinect. We first design a set of measurements that objectively evaluates the degree of reliability on each tracked body part. By incorporating the reliability estimation into a motion database query during run time, we obtain a set of similar postures that are kinematically valid. These postures are used to construct a latent space, which is known as the natural posture space in our system, with local principle component analysis. We finally apply frame-based optimization in the space to synthesize a new posture that closely resembles the true user posture while satisfying kinematic constraints. Experimental results show that our method can significantly improve the quality of the recognized posture under severely occluded environments, such as a person exercising with a basketball or moving in a small room.

  3. Static Postural Control in Youth With Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type I.

    PubMed

    Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Lemay, Martin; Rauch, Frank; Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas

    2017-04-19

    To assess static postural control in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I as compared with typically developing (TD) individuals and to explore the relation between postural control and lower limb muscle function. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient department of a pediatric orthopedic hospital. A convenience sample (N=38) of individuals with OI type I (n=22; mean age, 13.1y; range, 6-21y) and TD individuals (n=16; mean age, 13.1y; range, 6-20y) was selected. Participants were eligible if they were between 6 and 21 years and if they did not have any fracture or surgery in the lower limb in the 12 months before testing. Not applicable. Postural control was assessed through static balance tests and muscle function through mechanographic tests on a force platform. Selected postural parameters were path length, velocity, 90% confidence ellipse area, and the ellipse's length of the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes. Mechanographic parameters were peak force and peak power as measured using the multiple two-legged hopping and the single two-legged jump test, respectively. Individuals with OI type I had poorer postural control than did TD individuals as indicated by longer and faster displacements and a larger ellipse area. Muscle function was unrelated to postural control in the OI group. Removing visual information resulted in a larger increase in postural control parameters in the OI group than in the TD group. A proprioceptive deficit could explain poorer postural control in individuals with OI type I. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, TW; Gurfinkel, VS; Horak, FB; Cordo, PJ; Ames, KE

    2010-01-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo “long-term” (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of “short-term” (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (~50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21185100

  6. Guidelines for wrist posture based on carpal tunnel pressure thresholds.

    PubMed

    Keir, Peter J; Bach, Joel M; Hudes, Mark; Rempel, David M

    2007-02-01

    To develop work guidelines for wrist posture based on carpal tunnel pressure. Wrist posture is considered a risk factor for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, and sustained wrist deviation from neutral at work may be associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, the physiologic basis for wrist posture guidelines at work is limited. The relationship of wrist posture to carpal tunnel pressure was examined in 37 healthy participants. The participants slowly moved their wrists in extension-flexion and radioulnar deviation while wrist posture and carpal tunnel pressure were recorded. The wrist postures associated with pressures of 25 and 30 mmHg were identified for each motion and used to determine the 25th percentile wrist angles (the angles that protect 75% of the study population from reaching a pressure of 25 or 30 mmHg). Using 30 mmHg, the 25th percentile angles were 32.7 degrees (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.2-38.1 degrees) for wrist extension, 48.6 degrees (37.7 -59.4 degrees) for flexion, 21.8 degrees (14.7-29.0 degrees) for radial deviation, and 14.5 degrees (9.6-19.4 degrees) for ulnar deviation. For 25 mmHg, the 25th percentile angles were 26.6 degrees and 37.7 degrees for extension and flexion, with radial and ulnar deviation being 17.8 degrees and 12.1 degrees, respectively. Further research can incorporate the independent contributions of pinch force and finger posture into this model. The method presented can provide wrist posture guidelines for the design of tools and hand-intensive tasks.

  7. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  8. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Postural reactions to neck vibration in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Peter; Krafczyk, Siegbert; Saling, Marian; Benetin, Ján; Bötzel, Kai

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that reduced reactions to proprioceptive input signals contribute to postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD), pulses of mechanical vibration were applied to the neck muscles of PD patients and healthy controls. This stimulus elicits postural reactions in standing subjects. Participating were 13 moderately affected PD patients, 13 severely affected PD patients, and 13 age-matched healthy subjects. Patients were tested on and off medication. Three-second-long pulses of vibration were regularly (10 times) applied to the posterior neck muscles while subjects kept their eyes open or closed. Postural responses to the stimuli were measured by static posturography. No intergroup difference in the pattern and latencies of responses was found. However, the amplitudes of the postural reactions (shift of center of foot pressure) were significantly larger in advanced PD patients; those of moderately affected PD patients did not differ from those of control subjects. Moreover, the size of postural responses in both latter groups decreased across the trial contrary to that of advanced PD patients. Comparison of the measures during on and off testing revealed no significant differences. These results indicate that neither afferent proprioceptive deficits nor central integrative functions but rather scaling and habituation of erroneous proprioceptive information are disturbed in the postural control of advanced PD. Nondopaminergic structures seem to be responsible for this impairment.

  10. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  11. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints. PMID:28192522

  12. Evidence from the eyes: Threatening postures hold attention.

    PubMed

    Azarian, Bobby; Esser, Elizabeth G; Peterson, Matthew S

    2016-06-01

    Efficient detection of threat provides obvious survival advantages and has resulted in a fast and accurate threat-detection system. Although beneficial under normal circumstances, this system may become hypersensitive and cause threat-processing abnormalities. Past research has shown that anxious individuals have difficulty disengaging attention from threatening faces, but it is unknown whether other forms of threatening social stimuli also influence attentional orienting. Much like faces, human body postures are salient social stimuli, because they are informative of one's emotional state and next likely action. Additionally, postures can convey such information in situations in which another's facial expression is not easily visible. Here we investigated whether there is a threat-specific effect for high-anxious individuals, by measuring the time that it takes the eyes to leave the attended stimulus, a task-irrelevant body posture. The results showed that relative to nonthreating postures, threat-related postures hold attention in anxious individuals, providing further evidence of an anxiety-related attentional bias for threatening information. This is the first study to demonstrate that attentional disengagement from threatening postures is affected by emotional valence in those reporting anxiety.

  13. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  14. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  15. Adaptability of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Hussein, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The control of balance is crucial for efficiently performing most of our daily motor tasks, such as those involving goal-directed arm movements or whole body displacement. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it is to recall how balance can be maintained despite the different sources of postural perturbation arising during voluntary movement. The importance of the so-called “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APA), taken as a “line of defence” against the destabilizing effect induced by a predicted perturbation, is emphasized. Secondly, it is to report the results of recent studies that questioned the adaptability of APA to various constraints imposed on the postural system. The postural constraints envisaged here are classified into biomechanical (postural stability, superimposition of motor tasks), (neuro) physiological (fatigue), temporal (time pressure) and psychological (fear of falling, emotion). Overall, the results of these studies point out the capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt the spatio-temporal features of APA to each of these constraints. However, it seems that, depending on the constraint, the “priority” of the CNS was focused on postural stability maintenance, on body protection and/or on maintenance of focal movement performance. PMID:22720267

  16. Postural control in strabismic children: importance of proprioceptive information

    PubMed Central

    Lions, Cynthia; Bui Quoc, Emmanuel; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of proprioceptive information during postural control in strabismic children. Methods: Postural stability was recorded with a platform (Techno Concept®) in 12 strabismic children aged from 4.9 to 10 years and data were compared to that of 12 control age-matched children. Two postural positions were performed: Romberg and Tandem. Two postural conditions: without and with foam pad. We analyzed the surface area, the length, the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) and the effect of proprioceptive information. Results: Strabismic children are more instable than control age-matched children. The surface, the length and the mean speed of CoP are significantly higher in strabismic children than in control age-matched children. Both groups are more instable in Tandem position than in Romberg position. Finally, strabismic children use more proprioceptive information than control age-matched children. Conclusion: For both Romberg and Tandem position, strabismic children are more instable than control age-matched children. Strabismic children use proprioceptive information more than control age-matched children to control their posture. Significance: Proprioceptive inputs are important for control posture particularly for strabismic population. PMID:24795651

  17. Use of Video Analysis System for Working Posture Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Timothy D.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1994-01-01

    In a work environment, it is important to identify and quantify the relationship among work activities, working posture, and workplace design. Working posture may impact the physical comfort and well-being of individuals, as well as performance. The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive menu and button driven software prototype written in Supercard (trademark). Human Factors analysts are provided with a predefined set of options typically associated with postural assessments and human performance issues. Once options have been selected, the program is used to evaluate working posture and dynamic tasks from video footage. PVAT has been used to evaluate postures from Orbiter missions, as well as from experimental testing of prototype glove box designs. PVAT can be used for video analysis in a number of industries, with little or no modification. It can contribute to various aspects of workplace design such as training, task allocations, procedural analyses, and hardware usability evaluations. The major advantage of the video analysis approach is the ability to gather data, non-intrusively, in restricted-access environments, such as emergency and operation rooms, contaminated areas, and control rooms. Video analysis also provides the opportunity to conduct preliminary evaluations of existing work areas.

  18. "Stand up straight": notes toward a history of posture.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-03-01

    The essay presents a set of interlinked claims about posture in modern culture. Over the past two centuries it has come to define a wide range of assumptions in the West from what makes human beings human (from Lamarck to Darwin and beyond) to the efficacy of the body in warfare (from Dutch drill manuals in the 17th century to German military medical studies of soldiers in the 19th century). Dance and sport both are forms of posture training in terms of their own claims. Posture separates 'primitive' from 'advanced' peoples and the 'ill' from the 'healthy.' Indeed an entire medical sub-specialty developed in which gymnastics defined and recuperated the body. But all of these claims were also part of a Western attempt to use posture (and the means of altering it) as the litmus test for the healthy modern body of the perfect citizen. Focusing on the centrality of posture in two oddly linked moments of modern thought--modern Zionist thought and Nationalism in early 20th century China--in terms of bodily reform, we show how "posture" brings all of the earlier debates together to reform the body.

  19. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  20. "Postural first" principle when balance is challenged in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Spada, Rosario S; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Anello, Guido; Bosco, Paolo; Calabrese, Santa; Iero, Antonella; Stella, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Perrin, Philippe P

    2014-08-01

    Human cognitive processing limits can lead to difficulties in performing two tasks simultaneously. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive load on both simple and complex postural tasks. Postural control was evaluated in 128 noninstitutionalized elderly people (mean age = 73.6 ± 5.6 years) using a force platform on a firm support in control condition (CC) and mental counting condition (MCC) with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Then, the same tests were performed on a foam support. Sway path traveled and area covered by the center of foot pressure were recorded, low values indicating efficient balance. On firm support, sway path was higher in MCC than in CC both in EO and EC conditions (p < 0.001). On foam support, sway path was higher in CC than in MCC in EC condition (p < 0.001), area being higher in CC than in MCC both in EO (p < 0.05) and EC (p < 0.001) conditions. The results indicate that cognitive load alters balance control in a simple postural task (i.e. on firm support), which is highlighted by an increase of energetic expenditure (i.e. increase of the sway path covered) to balance. Awareness may not be increased and the attentional demand may be shared between balance and mental task. Conversely, cognitive load does not perturb the realization of a new complex postural task. This result showed that postural control is prioritized ("postural first" principle) when seriously challenged.

  1. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture.

    PubMed

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  2. Recruitment order of the abdominal muscles varies with postural task.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, C D; Cresswell, A G; Thorstensson, A; Carpenter, M G

    2013-06-01

    Abdominal muscle recruitment strategies in response to a postural perturbation contradict the theory that the deeper abdominal muscles are always recruited in advance of the more superficial muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such contrasting muscle recruitment patterns are due to the postural task or the predictability of a postural task. Participants performed an arm raise task as well as an unpredictable and a predictable balance perturbation task (i.e. support-surface translation) while intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the deep [transversus abdominis (TrA)] and superficial [obliquus externus (OE)] abdominal muscles. The abdominal muscle recruitment order was dependent on the postural task but not on the predictability of a postural perturbation. Whereas arm raises elicited similar EMG onset latencies in TrA and OE, the OE onset latency was 48 ms earlier than the TrA following an unpredictable translation (P = 0.003). The early OE activation persisted when the translation was made predictable to the participant (P = 0.024). These results provide evidence that the abdominal muscle recruitment order varies with the trunk stability requirements specific to each task. Rehabilitation strategies focusing on an early TrA activation to improve postural stability may not be appropriate for all everyday tasks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Effects of Levodopa on Postural Strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Rocchi, Laura; Horak, Fay

    2016-05-01

    Altered postural control and balance are major disabling issues of Parkinson's disease (PD). Static and dynamic posturography have provided insight into PD's postural deficits; however, little is known about impairments in postural coordination. We hypothesized that subjects with PD would show more ankle strategy during quiet stance than healthy control subjects, who would include some hip strategy, and this stiffer postural strategy would increase with disease progression. We quantified postural strategy and sway dispersion with inertial sensors (one placed on the shank and one on the posterior trunk at L5 level) while subjects were standing still with their eyes open. A total of 70 subjects with PD, including a mild group (H&Y≤2, N=33) and a more severe group (H&Y≥3, N=37), were assessed while OFF and while ON levodopa medication. We also included a healthy control group (N=21). Results showed an overall preference of ankle strategy in all groups while maintaining balance. Postural strategy was significantly lower ON compared to OFF medication (indicating more hip strategy), but no effect of disease stage was found. Instead, sway dispersion was significantly larger in ON compared to OFF medication, and significantly larger in the more severe PD group compared to the mild. In addition, increased hip strategy during stance was associated with poorer self-perception of balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lumbar posture and muscular activity while sitting during office work.

    PubMed

    Mörl, Falk; Bradl, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Field study, cross-sectional study to measure the posture and sEMG of the lumbar spine during office work for a better understanding of the lumbar spine within such conditions. There is high incidence of low back pain in office workers. Currently there is little information about lumbar posture and the activity of lumbar muscles during extended office work. Thirteen volunteers were examined for around 2h of their normal office work. Typical tasks were documented and synchronised to a portable long term measuring device for sEMG and posture examination. The correlation of lumbar spine posture and sEMG was tested statistically. The majority of time spent in office work was sedentary (82%). Only 5% of the measured time was undertaken in erect body position (standing or walking). The sEMG of the lumbar muscles under investigation was task dependent. A strong relation to lumbar spine posture was found within each task. The more the lumbar spine was flexed, the less there was activation of lumbar muscles (P < .01). Periods of very low or no activation of lumbar muscles accounted for about 30% of relaxed sitting postures. Because of very low activation of lumbar muscles while sitting, the load is transmitted by passive structures like ligaments and intervertebral discs. Due to the viscoelasticity of passive structures and low activation of lumbar muscles, the lumbar spine may incline into de-conditioning. This may be a reason for low back pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Video Analysis System for Working Posture Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Timothy D.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1994-01-01

    In a work environment, it is important to identify and quantify the relationship among work activities, working posture, and workplace design. Working posture may impact the physical comfort and well-being of individuals, as well as performance. The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive menu and button driven software prototype written in Supercard (trademark). Human Factors analysts are provided with a predefined set of options typically associated with postural assessments and human performance issues. Once options have been selected, the program is used to evaluate working posture and dynamic tasks from video footage. PVAT has been used to evaluate postures from Orbiter missions, as well as from experimental testing of prototype glove box designs. PVAT can be used for video analysis in a number of industries, with little or no modification. It can contribute to various aspects of workplace design such as training, task allocations, procedural analyses, and hardware usability evaluations. The major advantage of the video analysis approach is the ability to gather data, non-intrusively, in restricted-access environments, such as emergency and operation rooms, contaminated areas, and control rooms. Video analysis also provides the opportunity to conduct preliminary evaluations of existing work areas.

  6. Posture and low back pain during pregnancy - 3D study.

    PubMed

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Tomasik, Paweł; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Głuszak, Michał; Krawczak, Karolina; Michoński, Jakub; Czyżewska, Anna; Żukowska, Agnieszka; Sitnik, Robert; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a common complaint of pregnant women. The posture, curvatures of the spine and the center of gravity changes are considered as the mechanisms leading to pain. The study aimed to assess spinal curvatures and static postural characteristics with three-dimensional surface topography and search for relationships with the occurrence of back pain complaints among pregnant women. The study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2014. Patients referred from University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics were examined outpatient at the Posture Study Unit of Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Sixty-five women at 4-39 weeks of pregnancy were assessed and surveyed with Oswestry Disability Index; posture was evaluated using surface topography. The study confirmed that difficulties in sitting and standing are significant in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The overall tendency for significant lumbar curvature changes in pregnant women was not confirmed. Major changes in sagittal trunk inclination in relation to the plumb line were not observed in the study group. The issue regarding how the pregnancy causes changes in spinal curvature and posture remains open for further studies. Presented method of 3D surface topography can reveal postural changes, but that requires several exams of each subject and strict follow-up of the series of cases.

  7. Contorted and ordinary body postures in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Emilie C.; Wolford, George; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and comprehension of non-verbal behaviour requires a representation of people’s bodies. Research into the neural underpinnings of body representation implicates several brain regions including extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The different roles played by these regions in parsing familiar and unfamiliar body postures remain unclear. We examined the responses of this body observation network to static images of ordinary and contorted postures by using a repetition suppression design in functional neuroimaging. Participants were scanned whilst observing static images of a contortionist or a group of objects in either ordinary or unusual configurations, presented from different viewpoints. Greater activity emerged in EBA and FBA when participants viewed contorted compared to ordinary body postures. Repeated presentation of the same posture from different viewpoints lead to suppressed responses in the fusiform gyrus as well as three regions that are characteristically activated by observing moving bodies, namely STS, IFG and IPL. These four regions did not distinguish the image viewpoint or the plausibility of the posture. Together, these data define a broad cortical network for processing static body postures, including regions classically associated with action observation. PMID:19943038

  8. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints.

  9. Monitoring the prevalence of postural changes in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nichele da Rosa, Bruna; Noll, Matias; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Furlanetto, Tassia Silveira; Candotti, Claudia Tarrago

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify whether postural changes are prevalent with advancing age using a photogrammetric method performing one-year follow-up study. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight schoolchildren were evaluated in 2011 and 2012 in this cohort study. The subjects underwent a postural evaluation, which involved palpation of reference anatomic points, placement of reflexive markers over the anatomic points, image acquisition, and point digitalization using the Digital Image-based Postural Assessment evaluation software. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were analyzed by McNemar’s test. [Results] The results showed a significant increase in postural change prevalence for the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane (from 42.2% to 81.6%) and the knees in the frontal plane (from 39.5% to 63.2%) and a significant decrease in the prevalence of scoliosis (from 68.5% to 42.2%). [Conclusion] The findings indicate an increase in the prevalence of postural changes in schoolchildren from Teutônia, RS, Brazil, in 2012 compared with 2011. The development of longitudinal investigations for long-term monitoring of the evolution of posture and of schoolchildren habits’s representing a viable alternative to subsidize health actions. PMID:27065514

  10. Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin L; Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. Anteriorly-directed force perturbations were applied to the upper back with a padded pendulum and attempted to challenge the postural control system without eliciting a stepping response. In three separate sessions, subjects were perturbed both before and after a fatiguing protocol that induced lumbar extensor fatigue to one of three different fatigue levels. Postural strategy was quantified using center of pressure position along with joint angles and joint torques for the ankle, knee, hip, and "low back" joints. Results showed both proactive and reactive changes in postural strategy. Proactive changes involved a slight anterior lean prior to the perturbation, and reactive changes were consistent with a shift toward more of a hip strategy with fatigue. In addition, results suggested that subjects classified as moving mostly at the hip prior to fatigue were more affected by fatigue compared to subjects classified as moving roughly equal amounts at the ankle and hip prior to fatigue. Increasing fatigue level exaggerated some, but not all, of the changes in postural strategy with fatigue. These findings illustrate that neuromuscular fatigue can influence postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation.

  11. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI) values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems. PMID:21244705

  12. Low back pain related to bowing posture of greenhouse farmers.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Okazaki, F; Suenaga, T; Sakurai, T; Takamatsu, M

    1980-12-01

    Farming by means of greenhouses has spread in different parts of Japan during the past 20 years. Low back pain, an important health problem for farmers, affects those working inside a greenhouse as a result of their taking up particular postures. In order to analyze ergonomic problems of greenhouse farming relevant to low back pain, localized fatigue complaints and parts of the body where fatigue was felt during fruit picking were studied among 49 female farmers engaged in greenhouse strawberry culture and 53 female farmers engaged in greenhouse eggplant culture. Furthermore, the bowing posture for strawberry picking was compared with that of eggplant picking using newly devised posture-pattern recording equipment. More than 50% of strawberry or eggplant farmers complained of fatigue in the lower back and shoulders. The prevalence of low back pain was significantly higher among strawberry farmers than among eggplant farmers, probably due to the deep bowing posture of the farmer during picking work. The new posture-pattern recording equipment proved useful for investigating changes of work postures.

  13. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clémence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  14. The effect of aging on anticipatory postural control.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) between young and older adults and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Ten healthy older adults and thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations using the pendulum impact paradigm. Electromyographic activity of the trunk and leg muscles, the center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements in the anterior-posterior direction were recorded and analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) phases of postural control. The effect of aging was seen as delayed anticipatory muscle activity and larger compensatory muscle responses in older adults as compared to young adults. Moreover, in spite of such larger reactive responses, older adults were still more unstable, exhibiting larger COP and COM peak displacements after the perturbation than young adults when exposed to similar postural disturbances. Nonetheless, while APAs are impaired in older adults, the ability to recruit muscles anticipatorily is largely preserved; however, due to their smaller magnitudes and delayed onsets, it is likely that their effectiveness in reducing the magnitude of CPAs is smaller. The outcome of the study lends support toward investigating the ways of improving anticipatory postural control in people with balance impairments due to aging or neurological disorders.

  15. Acute changes in postural control after soccer heading.

    PubMed

    Haran, F J; Tierney, R; Wright, W G; Keshner, E; Silter, M

    2013-04-01

    This study intended to determine if an acute bout of soccer heading alters postural control and pronounced self-reported symptoms of cerebral concussion. Collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Each participant completed a baseline postural control assessment prior to heading. Participants either simulated (control group; CG) or performed (experimental group; EG) 10 headers at 11.2 m/s in 10 min. The postural assessment was repeated post heading at hrs 1, 24, and 48. The postural control parameter assessed was the root mean square (RMS) of the center of mass (COM). COM RMS were calculated for the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) time series. Compared to the CG, for the AP and ML time series COM RMS values were significantly higher in the EG at hr 24 (p <0.05). An acute bout of heading results in quantifiable alterations in postural control that are detectable 24 h post heading and dissipate within an additional 24 h. The significant findings may be due to the dynamic postural control assessment that incorporated robust discordant environmental conditions.

  16. Postural control in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoï; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2007-09-01

    Postural control relies to visual-motion processing (afferent or efferent) and this is thought to be deficient in dyslexics. There is a controversy between clinic and fundamental studies as to the presence of posture abnormalities in dyslexics. To explore further this issue, this study examines posture stability in quite stance in 13 dyslexics (mean age: 13.5 years) and in 13 non-dyslexics (mean age: 13 years). Experiment 1 shows that, similarly to adults and elderly, all children (dyslexics and non-dyslexics), present better stability at near distance (i.e. smaller surface area of the COP, smaller lateral and antero-posterior oscillations). This could be due to reduced angular size of retinal motion signals at far, but also to convergence relaxation. Importantly, the surface area of the COP, lateral and antero-posterior oscillations are significantly higher in dyslexics. Experiment 2 examines posture stability while subjects make active vergence movements between a far and a near target. For many dyslexics, moving the eyes back and forth in depth rather improved postural stability. The only significant difference was that the lateral oscillations were still higher in dyslexics. Experiment 3 uses eye movement recordings (video-oculography) and demonstrates that dyslexics have problems with maintaining stable the angle of vergence for a prolonged period. We conclude that mild postural instability may exist in dyslexics but it could be improved by oculomotor and attention processes.

  17. [Does asthma promote changes in static posture? - Systematic review].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque Baltar, Juliana; Brasileiro Santos, Maria do Socorro; Justino da Silva, Hilton

    2010-01-01

    Considered a public health problem, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that induces an airflow obstruction, presenting clinical manifestations and heterogeneous therapeutic responses. That obstruction present in asthma patients leads to muscle shortening, which in compensation can promote postural changes, further impairing respiratory mechanics. Therefore, is necessary to synthesize the evidence available in the literature about changes in static posture in asthma patients in order to help guide clinical practice. We performed a literature review in the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and Sci-ELO, covering the years 1980 to 2008, using the descriptors: "asthma" and "posture" and its correspondents in Portuguese; "asthma" and "spinal" and its correspondents in Portuguese, besides the manual search in the references of selected articles. Four studies were identified of which two (2) found significant differences in static posture between asthmatic and non -asthmatics, while others, who evaluated only the spine, found no significant postural changes. Some postural changes were identified in asthmatics: higher incidence of elevation and protraction of the scapular girdle, semi flexion of the arm, protraction of the head and rectification of the thoracic spine. However, the evidence is contradictory on the spine, which can be attributed to methodological and sample differences, and other variables not found in all study how the performance of physical activity, physiotherapy treatment, frequency of seizures and hospitalizations, rhinitis, mouth breathing. The articles about this are still insufficient to reach a conclusion; carefully designed studies are needed to clarify these issues.

  18. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  19. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  20. The influence of lower extremity postures on kinematics and injuries of cyclists in vehicle side collisions.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Daisuke; Han, Yong; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2016-08-17

    A cyclist assumes various cyclic postures of the lower extremities while pushing the pedals in a rotary motion while pedaling. In order to protect cyclists in collisions, it is necessary to understand what influence these postures have on the global kinematics and injuries of the cyclist. Finite element (FE) analyses using models of a cyclist, bicycle, and car were conducted. In the simulations, the Total Human Model of Safety (THUMS) occupant model was employed as a cyclist, and the simulation was set up such that the cyclist was hit from its side by a car. Three representative postures of the lower extremities of the cyclist were examined, and the kinematics and injury risk of the cyclist were compared to those obtained by a pedestrian FE model. The risk of a lower extremity injury was assessed based on the knee shear displacement and the tibia bending moment. When the knee position of the cyclist was higher than the hood leading edge, the hood leading edge contacted the leg of the cyclist, and the pelvis slid over the hood top and the wrap-around distance (WAD) of the cyclist's head was large. The knee was shear loaded by the hood leading edge, and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptured. The tibia bending moment was less than the injury threshold. When the cyclist's knee position was lower than the hood leading edge, the hood leading edge contacted the thigh of the cyclist, and the cyclist rotated with the femur as the pivot point about the hood leading edge. In this case, the head impact location of the cyclist against the car was comparable to that of the pedestrian collision. The knee shear displacement and the tibia bending moment were less than the injury thresholds. The knee height of the cyclist relative to the hood leading edge affected the global kinematics and the head impact location against the car. The loading mode of the lower extremities was also dependent on the initial positions of the lower extremities relative to the car structures. In

  1. Degradation of postural control with aging.

    PubMed

    Baltich, Jennifer; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Benno M

    2015-09-01

    Aging negatively impacts the ability to maintain postural stability due to degraded control systems. The entropic half-life, a non-linear variable that quantifies the transition of sample entropy with increasing time scales, quantifies the time that elapses before old positional information no longer influences, or is no longer related to, the control mechanisms that regulate the movement at the current center of pressure location. The entropic half-life provides a more representative and comprehendible way of detecting changes in complexity using measurement units of time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aging on the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure movement during quiet single-limb stance. Center of pressure data of 24 older and 24 younger subjects were analyzed. The complexity of the temporal structure of the center of pressure signal was quantified by calculating the entropic half-life of the center of pressure in the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. The magnitude of movement was quantified using excursion of the center of pressure in the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, the path length, and the 95% ellipse area of the center of pressure. The older subjects demonstrated a significantly shorter entropic half-life for the center of pressure in the anterior-posterior direction (p < 0.001), longer excursions of the center of pressure in the medio-lateral (p < 0.001) and anterior-posterior (p = 0.001) directions, increased center of pressure path lengths (p < 0.001), and increased 95% ellipse areas of the center of pressure (p < 0.001). The results from this study showed that even though older subjects demonstrated more frequent postural adjustments (shorter entropic half-life), this did not help to reduce the magnitude of movement of their center of pressure during quiet stance, thus indicating an impaired peripheral and/or central neuromuscular control mechanism. © IMechE 2015.

  2. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks.

  3. Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on postural limb reflexes and neurons of spinal postural network

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, L.-J.; Zelenin, P. V.; Orlovsky, G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Quadrupeds maintain the dorsal side up body orientation due to the activity of the postural control system driven by limb mechanoreceptors. Binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes a lateral body sway toward the anode. Previously, we have shown that this new position is actively stabilized, suggesting that GVS changes a set point in the reflex mechanisms controlling body posture. The aim of the present study was to reveal the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Experiments were performed on decerebrate rabbits. The vertebral column was rigidly fixed, whereas hindlimbs were positioned on a platform. Periodic lateral tilts of the platform caused postural limb reflexes (PLRs): activation of extensors in the loaded and flexing limb and a decrease in extensor activity in the opposite (unloaded and extending) limb. Putative spinal interneurons were recorded in segments L4–L5 during PLRs, with and without GVS. We have found that GVS enhanced PLRs on the cathode side and reduced them on the anode side. This asymmetry in PLRs can account for changes in the stabilized body orientation observed in normal rabbits subjected to continuous GVS. Responses to platform tilts (frequency modulation) were observed in 106 spinal neurons, suggesting that they can contribute to PLR generation. Two neuron groups were active in opposite phases of the tilt cycle of the ipsi-limb: F-neurons in the flexion phase, and E-neurons in the extension phase. Neurons were driven mainly by afferent input from the ipsi-limb. If one supposes that F- and E-neurons contribute, respectively, to excitation and inhibition of extensor motoneurons, one can expect that the pattern of response to GVS in F-neurons will be similar to that in extensor muscles, whereas E-neurons will have an opposite pattern. We have found that ∼40% of all modulated neurons meet this condition, suggesting that they contribute to the generation of PLRs and to the GVS-caused changes in PLRs. PMID:22514291

  4. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    PubMed

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  5. Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on postural limb reflexes and neurons of spinal postural network.

    PubMed

    Hsu, L-J; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N; Deliagina, T G

    2012-07-01

    Quadrupeds maintain the dorsal side up body orientation due to the activity of the postural control system driven by limb mechanoreceptors. Binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) causes a lateral body sway toward the anode. Previously, we have shown that this new position is actively stabilized, suggesting that GVS changes a set point in the reflex mechanisms controlling body posture. The aim of the present study was to reveal the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Experiments were performed on decerebrate rabbits. The vertebral column was rigidly fixed, whereas hindlimbs were positioned on a platform. Periodic lateral tilts of the platform caused postural limb reflexes (PLRs): activation of extensors in the loaded and flexing limb and a decrease in extensor activity in the opposite (unloaded and extending) limb. Putative spinal interneurons were recorded in segments L4-L5 during PLRs, with and without GVS. We have found that GVS enhanced PLRs on the cathode side and reduced them on the anode side. This asymmetry in PLRs can account for changes in the stabilized body orientation observed in normal rabbits subjected to continuous GVS. Responses to platform tilts (frequency modulation) were observed in 106 spinal neurons, suggesting that they can contribute to PLR generation. Two neuron groups were active in opposite phases of the tilt cycle of the ipsi-limb: F-neurons in the flexion phase, and E-neurons in the extension phase. Neurons were driven mainly by afferent input from the ipsi-limb. If one supposes that F- and E-neurons contribute, respectively, to excitation and inhibition of extensor motoneurons, one can expect that the pattern of response to GVS in F-neurons will be similar to that in extensor muscles, whereas E-neurons will have an opposite pattern. We have found that ~40% of all modulated neurons meet this condition, suggesting that they contribute to the generation of PLRs and to the GVS-caused changes in PLRs.

  6. A comparison of three observational techniques for assessing postural loads in industry.

    PubMed

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to compare 3 observational techniques for assessing postural load, namely, OWAS, RULA, and REBA. The comparison was based on the evaluation results generated by the classification techniques using 301 working postures. All postures were sampled from the iron and steel, electronics, automotive, and chemical industries, and a general hospital. While only about 21% of the 301 postures were classified at the action category/level 3 or 4 by both OWAS and REBA, about 56% of the postures were classified into action level 3 or 4 by RULA. The inter-method reliability for postural load category between OWAS and RULA was just 29.2%, and the reliability between RULA and REBA was 48.2%. These results showed that compared to RULA, OWAS, and REBA generally underestimated postural loads for the analyzed postures, irrespective of industry, work type, and whether or not the body postures were in a balanced state.

  7. Modifications of anticipatory postural adjustments in a rock climbing task: the effect of supporting wall inclination.

    PubMed

    Noé, F

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of initial postural constraint on the realisation of a leg release in a rock climbing task. Two conditions were tested: a vertical posture and an overhanging posture. The overhanging posture was characterised by a large sustentation base, which enhanced the mechanical possibilities of the system. Subjects had to release their right foot in both postural conditions. In the vertical posture, movement's effectuation was associated with anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In the overhanging posture, the movement was performed without APAs. The results indicated that APAs were modulated according to the possibilities of force creation of the system. Hence, the disappearance of APAs in the overhanging posture was explained by the efficiency of the system to create the impulse necessary to perform the task.

  8. Bimanual comfort depends on how extreme either hand's posture is, not on which hand is in the more extreme posture.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kate M; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-01-01

    Although hand preference is one of the best known features of performance, a recent study of object transfer behavior (Coelho, Studenka, & Rose