Science.gov

Sample records for global public good

  1. Is globalization really good for public health?

    PubMed

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A Global Public Goods Approach to the Health of Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Heather; Marway, Herjeet

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a global public goods approach to the health of migrants. It suggests that this approach establishes that there are a number of health goods which must be provided to migrants not because these are theirs by right (although this may independently be the case), but because these goods are primary goods which fit the threefold criteria of global public goods. There are two key advantages to this approach: first, it is non-confrontational and non-oppositional, and second, it provides self-interested arguments to provide at least some health goods to migrants and thus appeals to those little moved by rights-based arguments. PMID:26180550

  3. Global public goods and health: taking the agenda forward.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, I.; Faust, M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined recent special health initiatives to control HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and make four policy recommendations for improving the sustainability of such initiatives. First, international cooperation on health should be seen as an issue of global public goods that concerns both poor and rich countries. Second, national health and other sector budgets should be tapped to ensure that global health concerns are fully and reliably funded; industrialized countries should lead the way. Third, a global research council should be established to foster more efficient health-related knowledge management. Fourth, managers for specific disease issues should be appointed, to facilitate policy partnerships. Policy changes in these areas have already begun and can provide a basis for further reform. PMID:11584736

  4. The global public good concept: a means of promoting good veterinary governance.

    PubMed

    Eloit, M

    2012-08-01

    At the outset, the concept of a 'public good' was associated with economic policies. However, it has now evolved not only from a national to a global concept (global public good), but also from a concept applying solely to the production of goods to one encompassing societal issues (education, environment, etc.) and fundamental rights, including the right to health and food. Through their actions, Veterinary Services, as defined by the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), help to improve animal health and reduce production losses. In this way they contribute directly and indirectly to food security and to safeguarding human health and economic resources. The organisation and operating procedures of Veterinary Services are therefore key to the efficient governance required to achieve these objectives. The OIE is a major player in global cooperation and governance in the fields of animal and public health through the implementation of its strategic standardisation mission and other programmes for the benefit of Veterinary Services and OIE Member Countries. Thus, the actions of Veterinary Services and the OIE deserve to be recognised as a global public good, backed by public investment to ensure that all Veterinary Services are in a position to apply the principles of good governance and to comply with the international standards for the quality of Veterinary Services set out in the OIE Terrestrial Code (Section 3 on Quality of Veterinary Services) and Aquatic Animal Health Code (Section 3 on Quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services).

  5. Communicable disease control: a 'Global Public Good' perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Woodward, David; Acharya, Arnab; Beaglehole, Robert; Drager, Nick

    2004-09-01

    Despite the increasing 'globalization' of health, the responsibility for it remains primarily national, generating a potential mismatch between global health problems and current institutions and mechanisms to deal with them. The 'Global Public Good' (GPG) concept has been suggested as a framework to address this mismatch in different areas of public policy. This paper considers the application of the GPG concept as an organizing principle for communicable disease control (CDC), considering in particular its potential to improve the health and welfare of the developing world. The paper concludes that there are significant limitations to the GPG concept's effectiveness as an organizing principle for global health priorities, with respect to CDC. More specifically, there are few areas of CDC which qualify as GPG, and even among those that can be considered GPGs, it is not necessarily appropriate to provide everything which can be considered a GPG. It is therefore suggested that it may be more useful to focus instead on the failure of 'collective action', where the GPG concept may then: (1) provide a rationale to raise funds additional to aid from developed countries' domestic budgets; (2) promote investment by developed countries in the health systems of developing countries; (3) promote strategic partnerships between developed and developing countries to tackle major global communicable diseases; and (4) guide the political process of establishing, and mechanisms for providing and financing, global CDC programmes with GPG characteristics, and GPGs which have benefits for CDC. In short, the GPG concept is not without limitations and weaknesses as an organizing principle, but does provide, at least in some areas, guidance in improving collective action at the international level for the improvement of global CDC.

  6. Global public goods for health: weaknesses and opportunities in the global health system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suerie; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2017-04-01

    Since at least the 1990s, there has been growing recognition that societies need global public goods (GPGs) in order to protect and promote public health. While the term GPG is sometimes used loosely to denote that which is 'good' for the global public, we restrict our use of the term to its technical definition (goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption) for its useful analytical clarity. Examples of important GPGs for health include standards and guidelines, research on the causes and treatment of disease, and comparative evidence and analysis. While institutions for providing public goods are relatively well developed at the national level - being clearly recognized as a responsibility of sovereign states - institutional arrangements to do so remain fragmented and thin at the global level. For example, the World Health Organization, mandated to provide many GPGs, is not appropriately financed to do so. Three steps are needed to better govern the financing and provision of GPGs for health: first, improved data to develop a clearer picture of how much money is currently going to providing which types of GPGs; second, a legitimate global political process to decide upon priority missing GPGs, followed by estimates of total amounts needed; and third, financing streams for GPGs from governments and private sources, to be channeled through new or existing institutions. Financing should go toward fully financing some GPGs, complementing or supplementing existing national or international financing for others, or deploying funds to make potential GPGs less 'excludable' by putting them into the public domain. As globalization deepens the degree of interdependence between countries and as formerly low-income economies advance, there may be less relative need for development assistance to meet basic health care needs, and greater relative need to finance GPGs. Strengthening global arrangements for GPGs today is a worthy investment for improved global

  7. Good epidemiology, good ethics: empirical and ethical dimensions of global public health.

    PubMed

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the following ethically and epidemiologically relevant challenges, as yet neglected in public health ethics: how to distribute resources and health risks and benefits, how to define evidentiary criteria that justify public health interventions, and how to define terms in which programme goals, successes, and failures will be assessed and monitored. We illuminate critical intersections of empirical and ethical dimensions of public health work, drawing upon three global public health interventions-inclusion of the Hepatitis B vaccine in the Universal Immunisation Programme, Universal Salt Iodisation, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative-and suggest strategies for addressing and responding to them.

  8. Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D; MacKellar, Landis

    2007-01-01

    The 'global public good' (GPG) concept has gained increasing attention, in health as well as development circles. However, it has suffered in finding currency as a general tool for global resource mobilisation, and is at risk of being attached to almost anything promoting development. This overstretches and devalues the validity and usefulness of the concept. This paper first defines GPGs and describes the policy challenge that they pose. Second, it identifies two key areas, health R&D and communicable disease control, in which the GPG concept is clearly relevant and considers the extent to which it has been applied. We point out that that, while there have been many new initiatives, it is not clear that additional resources from non-traditional sources have been forthcoming. Yet achieving this is, in effect, the entire purpose of applying the GPG concept in global health. Moreover, the proliferation of disease-specific programs associated with GPG reasoning has tended to promote vertical interventions at the expense of more general health sector strengthening. Third, we examine two major global health policy initiatives, the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) and the bundling of long-standing international health goals in the form of Millennium Development Goals (MDG), asking how the GPG perspective has contributed to defining objectives and strategies. We conclude that both initiatives are best interpreted in the context of traditional development assistance and, one-world rhetoric aside, have little to do with the challenge posed by GPGs for health. The paper concludes by considering how the GPG concept can be more effectively used to promote global health. PMID:17888173

  9. Genomics knowledge and equity: a global public goods perspective of the patent system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Daar, Abdallah S; Gold, E Richard; Singers, Peter A

    2004-05-01

    Genomics, the comprehensive examination of an organism's entire set of genes and their interactions, will have a major impact on the way disease is diagnosed, prevented and treated in the new millennium. Despite the tremendous potential it holds for improving global health, genomics challenges policy-makers to ensure that its benefits are harnessed equitably across populations and nations. The classification of genomics as a global public good and the inequity encountered in the development and application of genomics knowledge are outlined in this paper, We examine the effect of the current patent system on the distribution of costs and benefits relating to genomics knowledge between countries of different economic strength. The global public goods concept provides a normative economic rationale for the modification of certain aspects of the current patent system and for the creation of complementary mechanisms to respond to the health needs of low-income and middle-income countries.

  10. Genomics knowledge and equity: a global public goods perspective of the patent system.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Daar, Abdallah S.; Gold, E. Richard; Singers, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Genomics, the comprehensive examination of an organism's entire set of genes and their interactions, will have a major impact on the way disease is diagnosed, prevented and treated in the new millennium. Despite the tremendous potential it holds for improving global health, genomics challenges policy-makers to ensure that its benefits are harnessed equitably across populations and nations. The classification of genomics as a global public good and the inequity encountered in the development and application of genomics knowledge are outlined in this paper, We examine the effect of the current patent system on the distribution of costs and benefits relating to genomics knowledge between countries of different economic strength. The global public goods concept provides a normative economic rationale for the modification of certain aspects of the current patent system and for the creation of complementary mechanisms to respond to the health needs of low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:15298230

  11. Is international agricultural research a global public good? The case of rice biofortification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The status of international agricultural research as a global public good (GPG) has been widely accepted since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. While the term was not used at the time of its creation, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) system that evolved at that time has been described as a 'prime example of the promise, performance and perils of an international approach to providing GPGs'. Contemporary literature on international agricultural research as a GPG tends to support this view and focuses on how to operationalize the concept. This paper adopts a different starting point and questions this conceptualization of the CGIAR and its outputs. It questions the appropriateness of such a 'neutral' concept to a system born of the imperatives of Cold War geopolitics, and shaped by a history of attempts to secure its relevance in a changing world. This paper draws on a multi-sited, ethnographic study of a research effort highlighted by the CGIAR as an exemplar of GPG-oriented research. Behind the ubiquitous language of GPGs, 'partnership' and 'consensus', however, new forms of exclusion and restriction are emerging within everyday practice, reproducing North-South inequalities and undermining the ability of these programmes to respond to the needs of projected beneficiaries.

  12. Can Migration Health Assessments Become a Mechanism for Global Public Health Good?

    PubMed Central

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Migrant health assessments (HAs) consist of a medical examination to assess a migrant’s health status and to provide medical clearance for work or residency based on conditions defined by the destination country and/or employer. We argue that better linkages between health systems and migrant HA processors at the country level are needed to shift these from being limited as an instrument of determining non-admissibility for purposes of visa issuance, to a process that may enhance public health. The importance of providing appropriate care and follow-up of migrants who “fail” their HA and the need for global efforts to enable data-collection and research on HAs are also highlighted. PMID:25342234

  13. Depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Li, Yu-Jian; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-10-01

    In real situations, the value of public goods will be reduced or even lost because of external factors or for intrinsic reasons. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation by considering the effect of depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games on a square lattice. It is assumed that each individual gains full advantage if the number of the cooperators nc within a group centered on that individual equals or exceeds the critical mass (CM). Otherwise, there is depreciation of the public goods, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r to (nc/CM)r. It is shown that the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for CM > 1 even at small values of r, and a global cooperative level is achieved at an intermediate value of CM = 4 at a small r. We further study the effect of depreciation of public goods on different topologies of a regular lattice, and find that the system always reaches global cooperation at a moderate value of CM = G - 1 regardless of whether or not there exist overlapping triangle structures on the regular lattice, where G is the group size of the associated regular lattice.

  14. Global oscillations in the Optional Public Goods Game under spatial diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Pablo A.; da Silva, Roberto; Stock, Eduardo V.

    2017-05-01

    Social dilemmas lead to natural conflict between cooperation and self interests among individuals in large populations. The emergence of cooperation and its maintenance is the key for the understanding of fundamental concepts about the evolution of species. In order to comprehend the mechanisms involved in this framework, here we study the Optional Public Good Games with focus on the effects of diffusive aspects in the emergent patterns of cyclic dominance between the strategies. Differently from other works, we showed that rock-paper-scissors (RPS) patterns occur by introducing a simple kind of random mobility in a lattice sparsely occupied. Such pattern has been revealed to be very important in the conservation of the species in ecological and social environments. The goal of this paper is to show that we do not need more elaborated schemes for construction of the neighbourhood in the game to observe RPS patterns as suggested in the literature. As an interesting additional result, in this contribution we also propose an alternative method to quantify the RPS density in a quantitative context of the game theory which becomes possible to perform a finite size scaling study. Such approach can be very interesting to be applied in other games generically.

  15. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2006-01-01

    • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations. PMID:16569240

  16. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2006-03-28

    Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  17. Serving the public good.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jennifer C

    2010-05-01

    This discussion foregrounds four key issues engaged by the articles presented in this special issue: the unique challenges and opportunities of environmental education evaluation, how to think well about the evaluation approaches and purposes that best match this domain, evaluation capacity building in environmental education and action, and accountability and activist pressures on contemporary evaluation. Environmental education evaluators are encouraged to consider positioning their work in service of the public good. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Considering Curriculum Questions and the Public Good in the Postcolonial, Global, 21st-Century Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of five chapters in "Part III, Section F: Inquiring into Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Part III: Curriculum in Theory. Introductory Essay" (William H. Schubert. pp. 391-398); "Curriculum…

  19. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-02-01

    At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and important public policies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and public policy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound public policy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.

  20. Private Money, Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  1. Private Money, Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  2. Religiosity as a public good.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Public Goods can be seen as one important way in which societies sustain themselves over time. These are part of the puzzle of the development of political order. Public goods like the rule of law are non-substractable and non-excludable . For economists the classic textbook examples are national defense and police protection. In this paper I argue that religiosity can function like police protection, a means of sustaining order through fear of punishment from a transcendent source. As a means of reducing defection from social norms it has a role to play as a public good. But religion cannot at the same time be seen as the source of such norms or dissention will undermine the very order that punishment seems to reinforce.

  3. Paying for international environmental public goods.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Rodrigo; Perrings, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Supply of international environmental public goods must meet certain conditions to be socially efficient, and several reasons explain why they are currently undersupplied. Diagnosis of the public goods failure associated with particular ecosystem services is critical to the development of the appropriate international response. There are two categories of international environmental public goods that are most likely to be undersupplied. One has an additive supply technology and the other has a weakest link supply technology. The degree to which the collective response should be targeted depends on the importance of supply from any one country. In principle, the solution for the undersupply lies in payments designed to compensate local providers for the additional costs they incur in meeting global demand. Targeted support may take the form of direct investment in supply (the Global Environment Facility model) or of payments for the benefits of supply (the Payments for Ecosystem Services model).

  4. Good and Bad Public Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Stewart

    1969-01-01

    The basic requirements of all good prose are clarity, accuracy, brevity, and simplicity. Especially in public prose--in which the meaning is the crux of the article or speech--concise, vigorous English demands a minimum of adjectives, a maximum use of the active voice, nouns carefully chosen, a logical argument with no labored or obscure points,…

  5. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of analytical science in the formulation of public policy is described. This includes the ability to resolve atomic composition in two and three dimensions on the micrometer scale altering the means for defining intellectual property, medical diagnostics built on analytical measurements repeatedly raising international alarm over…

  6. Going public: good scientific conduct.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, the paper attempts to identify ways scientists might deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand, sins of omission-withholding important information from the public-and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised.

  7. Education Is Not a Public Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisciotta, John

    The purpose of this essay is to show that education is not a public good, and that in contrast to a public good such as national defense, education can be provided through competitive suppliers in the private sector as well as through government enterprise. A public good differs from a private good in the nature of consumption. A public good…

  8. Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods

    PubMed Central

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Nowak, Martin A.; Hauert, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The production, consumption, and exploitation of common resources ranging from extracellular products in microorganisms to global issues of climate change refer to public goods interactions. Individuals can cooperate and sustain common resources at some cost or defect and exploit the resources without contributing. This generates a conflict of interest, which characterizes social dilemmas: Individual selection favors defectors, but for the community, it is best if everybody cooperates. Traditional models of public goods do not take into account that benefits of the common resource enable cooperators to maintain higher population densities. This leads to a natural feedback between population dynamics and interaction group sizes as captured by “ecological public goods.” Here, we show that the spatial evolutionary dynamics of ecological public goods in “selection-diffusion” systems promotes cooperation based on different types of pattern formation processes. In spatial settings, individuals can migrate (diffuse) to populate new territories. Slow diffusion of cooperators fosters aggregation in highly productive patches (activation), whereas fast diffusion enables defectors to readily locate and exploit these patches (inhibition). These antagonistic forces promote coexistence of cooperators and defectors in static or dynamic patterns, including spatial chaos of ever-changing configurations. The local environment of cooperators and defectors is shaped by the production or consumption of common resources. Hence, diffusion-induced self-organization into spatial patterns not only enhances cooperation but also provides simple mechanisms for the spontaneous generation of habitat diversity, which denotes a crucial determinant of the viability of ecological systems. PMID:19416839

  9. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  10. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  11. Public Television as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David C.; Campbell, Joyce B.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluates the Station Program Cooperative (SPC) of the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) instituted in 1974 to reduce network executive's power in public television programming by using local station program managers as consumer representatives. (MH)

  12. Public Television as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David C.; Campbell, Joyce B.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluates the Station Program Cooperative (SPC) of the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) instituted in 1974 to reduce network executive's power in public television programming by using local station program managers as consumer representatives. (MH)

  13. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  14. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  15. Reframing Public Education as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    In his 1847 "Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada", Egerton Ryerson stated that public education was created in Canada to ensure that youth were prepared for their "appropriate duties and employments of life … as persons of business, and also as members of the civil community in which they live."…

  16. Challenges to the Common Good in the Age of Globalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Benjamin R.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that the challenge for the next millennium is preserving and securing the common good against the forces associated with globalization. Discusses globalization in detail, the privatization of public power, the commercialization of what is privatized, and the infantilization and homogeneity of consumers. (CMK)

  17. Benefits of tolerance in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-10-01

    Leaving the joint enterprise when defection is unveiled is always a viable option to avoid being exploited. Although loner strategy helps the population not to be trapped into the tragedy of the commons state, it could offer only a modest income for nonparticipants. In this paper we demonstrate that showing some tolerance toward defectors could not only save cooperation in harsh environments but in fact results in a surprisingly high average payoff for group members in public goods games. Phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal the high complexity of evolving states where cyclic dominant strategies or two-strategy alliances can characterize the final state of evolution. We identify microscopic mechanisms which are responsible for the superiority of global solutions containing tolerant players. This phenomenon is robust and can be observed both in well-mixed and in structured populations highlighting the importance of tolerance in our everyday life.

  18. Global Public Leadership in a Technological Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Good (ethical and effective) global public leadership--by national politicians, intergovernmental and nongovernmental international organizational leaders, multinational corporate leaders, and technoscientists--will make a significant positive difference in our global system's capacity to solve contemporary and futuristic global problems. High…

  19. Global Public Leadership in a Technological Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Good (ethical and effective) global public leadership--by national politicians, intergovernmental and nongovernmental international organizational leaders, multinational corporate leaders, and technoscientists--will make a significant positive difference in our global system's capacity to solve contemporary and futuristic global problems. High…

  20. Food Science for the Public Good

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  1. Public Schools and the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Improving public school education, especially for the poor, requires defining and articulating some vision of the common good. This article reviews key positions taken by liberals and conservatives regarding educational reform during the 19th and 20th centuries and critiques these positions with regard to their disservice to the poor. (IAH)

  2. Higher Education for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Angel B.

    2012-01-01

    In his 1988 article, Nathaniel Jackson inspired NACAC with four objectives to meet the challenge of leading the charge in minority students access. In this article, the author discusses three more that he believes will challenge colleges in the decades ahead: (1) Focus on the Public Good; (2) Honor Transparency; and (3) Measure Collective Success.…

  3. Public goods games on adaptive coevolutionary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Elgar; Shapiro, Avi M.

    2017-07-01

    Productive societies feature high levels of cooperation and strong connections between individuals. Public Goods Games (PGGs) are frequently used to study the development of social connections and cooperative behavior in model societies. In such games, contributions to the public good are made only by cooperators, while all players, including defectors, reap public goods benefits, which are shares of the contributions amplified by a synergy factor. Classic results of game theory show that mutual defection, as opposed to cooperation, is the Nash Equilibrium of PGGs in well-mixed populations, where each player interacts with all others. In this paper, we explore the coevolutionary dynamics of a low information public goods game on a complex network in which players adapt to their environment in order to increase individual payoffs relative to past payoffs parameterized by greediness. Players adapt by changing their strategies, either to cooperate or to defect, and by altering their social connections. We find that even if players do not know other players' strategies and connectivity, cooperation can arise and persist despite large short-term fluctuations.

  4. Public Good Diffusion Limits Microbial Mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-04-01

    Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration.

  5. Effect of the depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the depreciation effect of public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r‧=r( (β≥0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit r of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators. Otherwise, the value of public goods is reduced to r‧. It is found that compared with the original version (β=0), the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for β>0, and there exist intermediate values of β inducing the best cooperation. Particularly, there exists a range of β inducing the highest cooperative level, and this range of β broadens as r increases. It is further presented that the variation of cooperator density with noise has close relations with the values of β and r, and cooperation at an intermediate value of β=1.0 is most tolerant to noise.

  6. Punishment in optional public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the optional public goods games with punishment are studied. By adopting the approximate best response dynamics, a micro model is given to explain the evolutionary process. Simultaneously, the magnitude of rationality is also considered. Under the condition of bounded rationality which provides a light to interpret phenomena in human society, the model leads to two types of equilibriums. One is the equilibrium without punishers and the other is the equilibrium including only punishers and cooperators. In addition, the effects of rationality on equilibriums are briefly investigated.

  7. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance.

  8. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance. PMID:26859492

  9. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Wang, Yi-Ling; Wang, Jin-Song

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly.

  10. Learning process in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, André; Huang, Weini; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes

    2015-07-01

    We propose an individual-based model to describe the effects of memory and learning in the evolution of cooperation in a public goods game (PGG) in a well-mixed population. Individuals are endowed with a set of strategies, and in every round of the game they use one strategy out of this set based on their memory and learning process. The payoff of a player using a given strategy depends on the public goods enhancement factor r and the collective action of all players. We investigate the distribution of used strategies as well as the distribution of information patterns. The outcome depends on the learning process, which can be dynamic or static. In the dynamic learning process, the players can switch their strategies along the whole game, and use the strategy providing the highest payoff at current time step. In the static learning process, there is a training period where the players randomly explore different strategies out of their strategy sets. In the rest of the game, players only use the strategy providing the highest payoff during the training period. In the dynamic learning process, we observe a transition from a non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation reaches about 50 %. As in the standard PGG, in the static learning process there is a transition from the non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation can be higher than 50% at r = N. In both learning processes the transition becomes smoother as the memory size of individuals increases, which means that the lack of information is a key ingredient causing the defection.

  11. Probabilistic participation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Unemi, Tatsuo

    2007-10-22

    Voluntary participation in public goods games (PGGs) has turned out to be a simple but effective mechanism for promoting cooperation under full anonymity. Voluntary participation allows individuals to adopt a risk-aversion strategy, termed loner. A loner refuses to participate in unpromising public enterprises and instead relies on a small but fixed pay-off. This system leads to a cyclic dominance of three pure strategies, cooperators, defectors and loners, but at the same time, there remain two considerable restrictions: the addition of loners cannot stabilize the dynamics and the time average pay-off for each strategy remains equal to the pay-off of loners. Here, we introduce probabilistic participation in PGGs from the standpoint of diversification of risk, namely simple mixed strategies with loners, and prove the existence of a dynamical regime in which the restrictions ono longer hold. Considering two kinds of mixed strategies associated with participants (cooperators or defectors) and non-participants (loners), we can recover all basic evolutionary dynamics of the two strategies: dominance; coexistence; bistability; and neutrality, as special cases depending on pairs of probabilities. Of special interest is that the expected pay-off of each mixed strategy exceeds the pay-off of loners at some interior equilibrium in the coexistence region.

  12. Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2009-04-07

    Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions.

  13. Cooperation transition of spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Nie, Sen; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-12-01

    In the public goods games, players attempt to optimize their payoffs, following as fair, generous, and extortionate rules according to the pattern needed for obtaining their expected profits compared to those of their opponents. In first type of rule (the fair one), players seek equal profits of the opponent, and the generous rule induces to lower payoff than that of opposite players, while the extortionate rule leads to higher payoffs than that of their opponents. To model the three types of behaviors, we introduce a conditional strategy with a parameter χ, which control conditions of existence of the three behaviors. Therefore, players may contribute in a group, but may not contribute in the other group, because it depends on conditions of their opponents. Simulation results show that there exists a pure cooperation state when parameter χ is moderate, even for a lower multiplication factor. Because conditional players cautiously contribute they can form compact clusters to prevent the invasion of defection and finally spread the cooperation when defectors die out.

  14. "Is Public Sociology Such a Good Idea?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Michael Burawoy's call for a public sociology disciplined by professional and policy sociology, on the one side, and driven by critical sociology, on the other, exposes the ideological biases of sociology to publics. In so doing, public sociology will thwart non-ideological efforts for sociology to exert influence on broader publics and on…

  15. Good medical ethics, justice and provincial globalism.

    PubMed

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The summer 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa illustrates global health's striking inequalities. Globalisation has also increased pandemics, and disparate health system conditions mean that where one falls ill or is injured in the world can mean the difference between quality care, substandard care or no care at all, between full recovery, permanent ill effects and death. Yet attention to the normative underpinnings of global health justice and distribution remains, despite some important exceptions, inadequate in medical ethics, bioethics and political philosophy. We need a theoretical foundation on which to build a more just world. Provincial globalism (PG), grounded in capability theory, offers a foundation; it provides the components of a global health justice framework that can guide implementation. Under PG, all persons possess certain health entitlements. Global health justice requires progressively securing this health capabilities threshold for every person. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed

    Dollar, D

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries.

  17. Globalizing Students Acting for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, Larry; Carter, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    It is apparent that many of us live in a hyper-economized world, in which personal identities and routine practices are significantly oriented towards production and consumption of for-profit goods and services. Extreme consumerism resulting from this orientation often is associated with many personal, social, and environmental problems.…

  18. Globalizing Students Acting for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, Larry; Carter, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    It is apparent that many of us live in a hyper-economized world, in which personal identities and routine practices are significantly oriented towards production and consumption of for-profit goods and services. Extreme consumerism resulting from this orientation often is associated with many personal, social, and environmental problems.…

  19. The ethics of big data as a public good: which public? Whose good?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Linnet

    2016-12-28

    International development and humanitarian organizations are increasingly calling for digital data to be treated as a public good because of its value in supplementing scarce national statistics and informing interventions, including in emergencies. In response to this claim, a 'responsible data' movement has evolved to discuss guidelines and frameworks that will establish ethical principles for data sharing. However, this movement is not gaining traction with those who hold the highest-value data, particularly mobile network operators who are proving reluctant to make data collected in low- and middle-income countries accessible through intermediaries. This paper evaluates how the argument for 'data as a public good' fits with the corporate reality of big data, exploring existing models for data sharing. I draw on the idea of corporate data as an ecosystem involving often conflicting rights, duties and claims, in comparison to the utilitarian claim that data's humanitarian value makes it imperative to share them. I assess the power dynamics implied by the idea of data as a public good, and how differing incentives lead actors to adopt particular ethical positions with regard to the use of data.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries. PMID:11584730

  1. Critical mass of public goods and its coevolution with cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the enhancing parameter represented the value of the public goods to the public in public goods game, and was rescaled to a Fermi-Dirac distribution function of critical mass. Public goods were divided into two categories, consumable and reusable public goods, and their coevolution with cooperative behavior was studied. We observed that for both types of public goods, cooperation was promoted as the enhancing parameter increased when the value of critical mass was not very large. An optimal value of critical mass which led to the best cooperation was identified. We also found that cooperations emerged earlier for reusable public goods, and defections became extinct earlier for the consumable public goods. Moreover, we observed that a moderate depreciation rate for public goods resulted in an optimal cooperation, and this range became wider as the enhancing parameter increased. The noise influence on cooperation was studied, and it was shown that cooperation density varied non-monotonically as noise amplitude increased for reusable public goods, whereas decreased monotonically for consumable public goods. Furthermore, existence of the optimal critical mass was also identified in other three regular networks. Finally, simulation results were utilized to analyze the provision of public goods in detail.

  2. Arts Education and the Newer Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jerrold

    2005-01-01

    The decline in public support for the arts is evident in diminished audience approbation as much as in support by public and, increasingly, private sources. This article postulates that the same phenomenon is taking place with the decrease of arts education in our schools. The author argues that our schools are taking on an increasingly…

  3. Arts Education and the Newer Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jerrold

    2005-01-01

    The decline in public support for the arts is evident in diminished audience approbation as much as in support by public and, increasingly, private sources. This article postulates that the same phenomenon is taking place with the decrease of arts education in our schools. The author argues that our schools are taking on an increasingly…

  4. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  5. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  6. Make Your Good Publicity Work Marketing Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassom, Julie

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the importance of positive public opinion and media coverage for the successful continuity of day care centers. Suggests a variety of alternatives for maximizing the longevity and galvanizing the impact of positive media attention and coverage. (RWB)

  7. Pedagogical Uses of the Public Goods Concept in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesling, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes some of the relatively unknown aspects of the concept of public goods and shows how they might be brought into undergraduate textbooks in microeconomic principles, public finance, and welfare economics. Illustrates how these aspects of public goods can be brought into undergraduate instruction. (DB)

  8. Good News about Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, urban public schools have provided economic opportunities through education to some of the nation's largest, most diverse, and neediest populations. By embracing these challenges, our nation's urban schools have provided the know-how and backbone upon which our cities have grown and thrived. In this report, the Council of…

  9. Health literacy: communication for the public good.

    PubMed

    Ratzan, S C

    2001-06-01

    This article builds upon a presentation at the Fifth Global Health Conference on Health Promotion (Mexico City, 9 June 2000), seeking to advance the development of health literacy through effective communication. First, it offers a timely reflection for health promotion epistemology in particular, and the potential approach to framing health promotion activities in general, with health literacy as a bridging concept. The concept of health literacy is briefly explained and defined, followed by identification of some promising communication interventions to diffuse health literacy. Four predominant areas within the communication field are described that shed light on approaches for developing health literacy: integrated marketing communication, education, negotiation and social capital. Each component can contribute to strategic science-based communication. Finally, the article elucidates that communication and developing health literacy are not simple solutions. Communication is not simply message repetition, but includes the development of an environment for community involvement to espouse common values of humankind. With effective communication, worldwide health literacy can become a reality in the 21st century, embodying health as a central tenet of human life.

  10. Universities, the Public Good and Professional Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Linda; Stokes, Rebecca; Walker, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, questions of the purpose and value of higher education come to the fore. Such questions have particular relevance when directed towards the preparation of professionally qualified graduates who might be expected to contribute to the public good. However, definitions of the public good are contested and the role of…

  11. Universities, the Public Good and Professional Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Linda; Stokes, Rebecca; Walker, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, questions of the purpose and value of higher education come to the fore. Such questions have particular relevance when directed towards the preparation of professionally qualified graduates who might be expected to contribute to the public good. However, definitions of the public good are contested and the role of…

  12. Privatization and the Public Good: Public Universities in the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    "Public education is in crisis--and it has been for some time. The problem is, no one can agree on the problem, and when there is no agreement on the problem, developing solutions is nearly impossible." Thus writes Matthew T. Lambert in this study of present-day public higher education, which is currently plagued by momentous challenges.…

  13. Good enough tools for global warming policy making.

    PubMed

    Socolow, R H; Lam, S H

    2007-04-15

    We present a simple analysis of the global warming problem caused by the emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas) into the atmosphere resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. We provide quantitative tools which enable policymakers and interested citizens to explore the following issues central to the global warming problem. (i) At what rate are we permitted to continue to emit CO2 after the global average atmospheric concentration has 'stabilized' at some chosen target level? The answer here provides the magnitude of the effort, measured by the necessary total reduction of today's global (annual) emissions rate to achieve stabilization. We shall see that stabilized emissions rates for all interesting stabilized concentration levels are much lower than the current emissions rate, but these small finite values are very important. (ii) Across how many years can we spread the total effort to reduce the annual CO2 emissions rate from its current high value to the above-mentioned low and stabilized target value? The answer here provides the time-scale of the total mitigation effort for any chosen atmospheric concentration target level. We confirm the common understanding that targets below a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration create great pressure to produce action immediately, while targets above double the pre-industrial level can tolerate longer periods of inaction. (iii) How much harder is the future mitigation effort, if we do not do our share of the job now? Is it a good idea to overshoot a stabilization target? The quantitative answers here provide the penalty of procrastination. For example, the mitigation task to avoid doubling the pre-industrial level is a problem that can be addressed gradually, over a period extending more than a century, if started immediately, but procrastination can turn the effort into a much more urgent task that extends over only a few decades. We also find that overshooting target levels is a bad idea. The quality of

  14. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. PMID:25540240

  15. Public goods games with reward in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Peter A I; Hauert, Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Public goods games paraphrase the problem of cooperation in game theoretical terms. Cooperators contribute to a public good and thereby increase the welfare of others at a cost to themselves. Defectors consume the public good but do not pay its cost and therefore outperform cooperators. Hence, according to genetic or cultural evolution, defectors should be favored and the public good disappear - despite the fact that groups of cooperators are better off than groups of defectors. The maximization of short term individual profits causes the demise of the common resource to the detriment of all. This outcome can be averted by introducing incentives to cooperate. Negative incentives based on the punishment of defectors efficiently stabilize cooperation once established but cannot initiate cooperation. Here we consider the complementary case of positive incentives created by allowing individuals to reward those that contribute to the public good. The finite-population stochastic dynamics of the public goods game with reward demonstrate that reward initiates cooperation by providing an escape hatch out of states of mutual defection. However, in contrast to punishment, reward is unable to stabilize cooperation but, instead, gives rise to a persistent minority of cooperators.

  16. A Unique Pedagogical Approach to Voting and Public Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Douglas A.; Chappell, Matthew; Baggett, L. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Fourth grade students at a public elementary school in Houston, Texas, participated in a one-week exercise intended to mimic the process of creating a public good through a democratic process. The exercise involved students in four separate classes designing a class party with different characteristics (theme, music, and food) through a voluntary…

  17. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  18. A Unique Pedagogical Approach to Voting and Public Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Douglas A.; Chappell, Matthew; Baggett, L. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Fourth grade students at a public elementary school in Houston, Texas, participated in a one-week exercise intended to mimic the process of creating a public good through a democratic process. The exercise involved students in four separate classes designing a class party with different characteristics (theme, music, and food) through a voluntary…

  19. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  20. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, “We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience.” Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private. PMID:27114553

  1. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-05-10

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, "We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience." Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private.

  2. Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey D.; Stone, Howard A.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells. The means by which public-good-producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two very different mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes are unified by limiting the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide benefits to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates and allowing kin selection to favor public good production. Our results demonstrate new mechanisms by which the physical conditions of natural habitats can interact with bacterial physiology to promote the evolution of cooperation.

  3. Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey D.; Stone, Howard A.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms [1-4]. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment [5]. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells [6-11]. The means by which public-good-producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two very different mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes are unified by limiting the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide benefits to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates and allowing kin selection to favor public good production. Our results demonstrate new mechanisms by which the physical conditions of natural habitats can interact with bacterial physiology to promote the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24332540

  4. Fragility of the provision of local public goods to private and collective risks.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Janssen, Marco A; Ale, Manita; Bastakoti, Ram; Bernal, Adriana; Chalermphol, Juthathip; Gong, Yazhen; Shin, Hoon; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Wang, Yibo; Anderies, John M

    2017-01-31

    Smallholder agricultural systems, strongly dependent on water resources and investments in shared infrastructure, make a significant contribution to food security in developing countries. These communities are being increasingly integrated into the global economy and are exposed to new global climate-related risks that may affect their willingness to cooperate in community-level collective action problems. We performed field experiments on public goods with private and collective risks in 118 small-scale rice-producing communities in four countries. Our results indicate that increasing the integration of those communities with the broader economic system is associated with lower investments in public goods when facing collective risks. These findings indicate that local public good provision may be negatively affected by collective risks, especially in communities more integrated with the market economy.

  5. Fragility of the provision of local public goods to private and collective risks

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Ale, Manita; Bastakoti, Ram; Bernal, Adriana; Chalermphol, Juthathip; Gong, Yazhen; Shin, Hoon; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Wang, Yibo; Anderies, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Smallholder agricultural systems, strongly dependent on water resources and investments in shared infrastructure, make a significant contribution to food security in developing countries. These communities are being increasingly integrated into the global economy and are exposed to new global climate-related risks that may affect their willingness to cooperate in community-level collective action problems. We performed field experiments on public goods with private and collective risks in 118 small-scale rice-producing communities in four countries. Our results indicate that increasing the integration of those communities with the broader economic system is associated with lower investments in public goods when facing collective risks. These findings indicate that local public good provision may be negatively affected by collective risks, especially in communities more integrated with the market economy. PMID:28096383

  6. Global public health today: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead to a serious rethinking of education

  7. Global public health today: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  8. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  9. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  10. Government Service as a Public and Personal Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimer, Barbara K.

    2016-01-01

    The concerted, strategic efforts of government leaders can create rapid accelerations in knowledge and the application of that knowledge for the public good. Government service can represent part or all of one's career. Working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) early in my career helped me develop a macro-level understanding of how the…

  11. Government Service as a Public and Personal Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimer, Barbara K.

    2016-01-01

    The concerted, strategic efforts of government leaders can create rapid accelerations in knowledge and the application of that knowledge for the public good. Government service can represent part or all of one's career. Working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) early in my career helped me develop a macro-level understanding of how the…

  12. Faith-Based Institutions, Institutional Mission, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jessica Rose; Gustafson, Jacqueline N.

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in historical foundations and demonstrated by continued government financial support, one purpose of higher education is to contribute to the "public good," or support and further social causes and human flourishing. This notion has received renewed attention in both the literature as well as in professional practice. Given the…

  13. Urban-Serving Research Universities: Institutions for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerquera, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript seeks to situate access to higher education as part of the public good of universities, and connect that specifically to the mission of institutions that are charged with carrying this out more than others. One such institution--the Urban-Serving Research University (USRUs)--has a distinct mission that emphasizes not just location…

  14. Negotiating Whose Property It Is, for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyzes collective bargaining agreements in 4-year institutions of higher education, examining language surrounding ownership, use, and distribution of the proceeds of intellectual property in distance education, and identifying ways in which the public good can be, and occasionally is, built in to contractual provisions.

  15. The role of noise in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Battiston, Federico

    2016-07-01

    In this work we aim to analyze the role of noise in the spatial public goods game, one of the most famous games in evolutionary game theory. The dynamics of this game is affected by a number of parameters and processes, namely the topology of interactions among the agents, the synergy factor, and the strategy revision phase. The latter is a process that allows agents to change their strategy. Notably, rational agents tend to imitate richer neighbors, in order to increase the probability to maximize their payoff. By implementing a stochastic revision process, it is possible to control the level of noise in the system, so that even irrational updates may occur. In particular, in this work we study the effect of noise on the macroscopic behavior of a finite structured population playing the public goods game. We consider both the case of a homogeneous population, where the noise in the system is controlled by tuning a parameter representing the level of stochasticity in the strategy revision phase, and a heterogeneous population composed of a variable proportion of rational and irrational agents. In both cases numerical investigations show that the public goods game has a very rich behavior which strongly depends on the amount of noise in the system and on the value of the synergy factor. To conclude, our study sheds a new light on the relations between the microscopic dynamics of the public goods game and its macroscopic behavior, strengthening the link between the field of evolutionary game theory and statistical physics.

  16. A public goods approach to major evolutionary innovations.

    PubMed

    Erwin, D H

    2015-07-01

    The history of life is marked by a small number of major transitions, whether viewed from a genetic, ecological, or geological perspective. Specialists from various disciplines have focused on the packaging of information to generate new evolutionary individuals, on the expansion of ecological opportunity, or the abiotic drivers of environmental change to which organisms respond as the major drivers of these episodes. But the critical issue for understanding these major evolutionary transitions (METs) lies in the interactions between environmental, ecologic, and genetic change. Here, I propose that public goods may serve as one currency of such interactions: biological products that are non-excludable and non-rivalrous. Such biological public goods may be involved in either the generation of new evolutionary variation, as with genetic sequences that are easily transferred between different microbial lineages, or in the construction of new ecological niches, as with the progressive oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere. Attention to public goods emphasizes the processes by which organisms actively construct their own evolutionary opportunities. Such public goods may have facilitated some METs.

  17. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-06

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey; Stone, Howard; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie

    2013-11-01

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells. The means by which public good producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two dramatically different, physical mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes limit the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide a benefit to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates. Our results demonstrate how bacterial physiology and environmental conditions can interact with social phenotypes to influence the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation within biofilms.

  19. Promotion of the good life by public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Uosukainen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The question of what is the good life has been discussed by philosophers since antiquity. The good of an individual and of a community is complicated. Communities influence an individual's experiences and world views, which are always individual. Public health nurses promoting the good life need multidisciplinary knowledge, as well as other skills such as personal competence and qualifications. The focus of the theoretical framework of promotion of the good life is based on models of health promotion and sustainable development. Working with different clients requires nursing theories, other theories, and multidisciplinary models in practice. Continual quality improvement is needed in order to increase customer satisfaction. This article discusses a doctoral thesis that consists of three empirical studies. The theoretical framework for promotion of the good life as the work of public health nurses is outlined, and the outcomes of the first study, the qualifications concerning health, and the environment are described. In the other parts of the study, curriculum building using future methodology and evaluation with concept maps is reported.

  20. Public engagement on global health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emma RM; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues. PMID:18492256

  1. Culture and cooperation in a spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alex; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the coevolution of culture and cooperation by combining the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination with a spatial public goods game, incorporating both noise and social influence. Both participation and cooperation in public goods games are conditional on cultural similarity. We find that a larger "scope of cultural possibilities" in the model leads to the survival of cooperation, when noise is not present, and a higher probability of a multicultural state evolving, for low noise rates. High noise rates, however, lead to both rapid extinction of cooperation and collapse into cultural "anomie," in which stable cultural regions fail to form. These results suggest that cultural diversity can actually be beneficial for the evolution of cooperation, but that cultural information needs to be transmitted accurately in order to maintain both coherent cultural groups and cooperation.

  2. Culture and cooperation in a spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stivala, Alex; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the coevolution of culture and cooperation by combining the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination with a spatial public goods game, incorporating both noise and social influence. Both participation and cooperation in public goods games are conditional on cultural similarity. We find that a larger "scope of cultural possibilities" in the model leads to the survival of cooperation, when noise is not present, and a higher probability of a multicultural state evolving, for low noise rates. High noise rates, however, lead to both rapid extinction of cooperation and collapse into cultural "anomie," in which stable cultural regions fail to form. These results suggest that cultural diversity can actually be beneficial for the evolution of cooperation, but that cultural information needs to be transmitted accurately in order to maintain both coherent cultural groups and cooperation.

  3. Nudge for (the Public) Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Fosgaard, Toke R.; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default. PMID:26717569

  4. Phase Transitions and Volunteering in Spatial Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Hauert, Christoph

    2002-08-01

    We present a simple yet effective mechanism promoting cooperation under full anonymity by allowing for voluntary participation in public goods games. This natural extension leads to ``rock-scissors-paper''-type cyclic dominance of the three strategies, cooperate, defect, and loner. In spatial settings with players arranged on a regular lattice, this results in interesting dynamical properties and intriguing spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, variations of the value of the public good leads to transitions between one-, two-, and three-strategy states which either are in the class of directed percolation or show interesting analogies to Ising-type models. Although volunteering is incapable of stabilizing cooperation, it efficiently prevents successful spreading of selfish behavior.

  5. Rewards and the evolution of cooperation in public good games.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Properly coordinating cooperation is relevant for resolving public good problems, such as clean energy and environmental protection. However, little is known about how individuals can coordinate themselves for a certain level of cooperation in large populations of strangers. In a typical situation, a consensus-building process rarely succeeds, owing to a lack of face and standing. The evolution of cooperation in this type of situation is studied here using threshold public good games, in which cooperation prevails when it is initially sufficient, or otherwise it perishes. While punishment is a powerful tool for shaping human behaviours, institutional punishment is often too costly to start with only a few contributors, which is another coordination problem. Here, we show that whatever the initial conditions, reward funds based on voluntary contribution can evolve. The voluntary reward paves the way for effectively overcoming the coordination problem and efficiently transforms freeloaders into cooperators with a perceived small risk of collective failure.

  6. Cooperation, Trust, and Antagonism: How Public Goods Are Promoted.

    PubMed

    Parks, Craig D; Joireman, Jeff; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-12-01

    One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail. To understand the dynamics of participation in response to collective need, it is necessary to distinguish between the primary types of need situations. A public good is an entity that relies in whole or in part on contributions to be provided. Examples of public goods are charities and public broadcasting. Public goods require that citizens experience a short-term loss (of their contribution) in order to realize a long-term gain (of the good). However, because everyone can use the good once it is provided, there is also an incentive to not contribute, let others give, and then take advantage of their efforts. This state of affairs introduces a conflict between doing what is best for oneself and what is best for the group. In a public goods situation, cooperation and antagonism impact how one resolves this conflict. The other major type of need situation is a common-pool resource problem. Here, a good is fully provided at the outset, and citizens may sample from it. The resource is usually, but not necessarily, partially replenished. Examples of replenished resources are drinking water and trees; examples of resources that are functionally not replenished are oil and minerals. Common-pool resources allow citizens to experience a short-term gain (by getting what they want in the early life of the resource) but also present

  7. Innovation and technology for global public health.

    PubMed

    Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have been marked by the explosive development of innovative scientific, technological and business products and processes. Despite their immense impact on health globally, little has been accomplished in the field of global public health to incorporate, address and harness such innovations in practice. In order to meet the world's growing health needs, it is essential that global public health accepts and adapts to these innovations. Moreover, such innovations must be implemented equitably in ways that will best serve their intended recipients, without deepening health- and access-related disparities. This article will briefly discuss the wide array of technologies in the pipeline that will affect global public health practice, their impact on the field and on populations and the issues facing the field in adopting these innovations.

  8. Knowledge networks for global public health.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Maria Dulce F; Fiereck, Kirk J; Parker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The challenges posed by a globalised world have made it imperative for society to search for solutions to emerging issues and to develop new ways of looking at old problems. Current discussions about global public health demand a shift in paradigms and the strategic positioning of public health within broader policy discussions that will enable it to influence political and action agendas. Critical to responding to these challenges is the generation, transmission and dissemination of new knowledge to create value. Recognising the cutting-edge role of knowledge, as a new form of capital that drives innovation and transforms society, the formation of knowledge networks is viewed as a strategy for developing a shared intellectual, conceptual and ethical infrastructure for the field of global public health. These knowledge networks are envisioned as a vehicle for sharing diverse perspectives, encouraging debate and sustaining alternative ways of thinking about and responding to the challenges that confront global public health today and in the future.

  9. Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting ``directional learning'' is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to the changes in their own payoffs and adjust their actions accordingly. Substantial levels of public cooperation can thus be explained without arguments involving selflessness or social preferences, solely on the basis of uncoordinated directional (mis)learning.

  10. Government Service as a Public and Personal Good.

    PubMed

    Rimer, Barbara K

    2016-06-01

    The concerted, strategic efforts of government leaders can create rapid accelerations in knowledge and the application of that knowledge for the public good. Government service can represent part or all of one's career. Working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) early in my career helped me develop a macro-level understanding of how the NIH operates, what forces propel change, how priorities are set, and how programs are developed. While leading a large division at the National Cancer Institute later in my career, after many years in a research institution and academia, we created new models for collaboration, including transdisciplinary centers, the first NIH unit focused on dissemination (now implementation science), and tools that enabled citizens, scientists, and others to access and use effective interventions, new data sets, and ways to aggregate data to show local cancer profiles. In this article, I provide my own career as an example of the opportunities afforded by federal service-for both individuals in government service and the public good. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  12. Maintenance of cooperation induced by punishment in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Huang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we study the public goods games with punishment by adopting the well-known approximate best response dynamics. It shows that the evolution of cooperation is affected by two aspects when other parameters are fixed. One is the punishment mechanism which can avoid the dilemma of lacking investment, and the other is the degree of rationality. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that the existence of punishment mechanism and distribution of rationality are the keys to the enhancement of cooperation level. We also testify that they can heavily influence the payoffs of system as well. The findings in this paper may provide a deeper understanding of some social dilemmas.

  13. A social dilemma structure in diffusible public goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Ryo; Tanimoto, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Encouraged by the interaction between two species of microbes, in which one species is capable of replenishing the public resources and the other is not, the dilemma structure (the long-term sustainability of the population) hidden in a system where public goods are defined as diffusible was examined. In a series of simulations in which the three major parameters governing the dynamics of the system were varied, following the effect of the spatial structure that results from resource diffusion and distribution, the dynamics show a rich diversity, including cooperator-dominated, extinct, and coexistent results. If the dilemma is strong, the chance of surviving cooperators is small and the population tends to extinction even though coexistence is possible. By contrast, if a weak dilemma is given, the affluent resources make cooperators dominant over defectors.

  14. The place of human rights and the common good in global health policy.

    PubMed

    Tasioulas, John; Vayena, Effy

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an integrated account of two strands of global health justice: health-related human rights and health-related common goods. After sketching a general understanding of the nature of human rights, it proceeds to explain both how individual human rights are to be individuated and the content of their associated obligations specified. With respect to both issues, the human right to health is taken as the primary illustration. It is argued that (1) the individuation of the right to health is fixed by reference to the subject matter of its corresponding obligations, and not by the interests it serves, and (2) the specification of the content of that right must be properly responsive to thresholds of possibility and burden. The article concludes by insisting that human rights cannot constitute the whole of global health justice and that, in addition, other considerations-including the promotion of health-related global public goods-should also shape such policy. Moreover, the relationship between human rights and common goods should not be conceived as mutually exclusive. On the contrary, there sometimes exists an individual right to some aspect of a common good, including a right to benefit from health-related common goods such as programmes for securing herd immunity from diphtheria.

  15. A Diagrammatic Demonstration of Public Crowding-Out of Private Contributions to Public Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple diagrammatic technique for conveying the idea of Ricardian equivalence or policy neutrality in the provision of public goods. Includes several diagrams illustrating basic positions regarding the relationship between voluntary public contributions and taxation. Provides a brief explanation of the illustrated concepts. (MJP)

  16. From Adam Smith to Ronald Reagan: Public Libraries as a Public Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Miriam

    1982-01-01

    Contrasts the arguments of economists who measure the value of library services to society by business standards with the criteria of "the public good" which predominated during the development of public libraries and argues that libraries must continue to serve the whole community. Twenty references are cited. (RAA)

  17. Competition of tolerant strategies in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    Tolerance implies enduring trying circumstances with a fair and objective attitude. To determine whether evolutionary advantages might be stemming from diverse levels of tolerance in a population, we study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to cooperators, defectors, and loners, tolerant players are also present. Depending on the number of defectors within a group, a tolerant player can either cooperate in or abstain from a particular instance of the game. We show that the diversity of tolerance can give rise to synergistic effects, wherein players with a different threshold in terms of the tolerated number of defectors in a group compete most effectively against defection and default abstinence. Such synergistic associations can stabilise states of full cooperation where otherwise defection would dominate. We observe complex pattern formation that gives rise to an intricate phase diagram, where invisible yet stable strategy alliances require outmost care lest they are overlooked. Our results highlight the delicate importance of diversity and tolerance for the provisioning of public goods, and they reveal fascinating subtleties of the spatiotemporal dynamics that is due to the competition of subsystem solutions in structured populations.

  18. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    PubMed

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  19. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Erik P.; Arseneau, T. Jean. M.; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost–benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. PMID:26503678

  20. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  1. Global warming in the public sphere.

    PubMed

    Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Maslin, Mark; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2007-11-15

    Although the science of global warming has been in place for several decades if not more, only in the last decade and a half has the issue moved clearly into the public sphere as a public policy issue and a political priority. To understand how and why this has occurred, it is essential to consider the history of the scientific theory of the greenhouse effect, the evidence that supports it and the mechanisms through which science interacts with lay publics and other elite actors, such as politicians, policymakers and business decision makers. This article reviews why and how climate change has moved from the bottom to the top of the international political agenda. It traces the scientific discovery of global warming, political and institutional developments to manage it as well as other socially mediated pathways for understanding and promoting global warming as an issue in the public sphere. The article also places this historical overview of global warming as a public issue into a conceptual framework for understanding relationships between society and nature with emphasis on the co-construction of knowledge.

  2. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  3. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Mel W; Grab, Denise A; Livermore, Michael A; Vossler, Christian A; Glimcher, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods--including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services--provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically "nonmarket" goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures.

  4. Infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom: from public goods to the challenges of new technologies.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tony; Sorenson, Corinna

    2011-02-01

    Infectious diseases are a long-standing and continuing threat to health and welfare, with their containment dependent on national disease surveillance and response capacities. This article discusses infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom, examining historical national traditions for identifying and controlling infectious disease risks and how globalization and technical advances have influenced the evolution of their respective approaches. The two systems developed in different but parallel ways. In the United States, surveillance remained quite localized at the state level until the early twentieth century and still retains many of those features. The U.K. approach became centralized from the latter part of the nineteenth century and has principally remained so. In both cases, disease surveillance was traditionally conceived as a public good, where national or local authorities held sovereign rights and power to protect public health. With the increasing globalized nature of infectious disease, such notions shifted toward surveillance as a global public good, with countries responding in turn by creating new global health governance arrangements and regulations. However, the limitations of current surveillance systems and the strong hold of national interests place into question the provision of surveillance as a global public good. These issues are further highlighted with the introduction of new surveillance technologies, which offer opportunities for improved disease detection and identification but also create potential tensions between individual rights, corporate profit, equitable access to technology, and national and global public goods.

  5. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Mel W.; Grab, Denise A.; Livermore, Michael A.; Vossler, Christian A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods—including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services—provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically “nonmarket” goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  6. Public goods in relation to competition, cooperation, and spite.

    PubMed

    Levin, Simon A

    2014-07-22

    Public goods and common-pool resources are fundamental features of biological and social systems, and pose core challenges in achieving sustainability; for such situations, the immediate interests of individuals and the societies in which they are embedded are in potential conflict, involving game-theoretic considerations whose resolution need not serve the collective good. Evolution has often confronted such dilemmas--e.g., in bacterial biofilms--in the challenges of cancer, in nitrogen fixation and chelation, in the production of antibiotics, and in collective action problems across animal groups; there is much to learn from the Darwinian resolution of these situations for how to address problems our societies face today. Addressing these problems involves understanding the emergence of cooperative agreements, from reciprocal altruism and insurance arrangements to the social norms and more formal institutions that maintain societies. At the core are the issues of how individuals and societies discount the future and the interests of others, and the degree that individual decisions are influenced by regard for others. Ultimately, as Garrett Hardin suggested, the solution to problems of the commons is in "mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon," and hence in how groups of individuals form and how they arrive at decisions that ultimately benefit all.

  7. Public goods in relation to competition, cooperation, and spite

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Simon A.

    2014-01-01

    Public goods and common-pool resources are fundamental features of biological and social systems, and pose core challenges in achieving sustainability; for such situations, the immediate interests of individuals and the societies in which they are embedded are in potential conflict, involving game-theoretic considerations whose resolution need not serve the collective good. Evolution has often confronted such dilemmas—e.g., in bacterial biofilms—in the challenges of cancer, in nitrogen fixation and chelation, in the production of antibiotics, and in collective action problems across animal groups; there is much to learn from the Darwinian resolution of these situations for how to address problems our societies face today. Addressing these problems involves understanding the emergence of cooperative agreements, from reciprocal altruism and insurance arrangements to the social norms and more formal institutions that maintain societies. At the core are the issues of how individuals and societies discount the future and the interests of others, and the degree that individual decisions are influenced by regard for others. Ultimately, as Garrett Hardin suggested, the solution to problems of the commons is in “mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon,” and hence in how groups of individuals form and how they arrive at decisions that ultimately benefit all. PMID:25024192

  8. Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Santos, Marta D; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2008-07-10

    Humans often cooperate in public goods games and situations ranging from family issues to global warming. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action, and this is often also seen in economic experiments. Here we show how social diversity provides an escape from this apparent paradox. Up to now, individuals have been treated as equivalent in all respects, in sharp contrast with real-life situations, where diversity is ubiquitous. We introduce social diversity by means of heterogeneous graphs and show that cooperation is promoted by the diversity associated with the number and size of the public goods game in which each individual participates and with the individual contribution to each such game. When social ties follow a scale-free distribution, cooperation is enhanced whenever all individuals are expected to contribute a fixed amount irrespective of the plethora of public goods games in which they engage. Our results may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of mechanisms based on individual reputation and punishment. Combining social diversity with reputation and punishment will provide instrumental clues on the self-organization of social communities and their economical implications.

  9. Adaptive and Bounded Investment Returns Promote Cooperation in Spatial Public Goods Games

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Liu, Yongkui; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    The public goods game is one of the most famous models for studying the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups. The multiplication factor in this game can characterize the investment return from the public good, which may be variable depending on the interactive environment in realistic situations. Instead of using the same universal value, here we consider that the multiplication factor in each group is updated based on the differences between the local and global interactive environments in the spatial public goods game, but meanwhile limited to within a certain range. We find that the adaptive and bounded investment returns can significantly promote cooperation. In particular, full cooperation can be achieved for high feedback strength when appropriate limitation is set for the investment return. Also, we show that the fraction of cooperators in the whole population can become larger if the lower and upper limits of the multiplication factor are increased. Furthermore, in comparison to the traditionally spatial public goods game where the multiplication factor in each group is identical and fixed, we find that cooperation can be better promoted if the multiplication factor is constrained to adjust between one and the group size in our model. Our results highlight the importance of the locally adaptive and bounded investment returns for the emergence and dominance of cooperative behavior in structured populations. PMID:22615836

  10. Cyclic public goods games: Compensated coexistence among mutual cheaters stabilized by optimized penalty taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Christopher; Belmonte, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    We study the problem of stabilized coexistence in a three-species public goods game in which each species simultaneously contributes to one public good while freeloading off another public good ("cheating"). The proportional population growth is governed by an appropriately modified replicator equation, depending on the returns from the public goods and the cost. We show that the replicator dynamic has at most one interior unstable fixed point and that the population becomes dominated by a single species. We then show that by applying an externally imposed penalty, or "tax" on success can stabilize the interior fixed point, allowing for the symbiotic coexistence of all species. We show that the interior fixed point is the point of globally minimal total population growth in both the taxed and untaxed cases. We then formulate an optimal taxation problem and show that it admits a quasilinearization, resulting in novel necessary conditions for the optimal control. In particular, the optimal control problem governing the tax rate must solve a certain second-order ordinary differential equation.

  11. Cyclic public goods games: Compensated coexistence among mutual cheaters stabilized by optimized penalty taxation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Christopher; Belmonte, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    We study the problem of stabilized coexistence in a three-species public goods game in which each species simultaneously contributes to one public good while freeloading off another public good ("cheating"). The proportional population growth is governed by an appropriately modified replicator equation, depending on the returns from the public goods and the cost. We show that the replicator dynamic has at most one interior unstable fixed point and that the population becomes dominated by a single species. We then show that by applying an externally imposed penalty, or "tax" on success can stabilize the interior fixed point, allowing for the symbiotic coexistence of all species. We show that the interior fixed point is the point of globally minimal total population growth in both the taxed and untaxed cases. We then formulate an optimal taxation problem and show that it admits a quasilinearization, resulting in novel necessary conditions for the optimal control. In particular, the optimal control problem governing the tax rate must solve a certain second-order ordinary differential equation.

  12. Adaptive and bounded investment returns promote cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Liu, Yongkui; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    The public goods game is one of the most famous models for studying the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups. The multiplication factor in this game can characterize the investment return from the public good, which may be variable depending on the interactive environment in realistic situations. Instead of using the same universal value, here we consider that the multiplication factor in each group is updated based on the differences between the local and global interactive environments in the spatial public goods game, but meanwhile limited to within a certain range. We find that the adaptive and bounded investment returns can significantly promote cooperation. In particular, full cooperation can be achieved for high feedback strength when appropriate limitation is set for the investment return. Also, we show that the fraction of cooperators in the whole population can become larger if the lower and upper limits of the multiplication factor are increased. Furthermore, in comparison to the traditionally spatial public goods game where the multiplication factor in each group is identical and fixed, we find that cooperation can be better promoted if the multiplication factor is constrained to adjust between one and the group size in our model. Our results highlight the importance of the locally adaptive and bounded investment returns for the emergence and dominance of cooperative behavior in structured populations.

  13. Zero-Determinant Strategies in Iterated Public Goods Game.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liming; Hao, Dong; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-21

    Recently, Press and Dyson have proposed a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies for the two-player iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, so-called zero-determinant strategies. A player adopting zero-determinant strategies is able to pin the expected payoff of the opponents or to enforce a linear relationship between his own payoff and the opponents' payoff, in a unilateral way. This paper considers zero-determinant strategies in the iterated public goods game, a representative multi-player game where in each round each player will choose whether or not to put his tokens into a public pot, and the tokens in this pot are multiplied by a factor larger than one and then evenly divided among all players. The analytical and numerical results exhibit a similar yet different scenario to the case of two-player games: (i) with small number of players or a small multiplication factor, a player is able to unilaterally pin the expected total payoff of all other players; (ii) a player is able to set the ratio between his payoff and the total payoff of all other players, but this ratio is limited by an upper bound if the multiplication factor exceeds a threshold that depends on the number of players.

  14. Reward and cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M.

    2010-11-01

    The promise of punishment and reward in promoting public cooperation is debatable. While punishment is traditionally considered more successful than reward, the fact that the cost of punishment frequently fails to offset gains from enhanced cooperation has lead some to reconsider reward as the main catalyst behind collaborative efforts. Here we elaborate on the "stick vs. carrot" dilemma by studying the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, where besides the traditional cooperators and defectors, rewarding cooperators supplement the array of possible strategies. The latter are willing to reward cooperative actions at a personal cost, thus effectively downgrading pure cooperators to second-order free-riders due to their unwillingness to bear these additional costs. Consequently, we find that defection remains viable, especially if the rewarding is costly. Rewards, however, can promote cooperation, especially if the synergetic effects of cooperation are low. Surprisingly, moderate rewards may promote cooperation better than high rewards, which is due to the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between the three strategies.

  15. Balancing individual rights versus collective good in public health enforcement.

    PubMed

    Blum, John D; Talib, Norchaya

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores the balance between common good and individual liberty in the context of public health regulation. The issues are explored in reference to two areas of regulation, isolation and quarantine in the case of SARS, and the rights of parents to refuse mandatory childhood immunizations. In the case of SARS, the analysis explores the age old practice of isolation and quarantine, an important preventive measure with clear civil liberty implications. In reference to childhood immunization the paper considers the American controversy involving the refusal of parents to have their children vaccinated, fearing that mercury in vaccines will lead to autism. The analysis explores the US Supreme Court case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts which 100 years ago established a four part test for evaluating claims of individuals that government public health authorities were infringing on their liberty interests. The paper endorses the four elements of necessity, reasonableness, proportionality, and harm avoidance identified in Jacobson, but calls for a more rigorous scientific evaluation to accompany this traditional test.

  16. The public goods hypothesis for the evolution of life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile the observed extent of horizontal gene transfers with the central metaphor of a great tree uniting all evolving entities on the planet. In this manuscript we describe the Public Goods Hypothesis and show that it is appropriate in order to describe biological evolution on the planet. According to this hypothesis, nucleotide sequences (genes, promoters, exons, etc.) are simply seen as goods, passed from organism to organism through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Public goods sequences are defined by having the properties of being largely non-excludable (no organism can be effectively prevented from accessing these sequences) and non-rival (while such a sequence is being used by one organism it is also available for use by another organism). The universal nature of genetic systems ensures that such non-excludable sequences exist and non-excludability explains why we see a myriad of genes in different combinations in sequenced genomes. There are three features of the public goods hypothesis. Firstly, segments of DNA are seen as public goods, available for all organisms to integrate into their genomes. Secondly, we expect the evolution of mechanisms for DNA sharing and of defense mechanisms against DNA intrusion in genomes. Thirdly, we expect that we do not see a global tree-like pattern. Instead, we expect local tree-like patterns to emerge from the combination of a commonage of genes and vertical inheritance of genomes by cell division. Indeed, while genes are theoretically public goods, in reality, some genes are excludable, particularly, though not only, when they have variant genetic codes or behave as coalition or club goods, available for all organisms of a coalition to integrate into their genomes, and non-rival within the club. We view the Tree of Life hypothesis as a regionalized instance of the Public Goods hypothesis, just like classical mechanics and euclidean geometry are seen as regionalized

  17. The Public Goods Hypothesis for the evolution of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    McInerney, James O; Pisani, Davide; Bapteste, Eric; O'Connell, Mary J

    2011-08-23

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile the observed extent of horizontal gene transfers with the central metaphor of a great tree uniting all evolving entities on the planet. In this manuscript we describe the Public Goods Hypothesis and show that it is appropriate in order to describe biological evolution on the planet. According to this hypothesis, nucleotide sequences (genes, promoters, exons, etc.) are simply seen as goods, passed from organism to organism through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Public goods sequences are defined by having the properties of being largely non-excludable (no organism can be effectively prevented from accessing these sequences) and non-rival (while such a sequence is being used by one organism it is also available for use by another organism). The universal nature of genetic systems ensures that such non-excludable sequences exist and non-excludability explains why we see a myriad of genes in different combinations in sequenced genomes. There are three features of the public goods hypothesis. Firstly, segments of DNA are seen as public goods, available for all organisms to integrate into their genomes. Secondly, we expect the evolution of mechanisms for DNA sharing and of defense mechanisms against DNA intrusion in genomes. Thirdly, we expect that we do not see a global tree-like pattern. Instead, we expect local tree-like patterns to emerge from the combination of a commonage of genes and vertical inheritance of genomes by cell division. Indeed, while genes are theoretically public goods, in reality, some genes are excludable, particularly, though not only, when they have variant genetic codes or behave as coalition or club goods, available for all organisms of a coalition to integrate into their genomes, and non-rival within the club. We view the Tree of Life hypothesis as a regionalized instance of the Public Goods hypothesis, just like classical mechanics and euclidean geometry are seen as regionalized

  18. Good vibrations: Global processing can increase the pleasantness of touch.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-12-01

    Visual-tactile carry-over effects of global/local processing (attention to the whole, versus the details) have been reported under active touch conditions. We investigated whether carry-over effects of global/local processing also occur for passive touch and whether global/local processing has differential effects on affective and discriminative aspects of touch. Participants completed two tactile tasks involving pleasantness rating and discrimination of a set of tactile vibrations before and after completing a version of the Navon task that encouraged a focus on the global (n = 30), local (n = 30), or both (n = 30) features of a series of visual stimuli. In line with previous research suggesting a link between global processing and positive emotion, global processing increased pleasantness ratings of high-frequency (but not low-frequency) tactile vibrations. Local processing did not improve the ability to discriminate between vibrations of different frequencies, however. There was some evidence of a tactile-visual carry-over effect; prior local processing of tactile vibrations reduced global precedence during the Navon task in the control group. We have shown carry-over effects of global versus local processing on passive touch perception. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that a common perceptual mechanism determines processing level across modalities and show for the first time that prior global processing affects the pleasantness of touch.

  19. 78 FR 60280 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Cancellation Notice of Public Advisory Committee teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Cancellation Notice of Public Advisory Committee teleconference... Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) public teleconference. Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA is giving notice of cancellation of that public meeting for the Good...

  20. Educating Global Citizens: A Good "Idea" or an Organisational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Higher education emphasises training and skills for employment, yet while the "idea" of educating global citizens appears in university discourse, there is limited evidence demonstrating how the "idea" of the global citizen translates into practice. Recent research emphasises a desire for graduates to be local and global…

  1. Educating Global Citizens: A Good "Idea" or an Organisational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Higher education emphasises training and skills for employment, yet while the "idea" of educating global citizens appears in university discourse, there is limited evidence demonstrating how the "idea" of the global citizen translates into practice. Recent research emphasises a desire for graduates to be local and global…

  2. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Hiroki; Kamijo, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner's dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system.

  3. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner’s dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system. PMID:27248493

  4. Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Kai; Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Ando, Juko

    2015-01-01

    Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2), twin participants were asked to indicate (1) how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and (2) how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted seven Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed. PMID:25954213

  5. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  6. Heuristics guide cooperative behaviors in public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Chen, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In public goods game (PGG), player's cooperative behavior is not pure economical rationality, but social preference and prosocial intuition play extremely important roles as well. Social preference and prosocial intuition can be guided by heuristics from one's neighbors in daily life. To better investigate the impacts of heuristics on the evolution of cooperation, four types of agents are introduced into our spatial PGG. Through numerical simulations, results show that the larger percentages of cooperators with independent thought, the easier emergence and maintenance of collective cooperative behaviors. Additionally, we find that differentia heuristic capability has great effect on the equilibrium of PGG. Cooperation can be obviously promoted, when heuristic capability of cooperators with independent thought is stronger than that of defectors with independent thought. Finally, we observe that cooperators with independent thought and defectors with independent thought are favorable for the formation of some high quality clusters, which can resist the invasion between each other. Our work may help us understand more clearly the mechanism of cooperation in real world.

  7. Conditional cooperation and confusion in public-goods experiments

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N.; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We show that (i) individuals divide into the same behavioral types when playing with computers, whom they cannot be concerned with the welfare of; (ii) behavior across games with computers and humans is correlated and can be explained by variation in understanding of how to maximize income; (iii) misunderstanding correlates with higher levels of cooperation; and (iv) standard control questions do not guarantee understanding. These results cast doubt on certain experimental methods and demonstrate that a common assumption in behavioral economics experiments, that choices reveal motivations, will not necessarily hold. PMID:26787890

  8. Tolerance-based punishment in continuous public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    Altruistic punishment for defectors is considered as a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. However, there is no clear border between the cooperative and defective behaviors in a continuous strategy game. We propose a model to study the effect of punishment on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods game, wherein individuals have the traits to punish the co-players based on social tolerance. We show that a reasonable punishment with a uniform tolerance can spur individuals to make more investments. Additionally, for a fixed punishment cost and a fixed fine, a moderate value of tolerance can result in the best promotion of cooperation. Furthermore, we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics of investment and tolerance. We find that the population splits into two branches: high-tolerance individuals who make high investments and low-tolerance individuals who make low investments. A dynamic equilibrium is achieved between these two types of individuals. Our work extends punishment to continuous cooperative behaviors and the results may enhance the understanding of altruistic punishment in the evolution of human cooperation.

  9. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  10. Doing Arts-Based Educational Research for the Public Good: An Impossible Possibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Donal

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how arts-based educational research (ABER) work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each…

  11. Public Good and the Nexus of Social Justice, Feminism, and Rock "n" Roll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    This essay was developed from a talk delivered during the Public Good Conference at the University of Denver (October 2008). The theme of the conference was "Making Public Good Work." Conference speakers were asked to address questions about how we make public good work in both teaching and research. In particular, what inspires us to do this…

  12. How Can ABER Serve the Public Good? A Critical Brechtian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  13. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  14. The changing global context of public health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-05

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments.

  15. The private partners of public health: public-private alliances for public good.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Sharon; Bryant, Carol; Harris, Jeff; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Lobb, Ano; Hannon, Peggy A; Cross, Jeffrey L; Gray, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    We sought to convey lessons learned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) about the value and challenges of private-sector alliances resulting in innovative health promotion strategies. Several PRCs based in a variety of workplace and community settings contributed. We conducted interviews with principal investigators, a literature review, and a review of case studies of private-sector alliances in a microbusiness model, a macrobusiness model, and as multiparty partnerships supporting public health research, implementation, and human resource services. Private-sector alliances provide many advantages, particularly access to specialized skills generally beyond the expertise of public health entities. These skills include manufacturing, distribution, marketing, business planning, and development. Alliances also allow ready access to employee populations. Public health entities can offer private-sector partners funding opportunities through special grants, data gathering and analysis skills, and enhanced project credibility and trust. Challenges to successful partnerships include time and resource availability and negotiating the cultural divide between public health and the private sector. Critical to success are knowledge of organizational culture, values, mission, currency, and methods of operation; an understanding of and ability to articulate the benefits of the alliance for each partner; and the ability and time to respond to unexpected changes and opportunities. Private-public health alliances are challenging, and developing them takes time and resources, but aspects of these alliances can capitalize on partners' strengths, counteract weaknesses, and build collaborations that produce better outcomes than otherwise possible. Private partners may be necessary for program initiation or success. CDC guidelines and support materials may help nurture these alliances.

  16. Characteristics utilization of public space in Padang City based on good public space index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriawan, T.

    2017-06-01

    Padang is a metropolitan city which has 40 units of open space like plansum park, playground, and sports park with 10,88 hectar of total area. These open spaces are publics’, but not all of them are able to use as active public open spaces it caused by some of the parks are dormant parks beacuse they only for planted ground not for public activites.This study conducted to assess the quality of public space that exsist in Padang; Imam Bonjol park (representing of city open space (go-green)), H. Agus Salim sport center ( representing of sports park) and Pantai Muaro Padang area (representing of recreation/tourism).The method of this research conducted in several stages, first was the identification toward space’s function (Carmona,2008) and assess the space utilization index based approach to public space index (Metha,2007). The spaced quality is measured based on variable in Good Public Space Index which is the intensity of use, social activities, duration of activities, variation and pattern of use. The urgency of this research related to the effort to evaluate the policy of space arrangement and space control through the assessment of the use of existed spaces, until it can be references to Padang goverment in improving and increasing the quality of space thorugh development of spaces that have high quality.The assesment of quality of public open spaces in Padang conducted by assessed five space quality variables, result of analysis, utilization of public space was 0.69. based on the result it can be concluded the quality of public space in some parks in Padang has moderate index quality. This is caused by the time differentiation of the society, there is no interaction among society, and short time duration of the society in visiting the public space.

  17. Using donation mechanisms to value nonuse benefits from public goods

    Treesearch

    Patricia A. Champ; Richard C. Bishop; Thomas C. Brown; Daniel W. McCollum

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment in which the value for an unfamiliar environmental good, whose total value has a large nonuse component, is verified using a revealed-preference method. As we were unable to observe preferences via an incentive compatible mechanism, we collected voluntary contributions toward the provision of the good. We make a case for interpreting...

  18. Good governance competencies in public health to train public health physicians.

    PubMed

    Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Silenzi, Andrea; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Franchino, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Agnese; Baldo, Vincenzo; Ricciardi, Walter; Damiani, Gianfranco

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at assessing public health residents' perceived health system governance (HSG) training needs and to define a competency framework for "good governance" to improve Public Health physicians' curricula. A questionnaire was administered to all Italian medical residents on postgraduate courses in Hygiene and Preventive medicine. Twenty-five (78.1%) of the 32 Italian Schools of Public Health and 299/535 residents (55.9%) took part in this survey. The public health governance competency framework was developed from roles and responsibility at different levels of governance in the Italian Health System context. The questionnaire revealed that residents felt the need for more training on all the proposed HSG-related topics. Different governance functions, strategic planning, operational planning, and operational programming were considered when defining roles and responsibilities. More efforts should be made to provide organic training plans tailored to the needs of local and national health system. The competencies framework for good governance could be useful for planning professional training in both the academic and the health system settings.

  19. Inequality, communication, and the avoidance of disastrous climate change in a public goods game.

    PubMed

    Tavoni, Alessandro; Dannenberg, Astrid; Kallis, Giorgos; Löschel, Andreas

    2011-07-19

    International efforts to provide global public goods often face the challenges of coordinating national contributions and distributing costs equitably in the face of uncertainty, inequality, and free-riding incentives. In an experimental setting, we distribute endowments unequally among a group of people who can reach a fixed target sum through successive money contributions, knowing that if they fail, they will lose all their remaining money with 50% probability. In some treatments, we give players the option to communicate intended contributions. We find that inequality reduces the prospects of reaching the target but that communication increases success dramatically. Successful groups tend to eliminate inequality over the course of the game, with rich players signaling willingness to redistribute early on. Our results suggest that coordination-promoting institutions and early redistribution from richer to poorer nations are both decisive for the avoidance of global calamities, such as disruptive climate change.

  20. Chimera states in a network-organized public goods game with destructive agents.

    PubMed

    Kouvaris, Nikos E; Requejo, Rubén J; Hizanidis, Johanne; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2016-12-01

    We found that a network-organized metapopulation of cooperators, defectors, and destructive agents playing the public goods game with mutations can collectively reach global synchronization or chimera states. Global synchronization is accompanied by a collective periodic burst of cooperation, whereas chimera states reflect the tendency of the networked metapopulation to be fragmented in clusters of synchronous and incoherent bursts of cooperation. Numerical simulations have shown that the system's dynamics switches between these two steady states through a first order transition. Depending on the parameters determining the dynamical and topological properties, chimera states with different numbers of coherent and incoherent clusters are observed. Our results present the first systematic study of chimera states and their characterization in the context of evolutionary game theory. This provides a valuable insight into the details of their occurrence, extending the relevance of such states to natural and social systems.

  1. Chimera states in a network-organized public goods game with destructive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Nikos E.; Requejo, Rubén J.; Hizanidis, Johanne; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2016-12-01

    We found that a network-organized metapopulation of cooperators, defectors, and destructive agents playing the public goods game with mutations can collectively reach global synchronization or chimera states. Global synchronization is accompanied by a collective periodic burst of cooperation, whereas chimera states reflect the tendency of the networked metapopulation to be fragmented in clusters of synchronous and incoherent bursts of cooperation. Numerical simulations have shown that the system's dynamics switches between these two steady states through a first order transition. Depending on the parameters determining the dynamical and topological properties, chimera states with different numbers of coherent and incoherent clusters are observed. Our results present the first systematic study of chimera states and their characterization in the context of evolutionary game theory. This provides a valuable insight into the details of their occurrence, extending the relevance of such states to natural and social systems.

  2. What Colleges Must Do to Keep the Public's Good Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick; Immerwahr, John

    2008-01-01

    Colleges have lived a charmed life. According to the public-opinion studies that the authors have conducted over the past 15 years, many fields--athletics, accounting, politics--have lost the public's trust, but higher education continues to receive praise for its accomplishments, while criticisms usually fail to stick. The honeymoon may be slowly…

  3. Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the book.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence.

  4. An Economic Case against Vouchers: Why Local Public Schools Are a Local Public Good. Dartmouth Economics Department Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischel, William A.

    This article offers an explanation and economic rationale for the failure of vouchers to be generally accepted by the public, suggesting that public schools are in fact a local public good. The reason economists fail to notice this is they look exclusively to the educational activity of the schools. Education is actually a private good, being both…

  5. Systems science: a good investment for the public's health.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Patricia L; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    This supplement of Health Education & Behavior showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. These investments have included funding opportunity announcements, training programs, developing resources for researchers, cross-disciplinary fertilization, and publication. While much progress has been made, continuing investment is needed in the future to ensure the viability and sustainability of this young but increasingly important field.

  6. Global public awareness of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Wendelboe, A M; McCumber, M; Hylek, E M; Buller, H; Weitz, J I; Raskob, G

    2015-08-01

    Data on public awareness about thrombosis in general and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in particular are limited. We aimed to measure the global awareness of thrombosis to address this gap. With Ipsos-Reid, from 22 July to 5 August 2014, we surveyed 800 respondents in their native language from each of Argentina, Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, Thailand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States to measure general awareness about thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In each country, respondents were distributed among three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and over 65 years of age. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Overall, the proportion of respondents that were aware of thrombosis, DVT and PE (68%, 44% and 54%, respectively) was lower than the proportion that was aware of other thrombotic disorders, such as heart attack and stroke (88% and 85%, respectively), and health conditions such as hypertension, breast cancer, prostate cancer and AIDS (90%, 85%, 82% and 87%, respectively). Although there was variation across countries, lower awareness was associated with younger age and being male. Only 45% (95% CI, 43.9-46.5) of respondents were aware that blood clots were preventable, and awareness of cancer, hospitalization and surgery as risk factors was low (16%, 25%, and 36%, respectively). On a global level, public awareness about thrombosis overall, and VTE in particular, is low. Campaigns to increase public awareness about VTE are needed to reduce the burden from this largely preventable thrombotic disorder. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Effects of income redistribution on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhenhua; Wang, Baokui; Du, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Income redistribution is the transfer of income from some individuals to others directly or indirectly by means of social mechanisms, such as taxation, public services and so on. Employing a spatial public goods game, we study the influence of income redistribution on the evolution of cooperation. Two kinds of evolutionary models are constructed, which describe local and global redistribution of income respectively. In the local model, players have to pay part of their income after each PGG and the accumulated income is redistributed to the members. While in the global model, all the players pay part of their income after engaging in all the local PGGs, which are centred on himself and his nearest neighbours, and the accumulated income is redistributed to the whole population. We show that the cooperation prospers significantly with increasing income expenditure proportion in the local redistribution of income, while in the global model the situation is opposite. Furthermore, the cooperation drops dramatically from the maximum curvature point of income expenditure proportion. In particular, the intermediate critical points are closely related to the renormalized enhancement factors.

  8. Importance and globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, Abubaker; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Wan Ismail, Wan Azman

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical excipients are no longer inert materials but it is effective and able to improve the characteristics of the products' quality, stability, functionality, safety, solubility and acceptance of patients. It can interact with the active ingredients and alter the medicament characteristics. The globalization of medicines' supply enhances the importance of globalized good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. This review was intended to assess the globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. The review outcomes demonstrate that there is a lack of accurately defined methods to evaluate and measure excipients' safety. Furthermore good manufacturing practice requirements for excipients are not effectively globalized.

  9. Importance and globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients

    PubMed Central

    Abdellah, Abubaker; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Wan Ismail, Wan Azman

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical excipients are no longer inert materials but it is effective and able to improve the characteristics of the products’ quality, stability, functionality, safety, solubility and acceptance of patients. It can interact with the active ingredients and alter the medicament characteristics. The globalization of medicines’ supply enhances the importance of globalized good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. This review was intended to assess the globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. The review outcomes demonstrate that there is a lack of accurately defined methods to evaluate and measure excipients’ safety. Furthermore good manufacturing practice requirements for excipients are not effectively globalized. PMID:25685037

  10. 78 FR 29132 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... AGENCY (EPA-HQ-OA-2013-0124) Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee... given that the Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) will hold a public teleconference on Tuesday... teleconferences will be to discuss the Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Sixteenth Report. The report will...

  11. 78 FR 53755 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY...: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good... Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Sixteenth Report and preliminary advice letter. The report...

  12. 78 FR 65981 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY...: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good... this teleconference is to discuss the Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Sixteenth Report...

  13. Merit Goods, Education Public Policy--India at Cross Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Merit Goods have always received handsome attention and allocation from countries which have witnessed a congruence between high significant economic growth and Human Development Index (HDI). The Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) have become significant manufacturing hubs by universalizing education and improving their Incremental Capital Output…

  14. 77 FR 13599 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good...

  15. 78 FR 17395 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good...

  16. 77 FR 57083 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good...

  17. Umbilical cord blood banking: public good or private benefit?

    PubMed

    Samuel, Gabrielle N; Kerridge, Ian H; O'Brien, Tracey A

    2008-05-05

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an accepted curative therapy for many malignant and non-malignant conditions affecting children and adults. Where possible, stem cells for HSCT are provided by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related donors. Only 30% of patients have a suitable matched donor; for other patients, donors are sought from bone marrow registries or public umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks. While public UCB banks have been established to support transplant programs in Australia and internationally, parents also have the option of storing their child's UCB in a private commercial UCB bank for personal or family use. In contrast with public UCB banks, there is little social or medical justification for private UCB banking, as it provides no benefit to the community and little benefit to parents (other than reassurance and amelioration of regret), due to the very low likelihood of requiring autologous UCB later in life. Should UCB prove to be beneficial for tissue repair or replacement in the management of degenerative disorders, such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease, then a stronger case may be made in support of commercial banking of UCB for personal use. This may have a major impact on public UCB programs.

  18. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  19. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  20. Equity, Equal Shares or Equal Final Outcomes? Group Goal Guides Allocations of Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ali; Eek, Daniel; Gärling, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    In an experiment we investigate preferences for allocation of a public good among group members who contributed unequally in providing the public good. Inducing the group goal of productivity resulted in preferences for equitable allocations, whereas inducing the group goals of harmony and social concern resulted in preferences for equal final outcomes. The study makes a contribution by simultaneously treating provision and allocation of a public good, thus viewing these as related processes. Another contribution is that a new paradigm is introduced that bears closer resemblance to real life public good dilemmas than previous research paradigms do. PMID:28179890

  1. 76 FR 46351 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the twenty-third meeting of the International Civil Aviation...

  2. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...Laughlin, Deputy Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, ADG-2, Federal Aviation Administration... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public...

  3. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach.

    PubMed

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice.

  4. Crime and punishment: is "justice" good public policy?

    PubMed

    Curtis, George C; Nygaard, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunctional features of American penology are mitigated somewhat by the application (though uneven) of modern science. Unfortunately, these advances do not address major flaws in the ideas on which the system is erected. These include retribution, proportional punishment, and all-or-none notions of criminal responsibility. We propose abandoning retribution for its own sake; making punishment proportional to its effectiveness for behavior change rather than to the indignation evoked by the offense; and incorporating punishment into sentences based on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the offender, including containment as necessary for public safety. Every offender would be held responsible, but the meaning and consequences thereof would change. The proposed changes could only occur incrementally. New systems of oversight and accountability would be required. Legislative bodies could provide guidelines, and courts could oversee, but neither could micromanage. Few are better qualified to work toward these goals than readers of this journal.

  5. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    PubMed

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  6. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  7. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  8. Student Learning in Guatemala: An Untenured Faculty Perspective on International Service Learning and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explain how I combined service learning, public-good work, and research in Guatemala. This path has not been easy. Indeed, it has been risky because the time invested in public-good work and teaching field classes could have detracted from research productivity. Taking a risk under the current and traditional academic model at…

  9. Cooperation versus Free Riding in a Threshold Public Goods Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Melanie; Lehr, David; Brastow, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a classroom public goods experiment on the basis of a provision-point mechanism (PPM), where subjects must make an all or nothing decision about providing the public good. As a teaching tool, this design is superior to traditional prisoner's dilemma games because it creates multiple equilibrium in which individual financial…

  10. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  11. Leading by Example in a Public Goods Experiment with Heterogeneity and Incomplete Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levati, M. Vittoria; Sutter, Matthias; van der Heijden, Eline

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of leadership on the private provision of a public good when group members are heterogeneously endowed. Leadership is implemented as a sequential public goods game where one group member contributes first and all the others follow. Our results show that the presence of a leader increases average contribution levels but less so…

  12. [Good governance of publicly-produced health services: ideas for moving forward].

    PubMed

    Freire, José Manuel; Repullo, Jose Ramon

    2011-06-01

    The good performance of publicly-produced health services is of vital importance, well beyond the health sector. Taking into account the great complexity of the health services in the public sector due both to their public and professional nature, we identify seven Gordian Knots as being responsible for the most frequent problems of publicly produced health services in Spain and Latin America. From the concept of good governance we take its character as a normative and ethical benchmark and its potential to renew and invigorate the government of the public sector. From comparative analysis of publicly-produced health services in the best performing countries, we extract eight characteristics which contribute significantly to good performance. A final reflection is on the relevance of the importance of offsetting the potential hostility to a reformist impulse of the status-quo with alliances that strengthen public trust and the social contract between health professionals and citizens based on the values of public health systems.

  13. Going Public: Networking Globally and Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Rural sociologists figure prominently in the move towards public sociology. The paper takes up Michael Burawoy's call for public sociology and discusses what rural sociologists have to offer to publics and how we stand to gain as a discipline in working with publics. The paper argues that rural sociologists' ability to adopt a cosmopolitan view…

  14. Leptospirosis: an emerging global public health problem.

    PubMed

    Vijayachari, P; Sugunan, A P; Shriram, A N

    2008-11-01

    Leptospirosis has been recognized as an emerging global public health problem because of its increasing incidence in both developing and developed countries.A number of leptospirosis outbreaks have occurred in the past few years in various places such as Nicaragua, Brazil and India.Some of these resulted due to natural calamities such as cyclone and floods. It is a direct zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes belonging to different pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. Large number of animals acts as carriers or vectors.Human infection results from accidental contact with carrier animals or environment contaminated with leptospires. The primary source of leptospires is the excretor animal, from whose renal tubules leptospires are excreted into the environment with the animal urine. Majority of leptospiral infections are either sub clinical or result in very mild illness and recover without any complications.However,a small proportion develops various complications due to involvement of multiple organ systems. In such patients, the clinical presentation depends upon the predominant organs involved and the case fatality ratio could be about 40% or more. Febrile illness with icterus, splenomegaly and nephritis (known as Weil's disease), acute febrile illness with severe muscle pain,febrile illness with pulmonary haemorrhages in the form of haemoptysis, jaundice with pulmonary haemorrhages, jaundice with heamaturea, meningitis with haemorrhages including sub conjunctival haemorrhage or febrile illness with cardiac arrhythmias with or without haemorrhages are some of the syndromes. Because of the protean manifestations of leptospirosis it is often misdiagnosed and under-reported. Although the basic principles of prevention such as source reduction,environmental sanitation, more hygienic work-related and personal practices etc., are same everywhere, there is no universal control method applicable to all epidemiological settings. Comprehensive understanding of the

  15. 77 FR 50504 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference... Environmental Board (GNEB) will hold a public teleconference on March 22, 2012 from 12 p.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern...

  16. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  17. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  18. A Case Study of Institutional Visioning, Public Good, and the Renewal of Democracy: The Theory and Practice of Public Good Work at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fretz, Eric; Cutforth, Nick; Nicotera, Nicole; Thompson, Sheila Summers

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, the University of Denver included language in its vision statement that committed the institution to becoming "a great private university dedicated to the public good." This essay (1) explains how the development of an institutional visioning statement led to the implementation of a series of campus dialogues and action steps…

  19. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver.

  20. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263

  1. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  2. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates.

    PubMed

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important.

  3. Google Lunar XPRIZE: Sharing the global adventure of going 'Back to the Moon: For Good'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heward, A.; Gonzales, C.; Ashley, C.; Hwang, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Google Lunar XPRIZE is igniting a new era of lunar exploration by offering the largest international incentive prize of all time. A total of $30 million in prizes are available to the first privately funded teams to safely land a robot on the surface of the Moon. Currently 23 teams are competing for the Google Lunar X PRIZE, with team headquarters spread across the world, including Germany, Hungary, Spain, Croatia, Denmark, Romania, Russia, India, Israel, Malaysia, Japan, Chile and Brazil as well as the USA. Building awareness and involving the public with the competition presents an outreach challenge on a global scale. A strong presence on social media is one of the core requirements for teams participating in the competition. To engage and inspire young people, Google Lunar XPRIZE has for the past three years run a junior version of the competition, MoonBots, a LEGO®MINDSTORMS® Challenge. A kit based on the competition has now been developed for use in Science Centres. In Autumn 2013, a full-dome planetarium show will be launched entitled 'Back to the Moon -For Good.' This show will be available to planetaria around the world at a no-cost lease. This suite of outreach activities aim to build excitement over the next two years as the teams prepare for launch before the Google Lunar XPRIZE expiry date of December 2015.

  4. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-31

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

  5. "Globalized public health." A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The current phase of globalization represents a "double-edged sword" challenge facing public health practitioners and health policy makers. The first "edge" throws light on two constructs in the field of public health: global health (formerly international health) and globalized public health. The second "edge" is that of global governance, and raises the question, "how can we construct public health regulations that adequately respond to both global and local complexities related to the two constructs mentioned earlier (global health and globalized public health)?" The two constructs call for the development of norms that will assure sustained population-wide health improvement and these two constructs have their own conceptual tools and theoretical models that permit a better understanding of them. In this paper, we introduce the "globalized public health" construct and we present an interactive comprehensive framework for critically analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health. "Globalized public health", simultaneously a theoretical model and a conceptual framework, concerns the transformation of the field of public health in the sociohistorical context of globalization. The model is the fruit of an original theoretical research study conducted from 2005 to 2008 ("contextualized research," Gibbons' Mode II of knowledge production), founded on a QUAL-quant sequential mixed-method design. This research also reflects our political and ideological position, fuelled with aspirations of social democracy and cosmopolitical values. It is profoundly anchored in the pragmatic approach to globalization, looking to "reconcile" the market and equity. The model offers several features to users: (1) it is transdisciplinary; (2) it is interactive (CD-ROM); (3) it is nonlinear (nonlinear interrelations between the contextual globalization and the field of public health); (4) it is synchronic/diachronic (a double-crossed perspective permits

  6. Stimulating Contributions to Public Goods through Information Feedback: Some Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Marco A.; Lee, Allen; Sundaram, Hari

    2016-01-01

    In traditional public good experiments participants receive an endowment from the experimenter that can be invested in a public good or kept in a private account. In this paper we present an experimental environment where participants can invest time during five days to contribute to a public good. Participants can make contributions to a linear public good by logging into a web application and performing virtual actions. We compared four treatments, with different group sizes and information of (relative) performance of other groups. We find that information feedback about performance of other groups has a small positive effect if we control for various attributes of the groups. Moreover, we find a significant effect of the contributions of others in the group in the previous day on the number of points earned in the current day. Our results confirm that people participate more when participants in their group participate more, and are influenced by information about the relative performance of other groups. PMID:27459070

  7. Devolution and grant-in-aid design for the provision of impure public goods.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    Traditional fiscal federalism theory postulates that devolution for the provision of local public goods increases welfare. However, most of the services offered at local level are local impure public goods whose characteristics may prevent devolution from being efficient. Our paper shows that devolution is the optimal choice only for local impure public goods. For an environment characterised by coordination and asymmetry of information problems, we propose the optimal grants-in-aid formula that Central Government should use to reduce welfare losses and we compare it with what suggested by the mainstream literature. Finally, we show under which conditions devolution should be preferred to a centralised solution. From a policy point of view, our paper may explain the heterogeneity in the choices made by countries in terms of devolution in the provision of merit and impure public goods.

  8. The Durability of Public Goods Changes the Dynamics and Nature of Social Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sam P.; Taddei, François

    2007-01-01

    An implicit assumption underpins basic models of the evolution of cooperation, mutualism and altruism: The benefits (or pay-offs) of cooperation and defection are defined by the current frequency or distribution of cooperators. In social dilemmas involving durable public goods (group resources that can persist in the environment–ubiquitous from microbes to humans) this assumption is violated. Here, we examine the consequences of relaxing this assumption, allowing pay-offs to depend on both current and past numbers of cooperators. We explicitly trace the dynamic of a public good created by cooperators, and define pay-offs in terms of the current public good. By raising the importance of cooperative history in determining the current fate of cooperators, durable public goods cause novel dynamics (e.g., transient increases in cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas, oscillations in Snowdrift Games, or shifts in invasion thresholds in Stag-hunt Games), while changes in durability can transform one game into another, by moving invasion thresholds for cooperation or conditions for coexistence with defectors. This enlarged view challenges our understanding of social cheats. For instance, groups of cooperators can do worse than groups of defectors, if they inherit fewer public goods, while a rise in defectors no longer entails a loss of social benefits, at least not in the present moment (as highlighted by concerns over environmental lags). Wherever durable public goods have yet to reach a steady state (for instance due to external perturbations), the history of cooperation will define the ongoing dynamics of cooperators. PMID:17611625

  9. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  10. Review: Game theory of public goods in one-shot social dilemmas without assortment.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2012-04-21

    We review the theory of public goods in biology. In the N-person prisoner's dilemma, where the public good is a linear function of the individual contributions, cooperation requires some form of assortment, for example due to kin discrimination, population viscosity or repeated interactions. In most social species ranging from bacteria to humans, however, public goods are usually a non-linear function of the contributions, which makes cooperation possible without assortment. More specifically, a polymorphic state can be stable in which cooperators and non-cooperators coexist. The existence of mixed equilibria in public goods games is a fundamental result in the study of cooperation that has been overlooked so far, because of the disproportionate attention given to the two- and N-person prisoner's dilemma. Methods and results from games with pairwise interactions or linear benefits cannot, in general, be extended to the analysis of public goods. Game theory helps explain the production of public goods in one-shot, N-person interactions without assortment, it leads to predictions that can be easily tested and allows a prescriptive approach to cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of staying together in the context of diffusible public goods.

    PubMed

    Olejarz, Jason W; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-11-07

    We study the coevolution of staying together and cooperation. Staying together means that replicating units do not separate after reproduction, but remain in proximity. For example, following cell division the two daughter cells may not fully separate but stay attached to each other. Repeated cell division thereby can lead to a simple multi-cellular complex. We assume that cooperators generate a diffusible public good, which can be absorbed by any cell in the system. The production of the public good entails a cost, while the absorption leads to a benefit. Defectors produce no public good. Defectors have a selective advantage unless a mechanism for evolution of cooperation is at work. Here we explore the idea that the public good produced by a cooperating cell is absorbed by cells of the same complex with a probability that depends on the size of the complex. Larger complexes are better at absorbing the public goods produced by their own individuals. We derive analytical conditions for the evolution of staying together, thereby studying the coevolution of clustering and cooperation. If cooperators and defectors differ in their intrinsic efficiency to absorb the public good, then we find multiple stable equilibria and the possibility for coexistence between cooperators and defectors. Finally we study the implications of disadvantages that might arise if complexes become too large. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building global alliances for public health nutrition training.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark A; Galal, Osman; Margetts, Barrie M; Yngve, Agneta

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of opportunities and challenges for future progress in building intercountry, regional, and global alliances for public health nutrition training. Drawing on experiences from developing, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition training in Australasia, Europe, and the Middle East, suggestions are provided for building a network of global training activities. Opportunities are described in areas such as standardization of course competencies and registration schemes, resource sharing, student and trainer exchange programs, and professional development. Challenges are identified and options presented for building global alliances in public health nutrition training into the future.

  13. Reliability of individual valuations of public and private goods: Choice consistency, response time, and preference refinement

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Brown; David Kingsley; George L. Peterson; Nicholas E. Flores; Andrea Clarke; Andrej Birjulin

    2008-01-01

    We examined the reliability of a large set of paired comparison value judgments involving public goods, private goods, and sums of money. As respondents progressed through a random sequence of paired choices they were each given, their response time decreased and they became more consistent, apparently fine-tuning their responses, suggesting that respondents tend to...

  14. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  15. Governance Frameworks for International Public Goods: The Case of Concerted Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Thomas; Formica, Piero

    2007-01-01

    In the "participation age", emerging cross-border, transnational communities driven by innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives--in short, international entrepreneurial communities--give impetus to the rise of international public goods. With varying intensity, a non-voting international mobile public--still a small but an increasing fraction…

  16. Governance Frameworks for International Public Goods: The Case of Concerted Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Thomas; Formica, Piero

    2007-01-01

    In the "participation age", emerging cross-border, transnational communities driven by innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives--in short, international entrepreneurial communities--give impetus to the rise of international public goods. With varying intensity, a non-voting international mobile public--still a small but an increasing fraction…

  17. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  18. Orienting to the Public Good: Developing a Moral Self in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Ann Marie R.; Roney, Kathleen; Power, F. Clark

    2008-01-01

    This study takes up the challenge of middle level researchers to investigate the extent to which schools prepare young adolescents to commit themselves to serve the public interest. One way of assessing the orientation of children and adolescents to the public good is through their emerging self-understanding. This study analyzes middle school…

  19. Using Strategic Planning to Create the Public Good for Higher Education in Volatile Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letizia, Angelo J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess how public higher education institutions are serving the public good at time when economic, social and environmental conditions are increasingly becoming more volatile. While by no means the only issues of concern, Zizek (2009) argues that impending ecological threats, the growing divide between the rich and…

  20. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  1. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    PubMed

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Electrophysiological Indices of Spatial Attention during Global/Local Processing in Good and Poor Phonological Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests a relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in developmental dyslexia. The aim of this study was to examine differences between good and poor phonological decoders in the allocation of spatial attention to global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. A further aim was to investigate the…

  3. Aspiration dynamics and the sustainability of resources in the public goods dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2016-04-01

    How to exploit public non-renewable resources is a public goods dilemma. Individuals can choose to limit the depletion in order to use the resource for a longer time or consume more goods to benefit themselves. When the resource is used up, there is no benefit for the future generations any more, thus the evolutionary process ends. Here we investigate what mechanisms can extend the use of resources in the framework of evolutionary game theory under two updating rules based on imitation and aspiration, respectively. Compared with imitation process, aspiration dynamics may prolong the sustainable time of a public resource.

  4. Public Education about Globalization: The Role of the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the media treatment of the 1996 Australian election to illustrate the power of the media to disseminate corporate propaganda and to persuade the public to accept the political and economic changes of globalization. (SK)

  5. Good Publication Practice for Communicating Company-Sponsored Medical Research: GPP3.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Wendy P; Wager, Elizabeth; Baltzer, Lise; Bridges, Dan; Cairns, Angela; Carswell, Christopher I; Citrome, Leslie; Gurr, James A; Mooney, LaVerne A; Moore, B Jane; Peña, Teresa; Sanes-Miller, Carol H; Veitch, Keith; Woolley, Karen L; Yarker, Yvonne E

    2015-09-15

    This updated Good Publication Practice (GPP) guideline, known as GPP3, builds on earlier versions and provides recommendations for individuals and organizations that contribute to the publication of research results sponsored or supported by pharmaceutical, medical device, diagnostics, and biotechnology companies. The recommendations are designed to help individuals and organizations maintain ethical and transparent publication practices and comply with legal and regulatory requirements. These recommendations cover publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations (oral or poster) at scientific congresses. The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals invited more than 3000 professionals worldwide to apply for a position on the steering committee, or as a reviewer, for this guideline. The GPP2 authors reviewed all applications (n = 241) and assembled an 18-member steering committee that represented 7 countries and a diversity of publication professions and institutions. From the 174 selected reviewers, 94 sent comments on the second draft, which steering committee members incorporated after discussion and consensus. The resulting guideline includes new sections (Principles of Good Publication Practice for Company-Sponsored Medical Research, Data Sharing, Studies That Should Be Published, and Plagiarism), expands guidance on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' authorship criteria and common authorship issues, improves clarity on appropriate author payment and reimbursement, and expands information on the role of medical writers. By following good publication practices (including GPP3), individuals and organizations will show integrity; accountability; and responsibility for accurate, complete, and transparent reporting in their publications and presentations.

  6. Molecular and regulatory properties of a public good shape the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Brown, Sam P.

    2010-01-01

    Public goods cooperation abounds in nature, occurring in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Although previous research focused on the behavioral and ecological conditions favoring cooperation, the question of whether the molecular and regulatory properties of the public good itself can influence selection for cooperation has received little attention. Using a metapopulation model, we show that extended molecular durability of a public good—allowing multiple reuse across generations—greatly reduces selection for cheating if (and only if) the production of the public good is facultatively regulated. To test the apparent synergy between public goods durability and facultative regulation, we examined the production of iron-scavenging pyoverdin molecules by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a cooperative behavior that is facultatively regulated in response to iron availability. We show that pyoverdin is a very durable public good and that extended durability significantly enhances fitness. Consistent with our model, we found that nonsiderophore-producing mutants (cheats) had a relative fitness advantage over siderophore producers (cooperators) when pyoverdin durability was low but not when durability was high. This was because cooperators facultatively reduced their investment in pyoverdin production when enough pyoverdin had accumulated in the media—a cost-saving strategy that minimized the ability of cheats to invade. These findings show how molecular properties of cooperative acts can shape the costs and benefits of cooperation. PMID:20944065

  7. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  8. From the Classics to the Cuts: Valuing Teaching Public Administration as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Rory; Howell, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    This article intends to raise a number of issues regarding teaching public administration in the higher education sector and the value it has for individuals and society. The article explores the issue of value with reference to the teaching and learning of Public Administration as a discipline in the wider societal context. The article argues…

  9. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  10. From the Classics to the Cuts: Valuing Teaching Public Administration as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Rory; Howell, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    This article intends to raise a number of issues regarding teaching public administration in the higher education sector and the value it has for individuals and society. The article explores the issue of value with reference to the teaching and learning of Public Administration as a discipline in the wider societal context. The article argues…

  11. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    2017-08-10

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Service, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  12. Cooperation and charity in spatial public goods game under different strategy update rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Jin, Xiaogang; Su, Xianchuang; Kong, Fansheng; Peng, Chengbin

    2010-03-01

    Human cooperation can be influenced by other human behaviors and recent years have witnessed the flourishing of studying the coevolution of cooperation and punishment, yet the common behavior of charity is seldom considered in game-theoretical models. In this article, we investigate the coevolution of altruistic cooperation and egalitarian charity in spatial public goods game, by considering charity as the behavior of reducing inter-individual payoff differences. Our model is that, in each generation of the evolution, individuals play games first and accumulate payoff benefits, and then each egalitarian makes a charity donation by payoff transfer in its neighborhood. To study the individual-level evolutionary dynamics, we adopt different strategy update rules and investigate their effects on charity and cooperation. These rules can be classified into two global rules: random selection rule in which individuals randomly update strategies, and threshold selection rule where only those with payoffs below a threshold update strategies. Simulation results show that random selection enhances the cooperation level, while threshold selection lowers the threshold of the multiplication factor to maintain cooperation. When charity is considered, it is incapable in promoting cooperation under random selection, whereas it promotes cooperation under threshold selection. Interestingly, the evolution of charity strongly depends on the dispersion of payoff acquisitions of the population, which agrees with previous results. Our work may shed light on understanding human egalitarianism.

  13. Falling giants and the rise of gene editing: ethics, private interests and the public good.

    PubMed

    Capps, Benjamin; Chadwick, Ruth; Joly, Yann; Mulvihill, John J; Lysaght, Tamra; Zwart, Hub

    2017-08-29

    This paper considers the tensions created in genomic research by public and private for-profit ideals. Our intent is to strengthen the public good at a time when doing science is strongly motivated by market possibilities and opportunities. Focusing on the emergence of gene editing, and in particular CRISPR, we consider how commercialisation encourages hype and hope-a sense that only promise and idealism can achieve progress. At this rate, genomic research reinforces structures that promote, above all else, private interests, but that may attenuate conditions for the public good of science. In the first part, we situate genomics using the aphorism that 'on the shoulders of giants we see farther'; these giants are infrastructures and research cultures rather than individual 'heroes' of science. In this respect, private initiatives are not the only pivot for successful discovery, and indeed, fascination in those could impinge upon the fundamental role of public-supported discovery. To redress these circumstances, we define the extent to which progress presupposes research strategies that are for the public good. In the second part, we use a 'falling giant' narrative to illustrate the risks of over-indulging for-profit initiatives. We therefore offer a counterpoint to commercialised science, using three identifiable 'giants'-scientists, publics and cultures-to illustrate how the public good contributes to genomic discovery.

  14. Global health-related publications in otolaryngology are increasing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Kyle J; Creighton, Francis; Abdul-Aziz, Dunia; Cheney, Mack; Randolph, Gregory W

    2015-04-01

    Determine trends in global health-related publication in otolaryngology. A review of research databases. A search of publications available on PubMed and nine additional databases was undertaken reviewing two time periods 10 years apart for the timeframes 1998 to 2002 (early time period) and 2008 to 2012 (recent time period) using specific search terms to identify global health-related publications in otolaryngology. Publications were examined for region of origin, subspecialty, type of publication, and evidence of international collaboration. χ and t test analyses were used to identify trends. In the 1998 to 2002 time period, a total of 26 publications met inclusion criteria for the study, with a mean of 5.2 ± 2.8 publications per year. In the 2008 to 2012 time period, a total of 61 publications met inclusion criteria, with a mean of 12.3 ± 5.6 publications per year. The 235% increase in global health-related publications identified between the two study periods was statistically significant (P = .02). The absolute number of publications in which collaboration occurred between countries increased from three in the early time period to nine the recent time period. There has been a significant increase in the volume of global health-related publications in English language otolaryngology journals over the past decade, providing strong evidence of the increasing trend of global health as an academic pursuit within the field of otolaryngology. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Arguing for a centralized coordination solution to the public-private partnership explosion in global health.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Dana Karen

    2010-06-01

    Public-private partnerships are widely seen as the future of global health; the only realistic option for achieving results in social challenges like infectious disease, because of the needed innovation, expertise and financing that a multiplicity of stakeholders can together provide. Yet, harnessing that potential requires finding a harmony among the drastically different incentive structures and internal cultures of profit-based companies, public institutions and humanitarian initiatives. While public-private partnerships have accomplished the important task of mobilizing new funding for global health, their growing dominance in governance raises questions about their effectiveness, but in particular, about the problem of accountability posed by their structure. This commentary aims to initiate a discussion around the coordination problem that exists with the employment of partnerships in global health and argues that the remedy is to apply a public goods theory approach to centralizing what is currently a fractured, inefficient, and potentially detrimental system.

  16. Bikes, Helmets, and Public Health: Decision-Making When Goods Collide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods. PMID:24825196

  17. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mackey, Tim Ken; Ovtcharenko, Natalia

    2014-01-21

    Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need to be acknowledged and

  18. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Discussion Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Summary Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need

  19. Social immunity of the family: parental contributions to a public good modulated by brood size.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana; Cotter, Sheena C; Reavey, Catherine E; Ward, Richard J S; De Gasperin, Ornela; Kilner, Rebecca M

    Social immunity refers to any immune defence that benefits others, besides the individual that mounts the response. Since contributions to social immunity are known to be personally costly, they are contributions to a public good. However, individuals vary in their contributions to this public good and it is unclear why. Here we investigate whether they are responding to contributions made by others with experiments on burying beetle (Nicrophorus vespilloides) families. In this species, females, males and larvae each contribute to social immunity through the application of antimicrobial exudates upon the carrion breeding resource. We show experimentally that mothers reduce their contributions to social immunity when raising large broods, and test two contrasting hypotheses to explain why. Either mothers are treating social immunity as a public good, investing less in social immunity when their offspring collectively contribute more, or mothers are trading off investment in social immunity with investment in parental care. Overall, our experiments yield no evidence to support the existence of a trade-off between social immunity and other parental care traits: we found no evidence of a trade-off in terms of time allocated to each activity, nor did the relationship between social immunity and brood size change with female condition. Instead, and consistent with predictions from models of public goods games, we found that higher quality mothers contributed more to social immunity. Therefore our results suggest that mothers are playing a public goods game with their offspring to determine their personal contribution to the defence of the carrion breeding resource.

  20. The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin

    2013-10-01

    Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.

  1. Critical public health ethics and Canada's role in global health.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Stephanie A

    2006-01-01

    This commentary introduces critical public health ethics as an innovative lens for considering Canada's role in global health. Arising from the relatively young field of public health ethics, this analytic perspective sheds light on questions regarding public health policy, research and practice that often remain shaded from view because of traditional ways of thinking about public health. The advantage of a critical public health ethics lens is illustrated through the example of Canada's role in scaling up access to HIV treatments in developing countries.

  2. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  3. Public Goods Games in Japan : Cultural and Individual Differences in Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Keiko; Kurzban, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Social dilemmas, in which individually selfish behavior leads to collectively deficient outcomes, continue to be an important topic of research because of their ubiquity. The present research with Japanese participants replicates, with slight modifications, public goods games previously run in the United States. In contrast to recent work showing profound cross-cultural differences, the results of two studies reported here show remarkable cross-cultural similarities. Specifically, results suggest that (1) as in the U.S., allowing incremental commitment to a public good is effective at eliciting contributions, (2) individual differences in trust affect contributions, (3) the distribution of player types in the U.S. and Japan are very similar, and (4) the dynamics of play in the public goods games used here are strikingly parallel. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between cross-cultural differences and economic institutional environments.

  4. Chicago neoliberalism versus Cowles planning: perspectives on patents and public goods in Cold War economic thought.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Robert; Klaes, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In post-Sputnik America, when many policymakers and social scientists feared the Soviet Union had a technological advantage over the United States, assessing the relative importance of patents for inventive activity and examining whether scientific research constituted a public good were paramount concerns. The neoliberals of the University of Chicago and the planners of the Cowles Commission both spoke to these issues. This paper sheds light on their views on patents and public goods in the late 1950s and early 1960s by examining representatives of Cowles and Chicago, Kenneth Arrow and Ronald Coase, respectively. Furthermore, it evaluates whether their views on patents and public goods clashed with the interests of RAND, at which both Arrow and Coase worked at some point during this time period. The paper argues that the Chicago-neoliberal position of Coase undermined the interests of RAND, while the Cowles-planning conclusions of Arrow furthered those interests.

  5. What Does It Mean to Have an N of 1? Art Making, Education, Research, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  6. E's Are Good: Standards of Quality in Public Administration as Reflected in Discourse on Canadian Public Policy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee; Miller, Audrey Anna; Bratton, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Promoting understanding of quality in the context of good governance can be a challenging classroom exercise not only because of the potential for hijacking politicization of the discussion, but also because of the variety of ways in which public sector goals can be defined, even in the context of a single policy. Standards of quality in the…

  7. E's Are Good: Standards of Quality in Public Administration as Reflected in Discourse on Canadian Public Policy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee; Miller, Audrey Anna; Bratton, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Promoting understanding of quality in the context of good governance can be a challenging classroom exercise not only because of the potential for hijacking politicization of the discussion, but also because of the variety of ways in which public sector goals can be defined, even in the context of a single policy. Standards of quality in the…

  8. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... 17th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model... data interchange (EDI) for documentation purposes. Cooperation with the International Atomic Energy... the Model Regulations. Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS...

  9. Dairy products in global public health.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Intakes of dairy produce show enormous diversity between regions, cultures, and individuals around the world. At the geographic level, intake maps closely onto the distribution of lactase persistence (LP), a genetic trait that allows milk to be consumed beyond the weaning period without gastrointestinal side effects. The LP trait has been independently selected at least 4 times and is under rapid positive selection, which shows that dairy consumption has positive survival benefits. For people lacking the LP trait, the fermentation of milk into yogurt and related products (a process known for ≥8500 y) aids milk digestion through the breakdown of some lactose and the provision of β-galactosidase, which remains active in the gastrointestinal tract. In global ecologic comparisons, milk and dairy intakes are strongly associated with adult height, and many international advisory bodies recommend the consumption of 400-500 mL milk equivalents/d. There are very few countries where such high intakes are met, and in populations in whom intakes are much lower there is evidence of adaptations that help to maintain bone health with surprisingly low intakes. Despite concerns that the high-saturated-fat content of full-fat dairy products would promote heart disease, recent meta-analyses show that dairy consumption is neutral or beneficial for weight control, coronary disease, diabetes, hypertension, and most cancers.

  10. Trustees "versus" Directors, Whom Do They Serve? Boards, For-Profits and the Public Good in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education in the United States is provided by public, not-for-profit and for-profit institutions. Public and not-for-profit institutions are expected to serve the public good due to state control or chartering requirements; for-profit institutions are not. Therefore, the decision to serve the public good is vested in the board. The…

  11. Mapping the global flow of steel: from steelmaking to end-use goods.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jonathan M; Allwood, Julian M; Bambach, Margarita D

    2012-12-18

    Our society is addicted to steel. Global demand for steel has risen to 1.4 billion tonnes a year and is set to at least double by 2050, while the steel industry generates nearly a 10th of the world's energy related CO₂ emissions. Meeting our 2050 climate change targets would require a 75% reduction in CO₂ emissions for every tonne of steel produced and finding credible solutions is proving a challenge. The starting point for understanding the environmental impacts of steel production is to accurately map the global steel supply chain and identify the biggest steel flows where actions can be directed to deliver the largest impact. In this paper we present a map of global steel, which for the first time traces steel flows from steelmaking, through casting, forming, and rolling, to the fabrication of final goods. The diagram reveals the relative scale of steel flows and shows where efforts to improve energy and material efficiency should be focused.

  12. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    expense of public health. Although liability rules are better than the status quo, they would not resolve the problem of treating a public good as proprietary. Governments should thus oversee and fund clinical trials as the public good that they are. Clinical tests should be awarded to the most qualified scientists through a competitive process, financed in part with the decrease in drug costs to governmental health care programs and in part with drug developers’ contributions, selected to maximize social benefit, and made global via intergovernmental bodies to maximize social return. This would reduce the cost of redundant investigations to the global public health system, lower supply costs to drug consumers, and lower the breakeven point for investment in research to discover new drugs. PMID:20431702

  13. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    health. Although liability rules are better than the status quo, they would not resolve the problem of treating a public good as proprietary. Governments should thus oversee and fund clinical trials as the public good that they are. Clinical tests should be awarded to the most qualified scientists through a competitive process, financed in part with the decrease in drug costs to governmental health care programs and in part with drug developers' contributions, selected to maximize social benefit, and made global via intergovernmental bodies to maximize social return. This would reduce the cost of redundant investigations to the global public health system, lower supply costs to drug consumers, and lower the breakeven point for investment in research to discover new drugs.

  14. The Global Public Health Intelligence Network and early warning outbreak detection: a Canadian contribution to global public health.

    PubMed

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Weir, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The recent SARS epidemic has renewed widespread concerns about the global transmission of infectious diseases. In this commentary, we explore novel approaches to global infectious disease surveillance through a focus on an important Canadian contribution to the area--the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). GPHIN is a cutting-edge initiative that draws on the capacity of the Internet and newly available 24/7 global news coverage of health events to create a unique form of early warning outbreak detection. This commentary outlines the operation and development of GPHIN and compares it to ProMED-mail, another Internet-based approach to global health surveillance. We argue that GPHIN has created an important shift in the relationship of public health and news information. By exiting the pyramid of official reporting, GPHIN has created a new monitoring technique that has disrupted national boundaries of outbreak notification, while creating new possibilities for global outbreak response. By incorporating news within the emerging apparatus of global infectious disease surveillance, GPHIN has effectively responded to the global media's challenge to official country reporting of outbreak and enhanced the effectiveness and credibility of international public health.

  15. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  16. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers’ Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved. PMID:27737006

  17. Faculty Voice in Intellectual Property Policies: Collective Action for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2017-01-01

    This chapter synthesizes the previous chapters to offer to readers practical recommendations for navigating IP issues, including resources and advice for faculty and administrations to engage in more equitable discussions about the rights of faculty and the interests of the public good.

  18. Cooperation among cancer cells as public goods games on Voronoi networks.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco

    2016-05-07

    Cancer cells produce growth factors that diffuse and sustain tumour proliferation, a form of cooperation that can be studied using mathematical models of public goods in the framework of evolutionary game theory. Cell populations, however, form heterogeneous networks that cannot be described by regular lattices or scale-free networks, the types of graphs generally used in the study of cooperation. To describe the dynamics of growth factor production in populations of cancer cells, I study public goods games on Voronoi networks, using a range of non-linear benefits that account for the known properties of growth factors, and different types of diffusion gradients. The results are surprisingly similar to those obtained on regular graphs and different from results on scale-free networks, revealing that network heterogeneity per se does not promote cooperation when public goods diffuse beyond one-step neighbours. The exact shape of the diffusion gradient is not crucial, however, whereas the type of non-linear benefit is an essential determinant of the dynamics. Public goods games on Voronoi networks can shed light on intra-tumour heterogeneity, the evolution of resistance to therapies that target growth factors, and new types of cell therapy.

  19. Examining Theories of Distributive Justice with an Asymmetric Public Goods Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an asymmetric version of the familiar public goods classroom experiment, in which some players are given more tokens to invest than others, and players collectively decide whether to divide the return to the group investment asymmetrically as well. The asymmetry between players raises normative issues about…

  20. Examining Theories of Distributive Justice with an Asymmetric Public Goods Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an asymmetric version of the familiar public goods classroom experiment, in which some players are given more tokens to invest than others, and players collectively decide whether to divide the return to the group investment asymmetrically as well. The asymmetry between players raises normative issues about…

  1. Visual Graphics for Human Rights, Social Justice, Democracy and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanackchand, Vedant; Berman, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The value of human rights in a democratic South Africa is constantly threatened and often waived for nefarious reasons. We contend that the use of visual graphics among incoming university visual art students provides a mode of engagement that helps to inculcate awareness of human rights, social responsibility, and the public good in South African…

  2. Universities, Professional Capabilities and Contributions to the Public Good in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The generation of a public-good, capabilities-based approach to professional education in South African universities is outlined and proposed as a contribution to wider social transformation. The relevance and importance of understanding what Amartya Sen describes as "capability failure" in the lives of people living in poverty is…

  3. Universities, Professional Capabilities and Contributions to the Public Good in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The generation of a public-good, capabilities-based approach to professional education in South African universities is outlined and proposed as a contribution to wider social transformation. The relevance and importance of understanding what Amartya Sen describes as "capability failure" in the lives of people living in poverty is…

  4. Doing Evil to Achieve Good: A Serious Ethical Quandary for Student Journalists and College Publication Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the debate surrounding the question of using "bad means to achieve a particular good." States that this has significant implications: (1) student publications should play an important role as an inculcator of professional ethical values; and (2) student reporters and editors may be confronted by an actual situation in which such…

  5. Which response format reveals the truth about donations to a public good?

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Brown; Patricia A. Champ; Richard C. Bishop; Daniel W. McCollum

    1996-01-01

    Seceral contingent valuation studies hace found that the open-ended format yields lower estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) than does the closed-ended, or dichotomous choice, format. In this study, WTP for a public encironmental good was estimated under four conditions: actual payment in response to open-ended and closed-ended requests, and hypothetical payment in...

  6. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 42nd session of the United Nations... 18th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model... from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at...

  7. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Higher Education for the Public Good. Number 1, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Magdalena, Ed.; Pasque, Penny A., Ed.; Bowman, Nick, Ed.; Chambers, Tony, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The National Forum on Higher Education for the Public Good, along with the American Association for Higher Education (AAHE), American College Personnel Association (ACPA), American Educational Research Association (AERA), Association for Institutional Research (AIR), and Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), have committed…

  8. Transforming Educational Knowledge through Making Explicit the Embodied Knowledge of Educators for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delong, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Jack

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on making explicit the embodied knowledge of educators using a living theory methodology and inciting the social imagination to create educational research for the public good. Using evidence from international contexts, the meanings of the energy-flowing values that educators use to explain their educational influences in their…

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of interlinked public goods traits: an experimental study of siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ross-Gillespie, A; Dumas, Z; Kümmerli, R

    2015-01-01

    Public goods cooperation is common in microbes, and there is much interest in understanding how such traits evolve. Research in recent years has identified several important factors that shape the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, yet few studies have investigated scenarios involving interactions between multiple public goods. Here, we offer general predictions about the evolutionary trajectories of two public goods traits having positive, negative or neutral regulatory influence on one another's expression, and we report on a test of some of our predictions in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa's production of two interlinked iron-scavenging siderophores. First, we confirmed that both pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores do operate as public goods under appropriate environmental conditions. We then tracked their production in lines experimentally evolved under different iron-limitation regimes known to favour different siderophore expression profiles. Under strong iron limitation, where pyoverdine represses pyochelin, we saw a decline in pyoverdine and a concomitant increase in pyochelin - consistent with expansion of pyoverdine-defective cheats derepressed for pyochelin. Under moderate iron limitation, pyochelin declined - again consistent with an expected cheat invasion scenario - but there was no concomitant shift in pyoverdine because cross-suppression between the traits is unidirectional only. Alternating exposure to strong and moderate iron limitation caused qualitatively similar though lesser shifts compared to the constant-environment regimes. Our results confirm that the regulatory interconnections between public goods traits can significantly modulate the course of evolution, yet also suggest how we can start to predict the impacts such complexities will have on phenotypic divergence and community stability.

  10. Goodness of regularity in dot patterns: global symmetry, local symmetry, and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Massimo; Wagemans, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Goodness is a classic Gestalt notion defined as salience or perceptual strength of a given pattern. All operational models of goodness have assigned a central role to mirror symmetry but not much attention has been paid to the distinction between global and local mirror symmetry, and their possible interactions. We designed eight different types of dot patterns (all consisting of 80 dots), combining different numbers (0, 1, and 2) and relative orientations (parallel or orthogonal to each other) of local and global axes of symmetry (affecting 50% or 100% of the dots, respectively) at different absolute orientations (vertical and horizontal). Each of 640 trials consisted of a short presentation of a new dot pattern, which subjects had to classify as regular or random. We hypothesised that the overall goodness of patterns is not the simple sum of the amount of regularity present in them but depends on the cooperation and competition between symmetries. The results confirmed our hypothesis, showing that performance in this regularity-detection task did not increase in a linear way when some symmetries were added to other symmetries.

  11. Volunteering leads to rock-paper-scissors dynamics in a public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmann, Dirk; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Milinski, Manfred

    2003-09-01

    Collective efforts are a trademark of both insect and human societies. They are achieved through relatedness in the former and unknown mechanisms in the latter. The problem of achieving cooperation among non-kin has been described as the `tragedy of the commons', prophesying the inescapable collapse of many human enterprises. In public goods experiments, initial cooperation usually drops quickly to almost zero. It can be maintained by the opportunity to punish defectors or the need to maintain good reputation. Both schemes require that defectors are identified. Theorists propose that a simple but effective mechanism operates under full anonymity. With optional participation in the public goods game, `loners' (players who do not join the group), defectors and cooperators will coexist through rock-paper-scissors dynamics. Here we show experimentally that volunteering generates these dynamics in public goods games and that manipulating initial conditions can produce each predicted direction. If, by manipulating displayed decisions, it is pretended that defectors have the highest frequency, loners soon become most frequent, as do cooperators after loners and defectors after cooperators. On average, cooperation is perpetuated at a substantial level.

  12. On the evaluation of cultural and environmental public goods, and its implications for social innovation.

    PubMed

    Graffeo, Michele; Bonini, Nicolao

    2013-01-01

    Public goods (e.g., parks) and welfare services (e.g., garbage disposal and transportation policies) are extremely important for the citizens' well-being but in the complex modern societies their influence and effectiveness are affected by the citizens' support. For this reason, it is crucial to understand which are the factors that influence the citizens' perception of the benefits, costs, and risks associated to public goods and welfare services. In this chapter, we describe some psychological variables that are relevant for the evaluation process of the public goods, but that are not considered by the standard economic models. At the same time, we show that some variables of central importance for the economic models do not significantly affect the citizens' evaluations. Finally, we discuss the concept of Nudge, a policy-making approach that suggests the use of psychological mechanisms to increase the citizens' support to public provision of welfare services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  14. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  15. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  16. The Tobacco Industry, Researchers, and Ethical Access to UK Biobank: Using the Public Interest and Public Good

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry–funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking. PMID:25122018

  17. Impact of regulatory science on global public health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meghal; Miller, Margaret Ann

    2012-07-01

    Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  18. Stabilizing the earth's climate is not a losing game: supporting evidence from public goods experiments.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred; Semmann, Dirk; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Marotzke, Jochem

    2006-03-14

    Maintaining the Earth's climate within habitable boundaries is probably the greatest "public goods game" played by humans. However, with >6 billion "players" taking part, the game seems to rule out individual altruistic behavior. Thus, climate protection is a problem of sustaining a public resource that everybody is free to overuse, a "tragedy of the commons" problem that emerges in many social dilemmas. We perform a previously undescribed type of public goods experiment with human subjects contributing to a public pool. In contrast to the standard protocol, here the common pool is not divided among the participants; instead, it is promised that the pool will be invested to encourage people to reduce their fossil fuel use. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that players can behave altruistically to maintain the Earth's climate given the right set of circumstances. We find a nonzero basic level of altruistic behavior, which is enhanced if the players are provided with expert information describing the state of knowledge in climate research. Furthermore, personal investments in climate protection increase substantially if players can invest publicly, thus gaining social reputation. This increase occurs because subjects reward other subjects' contributions to sustaining the climate, thus reinforcing their altruism. Therefore, altruism may convert to net personal benefit and to relaxing the dilemma if the gain in reputation is large enough. Our finding that people reward contributions to sustaining the climate of others is a surprising result. There are obvious ways these unexpected findings can be applied on a large scale.

  19. Vision for a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C.K.; Frank, John; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Orlova, Anna; Lin, Vivian; Vaillancourt, Alain D.M.G.; Puska, Pekka; Pang, Tikki; Skinner, Harvey A.; Marsh, Marsha; Mokdad, Ali H.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Lindner, M. Cristina; Sherman, Gregory; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Green, Lawrence W.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Sainsbury, Peter; Yan, Yongping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zevallos, Juan C.; Ho, Suzanne C.; de Salazar, Ligia M.

    2007-01-01

    In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inadequate process for managing knowledge and an inefficient system for transferring knowledge, mean a distorted body of evidence available for decisionmaking in public health. This article hopes to stimulate discussion by proposing a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies. This prospective, comprehensive system for tracking research in public health could help enhance collaboration and improve efficiency. Practical problems must be discussed before such a vision can be further developed. PMID:17413073

  20. Preference of Chinese general public and healthcare providers for a good death.

    PubMed

    Haishan, Huang; Hongjuan, Liu; Tieying, Zeng; Xuemei, Pu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find and compare the current situation between common people and healthcare providers' preferences for a good death in the context of Chinese culture. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey covering 190 ordinary Chinese people and 323 healthcare providers was conducted. An inventory of the good death was translated and the subjects were surveyed about their attitude toward it. Permission to conduct the study was granted by department chiefs, nurse managers and the participants themselves. The participants were informed that they took part on a voluntary and anonymous basis, that they could withdraw at any time, that they had the right to ignore questions they did not wish to answer, and that whatever they chose to do would not jeopardize their employment conditions. The attributes that were perceived as important by major respondents for a good death were maintaining hope and pleasure, good relationship with medical staff, good relationship with family, independence, environment comfort, being respected as an individual, preparation for death, physical and psychological comfort, dying in a favorite place, and not being a burden to others. And some relatively less important characteristics were life completion, receiving enough treatment, natural death, controlling over the future, unawareness of death, pride and beauty, feeling that one's life is worth living, and religious and spiritual comfort. We also found that healthcare providers were more likely than general out-patients to perceive "physical and psychological comfort," "dying in a favorite place," "good relationship with medical staff," and "natural death" as important for a good death. This study offers healthcare providers in China a fundamental understanding of the normal expectations of the general public for a good death. It is believed that these findings in our study are valuable to improve palliative care in China. We compared the attitudes of Chinese and

  1. Doing good qualitative research in public health: not as easy as it looks.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Ritchie, Jan E; Sainsbury, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss qualitative research for public health professionals. Quality matters in qualitative research, but the principles by which it is judged are critically different from those used to judge epidemiology. Compared to quantitative research, good quality qualitative studies serve different aims, answer distinct research questions and have their own logic for sampling, data collection and analysis. There is, however, no need for antagonism between qualitative research and epidemiology; the two are complementary. With theoretical and methodological guidance from experienced qualitative researchers, public health professionals can learn how to make the most of qualitative research for themselves.

  2. Individual behavior and social wealth in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Xian; Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Li, Weihua; Zheng, Zhiming

    2014-05-01

    Group interactions on structured populations can be represented by the public goods game on networks. During the evolutionary games, selective investment mechanism fosters social cooperative behavior. First we focus on star-like graphs to provide some light on why selective investment mechanism can promote collective cooperation. Then we implement public goods game with this mechanism on scale free networks to investigate behavior properties of individuals within different social environments. We indicate that high-degree nodes are predominantly inert owning largely to their satisfaction with their status, while low-degree nodes are very active due to their strive towards higher prosperity. Besides, we introduce the Gini coefficient to describe social inequality and find that large multiply factor r favors social fairness. Our work is applicable for community supervision and social wealth regulation.

  3. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed. PMID:25039999

  4. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  5. Preschoolers are sensitive to free riding in a public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Vogelsang, Martina; Jensen, Keith; Kirschner, Sebastian; Tennie, Claudio; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of cooperation, selfish individuals often produce outcomes where everyone is worse off. This “tragedy of the commons” has been demonstrated experimentally in adults with the public goods game. Contributions to a public good decline over time due to free-riders who keep their endowments. Little is known about how children behave when confronted with this social dilemma. Forty-eight preschoolers were tested using a novel non-verbal procedure and simplified choices more appropriate to their age than standard economic approaches. The rate of cooperation was initially very low and rose in the second round for the girls only. Children were affected by their previous outcome, as they free rode more after experiencing a lower outcome compared to the other group members. PMID:25076923

  6. Evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with common resource dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

    2007-08-21

    Investment in a common resource shared by all players is difficult to evolve despite higher returns because a non-investor (free-rider) always receives more than an investor (altruist). This situation is referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons and is often observed in various biological systems including environmental problems of human society. Punishment and reputation are effective mechanisms but require cooperator's ability to identify free-riders. Volunteering can work in anonymous public goods games but this requires voluntary participation, which is not always the case. Here, we show that the evolution of altruism is possible in anonymous and obligate public goods games if we consider the spatiotemporal dynamics of the common resource that incorporate spatial diffusion and internal dynamics of the commons. The investors' strategy to counter free-riders is to increase population density and to outnumber them with the common resource level kept as low as that of the free-riders.

  7. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-09-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed.

  8. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  9. Punishment in public goods games leads to meta-stable phase transitions and hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2015-06-02

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, for example if players have the opportunity to punish cheaters that benefit from a public good yet refuse to pay into the common pool. However, punishment has remained enigmatic because it is costly and difficult to maintain. On the other hand, cooperation emerges naturally in the public goods game if the synergy of the public good (the factor multiplying the public good investment) is sufficiently high. In terms of this synergy parameter, the transition from defection to cooperation can be viewed as a phase transition with the synergy as the critical parameter. We show here that punishment reduces the critical value at which cooperation occurs, but also creates the possibility of meta-stable phase transitions, where populations can 'tunnel' into the cooperating phase below the critical value. At the same time, cooperating populations are unstable even above the critical value, because a group of defectors that are large enough can 'nucleate' such a transition. We study the mean-field theoretical predictions via agent-based simulations of finite populations using an evolutionary approach where the decisions to cooperate or to punish are encoded genetically in terms of evolvable probabilities. We recover the theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the population shows hysteresis, as expected in systems that exhibit super-heating and super-cooling. We conclude that punishment can stabilize populations of cooperators below the critical point, but it is a two-edged sword: it can also stabilize defectors above the critical point.

  10. [Brazilian Food Composition Database (TBCA-USP): Data compilation to serve the public good].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Cyrillo, Denise Cavallini; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel De

    2015-09-01

    The article shows the evolution of the Brazilian Food Composition Database (TBCA-USP), since its creation until its next update. The article characterizes the TBCA-USP database like a public good and highlights the importance of the food composition data compilation as a high cost-effective activity. It reports the social relevance of the information about food composition and the importance of this database in the national context. It also indicates extension and update strategies of the TBCA-USP.

  11. Punishment in public goods games leads to meta-stable phase transitions and hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, for example if players have the opportunity to punish cheaters that benefit from a public good yet refuse to pay into the common pool. However, punishment has remained enigmatic because it is costly and difficult to maintain. On the other hand, cooperation emerges naturally in the public goods game if the synergy of the public good (the factor multiplying the public good investment) is sufficiently high. In terms of this synergy parameter, the transition from defection to cooperation can be viewed as a phase transition with the synergy as the critical parameter. We show here that punishment reduces the critical value at which cooperation occurs, but also creates the possibility of meta-stable phase transitions, where populations can ‘tunnel’ into the cooperating phase below the critical value. At the same time, cooperating populations are unstable even above the critical value, because a group of defectors that are large enough can ‘nucleate’ such a transition. We study the mean-field theoretical predictions via agent-based simulations of finite populations using an evolutionary approach where the decisions to cooperate or to punish are encoded genetically in terms of evolvable probabilities. We recover the theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the population shows hysteresis, as expected in systems that exhibit super-heating and super-cooling. We conclude that punishment can stabilize populations of cooperators below the critical point, but it is a two-edged sword: it can also stabilize defectors above the critical point.

  12. Fostering cooperation of selfish agents through public goods in relation to the loners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Altruistic behaviors in multiplayer groups have obtained great attention in the context of the public goods game, which poses a riddle from the evolutionary viewpoint. Here we focus on a particular type of public goods game model in which the benefits of cooperation are either discounted or synergistically enhanced at the appearance of multiple cooperators in a group. Moreover, we focus on the three-strategies profile by adding the role of loners, besides the often-used cooperation and defection. Using the replicator dynamic equations, we investigate a range of dynamical portraits that characterizes the properties of the steady state. Analysis results indicate that loners and cooperators both have chances to be the stable equilibrium points in the presence of perturbations, while defectors fail to do so in this three-strategy competition. Moreover, the coexistence state, in which all three strategies exist in equilibrium, can be led by suitable parameters and stabilized for perturbations. These results elucidate the interplay between the characteristics of the public goods game and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  13. Physiological framework for the regulation of quorum sensing-dependent public goods in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Mellbye, Brett; Schuster, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Many bacteria possess cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) systems that often regulate cooperative secretions involved in host-microbe or microbe-microbe interactions. These secretions, or "public goods," are frequently coregulated by stress and starvation responses. Here we provide a physiological rationale for such regulatory complexity in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using minimal-medium batch and chemostat cultures, we comprehensively characterized specific growth rate-limiting macronutrients as key triggers for the expression of extracellular enzymes and metabolites directly controlled by the las and rhl QS systems. Expression was unrelated to cell density, depended on the secreted product's elemental composition, and was induced only when the limiting nutrient was not also a building block of the product; rhl-dependent products showed the strongest response, caused by the largely las-independent induction of the regulator RhlR and its cognate signal. In agreement with the prominent role of the rhl system, slow growth inverted the las-to-rhl signal ratio, previously considered a characteristic distinguishing between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. Our results highlight a supply-driven, metabolically prudent regulation of public goods that minimizes production costs and thereby helps stabilize cooperative behavior. Such regulation would be beneficial for QS-dependent public goods that act broadly and nonspecifically, and whose need cannot always be accurately assessed by the producing cell. Clear differences in the capacities of the las and rhl systems to integrate starvation signals help explain the existence of multiple QS systems in one cell.

  14. Conditional strategies and the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-02-01

    The fact that individuals will most likely behave differently in different situations begets the introduction of conditional strategies. Inspired by this, we study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, where, besides unconditional cooperators and defectors, also different types of conditional cooperators compete for space. Conditional cooperators will contribute to the public good only if other players within the group are likely to cooperate as well but will withhold their contribution otherwise. Depending on the number of other cooperators that are required to elicit cooperation of a conditional cooperator, the latter can be classified in as many types as there are players within each group. We find that the most cautious cooperators, who require all other players within a group to be conditional cooperators, are the undisputed victors of the evolutionary process, even at very low synergy factors. We show that the remarkable promotion of cooperation is due primarily to the spontaneous emergence of quarantining of defectors, who become surrounded by conditional cooperators and are forced into isolated convex “bubbles” from which they are unable to exploit the public good. This phenomenon can be observed only in structured populations, thus adding to the relevance of pattern formation for the successful evolution of cooperation.

  15. Is quality of cardiac hospital care a public or private good?

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Harless, David W; Clement, Jan P

    2010-11-01

    There are many studies examining the effects of financial pressure from different payment sources on hospital quality of care, but most have assumed that quality of care is a public good in that payment changes from one payer will affect all hospital patients rather than just those directly associated with the payer. Although quality of hospital care can be either a public or private good, few studies have tested which of these scenarios are more likely to hold. To examine whether the change in the magnitude of in-hospital mortality for Medicare and managed care patients is different based on financial pressure resulting from the Balanced Budget Act and growing managed care market penetration; and to examine what role hospital competition may play in affecting these changes. The unit of analysis for the study was the hospital. Multiple data sources were used including the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality State Inpatient Databases, American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, Area Resource File, and health maintenance organization data from InterStudy. A difference-in-difference-in-difference model was applied for a 2-period panel design. In general, Balanced Budget Act financial pressure and managed care market share did not magnify the difference in in-hospital mortality rates between Medicare and managed care patients. The results suggest that quality of cardiac care in the hospital setting is more likely to be a public good; however, more investigation using other quality indicators and the role of hospital competition under different payment systems is recommended.

  16. Sustainable cooperation based on reputation and habituation in the public goods game.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Tong

    2017-10-01

    Reputation can promote cooperation in public goods game and player's cooperative behavior is not pure economical rationality, but habituation would influence their behaviors as well. One's habituation can be formed by repeated behaviors in daily life and be affected by habitual preference. We aim to investigate the sustainable cooperation based on reputation and habit formation. To better investigate the impacts of reputation and habitual preference on the evolution and sustainability of cooperation. We introduce three types of agents into our spatial public goods game. Through numerical simulations, we find that the larger habitual preference make cooperation easier to emerge and maintain. Additionally, we find that a moderate number of agents who want to obtain more reputation (ICs) are best for the sustainability of cooperation. Finally, we observe that the variation of donations of ICs can influence greatly on the equilibrium of public goods game. When ICs reduce their donations, a proper contribution will be better to maintain the cooperative behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive evolution of cooperation through Darwinian dynamics in Public Goods games.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    The linear or threshold Public Goods game (PGG) is extensively accepted as a paradigmatic model to approach the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we explore the significant effect of nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population by adopting Darwinian dynamics, which simultaneously consider the evolution of populations and strategies on a continuous adaptive landscape, and extend the concept of evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) as a coalition of strategies that is both convergent-stable and resistant to invasion. Results show (i) that in the linear PGG contributing nothing is an ESS, which contradicts experimental data, (ii) that in the threshold PGG contributing the threshold value is a fragile ESS, which cannot resist the invasion of contributing nothing, and (iii) that there exists a robust ESS of contributing more than half in the sigmoid PGG if the return rate is relatively high. This work reveals the significant effect of the nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation, and suggests that, compared with the linear or threshold PGG, the sigmoid PGG might be a more proper model for the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population.

  18. Images of Eyes Enhance Investments in a Real-Life Public Good

    PubMed Central

    Francey, Damien; Bergmüller, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A key issue in cooperation research is to determine the conditions under which individuals invest in a public good. Here, we tested whether cues of being watched increase investments in an anonymous public good situation in real life. We examined whether individuals would invest more by removing experimentally placed garbage (paper and plastic bottles) from bus stop benches in Geneva in the presence of images of eyes compared to controls (images of flowers). We provided separate bins for each of both types of garbage to investigate whether individuals would deposit more items into the appropriate bin in the presence of eyes. The treatment had no effect on the likelihood that individuals present at the bus stop would remove garbage. However, those individuals that engaged in garbage clearing, and were thus likely affected by the treatment, invested more time to do so in the presence of eyes. Images of eyes had a direct effect on behaviour, rather than merely enhancing attention towards a symbolic sign requesting removal of garbage. These findings show that simple images of eyes can trigger reputational effects that significantly enhance on non-monetary investments in anonymous public goods under real life conditions. We discuss our results in the light of previous findings and suggest that human social behaviour may often be shaped by relatively simple and potentially unconscious mechanisms instead of very complex cognitive capacities. PMID:22624026

  19. Competition between species can stabilize public-goods cooperation within a species

    PubMed Central

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Competition between species is a major ecological force that can drive evolution. Here, we test the effect of this force on the evolution of cooperation within a species. We use sucrose metabolism of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model cooperative system that is subject to social parasitism by cheater strategies. We find that when cocultured with a bacterial competitor, Escherichia coli, the frequency of cooperator phenotypes in yeast populations increases dramatically as compared with isolated yeast populations. Bacterial competition stabilizes cooperation within yeast by limiting the yeast population density and also by depleting the public goods produced by cooperating yeast cells. Both of these changes induced by bacterial competition increase the cooperator frequency because cooperator yeast cells have a small preferential access to the public goods they produce; this preferential access becomes more important when the public good is scarce. Our results indicate that a thorough understanding of species interactions is crucial for explaining the maintenance and evolution of cooperation in nature. PMID:23149686

  20. Punishment Mechanism with Self-Adjusting Rules in Spatial Voluntary Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The phenomena of cooperation in animal and human society are ubiquitous, but the selfish outcome that no player contributes to the public good will lead to the “tragedy of the commons”. The recent research shows that high punishment can improve the cooperation of the population. In this paper, we introduce a punishment mechanism into spatial voluntary public goods games with every individual only knowing his own payoff in each round. Using the self-adjusting rules, we find that the different cost for punishment can lead to different effects on the voluntary public goods games. Especially, when the cost for punishment is decreased, a higher contribution region will appear in the case of low r value. It means even for the low r value, individuals can form the contributing groups in large quantities to produce a more efficient outcome than that in moderate r value. In addition, we also find the players' memory can have effects on the average outcome of the population.

  1. Fostering cooperation of selfish agents through public goods in relation to the loners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Altruistic behaviors in multiplayer groups have obtained great attention in the context of the public goods game, which poses a riddle from the evolutionary viewpoint. Here we focus on a particular type of public goods game model in which the benefits of cooperation are either discounted or synergistically enhanced at the appearance of multiple cooperators in a group. Moreover, we focus on the three-strategies profile by adding the role of loners, besides the often-used cooperation and defection. Using the replicator dynamic equations, we investigate a range of dynamical portraits that characterizes the properties of the steady state. Analysis results indicate that loners and cooperators both have chances to be the stable equilibrium points in the presence of perturbations, while defectors fail to do so in this three-strategy competition. Moreover, the coexistence state, in which all three strategies exist in equilibrium, can be led by suitable parameters and stabilized for perturbations. These results elucidate the interplay between the characteristics of the public goods game and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  2. The evolution of altruism in spatial threshold public goods games via an insurance mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-05-01

    The persistence of cooperation in public goods situations has become an important puzzle for researchers. This paper considers the threshold public goods games where the option of insurance is provided for players from the standpoint of diversification of risk, envisaging the possibility of multiple strategies in such scenarios. In this setting, the provision point is defined in terms of the minimum number of contributors in one threshold public goods game, below which the game fails. In the presence of risk and insurance, more contributions are motivated if (1) only cooperators can opt to be insured and thus their contribution loss in the aborted games can be (partly or full) covered by the insurance; (2) insured cooperators obtain larger compensation, at lower values of the threshold point (the required minimum number of contributors). Moreover, results suggest the dominance of insured defectors who get a better promotion by more profitable benefits from insurance. We provide results of extensive computer simulations in the realm of spatial games (random regular networks and scale-free networks here), and support this study with analytical results for well-mixed populations. Our study is expected to establish a causal link between the widespread altruistic behaviors and the existing insurance system.

  3. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between private and public goods: evidence from toxic algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, William W; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' in natural systems is currently unclear. Here, we advance a general hypothesis for a particular class of eco-evolutionary feedbacks with potentially large, long-lasting impacts in complex ecosystems. These eco-evolutionary feedbacks involve traits that mediate important interactions with abiotic and biotic features of the environment and a self-driven reversal of selection as the ecological impact of the trait varies between private (small scale) and public (large scale). Toxic algal blooms may involve such eco-evolutionary feedbacks due to the emergence of public goods. We review evidence that toxin production by microalgae may yield 'privatised' benefits for individual cells or colonies under pre- and early-bloom conditions; however, the large-scale, ecosystem-level effects of toxicity associated with bloom states yield benefits that are necessarily 'public'. Theory predicts that the replacement of private with public goods may reverse selection for toxicity in the absence of higher level selection. Indeed, blooms often harbor significant genetic and functional diversity: bloom populations may undergo genetic differentiation over a scale of days, and even genetically similar lineages may vary widely in toxic potential. Intriguingly, these observations find parallels in terrestrial communities, suggesting that toxic blooms may serve as useful models for eco-evolutionary dynamics in nature. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks involving the emergence of a public good may shed new light on the potential for interactions between ecology and evolution to influence the structure and function of entire ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. The public goods game with a new form of shared reward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Chen, Zengqiang

    2016-10-01

    Altruistic contribution to a common good evenly enjoyed by all group members is hard to explain because of the greater benefits obtained by a defector than a cooperator. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to resolve the collective dilemma over the years, including rewards for altruism. An underrated and easily ignored phenomenon is that the altruistic behaviors of cooperators not only directly enhance the benefits of their game opponents, but also indirectly produce good influences to other allied members in their surroundings (e.g. relatives or friends). Here we propose a shared reward, in the form of extensive benefits, to extend the traditional definition of the public goods game. Mathematical analysis using the Moran process helps us to obtain the fixation probability for one ‘mutant’ cooperator to invade and dominate the whole defecting population. Results suggest that a tunable parameter exists, above a certain critical value of which natural selection favors cooperation over defection. In addition, analytical results with replicator dynamics show that this critical value influencing the evolution of altruism is closely correlated with the population size, the gaming group size and the synergy factor of the public goods game. These results, based on an extended notion of shared reward and extensive benefits, are expected to provide novel explanations for the emergence of altruistic behaviors.

  5. Public goods and the evolution of altruism: the case of law.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Paul H

    2007-09-01

    Though Hamilton's rule is commonly interpreted as relating to two individuals, an alternative interpretation is that it can apply to an altruistic act with respect to a large group of related persons, such as an ethnic group. Then provision of a public good to such a group can be explained by Hamilton's rule. An important class of public goods is the provision of a "legal system" for the group. Provision of this good can have positive feedback effects: as there is more enforcement, it pays to define more complex and valuable rights, and in turn such rights lead to larger and more effective societies. As societies become larger, the ability to enforce rights increases because the number of enforcers increases. However, as in many other human activities, there may be two conflicting systems for provision of this good. There is the evolutionarily old system that would involve face to face transactions, often with kin. There is also a newer, rule-governed legal system for impersonal exchanges. These may be in conflict. The older rules may sometimes frustrate the more efficient newer system. Moreover, those persons who benefit from kin-based transaction networks may resist the creation of a formal legal system. I also note that altruism within the group may lead to xenophobia outside the group and thus to ethnic conflict. Finally, I discuss some evidence consistent with this analysis.

  6. [Honesty and good faith: two cornerstones in the ethics of biomedical publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto

    2007-04-01

    The editors of medical journals should take the steps necessary to assure its readers that the contents of their publications are based in true data, that they are original and fulfill the ethical rules of biomedical and clinical research, including its reporting. This editors role has become increasingly difficult since the pressure to publish scientific papers is progressively stimulated by the role that those papers play in curricula vitae when the authors apply for university positions, academic promotions, research grants and for their personal prestige. As a consequence, increasing instances of misconduct in scientific publications are detected. Some cases are noticed during the editorial process, mostly when peer reviewers identify redundant publications or plagiarism. Other cases are denounced after a manuscript was published. It is the editors duty to verify the misconduct, request an explanation from the authors and, if their answer is unsatisfactory, report the problem to the institutional authorities supporting the authors. The editors should denounce the situation in a forthcoming issue of the journal. Universities should enforce the teaching of ethical rules that govern the report of scientific information. Revista Médica de Chile follows recommendations given by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and other groups, but honesty and good faith in all the actors involved in the process of biomedical publications (authors, reviewers, editors) remain the cornerstones of scientific good behavior.

  7. Constructing “Sound Science” and “Good Epidemiology”: Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firms

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Elisa K.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2001-01-01

    The tobacco industry has attacked “junk science” to discredit the evidence that secondhand smoke—among other environmental toxins—causes disease. Philip Morris used public relations firms and lawyers to develop a “sound science” program in the United States and Europe that involved recruiting other industries and issues to obscure the tobacco industry's role. The European “sound science” plans included a version of “good epidemiological practices” that would make it impossible to conclude that secondhand smoke—and thus other environmental toxins—caused diseases. Public health professionals need to be aware that the “sound science” movement is not an indigenous effort from within the profession to improve the quality of scientific discourse, but reflects sophisticated public relations campaigns controlled by industry executives and lawyers whose aim is to manipulate the standards of scientific proof to serve the corporate interests of their clients. PMID:11684593

  8. Constructing "sound science" and "good epidemiology": tobacco, lawyers, and public relations firms.

    PubMed

    Ong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2001-11-01

    The tobacco industry has attacked "junk science" to discredit the evidence that secondhand smoke-among other environmental toxins-causes disease. Philip Morris used public relations firms and lawyers to develop a "sound science" program in the United States and Europe that involved recruiting other industries and issues to obscure the tobacco industry's role. The European "sound science" plans included a version of "good epidemiological practices" that would make it impossible to conclude that secondhand smoke-and thus other environmental toxins-caused diseases. Public health professionals need to be aware that the "sound science" movement is not an indigenous effort from within the profession to improve the quality of scientific discourse, but reflects sophisticated public relations campaigns controlled by industry executives and lawyers whose aim is to manipulate the standards of scientific proof to serve the corporate interests of their clients.

  9. Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Mary A; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2016-11-01

    Prospects have never seemed better for a truly global approach to science to improve human health, with leaders of national initiatives laying out their vision of a worldwide network of related projects. An extensive literature addresses obstacles to global genomic data sharing, yet a series of public polls suggests that the scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier: potential public resistance to data sharing across national borders. In several large United States surveys, university researchers in other countries were deemed the least acceptable group of data users, and a just-completed US survey found a marked increase in privacy and security concerns related to data access by non-US researchers. Furthermore, diminished support for sharing beyond national borders is not unique to the US, although the limited data from outside the US suggest variation across countries as well as demographic groups. Possible sources of resistance include apprehension about privacy and security protections. Strategies for building public support include making the affirmative case for global data sharing, addressing privacy, security, and other legitimate concerns, and investigating public concerns in greater depth.

  10. Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Prospects have never seemed better for a truly global approach to science to improve human health, with leaders of national initiatives laying out their vision of a worldwide network of related projects. An extensive literature addresses obstacles to global genomic data sharing, yet a series of public polls suggests that the scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier: potential public resistance to data sharing across national borders. In several large United States surveys, university researchers in other countries were deemed the least acceptable group of data users, and a just-completed US survey found a marked increase in privacy and security concerns related to data access by non-US researchers. Furthermore, diminished support for sharing beyond national borders is not unique to the US, although the limited data from outside the US suggest variation across countries as well as demographic groups. Possible sources of resistance include apprehension about privacy and security protections. Strategies for building public support include making the affirmative case for global data sharing, addressing privacy, security, and other legitimate concerns, and investigating public concerns in greater depth. PMID:27806054

  11. Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity.

  12. Anticipated public health consequences of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Longstreth, J

    1991-12-01

    Human activities are placing enormous pressures on the biosphere. The introduction of new chemicals and the increasing ambient levels of existing chemicals have resulted in atmospheric degradation. This paper reviews some of the adverse effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. Because the atmospheric effects of ozone depletion are fairly well characterized, quantitative risk estimates have been developed. However, because the atmospheric effects of global warming are less understood, public health problems that could be intensified by climate change are assessed qualitatively. The interactive effects of these two phenomena are also discussed.

  13. From smallpox eradication to contemporary global health initiatives: enhancing human capacity towards a global public health goal.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel; Foster, Stanley O

    2011-12-30

    The eradication of smallpox owes its success first and foremost to the thousands of lay health workers and community members who, throughout the campaign and across continents, took on the roles of advocates, educators, vaccinators, care providers and contributors to epidemic surveillance and containment. Bangladesh provides a good example where smallpox eradication and the capacity enhancement needed to achieve this goal resulted in a two-way mutually beneficial process. Smallpox-dedicated staff provided community members with information guidance, support and tools. In turn, communities not only created the enabling environment for smallpox program staff to perform their work but acquired the capacity to perform essential eradication tasks. Contemporary global health programmes can learn much from these core lessons including: the pivotal importance of supporting community aspirations, capacity and resilience; the critical need to enhance commitment, capacity and accountability across the workforce; and the high value of attentive human resources management and support. We owe to subsequent global disease control, elimination and eradication ventures recognition of the need for social and behavioural science to inform public health strategies; the essential roles that civil society organizations and public-private partnerships can play in public health discourse and action; the overall necessity of investing in broad-based health system strengthening; and the utility of applying human rights principles, norms and standards to public health policy and practice.

  14. Public – private 'partnerships' in health – a global call to action

    PubMed Central

    Nishtar, Sania

    2004-01-01

    The need for public-private partnerships arose against the backdrop of inadequacies on the part of the public sector to provide public good on their own, in an efficient and effective manner, owing to lack of resources and management issues. These considerations led to the evolution of a range of interface arrangements that brought together organizations with the mandate to offer public good on one hand, and those that could facilitate this goal though the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach, on the other. The former category includes of governments and intergovernmental agencies and the latter, the non-profit and for-profit private sector. Though such partnerships create a powerful mechanism for addressing difficult problems by leveraging on the strengths of different partners, they also package complex ethical and process-related challenges. The complex transnational nature of some of these partnership arrangements necessitates that they be guided by a set of global principles and norms. Participation of international agencies warrants that they be set within a comprehensive policy and operational framework within the organizational mandate and involvement of countries requires legislative authorization, within the framework of which, procedural and process related guidelines need to be developed. This paper outlines key ethical and procedural issues inherent to different types of public-private arrangements and issues a Global Call to Action. PMID:15282025

  15. Allelopathy as an emergent, exploitable public good in the bloom-forming microalga Prymnesium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, William W.; Espinosa, Noelle J.; Eldakar, Omar T.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-01-01

    Many microbes cooperatively secrete extracellular products that favorably modify their environment. Consistent with social evolution theory, structured habitats play a role in maintaining these traits in microbial model systems, by localizing the benefits and separating strains that invest in these products from ‘cheater’ strains that benefit without paying the cost. It is thus surprising that many unicellular, well-mixed microalgal populations invest in extracellular toxins that confer ecological benefits upon the entire population, for example, by eliminating nutrient competitors (allelopathy). Here we test the hypotheses that microalgal exotoxins are (1) exploitable public goods that benefit all cells, regardless of investment, or (2) non-exploitable private goods involved in cell-level functions. We test these hypotheses with high-toxicity (TOX+) and low-toxicity (TOX-) strains of the damaging, mixotrophic microalga Prymnesium parvum and two common competitors: green algae and diatoms. TOX+ actually benefits from dense populations of competing green algae, which can also be prey for P. parvum, yielding a relative fitness advantage over coexisting TOX-. However, with non-prey competitors (diatoms), TOX- increases in frequency over TOX+, despite benefiting from the exclusion of diatoms by TOX+. An evolutionary unstable, ecologically devastating public good may emerge from traits selected at lower levels expressed in novel environments. PMID:23730753

  16. Allelopathy as an emergent, exploitable public good in the bloom-forming microalga Prymnesium parvum.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, William W; Espinosa, Noelle J; Eldakar, Omar T; Hackett, Jeremiah D

    2013-06-01

    Many microbes cooperatively secrete extracellular products that favorably modify their environment. Consistent with social evolution theory, structured habitats play a role in maintaining these traits in microbial model systems, by localizing the benefits and separating strains that invest in these products from 'cheater' strains that benefit without paying the cost. It is thus surprising that many unicellular, well-mixed microalgal populations invest in extracellular toxins that confer ecological benefits upon the entire population, for example, by eliminating nutrient competitors (allelopathy). Here we test the hypotheses that microalgal exotoxins are (1) exploitable public goods that benefit all cells, regardless of investment, or (2) nonexploitable private goods involved in cell-level functions. We test these hypotheses with high-toxicity (TOX+) and low-toxicity (TOX-) strains of the damaging, mixotrophic microalga Prymnesium parvum and two common competitors: green algae and diatoms. TOX+ actually benefits from dense populations of competing green algae, which can also be prey for P. parvum, yielding a relative fitness advantage over coexisting TOX-. However, with nonprey competitors (diatoms), TOX- increases in frequency over TOX+, despite benefiting from the exclusion of diatoms by TOX+. An evolutionary unstable, ecologically devastating public good may emerge from traits selected at lower levels expressed in novel environments. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

    2009-11-01

    Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.

  18. [Asymmetric policies for merit-goods: harmonizing individual and social preferences in public health].

    PubMed

    Repullo Labrador, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Behavior is a major determinant of health, but changes in individual conduct are difficult, and health promotion lacks effectiveness. State intervention in the last century, rooted in the modernist movement, went far beyond dealing with externalities and built the framework of the welfare state. The crisis of the welfare state and post modernity after the 1970s led to a weakness of ideologies and values, narcissistic individualism, and lack of trust in institutions, all of which hampered the ability of society's perspective to influence individual behavior. A review of health economics (especially merit goods) and public health (ethics and values of health promotion and prevention) may be useful to understand certain dilemmas in the balance between public intervention and individual autonomy. Given that many unhealthy decisions come from biased or irrational individual preferences, a promising new field in public health interventions is being developed, known as , or, more appropriately, as goods>, which allow society to selectively influence those individuals whose decision biases lead to self-harming behavior, without constraining the autonomy of well informed autonomous individuals (even though their preferences may not coincide with society's recommended preferences).

  19. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    PubMed

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  20. Evolution of cooperation in multilevel public goods games with community structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Bin; Ho, Daniel W. C.; Wang, Long

    2011-03-01

    In a community-structured population, public goods games (PGG) occur both within and between communities. Such type of PGG is referred as multilevel public goods games (MPGG). We propose a minimalist evolutionary model of the MPGG and analytically study the evolution of cooperation. We demonstrate that in the case of sufficiently large community size and community number, if the imitation strength within community is weak, i.e., an individual imitates another one in the same community almost randomly, cooperation as well as punishment are more abundant than defection in the long run; if the imitation strength between communities is strong, i.e., the more successful strategy in two individuals from distinct communities is always imitated, cooperation and punishment are also more abundant. However, when both of the two imitation intensities are strong, defection becomes the most abundant strategy in the population. Our model provides insight into the investigation of the large-scale cooperation in public social dilemma among contemporary communities.

  1. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  2. Caught between the global economy and local bureaucracy: the barriers to good waste management practice in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Trois, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Empirical research shows that good waste management practice in South Africa is not always under the volitional control of those tasked with its implementation. While intention to act may exist, external factors, within the distal and proximal context, create barriers to waste behaviour. In addition, these barriers differ for respondents in municipalities, private industry and private waste companies. The main barriers to implementing good waste management practice experienced by respondents in municipalities included insufficient funding for waste management and resultant lack of resources; insufficient waste knowledge; political interference in decision-making; a slow decision-making process; lack of perceived authority to act by waste staff; and a low priority afforded to waste. Barriers experienced by respondents in private industry included insufficient funding for waste and the resultant lack of resources; insufficient waste knowledge; and government bureaucracy. Whereas, barriers experienced in private waste companies included increasing costs; government bureaucracy; global markets; and availability of waste for recycling. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organizations are subject to different structural forces that shape, enable and constrain waste behaviour.

  3. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiating and evaluating common good and public good: making implicit assumptions explicit in the contexts of consent and duty to participate.

    PubMed

    Bialobrzeski, A; Ried, J; Dabrock, P

    2012-01-01

    The notions 'common good' and 'public good' are mostly used as synonyms in bioethical discussion of biobanks, but have different origins. As a consequence, they should be applied differently. In this article, the respective characteristics are worked out and then subsequently examined which consent models emerge from them. Distinguishing normative and descriptive traits of both concepts, it turns out that one concept is unjustly used, and that the other one fits better to the context of a plural society. A reflected use of these differing concepts may help to choose an appropriate form of consent and allows public trust in biobank research to deepen. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Public Good and Academic Capitalism: Science and Engineering Doctoral Students and Faculty on the Boundary of Knowledge Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…

  6. The Public Good and Academic Capitalism: Science and Engineering Doctoral Students and Faculty on the Boundary of Knowledge Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…

  7. God's punishment and public goods : A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dominic D P

    2005-12-01

    Cooperation towards public goods relies on credible threats of punishment to deter cheats. However, punishing is costly, so it remains unclear who incurred the costs of enforcement in our evolutionary past. Theoretical work suggests that human cooperation may be promoted if people believe in supernatural punishment for moral transgressions. This theory is supported by new work in cognitive psychology and by anecdotal ethnographic evidence, but formal quantitative tests remain to be done. Using data from 186 societies around the globe, I test whether the likelihood of supernatural punishment-indexed by the importance of moralizing "high gods"-is associated with cooperation.

  8. [Stocking process for consumables and investement goods in the Italian public health service (part II)].

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Fulvio; Ameri, Cinzia; Tarchini, Renzo; Granata, Antonio; Zuccardi Merli, Mara

    2013-01-01

    The necessity for fairness and transparency during the processes of supply of consumables and capital goods within the Italian Health Service together with that of containing costs in line with budget reductions, are points outlined in the 2006 public and European Union allocation codes and related procedures. These include methods to guarantee open, limited negotiation both without or after the official announcement for competitive bidding has been made, plus mediation and framework agreement. The publicizing of announcements of bidding to potential Health Service suppliers, criteria for applicant selection and selection of personnel to comprise the panels who effectively make the choice of suppliers, are all phases that are carefully regulated at a legal level. Even small expenditures (down to 20,000) are covered by these regulations. An overview of specific responsibilities, the institution of boards of physicians and the application of sanctions ends the present review.

  9. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. PMID:24239505

  10. Interaction effects of cell diffusion, cell density and public goods properties on the evolution of cooperation in digital microbes.

    PubMed

    Dobay, A; Bagheri, H C; Messina, A; Kümmerli, R; Rankin, D J

    2014-09-01

    Microbial cooperation typically consists in the sharing of secreted metabolites (referred to as public goods) within the community. Although public goods generally promote population growth, they are also vulnerable to exploitation by cheating mutants, which no longer contribute, but still benefit from the public goods produced by others. Although previous studies have identified a number of key factors that prevent the spreading of cheaters, little is known about how these factors interact and jointly shape the evolution of microbial cooperation. Here, we address this issue by investigating the interaction effects of cell diffusion, cell density, public good diffusion and durability (factors known to individually influence costs and benefits of public goods production) on selection for cooperation. To be able to quantify these effects across a wide parameter space, we developed an individual-based simulation platform, consisting of digital cooperator and cheater bacteria inhabiting a finite two-dimensional continuous toroidal surface. Our simulations, which closely mimic microbial microcolony growth, revealed that: (i) either reduced cell diffusion (which keeps cooperators together) or reduced public good diffusion (which keeps the public goods closer to the producer) is not only essential but also sufficient for cooperation to be promoted; (ii) the sign of selection for or against cooperation can change as a function of cell density and in interaction with diffusion parameters; and (iii) increased public goods durability has opposing effects on the evolution of cooperation depending on the level of cell and public good diffusion. Our work highlights that interactions between key parameters of public goods cooperation give rise to complex fitness landscapes, a finding that calls for multifactorial approaches when studying microbial cooperation in natural systems.

  11. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change in... Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-525, Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of...

  12. Effect of Heterogeneous Investments on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Keke; Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of cooperation in spatial public goods game remains a grand challenge across disciplines. In most previous studies, it is assumed that the investments of all the cooperators are identical, and often equal to 1. However, it is worth mentioning that players are diverse and heterogeneous when choosing actions in the rapidly developing modern society and researchers have shown more interest to the heterogeneity of players recently. For modeling the heterogeneous players without loss of generality, it is assumed in this work that the investment of a cooperator is a random variable with uniform distribution, the mean value of which is equal to 1. The results of extensive numerical simulations convincingly indicate that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation. Specifically, a large value of the variance of the random variable can decrease the two critical values for the result of behavioral evolution effectively. Moreover, the larger the variance is, the better the promotion effect will be. In addition, this article has discussed the impact of heterogeneous investments when the coevolution of both strategy and investment is taken into account. Comparing the promotion effect of coevolution of strategy and investment with that of strategy imitation only, we can conclude that the coevolution of strategy and investment decreases the asymptotic fraction of cooperators by weakening the heterogeneity of investments, which further demonstrates that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation in spatial public goods game. PMID:25781345

  13. Payoff-based learning explains the decline in cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; Nax, Heinrich H; West, Stuart A

    2015-02-22

    Economic games such as the public goods game are increasingly being used to measure social behaviours in humans and non-human primates. The results of such games have been used to argue that people are pro-social, and that humans are uniquely altruistic, willingly sacrificing their own welfare in order to benefit others. However, an alternative explanation for the empirical observations is that individuals are mistaken, but learn, during the game, how to improve their personal payoff. We test between these competing hypotheses, by comparing the explanatory power of different behavioural rules, in public goods games, where individuals are given different amounts of information. We find: (i) that individual behaviour is best explained by a learning rule that is trying to maximize personal income; (ii) that conditional cooperation disappears when the consequences of cooperation are made clearer; and (iii) that social preferences, if they exist, are more anti-social than pro-social. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A generalized public goods game with coupling of individual ability and project benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Ren, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Facing a heavy task, any single person can only make a limited contribution and team cooperation is needed. As one enjoys the benefit of the public goods, the potential benefits of the project are not always maximized and may be partly wasted. By incorporating individual ability and project benefit into the original public goods game, we study the coupling effect of the four parameters, the upper limit of individual contribution, the upper limit of individual benefit, the needed project cost and the upper limit of project benefit on the evolution of cooperation. Coevolving with the individual-level group size preferences, an increase in the upper limit of individual benefit promotes cooperation while an increase in the upper limit of individual contribution inhibits cooperation. The coupling of the upper limit of individual contribution and the needed project cost determines the critical point of the upper limit of project benefit, where the equilibrium frequency of cooperators reaches its highest level. Above the critical point, an increase in the upper limit of project benefit inhibits cooperation. The evolution of cooperation is closely related to the preferred group-size distribution. A functional relation between the frequency of cooperators and the dominant group size is found.

  15. An evolutionary model of cooperation, fairness and altruistic punishment in public good games.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Moritz; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment.

  16. Men increase contributions to a public good when under sexual competition

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Dubois, Dimitri; Faurie, Charlotte; Willinger, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Why humans cooperate in large groups and with non-kin remains a puzzle for researchers across the natural and social sciences. Investigating whether cooperation is sexually selected could contribute to an understanding of the evolution of human cooperation. Competition for access to mates could indeed select for cooperation. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we analyse whether and how the sex composition of a social environment, testosterone level, and relationship status affect contributions to a public good. The results show that variation in sex composition alters the amount of money that single men (but not men in a couple or women) contribute to a public good. Notably, in line with the competitive helping hypothesis, awareness of the presence of a woman leads to larger contributions by single men, most likely by triggering their competitiveness to be the most cooperative man in the group. However, we find no link between basal testosterone level and cooperativeness. We argue that men, notably single men, adopt cooperative behaviours as a signalling strategy in the context of mate choice and hence that cooperation is partly sexually selected. Our findings highlight the need to consider sexual selection as an additional mechanism for cooperation. PMID:27412070

  17. Effect of heterogeneous investments on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Keke; Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of cooperation in spatial public goods game remains a grand challenge across disciplines. In most previous studies, it is assumed that the investments of all the cooperators are identical, and often equal to 1. However, it is worth mentioning that players are diverse and heterogeneous when choosing actions in the rapidly developing modern society and researchers have shown more interest to the heterogeneity of players recently. For modeling the heterogeneous players without loss of generality, it is assumed in this work that the investment of a cooperator is a random variable with uniform distribution, the mean value of which is equal to 1. The results of extensive numerical simulations convincingly indicate that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation. Specifically, a large value of the variance of the random variable can decrease the two critical values for the result of behavioral evolution effectively. Moreover, the larger the variance is, the better the promotion effect will be. In addition, this article has discussed the impact of heterogeneous investments when the coevolution of both strategy and investment is taken into account. Comparing the promotion effect of coevolution of strategy and investment with that of strategy imitation only, we can conclude that the coevolution of strategy and investment decreases the asymptotic fraction of cooperators by weakening the heterogeneity of investments, which further demonstrates that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation in spatial public goods game.

  18. An Evolutionary Model of Cooperation, Fairness and Altruistic Punishment in Public Good Games

    PubMed Central

    Hetzer, Moritz; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment. PMID:24260101

  19. Co-evolutionary dynamics between public good producers and cheats in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kümmerli, R; Santorelli, L A; Granato, E T; Dumas, Z; Dobay, A; Griffin, A S; West, S A

    2015-12-01

    The production of beneficial public goods is common in the microbial world, and so is cheating--the exploitation of public goods by nonproducing mutants. Here, we examine co-evolutionary dynamics between cooperators and cheats and ask whether cooperators can evolve strategies to reduce the burden of exploitation, and whether cheats in turn can improve their exploitation abilities. We evolved cooperators of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, producing the shareable iron-scavenging siderophore pyoverdine, together with cheats, defective in pyoverdine production but proficient in uptake. We found that cooperators managed to co-exist with cheats in 56% of all replicates over approximately 150 generations of experimental evolution. Growth and competition assays revealed that co-existence was fostered by a combination of general adaptions to the media and specific adaptions to the co-evolving opponent. Phenotypic screening and whole-genome resequencing of evolved clones confirmed this pattern, and suggest that cooperators became less exploitable by cheats because they significantly reduced their pyoverdine investment. Cheats, meanwhile, improved exploitation efficiency through mutations blocking the costly pyoverdine-signalling pathway. Moreover, cooperators and cheats evolved reduced motility, a pattern that likely represents adaptation to laboratory conditions, but at the same time also affects social interactions by reducing strain mixing and pyoverdine sharing. Overall, we observed parallel evolution, where co-existence of cooperators and cheats was enabled by a combination of adaptations to the abiotic and social environment and their interactions.

  20. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Catherine C.; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation. PMID:27574971

  1. Resource and competitive dynamics shape the benefits of public goods cooperation in a plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Platt, Thomas G; Fuqua, Clay; Bever, James D

    2012-06-01

    Cooperative benefits depend on a variety of ecological factors. Many cooperative bacteria increase the population size of their groups by making a public good available. Increased local population size can alleviate the constraints of kin competition on the evolution of cooperation by enhancing the between-group fitness of cooperators. The cooperative pathogenesis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes infected plants to exude opines--resources that provide a nearly exclusive source of nutrient for the pathogen. We experimentally demonstrate that opines provide cooperative A. tumefaciens cells a within-group fitness advantage over saprophytic agrobacteria. Our results are congruent with a resource-consumer competition model, which predicts that cooperative, virulent agrobacteria are at a competitive disadvantage when opines are unavailable, but have an advantage when opines are available at sufficient levels. This model also predicts that freeloading agrobacteria that catabolize opines but cannot infect plants competitively displace the cooperative pathogen from all environments. However, we show that these cooperative public goods also promote increased local population size. A model built from the Price Equation shows that this effect on group size can contribute to the persistence of cooperative pathogenesis despite inherent kin competition for the benefits of pathogenesis. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance: A global emerging threat to public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Maurizio; Ranucci, Elena; Romagnoli, Paola; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-09-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine have accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This article presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link between food producing-animals and humans and on the legal framework and policies currently implemented at the EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strengthening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena; and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around a holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

  3. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    PubMed

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  5. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that "investing in the future" is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation.

  6. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that “investing in the future” is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation.

  7. Role of Investment Heterogeneity in the Cooperation on Spatial Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Public cooperation plays a significant role in the survival and maintenance of biological species, to elucidate its origin thus becomes an interesting question from various disciplines. Through long-term development, the public goods game has proven to be a useful tool, where cooperator making contribution can beat again the free-rides. Differentiating from the traditional homogeneous investment, individual trend of making contribution is more likely affected by the investment level of his neighborhood. Based on this fact, we here investigate the impact of heterogeneous investment on public cooperation, where the investment sum is mapped to the proportion of cooperators determined by parameter . Interestingly, we find, irrespective of interaction networks, that the increment of (increment of heterogeneous investment) is beneficial for promoting cooperation and even guarantees the complete cooperation dominance under weak replication factor. While this promotion effect can be attributed to the formation of more robust cooperator clusters and shortening END period. Moreover, we find that this simple mechanism can change the potential interaction network, which results in the change of phase diagrams. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in other social dilemmas. PMID:24632779

  8. Role of investment heterogeneity in the cooperation on spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Public cooperation plays a significant role in the survival and maintenance of biological species, to elucidate its origin thus becomes an interesting question from various disciplines. Through long-term development, the public goods game has proven to be a useful tool, where cooperator making contribution can beat again the free-rides. Differentiating from the traditional homogeneous investment, individual trend of making contribution is more likely affected by the investment level of his neighborhood. Based on this fact, we here investigate the impact of heterogeneous investment on public cooperation, where the investment sum is mapped to the proportion of cooperators determined by parameter α. Interestingly, we find, irrespective of interaction networks, that the increment of α (increment of heterogeneous investment) is beneficial for promoting cooperation and even guarantees the complete cooperation dominance under weak replication factor. While this promotion effect can be attributed to the formation of more robust cooperator clusters and shortening END period. Moreover, we find that this simple mechanism can change the potential interaction network, which results in the change of phase diagrams. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in other social dilemmas.

  9. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection does not necessarily favor the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the maintenance of public cooperation, the less aggressive, mild form of sanctioning is the sole victor of the selection process. Our work reveals that natural strategy selection cannot only promote, but sometimes also hinders competition among prosocial strategies.

  10. The Imperative of Public Health Education: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    This review positions public health as an endeavour that requires a high order of professionalism in addressing the health of populations; this requires investment in an educational capacity that is designed to meet this need. In the global context, the field has evolved enormously over the past half century, supported by institutions such as the World Bank, the World Health Organization and the Institute of Medicine. Operational structures are formulated by strategic principles, with educational and career pathways guided by competency frameworks, all requiring modulation according to local, national and global realities. Talented and well-motivated individuals are attracted by its multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary environment, and the opportunity to achieve interventions that make real differences to people's lives. The field is globally competitive and open to many professional backgrounds based on merit. Its competencies correspond with assessments of population needs, and the ways in which strategies and services are formulated. Thus, its educational planning is needs-based and evidence-driven. This review explores four public health education levels: graduate, undergraduate, continuing professional education and promotion of health literacy for general populations. The emergence of accreditation schemes is examined, focusing on their relative merits and legitimate international variations. The role of relevant research policies is recognized, along with the need to foster professional and institutional networks in all regions of the world. It is critically important for the health of populations that nations assess their public health human resource needs and develop their ability to deliver this capacity, and not depend on other countries to supply it.

  11. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  12. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    This dissertation explores the role of consumer purchasing behavior in providing public, environmental goods. It does so by empirically evaluating one market---voluntary demand for renewable energy. The dissertation addresses the following five research questions: (1) What does early experience with green power marketing tell us about the prospects for this market to deliver environmental benefits? (2) What product design and marketing approaches might be used to increase voluntary demand? (3) What motivates non-residential customers to voluntarily purchase green power? (4) What role might public policy play in the creation of the green power market? (5) What preferences do individuals hold on the most appropriate forms of support for renewable energy? By helping to answer these questions, this dissertation seeks to better understand the gap between widespread positive attitudes for the environment and an often-anemic response to green product offerings. It contributes to not only the public goods and environmental marketing literatures, but also to contingent valuation methodology and to an emerging literature on the motivations of firms to contribute to environmental causes. The analysis performed is diverse, and includes: a literature review, a mail survey of green power marketers, a mail survey of non-residential green power customers, and contingent valuation and opinion surveys of U.S. residents. Detailed statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the residential and non-residential surveys. The analysis reveals that customer participation in green power programs to date has been weak. The possibility that the traditional economic concept of "free riding" may explain this low response is raised, and the dissertation identifies a number of marketing approaches that might be used to partially combat this problem. Analysis of survey data shows that non-residential green power purchases have been motivated principally by altruistic concerns

  13. [The Global Model of Public Mental Health and Recovery Mentors].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Auclair, Émilie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship. The GMPMH was inspired by the ecological approach in public health and health promotion programs, while adding to that approach the recovery mentors, as agents of mental health policies and legislation transformation. The GMPMH integrates recovery- and citizenship-oriented practices through the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion of the World Health Organization. Indeed, here the GMPMH is said to be global in that the supranational and individual levels reinforce each other, taking turns with a) a set of legal rules and international conventions on human rights, including those of disabled persons, and b) the active involvement and agency of recovery mentors who can evoke these rules and conventions as part of a plea for the recognition of their personal and collective capacity for change; they acted as tracers of recovery trajectories during the Civic Forum. The GMPMH was first published in 2009, and revisited in 2013. While this latter revision was based on the 3rd Civic Forum, in this paper we use the same approach to revisit the GMPMH as underpinned by the findings and recommendations of the 4th Civic Forum, which discussed questions related to work and employment.Results Updating the GMPMH in light of the Civic Forum underlines the need for a more inclusive type of governance regarding policy and systems transformation. Local communities and persons in recovery can reach each other to promote change and

  14. Reciprocity in spatial evolutionary public goods game on double-layered network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2016-08-09

    Spatial evolutionary games have mainly been studied on a single, isolated network. However, in real world systems, many interaction topologies are not isolated but many different types of networks are inter-connected to each other. In this study, we investigate the spatial evolutionary public goods game (SEPGG) on double-layered random networks (DRN). Based on the mean-field type arguments and numerical simulations, we find that SEPGG on DRN shows very rich interesting phenomena, especially, depending on the size of each layer, intra-connectivity, and inter-connected couplings, the network reciprocity of SEPGG on DRN can be drastically enhanced through the inter-connected coupling. Furthermore, SEPGG on DRN can provide a more general framework which includes the evolutionary dynamics on multiplex networks and inter-connected networks at the same time.

  15. Harbouring public good mutants within a pathogen population can increase both fitness and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Richard J; Kershaw, Michael J; Pawlowska, Bogna J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Gudelj, Ivana

    2016-12-28

    Existing theory, empirical, clinical and field research all predict that reducing the virulence of individuals within a pathogen population will reduce the overall virulence, rendering disease less severe. Here, we show that this seemingly successful disease management strategy can fail with devastating consequences for infected hosts. We deploy cooperation theory and a novel synthetic system involving the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In vivo infections of rice demonstrate that M. oryzae virulence is enhanced, quite paradoxically, when a public good mutant is present in a population of high-virulence pathogens. We reason that during infection, the fungus engages in multiple cooperative acts to exploit host resources. We establish a multi-trait cooperation model which suggests that the observed failure of the virulence reduction strategy is caused by the interference between different social traits. Multi-trait cooperative interactions are widespread, so we caution against the indiscriminant application of anti-virulence therapy as a disease-management strategy.

  16. Prosocial preferences do not explain human cooperation in public-goods games.

    PubMed

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; West, Stuart A

    2013-01-02

    It has become an accepted paradigm that humans have "prosocial preferences" that lead to higher levels of cooperation than those that would maximize their personal financial gain. However, the existence of prosocial preferences has been inferred post hoc from the results of economic games, rather than with direct experimental tests. Here, we test how behavior in a public-goods game is influenced by knowledge of the consequences of actions for other players. We found that (i) individuals cooperate at similar levels, even when they are not informed that their behavior benefits others; (ii) an increased awareness of how cooperation benefits others leads to a reduction, rather than an increase, in the level of cooperation; and (iii) cooperation can be either lower or higher than expected, depending on experimental design. Overall, these results contradict the suggested role of the prosocial preferences hypothesis and show how the complexity of human behavior can lead to misleading conclusions from controlled laboratory experiments.

  17. Diversity of game strategies promotes the evolution of cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-06-01

    We propose a mechanism allowing strategy diversity instead of a common combination of cooperation and defection to study how cooperation evolves in public goods games. Each individual is assigned a variable valued in the unit interval as its cooperation degree. Thus, diverse cooperation degrees express the diversity of game strategies in the way of multiple contributions of players, and the investment in the common pool is positively correlated with cooperation degrees correspondingly. Moreover, we also define two particular roles named altruist and egotist defined locally since they depend on the behavior of their neighboring players. Numerical simulations show that the proposed diversity of strategies can substantially evoke the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. Notably, we also find that no player will act as a long-term exploiter (egotist) or exploitee (altruist) in the whole evolutionary process.

  18. The evolution of human mobility based on the public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shiqing

    2017-07-01

    We explore the evolution of human mobility behavior based on public goods game. By using mean field method, the population distribution in different regions is theoretical calculated. Numerical simulation results show that the correlation between the region's degree and its final population is not significant under a larger human migration rate. Human mobility could effectively promote cooperative behavior and the population balance of different regions. Therefore, encouraging individuals to migrate may increase the total benefits of the whole society. Moreover, increasing the cooperation cost could reduce the number of cooperators, and that would happen to the correlation between the region's degree and its final population. The results indicate the total population could not dramatically rise with the region's degree under an unfair society.

  19. Promotion of Cooperation in a Spatial Public Goods Game with Long Range Learning and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Hua, Da-Yin

    2012-11-01

    We studied the effect of population density in a spatial public goods game. We found that the effect on the evolution of cooperation is very complex when the strategy learning and mobility of players in a long range are considered in a two-dimensional lattice. As the learning range is larger than the mobility range, the system is driven to enter into a cooperation state for a low population density, because a small local group is beneficial to sustain a high level of cooperation. As population density increases to a moderate range, the mobility of players from a domain invaded by defectors supports the evolution stability of cooperation. When the mobility range is larger than the learning range, a formation of compact domains of cooperators promotes cooperation as the population density becomes high.

  20. Group penalty on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that aims to integrate group penalty into the framework of evolutionary games. Existing groups are deleted whenever the collective gains of the focal individuals are less than a deletion threshold value. Meanwhile, newcomers are added after each game iteration to maintain the fixed population size. The networking effect is also studied via four representative interaction networks which are associated with the population structure. We conclude that the cooperation level has a strong dependence on the deletion threshold, and the suitable value range of the deletion threshold which is associated with the maximal cooperation frequency has been found. Simulation results also show that optimum values of the deletion threshold can still warrant the most potent promotion of cooperation, irrespective of which of the four topologies is applied.

  1. Reciprocity in spatial evolutionary public goods game on double-layered network

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2016-01-01

    Spatial evolutionary games have mainly been studied on a single, isolated network. However, in real world systems, many interaction topologies are not isolated but many different types of networks are inter-connected to each other. In this study, we investigate the spatial evolutionary public goods game (SEPGG) on double-layered random networks (DRN). Based on the mean-field type arguments and numerical simulations, we find that SEPGG on DRN shows very rich interesting phenomena, especially, depending on the size of each layer, intra-connectivity, and inter-connected couplings, the network reciprocity of SEPGG on DRN can be drastically enhanced through the inter-connected coupling. Furthermore, SEPGG on DRN can provide a more general framework which includes the evolutionary dynamics on multiplex networks and inter-connected networks at the same time. PMID:27503801

  2. Social selection of game organizers promotes cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; Wang, Long

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by the fact that opportunities in reality are heterogeneous for individuals due to social selection, we propose an evolutionary public goods game model considering the social selection of game organizers occurring on a square lattice. We introduce a simple rule that, depending on the value of a single parameter μ, influences the selection of players that are considered as potential game organizers. For positive μ players with a high payoff will be considered more likely. Setting μ equal to zero returns the random selection of game organizers. We find that increasing the probability of selecting the wealthier individuals as game organizers can effectively promote cooperation. We show that the promotion of cooperation attributes to the dominance of the clusters of cooperative organizers in the population by investigating the evolution of spatial patterns.

  3. Volunteering as Red Queen Mechanism for Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauert, Christoph; De Monte, Silvia; Hofbauer, Josef; Sigmund, Karl

    2002-05-01

    The evolution of cooperation among nonrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and social sciences. Reciprocal altruism fails to provide a solution if interactions are not repeated often enough or groups are too large. Punishment and reward can be very effective but require that defectors can be traced and identified. Here we present a simple but effective mechanism operating under full anonymity. Optional participation can foil exploiters and overcome the social dilemma. In voluntary public goods interactions, cooperators and defectors will coexist. We show that this result holds under very diverse assumptions on population structure and adaptation mechanisms, leading usually not to an equilibrium but to an unending cycle of adjustments (a Red Queen type of evolution). Thus, voluntary participation offers an escape hatch out of some social traps. Cooperation can subsist in sizable groups even if interactions are not repeated, defectors remain anonymous, players have no memory, and assortment is purely random.

  4. Competition of individual and institutional punishments in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Czakó, Lilla

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the evolution of strategies in spatial public goods games where both individual (peer) and institutional (pool) punishments are present in addition to unconditional defector and cooperator strategies. The evolution of strategy distribution is governed by imitation based on the random sequential comparison of neighbors’ payoff for a fixed level of noise. Using numerical simulations, we evaluate the strategy frequencies and phase diagrams when varying the synergy factor, punishment cost, and fine. Our attention is focused on two extreme cases describing all the relevant behaviors in such a complex system. According to our numerical data peer punishers prevail and control the system behavior in a large segments of parameters while pool punishers can only survive in the limit of weak peer punishment when a rich variety of solutions is observed. Paradoxically, the two types of punishment may extinguish each other’s impact, resulting in the triumph of defectors. The technical difficulties and suggested methods are briefly discussed.

  5. Defector-accelerated cooperativeness and punishment in public goods games with mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György

    2010-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with four competing strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishing cooperators, and punishing defectors. To explore the robustness of the cooperation-promoting effect of costly punishment, besides the usual strategy adoption dynamics we also apply strategy mutations. As expected, frequent mutations create kind of well-mixed conditions, which support the spreading of defectors. However, when the mutation rate is small, the final stationary state does not significantly differ from the state of the mutation-free model, independently of the values of the punishment fine and cost. Nevertheless, the mutation rate affects the relaxation dynamics. Rare mutations can largely accelerate the spreading of costly punishment. This is due to the fact that the presence of defectors breaks the balance of power between both cooperative strategies, which leads to a different kind of dynamics.

  6. Success-driven distribution of public goods promotes cooperation but preserves defection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2011-09-01

    Established already in Biblical times, the Matthew effect refers to the fact that in societies the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. Here we investigate a game theoretical model describing the evolution of cooperation on structured populations where the distribution of public goods is driven by the reproductive success of individuals. Phase diagrams reveal that cooperation is promoted irrespective of the uncertainty by strategy adoptions and the type of interaction graph, yet the complete dominance of cooperators is elusive due to the spontaneous emergence of superpersistent defectors that owe their survival to extremely rare microscopic patterns. This indicates that success-driven mechanisms are crucial for effectively harvesting benefits from collective actions but that they may also account for the observed persistence of maladaptive behavior.

  7. Promotion of cooperation induced by nonuniform payoff allocation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Yang, H.-X.; Wang, W.-X.; Chen, G. R.; Wang, B.-H.

    2010-02-01

    A nonuniform payoff allocation mechanism is proposed for spatial public goods games where individuals are nodes on a scale-free network. Each individual is assigned a weight ki α, where ki is the degree of individual i and α is an adjustable parameter that controls the degree of diversity in individuals’ profits. During the evolution progress, the allocation of payoff on individual i is assumed to be proportional to its weight. Individuals synchronously update their strategies according to the stochastic rule with a fixed noise level. It is found that there exists an optimal value of α which yields the highest level of cooperation. Other pertinent quantities, including the payoff and the probability of finding a node playing as cooperator versus the degree, are also investigated computationally and analytically. Our results suggest that a suitable degree of diversity among individuals can promote the emergence of cooperation.

  8. Evolutionary emergence of angiogenesis in avascular tumors using a spatial public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Salimi Sartakhti, Javad; Manshaei, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection in cancer often results in the emergence of increasingly malignant tumor cells that display many if not all of the hallmarks of cancer. One of the most important traits acquired during cancer progression is angiogenesis. Tumor cells capable of secreting pro-angiogenic factors can be seen as cooperators where the improved oxygenation, nutrient delivery and waste disposal resulting from angiogenesis could be seen as a public good. Under this view, the relatively costly secretion of molecular signals required to orchestrate angiogenesis would be undertaken exclusively by cooperating tumor cells but the benefits of angiogenesis would be felt by neighboring tumor cells regardless of their contribution to the process. In this work we detail a mathematical model to better understand how clones capable of secreting pro-angiogenic factors can emerge in a tumor made of non-cooperative tumor cells. Given the importance of the spatial configuration of the tumor in determining the efficacy of the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors as well as the benefits of angiogenesis we have developed a spatial game theoretic approach where interactions and public good diffusion are described by graphs. The results show that structure of the population affects the evolutionary dynamics of the pro-angiogenic clone. Specifically, when the benefit of angiogenesis is represented by sigmoid function with regards to the number of pro-angiogenic clones then the probability of the coexistence of pro-angiogenic and angiogenesis-neutral clones increases. Our results demonstrate that pro-angiogenic clone equilibrates into clusters that appear from surrounding vascular tissues towards the center of tumor. These clusters appear notably less dense after anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:28399181

  9. Evolutionary emergence of angiogenesis in avascular tumors using a spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Salimi Sartakhti, Javad; Manshaei, Mohammad Hossein; Basanta, David; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection in cancer often results in the emergence of increasingly malignant tumor cells that display many if not all of the hallmarks of cancer. One of the most important traits acquired during cancer progression is angiogenesis. Tumor cells capable of secreting pro-angiogenic factors can be seen as cooperators where the improved oxygenation, nutrient delivery and waste disposal resulting from angiogenesis could be seen as a public good. Under this view, the relatively costly secretion of molecular signals required to orchestrate angiogenesis would be undertaken exclusively by cooperating tumor cells but the benefits of angiogenesis would be felt by neighboring tumor cells regardless of their contribution to the process. In this work we detail a mathematical model to better understand how clones capable of secreting pro-angiogenic factors can emerge in a tumor made of non-cooperative tumor cells. Given the importance of the spatial configuration of the tumor in determining the efficacy of the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors as well as the benefits of angiogenesis we have developed a spatial game theoretic approach where interactions and public good diffusion are described by graphs. The results show that structure of the population affects the evolutionary dynamics of the pro-angiogenic clone. Specifically, when the benefit of angiogenesis is represented by sigmoid function with regards to the number of pro-angiogenic clones then the probability of the coexistence of pro-angiogenic and angiogenesis-neutral clones increases. Our results demonstrate that pro-angiogenic clone equilibrates into clusters that appear from surrounding vascular tissues towards the center of tumor. These clusters appear notably less dense after anti-angiogenic therapy.

  10. Beneficial laggards: multilevel selection, cooperative polymorphism and division of labour in threshold public good games

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The origin and stability of cooperation is a hot topic in social and behavioural sciences. A complicated conundrum exists as defectors have an advantage over cooperators, whenever cooperation is costly so consequently, not cooperating pays off. In addition, the discovery that humans and some animal populations, such as lions, are polymorphic, where cooperators and defectors stably live together -- while defectors are not being punished--, is even more puzzling. Here we offer a novel explanation based on a Threshold Public Good Game (PGG) that includes the interaction of individual and group level selection, where individuals can contribute to multiple collective actions, in our model group hunting and group defense. Results Our results show that there are polymorphic equilibria in Threshold PGGs; that multi-level selection does not select for the most cooperators per group but selects those close to the optimum number of cooperators (in terms of the Threshold PGG). In particular for medium cost values division of labour evolves within the group with regard to the two types of cooperative actions (hunting vs. defense). Moreover we show evidence that spatial population structure promotes cooperation in multiple PGGs. We also demonstrate that these results apply for a wide range of non-linear benefit function types. Conclusions We demonstrate that cooperation can be stable in Threshold PGG, even when the proportion of so called free riders is high in the population. A fundamentally new mechanism is proposed how laggards, individuals that have a high tendency to defect during one specific group action can actually contribute to the fitness of the group, by playing part in an optimal resource allocation in Threshold Public Good Games. In general, our results show that acknowledging a multilevel selection process will open up novel explanations for collective actions. PMID:21044340

  11. Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador

    PubMed Central

    Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. Materials and methods This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. Discussion A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. Conclusion The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research. PMID

  12. A global public health strategy for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Fein, Deborah; Rosanoff, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine; Hossain, Saima; Brennan, Lynn; Como, Ariel; Shih, Andy

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness about autism spectrum disorders (ASD) around the world, including in low and middle income countries. Unlike countries in Western Europe and North America where infrastructure and capacity are available to help meet some of the needs of individuals with ASD, little expertise or capacity exists in most of the developing world. In 2008 Autism Speaks launched the Global Autism Public Health (GAPH) Initiative to facilitate the development of systematic and sustainable solutions for enhancing global autism awareness, research, training and service delivery. In the last 3 years Autism Speaks has established collaboration with stakeholders from over 20 countries who are working alongside dedicated local and international stakeholders to effect change. In this article, the GAPH framework is described, along with a few brief case examples that illustrate how the framework for implementation of the model can occur. GAPH is still in its infancy but has the potential to have significant impact through inclusive collaboration with local and international stakeholders to develop effective and sustainable public health solutions for disseminating best practices and delivering tangible benefits to individuals with ASD and their families.

  13. Coordination between veterinary services and other relevant authorities: a key component of good public governance.

    PubMed

    Bellemain, V

    2012-08-01

    Coordination between Veterinary Services and other relevant authorities is a key component of good public governance, especially for effective action and optimal management of available resources. The importance of good coordination is reflected in the World Organisation for Animal Health'Tool forthe Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services', which includes a critical competency on coordination. Many partners from technical, administrative and legal fields are involved. The degree of formalisation of coordination tends to depend on a country's level of organisation and development. Contingency plans against avian influenza led to breakthroughs in many countries in the mid-2000s. While interpersonal relationships remain vital, not everything should hinge on them. Organisation and management are critical to operational efficiency. The distribution of responsibilities needs to be defined clearly, avoiding duplication and areas of conflict. Lead authorities should be designated according to subject (Veterinary Services in animal health areas) and endowed with the necessary legitimacy. Lead authorities will be responsible for coordinating the drafting and updating of the relevant documents: agreements between authorities, contingency plans, standard operating procedures, etc.

  14. TV programs that denounce unfair advantage impact women's sensitivity to defection in the public goods game.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongmin A; Jeong, Soyeong; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-01-01

    We explore the neural underpinnings of gender differences in cooperation and their modulation by intensive media watching. We compared cooperative decisions and electroencephalograph data between genders from who participated in repeated rounds of the public goods game (PGG) and investigated within groups changes that occurred after watching a TV program known as "investigative reporting" that denounces unfair advantages taken by free-riders against the public. Women tended to be more cooperative than men during early rounds of PGG, mostly because they react differently to the defection of others; women also had greater β and γ band activity in regions estimated to be associated with social cognition. These gender differences disappeared after participants watched the TV programs: women were more likely to choose free-riding in response to the defection of others that elicits significant increases in γ band activities that were estimated to be right insula. Greater activity in social cognition leads women to make decisions considering the motives of others, while men tend to make a decision by complying with the social norm. Watching the investigative TV reports produced a greater negative emotion to the defection and led women, in a similar manner as men, to opt for a "tit-for-tat" strategy.

  15. Blood donation as a public good: an empirical investigation of the free rider problem.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, Ignacio; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-04-01

    A voluntary blood donation system can be seen as a public good. People can take advantage without contributing and have a free ride. We empirically analyse the extent of free riding and its determinants. Interviews of the general public in Spain (n = 1,211) were used to ask whether respondents were (or have been) regular blood donors and, if not, the reason. Free riders are defined as those who are medically capable to donate blood but do not. In addition, we distinguish four different types of free riding depending on the reason given for not donating. Binomial and multinomial logit models estimate the effect of individual characteristics on the propensity to free ride and the likelihood of the free rider types. Amongst those who are able to donate, there is a 67 % probability of being a free rider. The most likely free rider is female, single, with low/no education and abstained from voting in a recent national election. Gender, age, religious practice, political participation and regional income explain the type of free rider.

  16. Masculine Knowledge, the Public Good, and the Scientific Household of Réaumur.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris (founded 1666), expressions of a masculine culture of science echoed contemporary language used to articulate the aristocracy's value to crown and state--even though the academy was not an aristocratic institution as such. In the eighteenth century, the pursuit of science became a new form of manly service to the crown, often described in terms of useful knowledge and benefit to the public good [le bien public]. This article explores the connection of academic scientific knowledge to the domestic spaces where it was made and, in particular, to the household of R.-A. Ferchault de Réaumur, an exemplary academician. Although Réaumur had neither wife nor children, a complex net of affective ties, some of them familial, linked the members of the household, which accommodated women (the artist Hélène Dumoustier and her female relatives) as well as men (a series of assistants, many of whom eventually entered the academy). As head of this dynamic household, Réaumur produced not only scientific results but also future academicians.

  17. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response.

  18. Global surveillance for chemical incidents of international public health concern.

    PubMed Central

    Olowokure, B.; Pooransingh, S.; Tempowski, J.; Palmer, S.; Meredith, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In December 2001, an expert consultation convened by WHO identified strengthening national and global chemical incident preparedness and response as a priority. WHO is working towards this objective by developing a surveillance and response system for chemical incidents. This report describes the frequency, nature and geographical location of acute chemical incidents of potential international concern from August 2002 to December 2003. METHODS: Acute chemical incidents were actively identified through several informal (e.g. Internet-based resources) and formal (e.g. various networks of organizations) sources and assessed against criteria for public health emergencies of international concern using the then proposed revised International Health Regulations (IHR). WHO regional and country offices were contacted to obtain additional information regarding identified incidents. FINDINGS: Altogether, 35 chemical incidents from 26 countries met one or more of the IHR criteria. The WHO European Region accounted for 43% (15/35) of reports. The WHO Regions for Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific each accounted for 14% (5/35); South-East Asia and the Americas accounted for 9% (3/35) and 6% (2/35), respectively. Twenty-three (66%) events were identified within 24 hours of their occurrence. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first global surveillance system for chemical incidents of potential international concern. Limitations such as geographical and language bias associated with the current system are being addressed. Nevertheless, the system has shown that it can provide early detection of important events, as well as information on the magnitude and geographical distribution of such incidents. It can therefore contribute to improving global public health preparedness. PMID:16462985

  19. Is Greed Still Good? Was It Ever? Exploring the Emoscapes of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2010-01-01

    We seek to contribute to political and policy analyses of globalisation by attending to global flows of emotions and by developing the concept global emoscapes. In so doing we build on Arjun Appadurai's theorisation of the disjunctive scapes of the global cultural economy. As a way of illustrating the benefits of our approach, we deploy it to…

  20. Global public health problem of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rahul

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of global mortality, accounting for almost 17 million deaths annually or 30% of all global mortality. In developing countries, it causes twice as many deaths as HIV, malaria and TB combined. It is estimated that about 40-50% of all cardiovascular deaths are sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) and about 80% of these are caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Therefore, about 6 million sudden cardiac deaths occur annually due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The survival rate from sudden cardiac arrest is less than 1% worldwide and close to 5% in the US. Prevention of cardiovascular disease by increasing awareness of risk factors such as lack of exercise, inappropriate diet and smoking has reduced cardiovascular mortality in the US over the past few decades. However, there is still a huge cardiovascular disease burden globally as well as in the US. Therefore, there is a need to develop complementary strategies for management of sudden cardiac death. The data from several trials conclusively indicate that implantable defibrillators improve mortality in patients who have experienced an episode or are at high risk of developing ventricular tachyarrhythmias. These devices are reimbursed and are being used frequently in the developed economies for management of SCD. However, due to that low level of public and private health spending in developing economies and the relatively high cost of ICDs, their implant rates are very low there. The Automatic External Defibrillators and Emergency Medical Response Services equipped with AEDs provide complementary as well as alternative opportunities for management of SCD. There are several challenges associated with the adoption of these strategies. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of these strategies need to be compared with ICDs to determine the appropriate strategy for various geographies. The global problem of SCD as well as the various options for its management will be discussed in the

  1. Pharmacogenomic technologies: a necessary "luxury" for better global public health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenomic technologies aim to redirect drug development to increase safety and efficacy of individual care. There is much hope that their implementation in the drug development process will help respond to population health needs, particularly in developing countries. However, there is also fear that novel pharmacogenomic drugs will remain too costly, be designed for the needs of the wealthy nations, and so constitute an unnecessary "luxury" for most populations. In this paper, we analyse the promise that pharmacogenomic technologies hold for improving global public health and identify strategies and challenges associated with their implementation. Discussion This paper evaluates the capacity of pharmacogenomic technologies to meet six criteria described by the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics group: 1) impact of the technology, 2) technology appropriateness, 3) capacity to address local burdens, 4) feasibility to be implemented in reasonable time, 5) capacity to reduce the knowledge gap, and 6) capacity for indirect benefits. We argue that the implementation of pharmacogenomic technologies in the drug development process can positively impact population health. However, this positive impact depends on how and for which purposes the technologies are used. We discuss the potential of these technologies to stimulate drug discovery in the case of rare (orphan diseases) or neglected diseases, but also to reduce acute adverse drug reactions in infectious disease treatment and prevention, which promises to improve global public health. Conclusions The implementation of pharmacogenomic technologies may lead to the development of drugs that appear to be a "luxury" for populations in need of numerous interventions that are known to have a demonstrable impact on population health (e.g., secure access to potable water, reduction of social inequities, health education). However, our analysis shows that pharmacogenomic technologies do have the

  2. What Is the Greater Good? The Discourse on Public and Private Roles of Higher Education in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Brad; Galilee-Belfer, Mika; Lee, Jenny J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the ways that the "public good" of higher education is being conceptualised as economic benefits and cost/benefit rationalities in the current economic downturn. Based on the case of Arizona in the United States, a discourse analysis of speeches was performed on the way public, state and institutional leaders…

  3. The Role of Religion in 21st-Century Public Schools: Historic Perspectives on God and Goodness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steven P.; Sheffield, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    No other educational issue hits a more sensitive nerve with the American public than the role of religion in the public schools. While the intentions and actions of the religious and non-religious parents and community members overlap a great deal as they conceive of the good people they want their children to become, there is no apparent…

  4. Transforming a School Learning Exercise into a Public Engagement Event: "The Good, the Bad and the Algae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    School science laboratory classes and hands-on public engagement activities share many common aims and objectives in terms of science learning and literacy. This article describes the development and evaluation of a microbiology public engagement activity, "The Good, the Bad and the Algae", from a school laboratory activity. The school…

  5. What Is the Greater Good? The Discourse on Public and Private Roles of Higher Education in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Brad; Galilee-Belfer, Mika; Lee, Jenny J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the ways that the "public good" of higher education is being conceptualised as economic benefits and cost/benefit rationalities in the current economic downturn. Based on the case of Arizona in the United States, a discourse analysis of speeches was performed on the way public, state and institutional leaders…

  6. Transforming a School Learning Exercise into a Public Engagement Event: "The Good, the Bad and the Algae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    School science laboratory classes and hands-on public engagement activities share many common aims and objectives in terms of science learning and literacy. This article describes the development and evaluation of a microbiology public engagement activity, "The Good, the Bad and the Algae", from a school laboratory activity. The school…

  7. High-performance parallel computing in the classroom using the public goods game as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2017-07-01

    The use of computers in statistical physics is common because the sheer number of equations that describe the behaviour of an entire system particle by particle often makes it impossible to solve them exactly. Monte Carlo methods form a particularly important class of numerical methods for solving problems in statistical physics. Although these methods are simple in principle, their proper use requires a good command of statistical mechanics, as well as considerable computational resources. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the usage of widely accessible graphics cards on personal computers can elevate the computing power in Monte Carlo simulations by orders of magnitude, thus allowing live classroom demonstration of phenomena that would otherwise be out of reach. As an example, we use the public goods game on a square lattice where two strategies compete for common resources in a social dilemma situation. We show that the second-order phase transition to an absorbing phase in the system belongs to the directed percolation universality class, and we compare the time needed to arrive at this result by means of the main processor and by means of a suitable graphics card. Parallel computing on graphics processing units has been developed actively during the last decade, to the point where today the learning curve for entry is anything but steep for those familiar with programming. The subject is thus ripe for inclusion in graduate and advanced undergraduate curricula, and we hope that this paper will facilitate this process in the realm of physics education. To that end, we provide a documented source code for an easy reproduction of presented results and for further development of Monte Carlo simulations of similar systems.

  8. Fostering good governance at peripheral public health facilities: an experience from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gurung, G; Tuladhar, S

    2013-01-01

    The Nepalese primary healthcare system at sub-district level consists of three different levels of health facility to serve the mostly rural population. The Ministry of Health and Population decentralised health services by handing over 1433 health facilities in 28 districts to Health Facility Operation and Management Committees (HFOMCs), which were formed following a public meeting, and consist of 9 to 13 members, representing the health facility in-charge, elected members of the village development committee, dalit (disadvantaged caste) and women members. The purpose was to make this local committee responsible for managing all affairs of the health facility. However, the handing over of the health facilities to HFOMCs was not matched by an equivalent increase in the managerial capacity of the members, which potentially makes this initiative ineffective. The Health Facility Management Strengthening Program was implemented in 13 districts to foster good governance in the health facilities by increasing the capacity of HFOMCs. This effort focuses on capacity building of HFOMCs as a continuous process rather than a one-off event. Training, follow-up and promotional activities were conducted. This article focuses on how good governance at the peripheral public health facilities in Nepal can be fostered through the active engagement and capacity building of HFOMCs. This article used baseline and monitoring data collected during technical support visits to HFOMCs and their members between July 2008 and October 2011. The results show that the Health Facility Management Strengthening Program was quite successful in strengthening local health governance in the health facilities. The level of community engagement in governance improved, that is, the number of effective HFOMC meetings increased, the inclusion of dalit/women members in the decision-making process expanded, resource mobilization was facilitated, and community accountability, as measured by health facility

  9. Global trade, public health, and health services: stakeholders' constructions of the key issues.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn

    2005-09-01

    Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to

  10. 76 FR 81965 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: In... Office of Management and Budget for review. Purpose of Information Collection: The form is for use by...

  11. Valuing a Global Environmental Good: U.S. Residents' Willingness to Pay to Protect Tropical Rain Forests

    Treesearch

    Randall A. Kramer; D. Evan Mercer

    1997-01-01

    (CV) is the most common technique for valuing nonmarket environmental resources, rarely has it been applied to global environmental goods. This study uses CV in a national survey to assess the value U.S. residents place on tropical rain forest protection. On average, respondents were willing to make a one-time payment of approximately $21-31 per household to protect an...

  12. Are pediatric Open Access journals promoting good publication practice? An analysis of author instructions.

    PubMed

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Wolff, Robert F; Antes, Gerd; von Elm, Erik

    2011-04-09

    Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of these recommendations, the proportion of endorsing journals has been moderate to low and varied considerably for different recommendations. About half of pediatric journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report referred to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) but only about a quarter recommended registration of trials. We aimed to investigate to what extent pediatric open-access (OA) journals endorse these recommendations. We hypothesized that a high proportion of these journals have adopted recommendations on good publication practice since OA electronic publishing has been associated with a number of editorial innovations aiming at improved access and transparency. We identified 41 journals publishing original research in the subject category "Health Sciences, Medicine (General), Pediatrics" of the Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org. From the journals' online author instructions we extracted information regarding endorsement of four domains of editorial policy: the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts, trial registration, disclosure of conflicts of interest and five major reporting guidelines such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement. Two investigators collected data independently. The Uniform Requirements were mentioned by 27 (66%) pediatric OA journals. Thirteen (32%) required or recommended trial registration prior to publication of a trial report. Conflict of interest policies were stated by 25 journals (61%). Advice about reporting guidelines was less frequent: CONSORT was referred to by 12 journals (29%) followed by other reporting guidelines (MOOSE, PRISMA or STARD) (8 journals, 20%) and STROBE (3 journals, 7%). The EQUATOR

  13. Third-Party Cooperation: How Reducing Material Involvement Enhances Contributions to the Public Good.

    PubMed

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B; Heerema, Roeland L; Sanfey, Alan G

    2016-03-01

    Decisions to cooperate are often delegated to a third party. We examined whether cooperation differs when decisions are made for a third party compared with ourselves and specified which motives are important for third-party cooperation. Participants played multiple rounds of a public goods game (PGG). In Study 1, we varied personal involvement from high to low; participants played for themselves (Self), for themselves and a third party (Shared), and solely for a third party (Third Party). Participants contributed most when personal involvement was lowest (i.e., Third Party) and least when personal involvement was high (i.e., Self). Study 2 explored if social motives underlie third-party cooperation by comparing cooperation with social (human) and non-social (computer) group members. Reducing personal involvement in the PGG (i.e., Third Party) increased cooperation in social contexts compared with non-social contexts, indicating enhanced collective interest. Increased cooperation for a third party may result from taking the other's perspective, thereby increasing social norm preferences.

  14. Resistance to extreme strategies, rather than prosocial preferences, can explain human cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; Ross-Gillespie, Adin; West, Stuart A

    2010-06-01

    The results of numerous economic games suggest that humans behave more cooperatively than would be expected if they were maximizing selfish interests. It has been argued that this is because individuals gain satisfaction from the success of others, and that such prosocial preferences require a novel evolutionary explanation. However, in previous games, imperfect behavior would automatically lead to an increase in cooperation, making it impossible to decouple any form of mistake or error from prosocial cooperative decisions. Here we empirically test between these alternatives by decoupling imperfect behavior from prosocial preferences in modified versions of the public goods game, in which individuals would maximize their selfish gain by completely (100%) cooperating. We found that, although this led to higher levels of cooperation, it did not lead to full cooperation, and individuals still perceived their group mates as competitors. This is inconsistent with either selfish or prosocial preferences, suggesting that the most parsimonious explanation is imperfect behavior triggered by psychological drives that can prevent both complete defection and complete cooperation. More generally, our results illustrate the caution that must be exercised when interpreting the evolutionary implications of economic experiments, especially the absolute level of cooperation in a particular treatment.

  15. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  16. Private behaviors for the public good: Citizens' actions and U.S. energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsen, Toby

    Why and when do individuals take political actions? Why do some, but not all, citizens make sacrifices for the sake of the public good? Outside of work on participation, political scientists have paid little attention to these questions. I seek to fill this gap by exploring the factors that drive political behaviors. I focus specifically on an important class of behaviors: actions regarding the consumption of energy. I begin by developing a theory that brings together the potentially interactive effects of individual and environmental factors that shape individuals' decisions to take action. I test predictions generated by my theory in three empirical chapters: a media content analysis, laboratory experiment, and survey experiment. The content analysis allows me to assess frames in a communication toward energy consumption, which I examine later in terms of effects. I use the theory and experiments to evaluate the impact of competing forces on attitudes toward energy conservation, willingness to pay for energy saving devices, and actual behavior (e.g., a purchasing decision and financial contribution). My results suggest a primacy of norms, which is fascinating because the impact of norms is under-studied relative to research evaluating the impact of political communications.

  17. The evolution of anti-social rewarding and its countermeasures in public goods games.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel

    2015-01-07

    Cooperation in joint enterprises can easily break down when self-interests are in conflict with collective benefits, causing a tragedy of the commons. In such social dilemmas, the possibility for contributors to invest in a common pool-rewards fund, which will be shared exclusively among contributors, can be powerful for averting the tragedy, as long as the second-order dilemma (i.e. withdrawing contribution to reward funds) can be overcome (e.g. with second-order sanctions). However, the present paper reveals the vulnerability of such pool-rewarding mechanisms to the presence of reward funds raised by defectors and shared among them (i.e. anti-social rewarding), as it causes a cooperation breakdown, even when second-order sanctions are possible. I demonstrate that escaping this social trap requires the additional condition that coalitions of defectors fare poorly compared with pro-socials, with either (i) better rewarding abilities for the latter or (ii) reward funds that are contingent upon the public good produced beforehand, allowing groups of contributors to invest more in reward funds than groups of defectors. These results suggest that the establishment of cooperation through a collective positive incentive mechanism is highly vulnerable to anti-social rewarding and requires additional countermeasures to act in combination with second-order sanctions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game with adaptive reputation assortment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-huan; Wang, Li; Sun, Shi-wen; Wang, Juan; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2016-01-01

    We present a new spatial public goods game model, which takes the individual reputation and behavior diversity into account at the same time, to investigate the evolution of cooperation. Initially, each player x will be endowed with an integer Rx between 1 and Rmax to characterize his reputation value, which will be adaptively varied according to the strategy action at each time step. Then, the agents play the game and the system proceeds in accordance with a Fermi-like rule, in which a multiplicative factor (wy) to denote the individual difference to perform the strategy transfer will be placed before the traditional Fermi probability. For influential participants, wy is set to be 1.0, but be a smaller value w (0 < w < 1) for non-influential ones. Large quantities of simulations demonstrate that the cooperation behavior will be obviously influenced by the reputation threshold (RC), and the greater the threshold, the higher the fraction of cooperators. The origin of promotion of cooperation will be attributed to the fact that the larger reputation threshold renders the higher heterogeneity in the fraction of two types of players and strategy spreading capability. Our work is conducive to a better understanding of the emergence of cooperation within many real-world systems.

  19. The Pizzagame: A virtual public goods game to assess cooperative behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keil, Jan; Michel, Andrea; Sticca, Fabio; Leipold, Kristina; Klein, Annette M; Sierau, Susan; von Klitzing, Kai; White, Lars O

    2017-08-01

    Social dilemmas are characterized by conflicts between immediate self-interest and long-term collective goals. Although such conflicts lie at the heart of various challenging social interactions, we know little about how cooperation in these situations develops. To extend work on social dilemmas to child and adolescent samples, we developed an age-appropriate computer task (the Pizzagame) with the structural features of a public goods game (PGG). We administered the Pizzagame to a sample of 191 children 9 to 16 years of age. Subjects were led to believe they were playing the game over the Internet with three sets of two same-aged, same-sex co-players. In fact, the co-players were computer-generated and programmed to expose children to three consecutive conditions: (1) a cooperative strategy, (2) a selfish strategy, and (3) divergent cooperative-selfish strategies. Supporting the validity of the Pizzagame, our results revealed that children and adolescents displayed conditional cooperation, such that their contributions rose with the increasing cooperativeness of their co-players. Age and gender did not influence children and adolescents' cooperative behavior within each condition. However, older children adapted their behavior more flexibly between conditions to parallel the strategies of their co-players. These results support the utility of the Pizzagame as a feasible, reliable, and valid instrument for assessing and quantifying child and adolescent cooperative behavior. Moreover, these findings extend previous work showing that age influences cooperative behavior in the PGG.

  20. Heterogeneous resource allocation can change social hierarchy in public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Public goods games (PGGs) represent one of the most useful tools to study group interactions. However, even if they could provide an explanation for the emergence and stability of cooperation in modern societies, they are not able to reproduce some key features observed in social and economical interactions. The typical shape of wealth distribution—known as Pareto Law—and the microscopic organization of wealth production are two of them. Here, we introduce a modification to the classical formulation of PGGs that allows for the emergence of both of these features from first principles. Unlike traditional PGGs, where players contribute equally to all the games in which they participate, we allow individuals to redistribute their contribution according to what they earned in previous rounds. Results from numerical simulations show that not only a Pareto distribution for the pay-offs naturally emerges but also that if players do not invest enough in one round they can act as defectors even if they are formally cooperators. Our results not only give an explanation for wealth heterogeneity observed in real data but also point to a conceptual change on cooperation in collective dilemmas. PMID:28405406

  1. Resistance to extreme strategies, rather than prosocial preferences, can explain human cooperation in public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N.; Ross-Gillespie, Adin; West, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of numerous economic games suggest that humans behave more cooperatively than would be expected if they were maximizing selfish interests. It has been argued that this is because individuals gain satisfaction from the success of others, and that such prosocial preferences require a novel evolutionary explanation. However, in previous games, imperfect behavior would automatically lead to an increase in cooperation, making it impossible to decouple any form of mistake or error from prosocial cooperative decisions. Here we empirically test between these alternatives by decoupling imperfect behavior from prosocial preferences in modified versions of the public goods game, in which individuals would maximize their selfish gain by completely (100%) cooperating. We found that, although this led to higher levels of cooperation, it did not lead to full cooperation, and individuals still perceived their group mates as competitors. This is inconsistent with either selfish or prosocial preferences, suggesting that the most parsimonious explanation is imperfect behavior triggered by psychological drives that can prevent both complete defection and complete cooperation. More generally, our results illustrate the caution that must be exercised when interpreting the evolutionary implications of economic experiments, especially the absolute level of cooperation in a particular treatment. PMID:20479253

  2. Conformity-driven agents support ordered phases in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Antonioni, Alberto; Caravelli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the spatial Public Goods Game in the presence of fitness-driven and conformity-driven agents. This framework usually considers only the former type of agents, i.e., agents that tend to imitate the strategy of their fittest neighbors. However, whenever we study social systems, the evolution of a population might be affected also by social behaviors as conformism, stubbornness, altruism, and selfishness. Although the term evolution can assume different meanings depending on the considered domain, here it corresponds to the set of processes that lead a system towards an equilibrium or a steady state. We map fitness to the agents' payoff so that richer agents are those most imitated by fitness-driven agents, while conformity-driven agents tend to imitate the strategy assumed by the majority of their neighbors. Numerical simulations aim to identify the nature of the transition, on varying the amount of the relative density of conformity-driven agents in the population, and to study the nature of related equilibria. Remarkably, we find that conformism generally fosters ordered cooperative phases and may also lead to bistable behaviors.

  3. Heterogeneity for IGF-II production maintained by public goods dynamics in neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Ferraro, Daniela A; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-02-10

    The extensive intratumor heterogeneity revealed by sequencing cancer genomes is an essential determinant of tumor progression, diagnosis, and treatment. What maintains heterogeneity remains an open question because competition within a tumor leads to a strong selection for the fittest subclone. Cancer cells also cooperate by sharing molecules with paracrine effects, such as growth factors, and heterogeneity can be maintained if subclones depend on each other for survival. Without strict interdependence between subclones, however, nonproducer cells can free-ride on the growth factors produced by neighboring producer cells, a collective action problem known in game theory as the "tragedy of the commons," which has been observed in microbial cell populations. Here, we report that similar dynamics occur in cancer cell populations. Neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer (insulinoma) cells that do not produce insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) grow slowly in pure cultures but have a proliferation advantage in mixed cultures, where they can use the IGF-II provided by producer cells. We show that, as predicted by evolutionary game theory, producer cells do not go extinct because IGF-II acts as a nonlinear public good, creating negative frequency-dependent selection that leads to a stable coexistence of the two cell types. Intratumor cell heterogeneity can therefore be maintained even without strict interdependence between cell subclones. Reducing the amount of growth factors available within a tumor may lead to a reduction in growth followed by a new equilibrium, which may explain relapse in therapies that target growth factors.

  4. Neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on public goods game donations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-06-01

    A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence.

  5. Randomly biased investments and the evolution of public goods on interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2017-08-01

    Deciding how to allocate resources between interdependent systems is significant to optimize efficiency. We study the effects of heterogeneous contribution, induced by such interdependency, on the evolution of cooperation, through implementing the public goods games on two-layer networks. The corresponding players on different layers try to share a fixed amount of resources as the initial investment properly. The symmetry breaking of investments between players located on different layers is able to either prevent investments from, or extract them out of the deadlock. Results show that a moderate investment heterogeneity is best favorable for the evolution of cooperation, and random allocation of investment bias suppresses the cooperators at a wide range of the investment bias and the enhancement effect. Further studies on time evolution with different initial strategy configurations show that the non-interdependent cooperators along the interface of interdependent cooperators also are an indispensable factor in facilitating cooperative behavior. Our main results are qualitatively unchanged even diversifying investment bias that is subject to uniform distribution. Our study may shed light on the understanding of the origin of cooperative behavior on interdependent networks.

  6. The evolution of anti-social punishment in optional public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a fundamental building block of the natural world and of human society. It has been suggested that costly punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, with the threat of punishment deterring free-riders. Recent experiments, however, have revealed the existence of ‘anti-social’ punishment, where non-cooperators punish cooperators. While various theoretical models find that punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, these models a priori exclude the possibility of anti-social punishment. Here we extend the standard theory of optional public goods games to include the full set of punishment strategies. We find that punishment no longer increases cooperation, and that selection favors substantial levels of anti-social punishment for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we conduct behavioral experiments, which lead to results that are consistent with our model predictions. As opposed to an altruistic act that promotes cooperation, punishment is mostly a self-interested tool for protecting oneself against potential competitors. PMID:21847108

  7. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-10

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  8. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions. PMID:25753335

  9. The evolution of anti-social rewarding and its countermeasures in public goods games

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation in joint enterprises can easily break down when self-interests are in conflict with collective benefits, causing a tragedy of the commons. In such social dilemmas, the possibility for contributors to invest in a common pool-rewards fund, which will be shared exclusively among contributors, can be powerful for averting the tragedy, as long as the second-order dilemma (i.e. withdrawing contribution to reward funds) can be overcome (e.g. with second-order sanctions). However, the present paper reveals the vulnerability of such pool-rewarding mechanisms to the presence of reward funds raised by defectors and shared among them (i.e. anti-social rewarding), as it causes a cooperation breakdown, even when second-order sanctions are possible. I demonstrate that escaping this social trap requires the additional condition that coalitions of defectors fare poorly compared with pro-socials, with either (i) better rewarding abilities for the latter or (ii) reward funds that are contingent upon the public good produced beforehand, allowing groups of contributors to invest more in reward funds than groups of defectors. These results suggest that the establishment of cooperation through a collective positive incentive mechanism is highly vulnerable to anti-social rewarding and requires additional countermeasures to act in combination with second-order sanctions. PMID:25429015

  10. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual’s contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation. PMID:27339080

  11. Cooperation and Contagion in Web-Based, Networked Public Goods Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs. PMID:21412431

  12. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-06

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  13. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player’s individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player’s wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  14. Network topology control strategy based on spatial evolutionary public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Deng, Chuang; Suh, Il Hong

    2015-08-01

    It is often the case that rational individuals will adjust their connectivity in commercial or social activities for maximizing their payoffs. In this process, we can observe that individuals always gather around a leader or a competitive individual who can bring them more benefits. Inspired by this, we propose a strategy that impels nodes of network to connect with a specific node that we have specified with the perspective of spatial evolutionary public goods game. Thus a node is specified and given a larger enhancement factor which reflects his advantage over others. Then we employ a payoff-oriented preferential rewire strategy that individual will sever a neighbor who provides him with the lowest benefit and then link others randomly. The results illustrate that this strategy not only ensures the promotion of cooperation but also increases the degree of the specified node. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of two relevant parameters: enhancement factor and rewire frequency. We find that if the control strategy expects to work effectively, these two parameters have to ensure an evolution environment where cooperators can prevail defectors. We also conclude that a relatively low rewire frequency contributes to increasing the degree of the specified node. Meanwhile we attempt to present our interpretations for these phenomena.

  15. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player’s individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player’s wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval. PMID:27597441

  16. Heterogeneous resource allocation can change social hierarchy in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, Sandro; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-01

    Public goods games (PGGs) represent one of the most useful tools to study group interactions. However, even if they could provide an explanation for the emergence and stability of cooperation in modern societies, they are not able to reproduce some key features observed in social and economical interactions. The typical shape of wealth distribution-known as Pareto Law-and the microscopic organization of wealth production are two of them. Here, we introduce a modification to the classical formulation of PGGs that allows for the emergence of both of these features from first principles. Unlike traditional PGGs, where players contribute equally to all the games in which they participate, we allow individuals to redistribute their contribution according to what they earned in previous rounds. Results from numerical simulations show that not only a Pareto distribution for the pay-offs naturally emerges but also that if players do not invest enough in one round they can act as defectors even if they are formally cooperators. Our results not only give an explanation for wealth heterogeneity observed in real data but also point to a conceptual change on cooperation in collective dilemmas.

  17. Harbouring public good mutants within a pathogen population can increase both fitness and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Richard J; Kershaw, Michael J; Pawlowska, Bogna J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Gudelj, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Existing theory, empirical, clinical and field research all predict that reducing the virulence of individuals within a pathogen population will reduce the overall virulence, rendering disease less severe. Here, we show that this seemingly successful disease management strategy can fail with devastating consequences for infected hosts. We deploy cooperation theory and a novel synthetic system involving the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In vivo infections of rice demonstrate that M. oryzae virulence is enhanced, quite paradoxically, when a public good mutant is present in a population of high-virulence pathogens. We reason that during infection, the fungus engages in multiple cooperative acts to exploit host resources. We establish a multi-trait cooperation model which suggests that the observed failure of the virulence reduction strategy is caused by the interference between different social traits. Multi-trait cooperative interactions are widespread, so we caution against the indiscriminant application of anti-virulence therapy as a disease-management strategy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18678.001 PMID:28029337

  18. Spatial evolutionary public goods game on complete graph and dense complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinho; Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2015-03-01

    We study the spatial evolutionary public goods game (SEPGG) with voluntary or optional participation on a complete graph (CG) and on dense networks. Based on analyses of the SEPGG rate equation on finite CG, we find that SEPGG has two stable states depending on the value of multiplication factor r, illustrating how the ``tragedy of the commons'' and ``an anomalous state without any active participants'' occurs in real-life situations. When r is low (), the state with only loners is stable, and the state with only defectors is stable when r is high (). We also derive the exact scaling relation for r*. All of the results are confirmed by numerical simulation. Furthermore, we find that a cooperator-dominant state emerges when the number of participants or the mean degree, , decreases. We also investigate the scaling dependence of the emergence of cooperation on r and . These results show how ``tragedy of the commons'' disappears when cooperation between egoistic individuals without any additional socioeconomic punishment increases.

  19. Punish, but not too hard: how costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György

    2010-08-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games where, besides the classical strategies of cooperation (C) and defection (D), we consider punishing cooperators (PC) or punishing defectors (PD) as an additional strategy. Using a minimalist modeling approach, our goal is to separately clarify and identify the consequences of the two punishing strategies. Since punishment is costly, punishing strategies lose the evolutionary competition in case of well-mixed interactions. When spatial interactions are taken into account, however, the outcome can be strikingly different, and cooperation may spread. The underlying mechanism depends on the character of the punishment strategy. In the case of cooperating punishers, increasing the fine results in a rising cooperation level. In contrast, in the presence of the PD strategy, the phase diagram exhibits a reentrant transition as the fine is increased. Accordingly, the level of cooperation shows a non-monotonous dependence on the fine. Remarkably, punishing strategies can spread in both cases, but based on largely different mechanisms, which depend on the cooperativeness (or not) of punishers.

  20. Evolution of All-or-None Strategies in Repeated Public Goods Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many problems of cooperation involve repeated interactions among the same groups of individuals. When collective action is at stake, groups often engage in Public Goods Games (PGG), where individuals contribute (or not) to a common pool, subsequently sharing the resources. Such scenarios of repeated group interactions materialize situations in which direct reciprocation to groups may be at work. Here we study direct group reciprocity considering the complete set of reactive strategies, where individuals behave conditionally on what they observed in the previous round. We study both analytically and by computer simulations the evolutionary dynamics encompassing this extensive strategy space, witnessing the emergence of a surprisingly simple strategy that we call All-Or-None (AoN). AoN consists in cooperating only after a round of unanimous group behavior (cooperation or defection), and proves robust in the presence of errors, thus fostering cooperation in a wide range of group sizes. The principles encapsulated in this strategy share a level of complexity reminiscent of that found already in 2-person games under direct and indirect reciprocity, reducing, in fact, to the well-known Win-Stay-Lose-Shift strategy in the limit of the repeated 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma. PMID:25393661

  1. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    PubMed

    Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2011-03-11

    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs.

  2. Global public-private partnerships: Part II--What are the health issues for global governance?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part review of global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development. Part I was published in the April issue of the Bulletin (Vol. 78, No. 4). The recent emergence of GPPPs is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. While most multilateral and bilateral agencies are currently grappling with how to proceed, there is little information in the public domain concerning how individual partnerships work and to date very little consideration of the many implications of this trend. This paper differentiates between product-based, product development-based and issues/systems-based GPPPs and describes a number of examples of each type in the health sector. The benefits of these initiatives, not least the major resources which they harness for specific health problems, are identified. The final section of the paper explores the implications and dilemmas posed by GPPPs. It discusses whether or not shared goals can transcend conflicting values and mandates and how governance of partnership arrangements may transform and undermine certain attributes of multilateral organizations. The paper concludes that the current climate of goodwill between public and private sectors offers an opportunity that should not be missed: it can be used not only to foster new partnership but to ensure that partnership is truly in the interests of international public health. PMID:10859865

  3. An Evaluation of Publicly Available Global Bathymetry Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2006-03-01

    We evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of six publicly available global bathymetry grids: DBDB2 (Digital Bathymetric Data Base; an ongoing project of the Naval Research Laboratory), ETOPO2 (Earth Topography; National Geophysical Data Center, 2001, ETOPO2 Global 2’ Elevations [CD-ROM]. Boulder, Colorado, USA: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), GEBCO (General Bathymetric Charts of the Oceans; British Oceanographic Data Centre, 2003, Centenary Edition of the GEBCO Digital Atlas [CD-ROM] Published on behalf of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the International Hydrographic Organization Liverpool, UK), GINA (Geographic Information Network of Alaska; Lindquist et al., 2004), Smith and Sandwell (1997), and S2004 (Smith, unpublished). The Smith and Sandwell grid, derived from satellite altimetry and ship data combined, provides high resolution mapping of the seafloor, even in remote regions. DBDB2, ETOPO2, GINA, and S2004 merge additional datasets with the Smith and Sandwell grid; but moving from a pixel to grid registration attenuates short wavelengths (<20 km) in the ETOPO2 and DBDB2 solutions. Short wavelengths in the GINA grid are also attenuated, but the cause is not known. ETOPO2 anomalies are offset to the northeast, due to a misregistration in both latitude and longitude. The GEBCO grid is interpolated from 500 m contours that were digitized from paper charts at 1:10 million scale, so it is artificially smooth; yet new efforts have captured additional information from shallow water contours on navigational charts. The S2004 grid merges the Smith and Sandwell grid with GEBCO over shallow depths and polar regions, and so is intended to capture the best of both products. Our evaluation makes the choice of which bathymetry grid to use a more informed one.

  4. Designing the next generation of vaccines for global public health.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, Fabio; Baudner, Barbara; Mishra, Ravi P N; Bartolini, Erika; Fiaschi, Luigi; Mariotti, Paolo; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Boucher, Phil; Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-09-01

    Vaccine research and development are experiencing a renaissance of interest from the global scientific community. There are four major reasons for this: (1) the lack of efficacious treatment for many devastating infections; (2) the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria; (3) the need for improving the safety of the more traditional licensed vaccines; and finally, (4) the great promise for innovative vaccine design and research with convergence of omics sciences, such as genomics, proteomics, immunomics, and vaccinology. Our first project based on omics was initiated in 2000 and was termed reverse vaccinology. At that time, antigen identification was mainly based on bioinformatic analysis of a singular genome. Since then, omics-guided approaches have been applied to its full potential in several proof-of-concept studies in the industry, with the first reverse vaccinology-derived vaccine now in late stage clinical trials and several vaccines developed by omics in preclinical studies. In the meantime, vaccine discovery and development has been further improved with the support of proteomics, functional genomics, comparative genomics, structural biology, and most recently vaccinomics. We illustrate in this review how omics biotechnologies and integrative biology are expected to accelerate the identification of vaccine candidates against difficult pathogens for which traditional vaccine development has thus far been failing, and how research will provide safer vaccines and improved formulations for immunocompromised patients in the near future. Finally, we present a discussion to situate omics-guided rational vaccine design in the broader context of global public health and how it can benefit citizens in both developed and developing countries.

  5. Dilemma of Dilemmas: How Collective and Individual Perspectives Can Clarify the Size Dilemma in Voluntary Linear Public Goods Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Daniel B.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size—the number of people in the dilemma—sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to

  6. Wikipedia: a key tool for global public health promotion.

    PubMed

    Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan; Laurent, Michaël R

    2011-01-31

    The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia's medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia's health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia's biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information.

  7. Wikipedia: A Key Tool for Global Public Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia’s medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia’s health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia’s biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information. PMID:21282098

  8. Mapping Phosphorus Imbalances in Croplands Globally: Too Much or Too Little of a Good Thing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Bennett, E. M.; Potter, P.; Ramankutty, N.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a key role linking ecosystems and society in that it is essential for agricultural production while also acting as a potential pollutant for aquatic ecosystems. Agricultural use of P fertilizers is by far the dominant anthropogenic influence on the global P cycle, and has resulted in accumulation of P in some agricultural soils that can contribute to water quality degradation. We mapped the spatial distribution of agricultural P balances at 0.5 degree resolution for cropland soils globally based on inputs of P via inorganic fertilizer and manure applications and outputs of P associated with production of more than 100 crops in the year 2000. Total agronomic inputs of P fertilizer and manure (23.8 Tg P yr-1) collectively exceeded P removal by harvested crops (12.3 Tg P yr-1) at the global scale, driving large P surpluses in many intensive agricultural regions (e.g., East Asia, Western Europe, and parts of South America). However, P deficits occurred in almost 30% of the global cropland area, including vast tracts of cropland in North and South America, Eastern Europe, and Africa. Our results show that use of inorganic P fertilizers in excess of crop requirements was the primary agronomic driver of the most intense P surpluses globally, and resulted in lower P input-use efficiency (kg crop produced ● kg P applied-1) in several regions compared to manure use. Widespread P deficits occurred predominantly in areas with extensive production of forage crops used as livestock feed, which challenges the notion that livestock production leads exclusively to P surpluses. This spatially-explicit data on cropland P imbalances provides new insight on how agricultural P use might interact with regional water quality and additionally shows the potential for soil P depletion that can negatively affect future agricultural productivity.

  9. Age-related differences in altruism across adulthood: making personal financial gain versus contributing to the public good.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-04-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association between age and the self-reported wish to be rich. Ecological concerns, a form of contributing to the public good, were positively related to age. Study 2 investigated whether these values are expressed behaviorally when participants solved a complex problem that allowed striving for monetary gains or contributing to a public good. Confirming hypotheses, young adults' strategies were consistent with the aim of optimizing personal financial gain, and older adults' strategies with the aim to contribute to the public good. Studies 3 and 4 showed that older adults were more likely than younger and middle-aged adults to donate money to a good cause than to keep it for themselves. Study 4 manipulated participants' future time perspective as a factor potentially contributing to age-related differences. Partly confirming hypotheses, a longer time perspective reduced donations by older adults, but a shorter time perspective did not increase donations by younger adults. These studies suggest that older adults not only report valuing contributions to the public good more highly but also are more likely to behave altruistically than younger adults. All studies used cross-sectional designs that prevent a strict test of developmental trajectories but rather provide age-related differences at 1 point in time, representing a 1st step in investigating adult age-related differences in altruism.

  10. The growing impact of globalization for health and public health practice.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, public health policy and practice have been increasingly challenged by globalization, even as global financing for health has increased dramatically. This article discusses globalization and its health challenges from a vantage of political science, emphasizing increased global flows (of pathogens, information, trade, finance, and people) as driving, and driven by, global market integration. This integration requires a shift in public health thinking from a singular focus on international health (the higher disease burden in poor countries) to a more nuanced analysis of global health (in which health risks in both poor and rich countries are seen as having inherently global causes and consequences). Several globalization-related pathways to health exist, two key ones of which are described: globalized diseases and economic vulnerabilities. The article concludes with a call for national governments, especially those of wealthier nations, to take greater account of global health and its social determinants in all their foreign policies.

  11. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #37: PUBLICATION OF "OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY 2002 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Global Change Research Program is pleased to inform you of the publication of the new Our Changing Planet: The FY 2002 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Environment and Natural Reso...

  12. Conflict and the Common Good. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.

    The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…

  13. Mapping the global flow of aluminum: from liquid aluminum to end-use goods.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jonathan M; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Demand for aluminum in final products has increased 30-fold since 1950 to 45 million tonnes per year, with forecasts predicting this exceptional growth to continue so that demand will reach 2-3 times today's levels by 2050. Aluminum production uses 3.5% of global electricity and causes 1% of global CO2 emissions, while meeting a 50% cut in emissions by 2050 against growing demand would require at least a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions per tonne of aluminum produced--a challenging prospect. In this paper we trace the global flows of aluminum from liquid metal to final products, revealing for the first time a complete map of the aluminum system and providing a basis for future study of the emissions abatement potential of material efficiency. The resulting Sankey diagram also draws attention to two key issues. First, around half of all liquid aluminum (~39 Mt) produced each year never reaches a final product, and a detailed discussion of these high yield losses shows significant opportunities for improvement. Second, aluminum recycling, which avoids the high energy costs and emissions of electrolysis, requires signification "dilution" (~ 8 Mt) and "cascade" (~ 6 Mt) flows of higher aluminum grades to make up for the shortfall in scrap supply and to obtain the desired alloy mix, increasing the energy required for recycling.

  14. Age-Related Differences in Altruism across Adulthood: Making Personal Financial Gain versus Contributing to the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-01-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association…

  15. Age-Related Differences in Altruism across Adulthood: Making Personal Financial Gain versus Contributing to the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-01-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association…

  16. Literacy Inequalities, Mediation and the Public Good: A Case Study of Physical Proximity and Social Distance in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Esposito, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is considered to be a public good--one that benefits not only literate people, but also others in society through mechanisms of sharing and mediation. But to what extent do the benefits of literacy extend to socially distant groups? This paper applies the sociological concept of social distance to examine how social stratification impacts…

  17. The Supreme Court Permits Religious Groups To Use Public School Facilities: Good News Club v. Milford Central School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews basis for U.S. Supreme Court's June 2001 decision in "Good News Club v. Milford Central School," where Court held that the Christian religious club for students had the Constitutional right under the Free Speech Clause to use public school facilities after school hours. Explains impact of decision on board of education policy.…

  18. Good Intentions, Stubborn Practice: A Critical Appraisal of a Public Event on Cancer Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeff, Roald P.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2013-01-01

    Science communication has shifted considerably in Europe over the last decades. In the theoretical realm, one-way information has been replaced by models of science communication that stress public engagement and public participation in science and technology. Dialogue seems to have become a communication target on its own, beside such things as…

  19. Public good, personal privacy: a citizens' deliberation about using medical information for pharmacoepidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Lianne; Paul, Charlotte

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiologists have long argued for access to personal medical information in order to undertake research in the public interest, while legislation and ethical guidelines have increasingly focused on protecting the privacy of individuals. How the public weighs up these public interest and privacy arguments is unclear. A citizens' jury was held to explore public views about the use of medical information for the post-marketing surveillance of medicine safety. A steering group of stakeholders oversaw the process, including the framing of the question for the jury and the selection of expert witnesses and jurors. An independent chair and facilitator managed the 3-day hearing. The jury unanimously concluded that researchers contracted by a public body should be permitted to use medical information about identifiable people, without their consent, to study the safety of medicines--providing existing ethical guidelines and relevant laws are followed. Jurors who were initially uncomfortable about the use of information without their express consent all became more comfortable after obtaining further information and deliberating with other jurors. This outcome suggests that an informed public does not place personal privacy above societal benefits in the particular circumstance of medicines' safety research, given appropriate privacy safeguards. The specificity of the example, the framing of the public interest and privacy considerations--in the context of scientific, legal, ethical, clinical and consumer input--and the opportunity to deliberate, may explain why the conclusions of the jury differ from public opinion surveys about secondary uses of medical information.

  20. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  1. Systems Science: A Good Investment for the Public's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of "Health Education & Behavior" showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of…

  2. Systems Science: A Good Investment for the Public's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of "Health Education & Behavior" showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of…

  3. Market Competition, Public Good and Institutional Governance: Analyses of Portugal's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the market as a regulatory tool for the public sector and the promotion of competition among institutions are based upon the idea that they promote institutions' responsiveness to society and a more efficient use of public funds. However, autonomous institutions forced to compete under market-like conditions may follow strategies…

  4. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  5. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  6. Market Competition, Public Good and Institutional Governance: Analyses of Portugal's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the market as a regulatory tool for the public sector and the promotion of competition among institutions are based upon the idea that they promote institutions' responsiveness to society and a more efficient use of public funds. However, autonomous institutions forced to compete under market-like conditions may follow strategies…

  7. Sharing the Good News: A Rural Approach to Publicizing Community College Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlisberg, Allen P.

    The Northland Pioneer College (NPC) Library staff has developed a media blitz strategy to publicize its services in rural Arizona. This strategy regularly draws upon a database of newspapers, radio stations, and cable television outlets in the area. Each week a different public service announcement is developed and sent out to agencies on the…

  8. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  9. Universal Health Coverage – The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim’ s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC). PMID:27694683

  10. Too good to be true: publication bias in two prominent studies from experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-04-01

    Empirical replication has long been considered the final arbiter of phenomena in science, but replication is undermined when there is evidence for publication bias. Evidence for publication bias in a set of experiments can be found when the observed number of rejections of the null hypothesis exceeds the expected number of rejections. Application of this test reveals evidence of publication bias in two prominent investigations from experimental psychology that have purported to reveal evidence of extrasensory perception and to indicate severe limitations of the scientific method. The presence of publication bias suggests that those investigations cannot be taken as proper scientific studies of such phenomena, because critical data are not available to the field. Publication bias could partly be avoided if experimental psychologists started using Bayesian data analysis techniques.

  11. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic.

  12. What is "good reasoning" about global warming? A comparison of high school students and specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Stephen Thomas

    This study compares the knowledge and reasoning about global warming of 10 twelfth grade students and 6 specialists, including scientists and policy analysts. The study uses global warming as a context for addressing the broad objective of formulating goals for scientific literacy. Subjects evaluated a set of articles about global warming and evaluated policies proposed to ameliorate global warming, including a gasoline tax and a "feebate" system of fees and rebates on automobiles. All students and one scientist participated in a full treatment involving interviews and activities with a computer program (discussed below), averaging about 3.75 hours. In addition, five specialists participated in interviews only, averaging one hour. One line of analysis focuses on knowledge content, examining how subjects applied perspectives from both natural and social sciences. This analysis is positioned as an empirical component to the movement to develop content standards for science education, as exemplified by the recommendations of Science for All Americans (SFAA). Some aspects of competent performance in the present study hinged upon knowledge and skills advocated by SFAA (e.g., fluency with themes of science such as scale). Other aspects involved such skills as evaluating economic interests behind a scientific argument in the media or considering hidden costs in a policy area. By characterizing a range of approaches to how students and specialists performed the experimental tasks, the present study affords a view of scientific literacy not possible without this type of information. Another line of analysis investigates a measure of coherent argumentation from a computer program, Convince Me, in relation to policy reasoning. The program is based on a connectionist model, ECHO. Subjects used the program to create arguments about the aforementioned policies. The study compares Convince Me's Model's Fit argumentation measure to other measures, including ratings of 6 human

  13. Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

  14. Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

  15. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Treesearch

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  16. The Dishwater Menace: Healthy Drinking Spaces and the Public Good in Post-Prohibition Ontario.

    PubMed

    Malleck, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines inter-bureaucracy tension, negotiation, and resolution in the case of the oversight of beverage room sanitation in Ontario in the 1930s and 1940s. Both the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) and various public health authorities claimed authority over the health status of public drinking spaces. But the LCBO had legislative priority. The ensuing debates regarding health and cleanliness linked issues of beverage room glass sanitation to a biopolitical approach to public drinking. Developing a more scientifically sophisticated approach to beverage glass cleaning required a balancing of administrative priorities. Perfect sanitation was expensive and complicated, and the LCBO's mandate demanded attention to the financial viability of beverage rooms. The LCBO needed to forge a trade off between safety and viability, while maintaining a public drinking system that dissuaded illegal drinking. The subsequent compromise in beverage room glass sanitation tied contemporary chemical sanitizers to the challenging economics of depression-era beverage room management.

  17. Where civics meets science: building science for the public good through Civic Science.

    PubMed

    Garlick, J A; Levine, P

    2016-07-07

    Public understanding of science and civic engagement on science issues that impact contemporary life matter more today than ever. From the Planned Parenthood controversy, to the Flint water crisis and the fluoridation debate, societal polarization about science issues has reached dramatic levels that present significant obstacles to public discussion and problem solving. This is happening, in part, because systems built to support science do not often reward open-minded thinking, inclusive dialogue, and moral responsibility regarding science issues. As a result, public faith in science continues to erode. This review explores how the field of Civic Science can impact public work on science issues by building new understanding of the practices, influences, and cultures of science. Civic Science is defined as a discipline that considers science practice and knowledge as resources for civic engagement, democratic action, and political change. This review considers how Civic Science informs the roles that key participants-scientists, public citizens and institutions of higher education-play in our national science dialogue. Civic Science aspires to teach civic capacities, to inform the responsibilities of scientists engaged in public science issues and to inspire an open-minded, inclusive dialogue where all voices are heard and shared commitments are acknowledged.

  18. 77 FR 13513 - Modernizing the Regulation of Clinical Trials and Approaches to Good Clinical Practice; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... performed globally, greater use of contract research organizations (CROs), participation of vulnerable... research, obtain informed consent). FDA has also heard from clinical trial sponsors and CROs that sponsors and CROs are reluctant to change their processes related to clinical trial oversight and management...

  19. The Role of Tertiary Education in Fixing Failed States: Globalization and Public Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The plight of nations labeled as "failed" is well-documented, as are suggested strategies to fix them. One area that receives a great deal of focus in the extant literature is education. How can education contribute to the rebuilding of a failed State? Most often the responses to this question focus on the importance of reestablishing primary and…

  20. Restructuring and the public good: Creating a national system benefits trust

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    As part of electricity legislation, the country should consider establishing an electric system benefits trust, funded by a small wires surcharge, that would provide each state matching funds to carry on public benefits programs of its choice. Such an approach is working well in the telecom area and is perhaps even more needed in electricity reform. Restructuring the electric industry is one of the most challenging transformations under way in the nation today. State and federal efforts to reform this critical industry properly focus on capturing the benefits of competition and customer choice for customers of electricity. These are laudable goals, but insufficient by themselves. One must also secure and enhance the public benefits that until now have been provided by the electric industry`s unique structure and regulatory traditions. The means of securing these public objectives must be designed into any new regulatory structures from the outset, before dramatic changes unravel the gains this industry has made.

  1. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... items can be viewed at the following Web page: http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Pages/DGP.aspx... 2015-2016 Edition Agenda Item 3: Development of recommendations for amendments to the Supplement to the... the 2015-2016 Edition Agenda Item 4: Development of recommendations for amendments to the...

  2. Philanthropy, Voluntary Action, and the Public Good. Working Papers, Spring Research Forum (New York, New York, March 13-14, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Sector, Washington, DC.

    A collection of 37 working papers for presentation at a research forum on philanthropy, voluntary action, and the public good is presented. Thirteen sections provide information on the following subjects: (1) philanthropy, voluntary action, and the public good ("Partners in Public Service: Government and the Nonprofit Sector in the American…

  3. Dissection of a Truth Regime: The Narrowing Effects on the Public Good of Neoliberal Discourse in the Virginia Performance-Based Funding Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letizia, Angelo J.

    2016-01-01

    A major role of all public higher education institutions is to foster the public good. In democratic societies, the public good emphasizes the more collective activities and benefits and how resources are accessible to all in a society. Institutions of higher education create new knowledge, promote cultural tolerance, increase civic activity, and…

  4. Dissection of a Truth Regime: The Narrowing Effects on the Public Good of Neoliberal Discourse in the Virginia Performance-Based Funding Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letizia, Angelo J.

    2016-01-01

    A major role of all public higher education institutions is to foster the public good. In democratic societies, the public good emphasizes the more collective activities and benefits and how resources are accessible to all in a society. Institutions of higher education create new knowledge, promote cultural tolerance, increase civic activity, and…

  5. Philanthropy, Voluntary Action, and the Public Good. Working Papers, Spring Research Forum (New York, New York, March 13-14, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Sector, Washington, DC.

    A collection of 37 working papers for presentation at a research forum on philanthropy, voluntary action, and the public good is presented. Thirteen sections provide information on the following subjects: (1) philanthropy, voluntary action, and the public good ("Partners in Public Service: Government and the Nonprofit Sector in the American…

  6. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  7. Data Base Legislation in the Digital Age: Balancing the Public Good and the Owners' Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the impact of federal legislative proposals considered between 1997 and 2004 that offer protection to databases. It investigates the effect that the proposals had on the balance between the economic interests of owners and the right of the public to unfettered access to information. This identified legislation…

  8. The Public Good. Historical and Political Roots of Municipal Preschools in Emilia Romagna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    According to the findings of a recent European study on competence requirement for the early childhood education and care workforce, competent systems that succeed in achieving high levels of professionalism are embedded in coherent public policies that build on consultation with key stakeholders, particularly at local level. In order to flourish,…

  9. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  10. 77 FR 51533 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Act, Public Law 92-463. GNEB provides advice and recommendations to the President and Congress on environmental and infrastructure issues along the U.S. border with Mexico. Purpose of Meeting: The purpose of..., which focuses on water infrastructure issues in the U.S.-Mexico border region. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  11. A Reflexive Interrogation: Talking Out Loud and Finding Spaces for Works of Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Satterfield, James

    2013-01-01

    Over a year, we engaged in an ongoing dialogue about what it means to be a professor and how we might do a better job of making the public contributions of our work more explicit. Throughout our dialogue, we continually discussed how we, as faculty members, must always work within the institutional constraints that allow the professoriate to exist…

  12. Information as Property and as a Public Good: Perspectives from the Economic Theory of Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the economic theory of property rights and explores four applications of the transaction cost theory of property rights and free distribution in the economics of information: (1) copying technology; (2) computer software and copy protection; (3) satellite television and encryption; and (4) public libraries. (56 references) (MES)

  13. Student Civic Engagement and For-Profit Higher Education: Public Policies and Private Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avakian, Seth David

    2014-01-01

    Democracy is the practice of self-rule; its citizens actively participate in governance. Who teaches participative democracy, what is taught, and how it is taught are significant determinants of how democracy functions. In the United States, the two core justifications for the public subsidy of higher education are that it prepares citizens for…

  14. Information as Property and as a Public Good: Perspectives from the Economic Theory of Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the economic theory of property rights and explores four applications of the transaction cost theory of property rights and free distribution in the economics of information: (1) copying technology; (2) computer software and copy protection; (3) satellite television and encryption; and (4) public libraries. (56 references) (MES)

  15. Evolution and function of the TCR Vgamma9 chain repertoire: It's good to be public.

    PubMed

    Pauza, C David; Cairo, Cristiana

    2015-07-01

    Lymphocytes expressing a T cell receptor (TCR) composed of Vgamma9 and Vdelta2 chains represent a minor fraction of human thymocytes. Extrathymic selection throughout post-natal life causes the proportion of cells with a Vgamma9-JP rearrangement to increase and elevates the capacity for responding to non-peptidic phosphoantigens. Extrathymic selection is so powerful that phosphoantigen-reactive cells comprise about 1 in 40 circulating memory T cells in healthy adults and the subset expands rapidly upon infection or in response to malignancy. Skewing of the gamma delta TCR repertoire is accompanied by selection for public gamma chain sequences such that many unrelated individuals overlap extensive in their circulating repertoire. This type of selection implies the presence of a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule that is an object of current research but remains incompletely defined. While selection on a monomorphic presenting molecule may seem unusual, similar mechanisms shape the alpha beta T cell repertoire including the extreme examples of NKT or mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) and the less dramatic amplification of public Vbeta chain rearrangements driven by individual MHC molecules and associated with resistance to viral pathogens. Selecting and amplifying public T cell receptors whether alpha beta or gamma delta, are important steps in developing an anticipatory TCR repertoire. Cell clones expressing public TCR can accelerate the kinetics of response to pathogens and impact host survival.

  16. Unions and the Public Interest: Is Collective Bargaining for Teachers Good for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Three years after Barack Obama's election signaled a seeming resurgence for America's unions, the landscape looks very different. Republican governors in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio have limited the reach of collective bargaining for public employees. The moves, especially in Wisconsin, set off a national furor that has all but obscured the…

  17. From Good To Great: The Next Phase in Improving Texas Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Business Council (Texas), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Two decades ago, the State of Texas began a set of groundbreaking reforms that made performance-based accountability the centerpiece of its public education system. Texans should be proud of this progress. But now, twenty years later, Texas must meet a new set of challenges to continue its success in educating all children at the highest…

  18. Unions and the Public Interest: Is Collective Bargaining for Teachers Good for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Three years after Barack Obama's election signaled a seeming resurgence for America's unions, the landscape looks very different. Republican governors in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio have limited the reach of collective bargaining for public employees. The moves, especially in Wisconsin, set off a national furor that has all but obscured the…

  19. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 41st session of the United Nations... consider proposals for the 18th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of... agenda may be obtained from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at...

  20. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 39th session of the United Nations... UNSCOE will consider proposals for the 18th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the... obtained from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at:...

  1. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 40th session of the United Nations.... The UNSCOE will consider proposals for the 18th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations... agenda may be obtained from the United Nations Transport Division's Web site at:...

  2. Data Base Legislation in the Digital Age: Balancing the Public Good and the Owners' Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the impact of federal legislative proposals considered between 1997 and 2004 that offer protection to databases. It investigates the effect that the proposals had on the balance between the economic interests of owners and the right of the public to unfettered access to information. This identified legislation…

  3. Taxation and Education: Using Educational Research to Inform Coherent Policy for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert; Pitts, David A.; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, following a 30-year trend among the US states to remove the property tax from the revenue for public schools, the South Carolina General Assembly enacted Act 388 which replaced the property tax with a one-cent sales tax. The law decreased the budget capacity of school districts thus impacting educational equity and adequacy. This paper…

  4. Applying the Multiple Public Good Model for Establishing a Security Policy for Hungary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    states. Today, the ecological threat has become globalized. The quantity of pollution, and the consequences of single events or accidents pose an...and Greece as well. Such a turn of events composes a high risk for the entire Europe and Hungary in particular. A military conflict would induce a...MI-24 attack helicopters and Tunguska self-propelled air-defense system. A real sphere of interest in the Russia- Yugoslavia military-technical

  5. Conflict and coordination in the provision of public goods: a conceptual analysis of continuous and step-level games.

    PubMed

    Abele, Susanne; Stasser, Garold; Chartier, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Conflicts between individual and collective interests are ubiquitous in social life. Experimental studies have investigated the resolution of such conflicts using public goods games with either continuous or step-level payoff functions. Game theory and social interdependence theory identify consequential differences between these two types of games. Continuous function games are prime examples of social dilemmas because they always contain a conflict between individual and collective interests, whereas step-level games can be construed as social coordination games. Step-level games often provide opportunities for coordinated solutions that benefit both the collective and the individuals. For this and other reasons, the authors conclude that one cannot safely generalize results obtained from step-level to continuous-form games (or vice versa). Finally, the authors identify specific characteristics of the payoff function in public goods games that conceptually mark the transition from a pure dilemma to a coordination problem nested within a dilemma.

  6. Defining a Good Death (Successful Dying): Literature Review and a Call for Research and Public Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Emily A.; Gallegos, Jarred V.; Montross-Thomas, Lori P.; Depp, Colin A.; Irwin, Scott A.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2016-01-01

    There is little agreement about what constitutes good death or successful dying. The authors conducted a literature search for published, English-language, peer-reviewed reports of qualitative and quantitative studies that provided a definition of a good death. Stakeholders in these articles included patients, prebereaved and bereaved family members, and healthcare providers (HCPs). Definitions found were categorized into core themes and subthemes, and the frequency of each theme was determined by stakeholder (patients, family, HCPs) perspectives. Thirty-six studies met eligibility criteria, with 50% of patient perspective articles including individuals over age 60 years. We identified 11 core themes of good death: preferences for a specific dying process, pain-free status, religiosity/spiritualty, emotional well-being, life completion, treatment preferences, dignity, family, quality of life, relationship with HCP, and other. The top three themes across all stakeholder groups were preferences for dying process (94% of reports), pain-free status (81%), and emotional well-being (64%). However, some discrepancies among the respondent groups were noted in the core themes: Family perspectives included life completion (80%), quality of life (70%), dignity (70%), and presence of family (70%) more frequently than did patient perspectives regarding those items (35%–55% each). In contrast, religiosity/spirituality was reported somewhat more often in patient perspectives (65%) than in family perspectives (50%). Taking into account the limitations of the literature, further research is needed on the impact of divergent perspectives on end-of-life care. Dialogues among the stakeholders for each individual must occur to ensure a good death from the most critical viewpoint—the patient’s. PMID:26976293

  7. Defining a Good Death (Successful Dying): Literature Review and a Call for Research and Public Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily A; Gallegos, Jarred V; Thomas, Lori P Montross; Depp, Colin A; Irwin, Scott A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2016-04-01

    There is little agreement about what constitutes good death or successful dying. The authors conducted a literature search for published, English-language, peer-reviewed reports of qualitative and quantitative studies that provided a definition of a good death. Stakeholders in these articles included patients, prebereaved and bereaved family members, and healthcare providers (HCPs). Definitions found were categorized into core themes and subthemes, and the frequency of each theme was determined by stakeholder (patients, family, HCPs) perspectives. Thirty-six studies met eligibility criteria, with 50% of patient perspective articles including individuals over age 60 years. We identified 11 core themes of good death: preferences for a specific dying process, pain-free status, religiosity/spirituality, emotional well-being, life completion, treatment preferences, dignity, family, quality of life, relationship with HCP, and other. The top three themes across all stakeholder groups were preferences for dying process (94% of reports), pain-free status (81%), and emotional well-being (64%). However, some discrepancies among the respondent groups were noted in the core themes: Family perspectives included life completion (80%), quality of life (70%), dignity (70%), and presence of family (70%) more frequently than did patient perspectives regarding those items (35%-55% each). In contrast, religiosity/spirituality was reported somewhat more often in patient perspectives (65%) than in family perspectives (50%). Taking into account the limitations of the literature, further research is needed on the impact of divergent perspectives on end-of-life care. Dialogues among the stakeholders for each individual must occur to ensure a good death from the most critical viewpoint-the patient's.

  8. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  9. Adolescent suicide as a global public health issue.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Zebib K; Sher, Leo

    2017-07-07

    Youth suicide is a major global mental health problem. This review looks at the epidemiology, risk and protective factors associated with youth suicide, and global strategies to address this important issue. To better understand factors contributing to youth suicide, global gender differences in suicide were examined. Global rates of suicide amongst young men are higher than young women. However, there are anomalously higher rates of female youth suicide in India and China, and possible causes of this are examined further. It is likely that underestimation of youth suicide is a major factor affecting the accuracy of suicide epidemiology. Risk factors for youth suicide are varied. Psychiatric factors include various psychiatric illnesses, substance use (particularly amongst refugee and homeless youth). Psychosocial risk factors include family conflict, physical and sexual childhood abuse, isolation, socioeconomic disadvantage, discrimination and acculturation. Vulnerable populations are at increased risk, including refugee/immigrant/indigenous youth, those in foster care and homeless youth. Protective factors can include family cohesion and strong interpersonal relationships, as well as increased access to care. Global strategies to prevent youth suicide include reducing lethal means to suicide and reducing harmful media reporting. Various psychosocial interventions may be helpful, including individual support, and family, school and community based interventions. Strategies can also increase evaluation of psychiatric disorders and access to care, as well as promote psycho-education and reduce stigma against mental illness.

  10. Managing Earth's Future: Global Self-Restraint for the Common Good or Domination by Incentive and Power?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Caldeira, K.

    2016-12-01

    We are global in our impacts, yet local in our thoughts and feelings. The daunting challenge facing Homo sapiens is learning to cooperate at global scale for the common good. Since the invention of the steam engine, we have been developing ever more efficient ways of generating consumer products. Some of the wealth generated by these more efficient technologies was reinvested into additional capital infrastructure, such as factories and machines. We thus expanded capacity to offer goods and services to insatiable consumers, expanding the ability to extract and transform natural resources into both valuable goods and services and dangerous pollution. Improvements in medical technologies led to quasi-exponential population growth, mirroring and multiplying the quasi-exponential growth in per capita consumption. This quasi-exponential growth is starting to reach boundaries, but these boundaries are not sending signals to the market that would allow a laissez faire approach to work. The central question is: How can we continue improving well-being while diminishing material flows associated with environmental pollution? Globally, if we do not place constraints on ourselves, nature will impose constraints on us. We can impose constraints on ourselves to protect us from what nature would otherwise to do to us. To have a sustainable future, we would need to level off population at the lowest feasible levels. The difference between a future population of 6 billion and 16 billion is a half-child per family less-or-more than the central projection of demographers. Empowering women with education and technology has proven to be a most effective strategy at reducing population growth. To have a sustainable future, we would need strong disincentives on environmental damage, especially from long-lived wastes such as carbon dioxide. It is of course a huge political challenge to get such disincentives in place. If we fail to get these global self-protective guardrails established

  11. Defining and Assessing Public Health Functions: A Global Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan; Jakubowski, Elke; Kluge, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Given the broad scope and intersectoral nature of public health structures and practices, there are inherent difficulties in defining which services fall under the public health remit and in assessing their capacity and performance. The aim of this study is to analyze how public health functions and practice have been defined and operationalized in different countries and regions around the world, with a specific focus on assessment tools that have been developed to evaluate the performance of essential public health functions, services, and operations. Our review has identified nearly 100 countries that have carried out assessments, using diverse analytical and methodological approaches. The assessment processes have evolved quite differently according to administrative arrangements and resource availability, but some key contextual factors emerge that seem to favor policy-oriented follow-up. These include local ownership of the assessment process, policymakers' commitment to reform, and expert technical advice for implementation.

  12. Nordic School of Public Health NHV and its legacy in global health.

    PubMed

    Krettek, Alexandra; Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Toan, Tran Khanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the legacy of the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in global health. We delineate how this field developed at NHV and describe selected research and research training endeavours with examples from Vietnam and Nepal as well as long-term teaching collaborations such as BRIMHEALTH (Baltic RIM Partnership for Public HEALTH) in the Baltic countries and Arkhangelsk International School of Public Health in Russia. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  14. Ethics Instruction for Future Geoscientists: Essential for Contributions to Good Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.; Mogk, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Geoscientists work in a world of uncertainty in the complex, dynamic, and chaotic Earth system that is fraught with opportunities to become involved in ethical dilemmas. To be effective contributors to the public discourse on Earth science policy, geoscientists must conduct their work according to the highest personal and professional ethical standards. The geosciences as a discipline relies on the fidelity of geoscience data and their interpretations, geoscience concepts and methodologies must be conveyed to policy makers in ways that allow them to make informed decisions, corporations require a workforce that conducts their affairs according to the highest standards, and the general public expects the highest standards of conduct of geoscientists as they underwrite much of the research supported through tax dollars and the applications of this research impacts personal and societal lives. Geoscientists must have the foundations to identify ethical dilemmas in the first instance, and to have the ethical decision-making skills to either prevent, mitigate or otherwise address ethical issues that arise in professional practice. Awareness of ethical issues arises in many dimensions: Ethics and self (engaging self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors); Ethics and profession (working according to professional standards); Ethics and society (communicating effectively to policy makers and the general public about the underlying science that informs public policy); and, Ethics and Earth (recognizing the unique responsibilities of geoscientists in the stewardship of Earth). To meet these ethical challenges, training of future geoscientists must be done a) at the introductory level as all students should be aware of ethical implications of geoscience concepts as they impact societal issues; undergraduate geoscience majors need to be explicitly trained in the standards and norms of the geoscience community of practice; graduate students need to be fully prepared to deal

  15. Commercial influence and global nongovernmental public action in health and pharmaceutical policies.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri; Mackintosh, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Nongovernmental public action has been effective in influencing global agenda-setting in health and pharmaceutical policies, yet its record in influencing solutions to the problems identified has been notably more limited. While trade policies have been particularly resistant to change, more substantial changes are observable in global health policies and global health governance. However, some of the directions of change may not be conducive to the democratic accountability of global health governance, to the wise use of public resources, to health systems development, or to longer-term access to health care within developing countries. The authors argue that observed changes in global health policies can be understood as accommodating to corporate concerns and priorities. Furthermore, the changing global context and the commercialization of global public action itself pose sharp challenges to the exercise of influence by global nongovernmental public actors. Nongovernmental organizations not only face a major challenge in terms of the imbalance in power and resources between themselves and corporate interest groups when seeking to influence policymaking; they also face the problem of corporate influence on public action itself.

  16. The Federal Role in Supporting Public Universities' Global Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lou Anna K.; Foster, Richard M.; Austin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    America's "super-league" of global universities will play an increasingly pivotal role in the 21st century economy. These universities' substantial metropolitan and regional economic contributions are magnified by the role they play in fueling innovation, boosting educational attainment, and engaging with the rest of the world on an…

  17. The Federal Role in Supporting Public Universities' Global Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lou Anna K.; Foster, Richard M.; Austin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    America's "super-league" of global universities will play an increasingly pivotal role in the 21st century economy. These universities' substantial metropolitan and regional economic contributions are magnified by the role they play in fueling innovation, boosting educational attainment, and engaging with the rest of the world on an…

  18. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  19. Science for the Public Good: Tackling scientific integrity in the federal government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Halpern, M.; Johnson, C.

    2016-12-01

    From hydraulic fracturing to climate change to seismic risk, government science and scientists are integral to public decision making in the geosciences. Following calls for increased scientific integrity across the government, policies have been put in place in recent years to be promote transparency and appropriate use of science in government decision making. But how effective have these initiatives been? With the development of scientific integrity policies, new transparency measures, and other efforts in recent years, are we seeing improvements in how federal agencies use science? And importantly, can these safeguards prevent potential future breaches of scientific integrity and misuse science for political gain? Review of recent progress and problems around government scientific integrity, including case studies, policy assessments, and surveys of federal scientists, can shed light on how far the we have come and what areas still need improvement to ensure that government scientific integrity is preserved in the future.

  20. Global Public Health through the Eyes of Medical Anthropologist Didier Fassin

    PubMed Central

    Hysolli, Eriona

    2009-01-01

    At the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference at Yale University, anthropologist Didier Fassin discussed social inequality and the politicization of health in the context of global public health. PMID:20027286