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Sample records for global regions north

  1. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2016-10-01

    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  2. An evaluation of the North Sea circulation in global and regional models relevant for ecosystem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätsch, Johannes; Burchard, Hans; Dieterich, Christian; Gräwe, Ulf; Gröger, Matthias; Mathis, Moritz; Kapitza, Hartmut; Bersch, Manfred; Moll, Andreas; Pohlmann, Thomas; Su, Jian; Ho-Hagemann, Ha T. M.; Schulz, Achim; Elizalde, Alberto; Eden, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Simulations of the North Sea circulation by the global ocean model MPI-OM and the regional ocean models GETM, HAMSOM, NEMO, TRIM are compared against each other and with observational data for the period 1998-2009. The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of the simulations in particular with respect to their suitability to drive biogeochemical shelf sea models. Our results demonstrate the benefit of the global model to avoid the specification of lateral open boundary conditions. Due to its stretched grid configuration, which provides a higher grid resolution at the Northwest European Shelf, the global model is able to reproduce the large-scale features, such as the water mass distribution and the thermal stratification in the central and northern North Sea, qualitatively similar to the regional models. The simulation of temperature and salinity near the coast however, shows large biases in almost all models because of the coarse meteorological forcing and too coarse vertical resolutions. The simulation of the Baltic Sea exchange and the spread of freshwater along the Norwegian coast proved difficult for all models except GETM, which reproduces impacts of the Baltic Sea outflow reasonably well.

  3. Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Brett, Carlton E.; Melchin, Michael J.; Mannik, Peep; Kleffner, Mark A.; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Loydell, David K.; Munnecke, Axel; Jeppsson, Lennart; Corradini, Carlo; Brunton, Frank R.; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent revisions to the biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic assignment of strata from the type area of the Niagaran Provincial Series (a regional chronostratigraphic unit) have demonstrated the need to revise the chronostratigraphic correlation of the Silurian System of North America. Recently, the working group to restudy the base of the Wenlock Series has developed an extremely high-resolution global chronostratigraphy for the Telychian and Sheinwoodian stages by integrating graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy with carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy. This improved global chronostratigraphy has required such significant chronostratigraphic revisions to the North American succession that much of the Silurian System in North America is currently in a state of flux and needs further refinement. This report serves as an update of the progress on recalibrating the global chronostratigraphic correlation of North American Provincial Series and Stage boundaries in their type area. The revised North American classification is correlated with global series and stages as well as regional classifications used in the United Kingdom, the East Baltic, Australia, China, the Barrandian, and Altaj. Twenty-four potential stage slices, based primarily on graptolite and conodont zones and correlated to the global series and stages, are illustrated alongside a new composite ??13Ccarb curve for the Silurian. Conodont, graptolite, isotope, New York, Ontario, series, Silurian, stage. ?? 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  4. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  5. Pertussis immunization in the global pertussis initiative North American region: recommended strategies and implementation considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tina; Halperin, Scott; Cherry, James D; Edwards, Kathryn; Englund, Janet A; Glezen, Paul; Greenberg, David; Rothstein, Edward; Skowronski, Danuta

    2005-05-01

    In North America, children currently receive 5 doses of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine between the ages of 2 months and 6 years. Although this schedule has reduced the incidence of childhood pertussis, it has not led to the development of herd immunity in the total population, largely because pertussis immunity wanes with time. The time course over which immunity wanes is uncertain; however, high pertussis antibody titers in adolescents and adults indicate unrecognized infection in these groups. There is evidence that this group serves as a source of infection for young infants who are not fully immunized. Therefore, of the potential strategies reviewed by the North American Global Pertussis Initiative group, universal adolescent immunization would in theory reduce the risk of pertussis in this age group and may reduce transmission to young infants. However, because immunity probably wanes at the same rate in adolescents and children, the burden of disease will likely shift to older age groups, including young adults (parents of vulnerable infants). Therefore the ideal would be immunization of adolescents and adults, particularly those who are in contact with young infants. Adolescent immunization is already recommended in Austria, France, Germany and Canada, and participants in the Global Pertussis Initiative recommend that this strategy be implemented across North America with a view to eventually extending immunization to include adults. The final decision to implement such a strategy will depend on pertussis surveillance studies and analysis of the effectiveness and tolerability of adolescent and adult pertussis immunization as well as program considerations related to feasibility and economics.

  6. Evaluating the performance of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models over the north-east Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of uncertainty in estimating climate projections affected by global warming is the choice of the global climate model (GCM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the skill of GCMs from CMIP3 and CMIP5 databases in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region. It is well known that the seasonal and interannual variability of surface inland variables (e.g. precipitation and snow) and ocean variables (e.g. wave height and storm surge) are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns. Thus, an automatic synoptic classification, based on weather types, has been used to assess whether GCMs are able to reproduce spatial patterns and climate variability. Three important factors have been analyzed: the skill of GCMs to reproduce the synoptic situations, the skill of GCMs to reproduce the historical inter-annual variability and the consistency of GCMs experiments during twenty-first century projections. The results of this analysis indicate that the most skilled GCMs in the study region are UKMO-HadGEM2, ECHAM5/MPI-OM and MIROC3.2(hires) for CMIP3 scenarios and ACCESS1.0, EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES and CMCC-CM for CMIP5 scenarios. These models are therefore recommended for the estimation of future regional multi-model projections of surface variables driven by the atmospheric circulation in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region.

  7. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  8. Application of global dynamic vegetation model estimation of aridity changes in drought prone region of North-Eastern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Vera; Venevskiy, Sergey; Berdnikov, Sergey; Kulygin, Valerii

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are specifically designed for an assessment of integrative continental scale soil and vegetation carbon and water pools and fluxes between these pools and the atmosphere. However, recent DGVMs still remain mainly tools for global studies, which explain limitations of these models in view of regional applications. In this study we investigate possibility of application of state-of-the art SEVER-DGVM for description of contemporary water dynamics in semi-arid regions of North Eastern Eurasia. We suggest simple modifications of input climate and soil data and moving to irregular vector representation of basic spatial units, instead of regular grid cells, aiming increase in accuracy of simulation of water pools and fluxes. The study area is Rostov oblast' with small parts from Stavropol krai and Kalmykia Republic (oblast' and krai are administrative units in Russia), associated with the southern part of River Don watershed. The region is rather big (approximately 800 km in direction North - South and approximately 400 km in direction East - West. SEVER-DGVM, a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was applied as a modelling tool of the study. The model was never before applied specifically for regions of Southern Russia and thus required evaluation and afterwards modification for accuracy of representation of water fluxes and pools. For regionalization of climate data we compared time series for temperature and precipitation from the NCEP climate dataset and from the regional meteorological data. We found that temperature time series from the global dataset are close to the observed, but the NCEP dataset has tendency to underestimate precipitation in Rostov region at daily time step, while providing correct pattern of annual and monthly dynamics. This was corrected using long term daily anomalies of observed daily temperature and precipitation in the region. For regional application of the global vegetation model we defined

  9. Overview of Global/Regional Models Used to Evaluate Tropospheric Ozone in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important greenhouse gas, toxic pollutant, and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. Tropospheric O3 which resides in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of days, however, O3 in the free troposphere and stratosphere has a lifetime on the order of weeks or months. Modeling O3 mixing ratios at and above the surface is difficult due to the multiple formation/destruction processes and transport pathways that cause large spatio-temporal variability in O3 mixing ratios. This talk will summarize in detail the global/regional models that are commonly used to simulate/predict O3 mixing ratios in the United States. The major models which will be focused on are the: 1) Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), 2) Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), 3) Goddard Earth Observing System with Chemistry (GEOS-Chem), 4) Real Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), 5) Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART), and 7) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM3 model. I will discuss the major modeling components which impact O3 mixing ratio calculations in each model and the similarities/differences between these models. This presentation is vital to the 2nd Annual Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) Conference as it will provide an overview of tools, which can be used in conjunction with TOLNet data, to evaluate the complex chemistry and transport pathways controlling tropospheric O3 mixing ratios.

  10. Quantifying Uncertainties in Global and North American Regional Climate Change Projections using the Climateprediction.net Multi-Thousand Member Global Climate Model Perturbed Physics Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, D. H.; Karoly, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Information on the uncertainties in projections of future climate change is vital for their effective use across a wide range of applications. A multi-thousand member perturbed-physics ensemble of global climate model simulations is being used to better estimate model uncertainties in climate change projections for the globe and North America. Ensemble members have been generated by the distributed computing project climateprediction.net at the University of Oxford, where thousands of simulations have been run on PCs across the globe, each running a different version of the Hadley Centre HadCM3L coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CMIP3 version) with perturbed physics parameters. Results from this perturbed physics ensemble will be compared to results from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 multi-model ensembles for global and North American regional temperature and precipitation variability and change across the 20th and 21st centuries. It will be shown that the uncertainty in the perturbed physics ensemble can exceed that of the multi-model ensemble. The HadCM3L model has horizontal resolution of 2.5° latitude by 3.75° longitude with 19 vertical layers in the atmosphere and 20 vertical layers in the ocean. A 30 minute dynamical integration time step is used with physics parameterization run every 3 hours. Transient climate change simulations are available from 1921 to 2080 along with matching control simulations that use flux adjustments to maintain stable climates. For the period 1921 to 2000, the model is forced by observed changes in both anthropogenic and natural climate forcing factors, including changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols, and changes in solar irradiance and volcanic aerosols. For the period 2001 to 2080, the model is forced by a range of future solar and volcanic forcing scenarios as well as projected changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols according to the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario, a mid-range scenario. Model physics

  11. Surface wave tomography of North America and the Caribbean using global and regional broad-band networks: Phase velocity maps and limitations of ray theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godey, S.; Snieder, R.; Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We present phase velocity maps of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves across the North American and Caribbean plates. Our data set consists of 1846 waveforms from 172 events recorded at 91 broad-band stations operating in North America. We compute phase velocity maps in four narrow period bands between 50 and 150 s using a non-linear waveform inversion method that solves for phase velocity perturbations relative to a reference Earth model (PREM). Our results show a strong velocity contrast between high velocities beneath the stable North American craton, and lower velocities in the tectonically active western margin, in agreement with other regional and global surface wave tomography studies. We perform detailed comparisons with global model results, which display good agreement between phase velocity maps in the location and amplitude of the anomalies. However, forward modelling shows that regional maps are more accurate for predicting waveforms. In addition, at long periods, the amplitude of the velocity anomalies imaged in our regional phase velocity maps is three time larger than in global phase velocity models. This amplitude factor is necessary to explain the data accurately, showing that regional models provide a better image of velocity structures. Synthetic tests show that the raypath coverage used in this study enables one to resolve velocity features of the order of 800-1000 km. However, only larger length-scale features are observed in the phase velocity maps. The limitation in resolution of our maps can be attributed to the wave propagation theory used in the inversion. Ray theory does not account for off-great-circle ray propagation effects, such as ray bending or scattering. For wavelengths less than 1000 km, scattering effects are significant and may need to be considered.

  12. The Impact of Human Activities in Africa, the North and South Pole Regions on Global Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    As a result of the rapid increase in the petroleum exploration, Industrial, deforestation and other human activities going on within or around the Arctic and Antarctica ice caps near or in the temperate region countries like Canada, Greenland, Russia, U.S.A (Alaska), Iceland, Finland, Argentina, Tasmania and New Zealand among many others plus the increase in deforestation activities in Tropical world countries like the Amazon of Brazil, The Tropical Rain forest of Nigeria, Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), Cotedvoire, Indonesia etc. in addition to the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts encouragement as a result of human factors plus the uncontrolled disposals of broken Refrigerators, Air conditioners and propellants containing chlorofluorocarbon substances capable of destroying the Ozone layer in African refuse dumps (B.Abubkar,2006) are collectively becoming a threat to the world climate. This explains why the volume of the Ocean keeps on rising, global temperature keeps ascending and the global climate is becoming abnormal since the beginning of the above mentioned activities in the above mentioned locations. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed suggestions/recommendations: 1. The temperature region countries like Canada, Russia, U.S.A, Argentina etc. should come up with polices restricting certain industries with the possibilities of causing environmental hazards from operating near the Ice Caps of the Arctic or Antarctica even in areas which the Ice was frozen thousands of years ago as the case with Greenland. 2. The research and exploration activities going on around or on the Arctic and the Antarctica regions should be carried out with utmost care and concern to the global climate. 3. The deforestation activities going on without control in most of the Tropical World Countries should be monitored by the United Nation's Specialized Agencies on forest and other related international organization in such

  13. The impact of human activities in africa,the north and south pole regions on global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    As a result of the rapid increase in the petroleum exploration, Industrial, deforestation and other human activities going on within or around the Arctic and Antarctica ice caps near or in the temperate region countries like Canada, Greenland, Russia, U.S.A (Alaska), Iceland, Finland, Argentina, Tasmania and New Zealand among many others plus the increase in deforestation activities in Tropical world countries like the Amazon of Brazil, The Tropical Rain forest of Nigeria, Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), Cotedvoire, Indonesia etc. in addition to the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts encouragement as a result of human factors plus the uncontrolled disposals of broken Refrigerators, Air conditioners and propellants containing chlorofluorocarbon substances capable of destroying the Ozone layer in African refuse dumps (B.Abubkar,2006) are collectively becoming a threat to the world climate. This explains why the volume of the Ocean keeps on rising, global temperature keeps ascending and the global climate is becoming abnormal since the beginning of the above mentioned activities in the above mentioned locations. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed suggestions/recommendations: 1. The temperature region countries like Canada, Russia, U.S.A, Argentina etc. should come up with polices restricting certain industries with the possibilities of causing environmental hazards from operating near the Ice Caps of the Arctic or Antarctica even in areas which the Ice was frozen thousands of years ago as the case with Greenland. 2. The research and exploration activities going on around or on the Arctic and the Antarctica regions should be carried out with utmost care and concern to the global climate. 3. The deforestation activities going on without control in most of the Tropical World Countries should be monitored by the United Nation's Specialized Agencies on forest and other related international organization in such

  14. Evaluation of Space-Based Constraints on Global Nitrogen Oxide Emissions with Regional Aircraft Measurements over and Downwind of Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Chance, Kelly; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Flocke, Frank M.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Neuman, J. Andy; Swanson, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).

  15. Evaluation of Space-Based Constraints on Global Nitrogen Oxide Emissions with Regional Aircraft Measurements over and Downwind of Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Chance, Kelly; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Flocke, Frank M.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Neuman, J. Andy; Swanson, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).

  16. Analysis of the present and future winter Pacific-North American teleconnection in the ECHAM5 global and RegCM3 regional climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allan, Andrea M.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NCEP) and the MPI/ECHAM5 general circulation model to drive the RegCM3 regional climate model to assess the ability of the models to reproduce the spatiotemporal aspects of the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) pattern. Composite anomalies of the NCEP-driven RegCM3 simulations for 1982–2000 indicate that the regional model is capable of accurately simulating the key features (500-hPa heights, surface temperature, and precipitation) of the positive and negative phases of the PNA with little loss of information in the downscaling process. The basic structure of the PNA is captured in both the ECHAM5 global and ECHAM5-driven RegCM3 simulations. The 1950–2000 ECHAM5 simulation displays similar temporal and spatial variability in the PNA index as that of NCEP; however, the magnitudes of the positive and negative phases are weaker than those of NCEP. The RegCM3 simulations clearly differentiate the climatology and associated anomalies of snow water equivalent and soil moisture of the positive and negative PNA phases. In the RegCM3 simulations of the future (2050–2100), changes in the location and extent of the Aleutian low and the continental high over North America alter the dominant flow patterns associated with positive and negative PNA modes. The future projections display a shift in the patterns of the relationship between the PNA and surface climate variables, which suggest the potential for changes in the PNA-related surface hydrology of North America.

  17. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  18. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M; Pettersson, Lasse H

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs and (90)Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of (90)Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface (90)Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface (90)Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the (90)Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO(2)). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Modeling the Local Ecological Response to Regional Landscape and Global Change Forcings: A Case Study of Bioenergy in North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terando, A. J.; Costanza, J. K.; Tarr, N. M.; Apt, R.; Rubino, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable energy policies in Europe have led to a growing market for bioenergy, and especially wood pellets, as a means to reduce fossil fuel emissions and the attendant socio-environmental consequences from climate change. However the introduction of this market has the potential to create significant negative ecological impacts whose costs are borne far from Europe. Because of its existing forest products infrastructure and resources, the Southeast US is viewed as an attractive supplier of wood pellets to Europe. Consequently, a new global telecoupling has developed between these two regions linking the natural capital of one region to the energy needs and greenhouse gas abatement policy of the other. Additionally, habitat for many important wildlife species in the Southeast lie within a rapidly urbanizing region characterized by low-density auto-dependent growth. Combined, these two forcings have the potential to rapidly degrade species-rich ecosystems. Here the ecological effects of increased European demand for wood pellets are examined in North Carolina. Future land use and vegetation change were projected using the results from linked urbanization, vegetation dynamics, life cycle analysis, and forest timber economics models. Ecological impacts as measured for 16 amphibian and avian species were evaluated under five bioenergy production scenarios and one urbanization-only scenario. Results indicate that highly vagile or upland species are able to take advantage of the increase in vegetated land cover, even if the majority of new habitat is in intensively managed forests. Conversely, more sessile and range-limited species, particularly those found in coastal plain systems such as bottomland hardwood forest, show steeper declines under the wood pellet scenarios than under the urbanization-only scenario. These results highlight the challenge of evaluating the sustainability of developing markets that seek to mitigate certain aspects of global environmental

  20. Severe weather during the North American monsoon and its response to rapid urbanization and a changing global climate within the context of high resolution regional atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Thang Manh

    The North American monsoon (NAM) is the principal driver of summer severe weather in the Southwest U.S. With sufficient atmospheric instability and moisture, monsoon convection initiates during daytime in the mountains and later may organize, principally into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Most monsoon-related severe weather occurs in association with organized convection, including microbursts, dust storms, flash flooding and lightning. The overarching theme of this dissertation research is to investigate simulation of monsoon severe weather due to organized convection within the use of regional atmospheric modeling. A commonly used cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified to better account for dynamic pressure effects, resulting in an improved representation of a simulated MCS during the North American monsoon experiment and the climatology of warm season precipitation in a long-term regional climate model simulation. The effect of urbanization on organized convection occurring in Phoenix is evaluated in model sensitivity experiments using an urban canopy model (UCM) and urban land cover compared to pre-settlement natural desert land cover. The presence of vegetation and irrigation makes Phoenix a "heat sink" in comparison to its surrounding desert, and as a result the modeled precipitation in response to urbanization decreases within the Phoenix urban area and increase on its periphery. Finally, analysis of how monsoon severe weather is changing in association with observed global climate change is considered within the context of a series of retrospectively simulated severe weather events during the period 1948-2010 in a numerical weather prediction paradigm. The individual severe weather events are identified by favorable thermodynamic conditions of instability and atmospheric moisture (precipitable water). Changes in precipitation extremes are evaluated with extreme value statistics. During the last several decades, there has been

  1. Global and regional air quality responses to regional CO reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Adelman, Z.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence global and regional air quality and climate through changes in the tropospheric concentrations of O3, methane (CH4), and aerosols. Here we examine the influence of regional carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on air quality by simulating 50% reductions in anthropogenic CO emissions from 10 world regions (Australia/New Zealand, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Southern Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Former Soviet Union, Europe, South America, and North America), using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. The IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emissions inventory for 2005 and global meteorology from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) for 2004-2005 are used as inputs to MOZART-4, run at 1.9 x 2.5 degree horizontal resolution. Base case global air quality is first simulated for the year 2005, and the resulting distributions of tropospheric O3 and related species are compared with observations. Then CO emission reductions from each of the 10 regions are simulated individually. We quantify global and regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 at the surface and within the troposphere, including the influence of each regional reduction on long-term O3 concentrations via CH4 and the long-range transport of O3 and CO. This analysis shows the sensitivity of global and regional air quality to anthropogenic CO emissions from many world regions, in contrast to previous studies of only a few regions. Beyond this study, these simulations will be used to estimate the net radiative forcing due to CO emission reductions from these world regions.

  2. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  3. Regional desertification: A global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldén, Ulf; Tottrup, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results on the use of NOAA AVHRR data for desertification monitoring on a regional-global level. It is based on processing of the GIMMS 8 km global NDVI data set. Time series of annually integrated and standardized annual NDVI anomalies were generated and compared with a corresponding rainfall data set (1981-2003). The regions studied include the Mediterranean basin, the Sahel from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, major parts of the drylands of Southern Africa, China-Mongolia and the drylands of South America, i.e. important parts of the desertification prone drylands of the world. It is concluded that the suggested methodology is a robust and reliable way to assess and monitor vegetation trends and related desertification on a regional-global scale. A strong general relationship between NDVI and rainfall over time is demonstrated for considerable parts of the drylands. The results of performed trend analysis cannot be used to verify any systematic generic land degradation/desertification trend at the regional-global level. On the contrary, a "greening-up" seems to be evident over large regions.

  4. North American Grasslands & Biogeographic Regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American grasslands are the product of a long interaction among land, people, and animals. Covering over one billion hectares across Canada, the United States, and Mexico, a defining trait of the realm is its vast surface area. From subtropical grasslands interspersed with wetlands in the sout...

  5. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  6. Earthquake Activity in the North Greenland Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2017-04-01

    Many local and regional earthquakes are recorded on a daily basis in northern Greenland. The majority of the earthquakes originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. Particularly active regions away from the plate boundary are found in NE Greenland and in northern Baffin Bay. The seismograph coverage in the region is sparse with the main seismograph stations located at the military outpost, Stations Nord (NOR), the weather station outpost Danmarkshavn (DAG), Thule Airbase (TULEG), and the former ice core drilling camp (NEEM) in the middle of the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, data is available from Alert (ALE), Resolute (RES), and other seismographs in northern Canada as well as from a temporary deployment of BroadBand seismographs along the north coast of Greenland from 2004 to 2007. The recorded earthquakes range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event, the largest in NE Greenland, and a 5.7 event, the largest recorded in northern Baffin Bay. The larger events are recorded widely in the region allowing for focal mechanisms to be calculated. Only a few existing focal mechanisms for the region can be found in the ISC bulletin. Two in NE Greenland representing primarily normal faulting and one in Baffin Bay resulting from reverse faulting. New calculations of focal mechanisms for the region will be presented as well as improved hypocenters resulting from analysis involving temporary stations and regional stations that are not included in routine processing.

  7. Response of sulfate concentration and isotope composition in Icelandic rivers to the decline in global atmospheric SO{sub 2} emissions into the North Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdur Reynir Gislason; Peter Torssander

    2006-02-01

    This study presents the changes in dissolved sulfate concentration and isotope composition of Icelandic river waters between the peak of SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States and Europe and the present. Chloride concentration in Icelandic rivers has not changed much since 1972. The overall average change from 1972-1973 to 1996-2004 was -3%, indicating insignificant sea-salt contribution changes. More than 99% of the river-dissolved sulfur was in the form of sulfate. There are three main sources for dissolved sulfate in the rivers: rocks, sea-salts, and anthropogenic. Total dissolved sulfate, {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and non-sea-salt sulfate, {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, decreased in all of the rivers from the early 1970s to 1996-2004. The percentage decrease varies from 13% to 65%. The decrease is smallest in rivers were there is considerable rock-derived dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The overall average decrease was 39% for {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and 46% for {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The anthropogenic sulfate fraction has declined making most of the river waters {delta}{sup 34}S values of sulfate higher through time. The overall decline in river sulfate and increase in {delta}{sup 34}S, while SO{sub 2} emissions from Iceland has been increasing, demonstrates the response of river chemistry in the remote North Atlantic to the decline in man-made emissions of SO{sub 2} in North America and Europe. 43 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Global and regional kinematics with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The inherent precision of the doubly differenced phase measurement and the low cost of instrumentation made GPS the space geodetic technique of choice for regional surveys as soon as the constellation reached acceptable geometry in the area of interest: 1985 in western North America, the early 1990's in most of the world. Instrument and site-related errors for horizontal positioning are usually less than 3 mm, so that the dominant source of error is uncertainty in the reference frame defined by the satellites orbits and the tracking stations used to determine them. Prior to about 1992, when the tracking network for most experiments was globally sparse, the number of fiducial sites or the level at which they could be tied to an SLR or VLBI reference frame usually, set the accuracy limit. Recently, with a global network of over 30 stations, the limit is set more often by deficiencies in models for non-gravitational forces acting on the satellites. For regional networks in the northern hemisphere, reference frame errors are currently about 3 parts per billion (ppb) in horizontal position, allowing centimeter-level accuracies over intercontinental distances and less than 1 mm for a 100 km baseline. The accuracy of GPS measurements for monitoring height variations is generally 2-3 times worse than for horizontal motions. As for VLBI, the primary source of error is unmodeled fluctuations in atmospheric water vapor, but both reference frame uncertainties and some instrument errors are more serious for vertical than horizontal measurements. Under good conditions, daily repeatabilities at the level of 10 mm rms were achieved. This paper will summarize the current accuracy of GPS measurements and their implication for the use of SLR to study regional kinematics.

  9. The midlatitude North American background aerosol and global aerosol variation.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Blanchard, Charles L

    2005-11-01

    Protocols for the particulate matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and the Regional Haze Rule (RHR) give two complementary definitions for "natural" background airborne particle concentrations in the United States. The definition for the NAAQS derives largely from reported annual averages, whereas the definition for the RHR takes into account the frequency of occurrence of a range of visibility conditions estimated using fine particle composition. These definitions are simple, static representations of background or "unmanageable" aerosol conditions in the United States. An accumulation of data from rural-remote sites representing global conditions indicates that the airborne particle concentrations are highly variable. Observational campaigns show weather-related variations, including incidents of regional or intercontinental transport of pollution that influence background aerosol levels over midlatitude North America. Defining a background in North America based on long-term observations relies mainly on the remote-rural IMPROVE network in the United States, with a few additional measurements from Canada. Examination of the frequency of occurrence of mass concentrations and particle components provides insight not only about annual median conditions but also the variability of apparent background conditions. The results of this analysis suggest that a more elaborate approach to defining an unmanageable background could improve the present approach taken for information input into the U.S. regulatory process. An approach interpreting the continental gradients in fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations and composition may be warranted.

  10. Global Boreal Forest Mapping with JERS-1: North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Cynthia L.; McDonald, Kyle; Chapman, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative effort is underway to map boreal forests worldwide using L-band, single polarization Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the Japanese Earth Resources (JERS-1) satellite. Final products of the North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project will include two continental scale radar mosaics and supplementary multitemporal mosaics for Alaska, central Canada, and eastern Canada. For selected sites, we are also producing local scale (100 km x 100 km) and regional scale maps (1000 km x 1000 km). As with the nearly completed Amazon component of the Global Rain Forest Mapping project, SAR imagery, radar image mosaics and SAR-derived texture image products will be available to the scientific community on the World Wide Web. Image acquisition for this project has been completed and processing and image interpretation is underway at the Alaska SAR Facility.

  11. Waveform Tomography of the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Nicolas Luca; Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Gaina, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The enormous volumes of newly available, broadband seismic data and the continuing development of waveform tomography techniques present us with an opportunity to resolve the structure of North Atlantic at a new level of detail. Dynamics of the North Atlantic Ridge and the Iceland Hotspot, evolution of the passive margins on both sides of the ocean, and the nature of the upper-mantle flow beneath the region are some of the important fundamental problems that we can make progress on using new, more detailed and accurate models of seismic structure and anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We assemble a very large waveform dataset including all publicly available data in the region, from both permanent and temporary seismic networks and experiments conducted in Northern and Western Europe, Iceland, Canada, USA, Greenland and Russia. The tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations with respect to a 3D reference velocity model within an approximate sensitivity region between the source and the receiver. The equations are then combined into a large linear system and jointly inverted for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds reflect the temperature and composition at depth, offering important new information on both regional- and basin-scale lithospheric structure and evolution. Azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region, which can be interpreted together with other evidence from geological and geophysical data and recent plate kinematic models.

  12. North American Regional Reanalysis: Evaluation Highlights and Early Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.; Dimego, G.; Kalnay, E.; Shafran, P.; Ebisuzaki, W.; Jovic, D.; Mitchell, K.; Berbery, H.; Fan, Y.; Higgins, W.; Lin, Y.; Shi, W.

    2005-05-01

    Following an about a 6-year development and production effort, the NCEP 25-year (1979-2003) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) has been completed. It is continued in near-real time as a Regional Climate Data Assimilation System, R-CDAS. Done for a domain including all of the North American continent and considerable parts of the adjacent oceans, with a 32 km/ 45 layers resolution, the NARR has resulted in a consistent high resolution climate dataset suitable for numerous applications. As aimed for, comparisons against the available NCEP/NCAR Global Reanalysis (GR) show that its accuracy is generally considerably higher than that of the GR. This is demonstrated by looking at rms fits to rawinsonde observations (raobs), as well as fits to surface data. Assimilation of analyzed precipitation resulted in precipitation fields that to a very high degree replicate the analyzed fields, a feature boding well when it comes to land-surface and hydrology applications. Several lessons that should be useful in planning future reanalyses are mentioned. Early usage of the NARR datasets as reported on at the recent NARR Users Workshop, San Diego, CA, is summarized. It includes additional validation work, uses for water and energy budget assessments in relation to predictability and climate variability issues, efforts at identification of useful severe weather predictors, North American monsoon studies, use for driving regional climate simulations, and more.

  13. Hunting poisons of the North Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G

    1976-01-01

    The hunting poisons of the North Pacific region are discussed. The most important one used by the Ainu was based on Aconitum species (surku or suruku): on Hokkaido, to some extent A. japonicum Thumb. but probably mainly A. yezoense Nakai and A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; on southern Sakhalin, perhaps A. fischeri Reichb., A. maximum Pall. ex DC., and/or A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; and on the Kuril Islands, A. maximum Pall. ex DC. Poison from the Japanese stingray Dasyatis akajei (Müller et Henle) (aikor chiep) was also much used, alone or mixed with aconite, and was believed by some Ainu to be better than aconite. Adjuvants to these poisons were numerous and varied in each locality. Daphne kamtschatica Maxim. var. yezoensis (Maxim.) Ohwi (ketuhas) was used in hunting walrus. The use of Cynanchum caudatum (Miq.) Maxim. (penup) enabled birds to be caught. Juglans ailanthifolia Carr (nesko) was a fish poison. A critical evaluation of the accounts by Krasheninnikov, Steller, Harms, and others, indicates that the inhibitants of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kamchadal (Itelmen), hunted with a poison derived from Aconitum maximum Pall. ex DC. This same species was almost certainly used in the Aleutian Islands and the Kodiak Island region, principally for hunting whales. There is some evidence that the inhabitants of the far north-eastern part of Siberia and of the Alaskan coasts opposite may also have used poison in hunting. The chemistry and toxicology of the poisons are briefly considered.

  14. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  15. Regional influences on reconstructed global mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarov, Svetlana I.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Becker, Janet M.; Thompson, Phillip R.

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructions of global mean sea level (GMSL) based on tide gauge measurements tend to exhibit common multidecadal rate fluctuations over the twentieth century. GMSL rate changes may result from physical drivers, such as changes in radiative forcing or land water storage. Alternatively, these fluctuations may represent artifacts due to sampling limitations inherent in the historical tide gauge network. In particular, a high percentage of tide gauges used in reconstructions, especially prior to the 1950s, are from Europe and North America in the North Atlantic region. Here a GMSL reconstruction based on the reduced space optimal interpolation algorithm is deconstructed, with the contributions of individual tide gauge stations quantified and assessed regionally. It is demonstrated that the North Atlantic region has a disproportionate influence on reconstructed GMSL rate fluctuations prior to the 1950s, notably accounting for a rate minimum in the 1920s and contributing to a rate maximum in the 1950s. North Atlantic coastal sea level fluctuations related to wind-driven ocean volume redistribution likely contribute to these estimated GMSL rate inflections. The findings support previous claims that multidecadal rate changes in GMSL reconstructions are likely related to the geographic distribution of tide gauge stations within a sparse global network.

  16. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  17. Mars at Ls 176o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurred in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season : Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  18. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Attribution of the Regional Patterns of North American Climate Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M.; Kumar, A.; Karoly, D.; Rind, D.; Hegerl, G.; Eischeid, J.

    2007-12-01

    North American trends in surface temperature and precipitation during 1951-2006 exhibit large spatial and seasonal variations. We seek to explain these by synthesizing new information based on existing model simulations of climate and its forcing, and based on modern reanalyses that describe past and current conditions within the free atmosphere. The presentation focuses on current capabilities to explain the spatial variations and seasonal differences in North American climate trends. It will address whether various heterogeneities in space and time can be accounted for by the climate system's sensitivity to time evolving anthropogenic forcing, and examines the influences of non-anthropogenic processes. New findings are presented that indicate anthropogenic forcing alone was unlikely the cause for key regional and seasonal patterns of change, including the absence of summertime warming over the Great Plains of the United States, and the absence of warming during both winter and summer over the southern United States. Key regional features are instead attributed to trends in the principal patterns of atmospheric flow that affect North American climate. It is demonstrated that observed variations in global sea surface temperatures have significantly influenced these patterns of atmospheric flow.

  20. Lessons learned from North Carolina public health regional surveillance teams' regional exercises.

    PubMed

    Hegle, Jennifer; Markiewicz, Milissa; Benson, Philip; Horney, Jennifer; Rosselli, Richard; MacDonald, Pia

    2011-03-01

    All-hazards exercises bring together emergency response partners at the local, regional, state, and federal levels for the primary purposes of testing response plans, defining roles and responsibilities, assessing capabilities, and making necessary improvements prior to an actual incident. To better understand the benefits and challenges of conducting regional (ie, multicounty) exercises, a study was carried out by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. This article describes 5 all-hazards regional exercises conducted by Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) in North Carolina in 2009 and highlights 4 unique benefits that resulted from the exercises beyond meeting explicit objectives to test plans and identify areas for improvement: (1) building relationships among response partners, (2) promoting public health assets, (3) testing multiple communications systems, and (4) training exercise evaluators. Challenges of planning and conducting regional exercises also are addressed, followed by recommendations for maximizing the effectiveness of regional public health exercises.

  1. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  2. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  3. Hydroclimatic trends in simulations over the CORDEX North America region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond; Groisman, Pavel; Daniel, Ariele; Schillerberg, Tayler

    2015-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of heavy precipitation has been one of the most pronounced climate change signals for the central United States. We study this trend by using the RegCM4 regional climate model to dynamically downscale CMIP5 global projections for 1950-2099 over the CORDEX North America domain. We examine the robustness of the results by driving the regional model with two different global models, by performing simulations at both 50 km and 25 km grid spacing, and by using different convective parameterizations in RegCM4. The global models sample the range of climate sensitivity in CMIP5: HadGEM2-ES has the highest equilibrium climate sensitivity of the CMIP5 models, while GFDL-ESM2M has one of the lowest sensitivities. RegCM4 results show increases in heavy precipitation (> 50 mm/day) over the central United States for the period 1951-2005 similar to observed trends. This trend is predicted to accelerate so that by the end of the 21st century incidence of heavy precipitation increases by a factor of 2 to 3. The trend is robust in that it is produced regardless of the driving global model or the configuration of the regional model. Results also show a modest increase in the number of dry days and a marked increase in the number of long runs of dry days (16 or more consecutive dry days). The combination of heavier events and longer runs of dry days has implications for sectors such as agriculture and water quality. This research was sponsored by USDA NIFA under the Earth System Modeling program and as part of a regional collaborative project.

  4. Regional Shoreline Change Along the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Erikson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change impacts to the north coast of Alaska threaten sensitive ecosystems, critical energy-related infrastructure, native Alaskan housing and traditional lifestyles, trust species and their habitats, and large tracts of Federally-managed land. Although there are several site-specific and limited regional studies documenting coastal change along the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts, no comprehensive study has documented coastal change or evaluated its causes on a regional scale. As part of a National Assessment of Shoreline Change study along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating shoreline changes along the north slope coast of Alaska between Peard Bay and the Canadian border. Rates of change will be calculated for both the mainland and barrier island coasts using shorelines derived from circa 1947 and 1987 NOS T-sheets and from orthorectified photography and/or satellite imagery collected between 2000 and 2007. Here we present results from the first phase of the study, Colville River to Pt. Thomson, for three time periods (1947, 1987, 2004-7). In contrast to previous independent studies, which have documented localized erosion rates of up to 16 m/yr along portions of Alaska's north slope, results from this study show that on a regional scale, shoreline erosion rates along the mainland coast are typically less than 2 m/yr. The offshore barrier islands, however, are highly dynamic and show high rates of localized shoreline retreat along with a regionally consistent decrease in overall land area and associated rotation and migration to the southwest since the 1940s. As part of this study, continued data collection, analysis, and numerical and analytical modeling of the coast and nearshore environments will provide much needed data sets from which to evaluate future changes along this stretch of coast in response to sea-level rise, variability in the Arctic summer sea-ice extent, increased storminess, and other

  5. Canadian forest products shipped into the north-central region.

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1972-01-01

    Documents the imports of Canadian forest products into the north central region and relates import trends to the potential for expanding markets for the region's surplus volume of hardwood growing stock. More than 42% of the $2.1 billion of forest products imported from Canada in 1969 came into the north central region. The value of forest imports has increased...

  6. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  7. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  8. [Spatial Distribution and Global Potential Suitability Regions of Artemisia annua].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Li, Hui; Zeng, Fan-lin; Xie, Cai-xiang

    2015-03-01

    To study the spatial distribution and potential climatic suitability regions of Artemisia annua around the world. The spatial distribution and climatic characteristics were researched by factor analysis based on Global Biodiversity Information Facility Database and World Climate Database. The global potential suitability regions of Artemisia annua were analyzed by ArcGIS. Artemisia annua distributed in three longitude zones, including 90. 55 °W - 77. 14 °W, 2. 03 °E - 11. 75 °E and 98. 27 °E - 111. 05 °E,which were respectively in North America, Europe and Asia. The latitude range was mainly 29. 15 °N - 51. 36 ° N. 80% of Artemisia annua were in the regions which elevation range was 22. 00 - 491. 00 m, annual precipitation was 492. 30 ~ 1 366. 70 mm, annual average temperature was from 8. 10 to 17. 27 °C. The potential suitability regions of Artemisia annua with 95% ~ 100% climate similarity were mainly in 30 °S and 30 °N regions, centered around the equator axis. Conclusion: Latitude is closely related to the distribution of Artemisia annua, the key affecting climatic factors are annual precipitation, the wettest season precipitation, the warmest season precipitation and the highest temperature in the warmest month, the average temperature of the warmest season, as well as the average temperature of the wettest season. The potential suitability regions of Artemnisia annua are in eastern North America, western Europe and eastern Asia.

  9. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    Lunar mosaic of ~1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00002

  10. Winter in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a wintertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. Much of the hydrogen is hidden at this time beneath a layer of carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Summer in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a summertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. In some areas, the abundance of water ice is estimated to be up to 90 percent by volume. A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Subsurface low pH and carbonate saturation state of aragonite on China side of the North Yellow Sea: combined effects of global atmospheric CO2 increase, regional environmental changes, and local biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, W.-D.; Zheng, N.; Huo, C.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, H.-D.; Li, Y.-W.; Zang, K.-P.; Wang, J.-Y.; Xu, X.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Based upon seven field surveys conducted between May 2011 and January 2012, we investigated pH, carbonate saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), and ancillary parameters on the Chinese side of the North Yellow Sea, a western North Pacific continental margin of major economic importance. Subsurface waters were nearly in equilibrium with air in May and June. From July to October, the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) of bottom water gradually increased to 697 ± 103 μatm and pH decreased to 7.83 ± 0.07 due to respiration/remineralization processes of primary production induced biogenic particles. In November and January, bottom water fCO2 decreased and pH gradually returned to an air-equilibrated level due to cooling enhanced vertical mixing. The corresponding bottom water Ωarag was 1.74 ± 0.17 (May), 1.77 ± 0.26 (June), 1.70 ± 0.26 (July), 1.72 ± 0.33 (August), 1.32 ± 0.31 (October), 1.50 ± 0.28 (November), and 1.41 ± 0.12 (January). Critically low Ωarag values of 1.0 to 1.2 were mainly observed in subsurface waters in a salinity range of 31.5-32.5 psu in October and November, accounting for ~ 10% of the North Yellow Sea area. Water mass derived from the adjacent Bohai Sea had a typical water salinity of 30.5-31.5 psu, and bottom water Ωarag values ranged mostly between 1.6 and 2.4. This study showed that the carbonate system in the North Yellow Sea was substantially influenced by global atmospheric CO2 increase. The community respiration/remineralization rates in typical North Yellow Sea bottom water mass were estimated at 0.55-1.0 μmol O2 kg-1 d-1 in warm seasons, leading to seasonal drops in subsurface pH and Ωarag. Outflow of the Bohai Sea water mass counteracted the subsurface Ωarag reduction in the North Yellow Sea.

  13. Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere - Global and regional budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The cycle of nitrogen oxides in the troposphere is discussed from both global and regional perspectives. Global sources for NO(x) are estimated to be of magnitude 50 (+ or - 25) x 10 to the 12th gm N/yr. Nitrogen oxides are derived from combustion of fossil fuels (40 percent) and biomass burning (25 percent) with the balance from lightning and microbial activity in soils. Estimates for the rate of removal of NOx based on recent atmospheric and precipitation chemistry data are consistent with global source strengths derived here. Industrial and agricultural activities provide approximately two thirds of the global source for NOx. In North America, sources from combustion of fossil fuels exceed natural sources by a factor of 3-13. Wet deposition removes about one third of the combustion source of NOx over North America, while dry deposition removes a similar amount. The balance is exported from the continent. Deposition of nitrate in precipitation over eastern Canada and the western Atlantic is clearly influenced by sources of NOx in the eastern United States.

  14. Global change information support: A north-south coalition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1993-01-01

    On a daily basis we become more aware that our planet, earth, exists in a delicate balance; we, its inhabitants, must be informed caretakers. Global change communities have emerged around the globe to address this multidisciplinary subject. Information systems that integrate text, bibliographic, numeric and visual data are needed to support these global change communities. No one information center can hope to collect all the relevant data. Rather, we must form a coalition, North and South, to collect and provide access to disparate, multidisciplinary sources of information, and to develop standardized tools for documenting and manipulating this data and information. International resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us towards this goal. This paper looks at emerging information technologies that can be utilized to build such a system, and outlines some cooperative North/South strategies.

  15. Global change information support - A north/south coalition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1993-01-01

    On a daily basis we become more aware that our planet, earth, exists in a delicate balance; we, its inhabitants, must be informed caretakers. Global change communities have emerged around the globe to address this multidisciplinary subject. Information systems that integrate text, bibliographic, numeric and visual data are needed to support these global change communities. No one information center can hope to collect all the relevant data. Rather, we must form a coalition, North and South, to collect and provide access to disparate, multidisciplinary sources of information, and to develop standardized tools for documenting and manipulating this data and information. International resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us towards this goal. This paper looks at emerging information technologies that can be utilized to build such a system, and outlines some cooperative North/South strategies.

  16. Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Mills, M. J.; Stenke, A.; Helfand, I.

    2014-12-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using 100 15-kt atomic bombs, could inject 5 Tg of soot into the upper troposphere from fires started in urban and industrial areas. Simulations by three different general circulation models, GISS ModelE, WACCM, and SOCOL, all agree that global surface temperature would decrease by 1 to 2°C for 5 to 10 years, and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Local summer climate changes over land would be larger. Using the DSSAT crop simulation model forced by these three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 23 Mt (24%), maize production by 41 Mt (23%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (50%). This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Results from simulations in other major grain producing regions produce similar results. Thus a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  17. Estuarine 'collaboratories:' regional and global perspectives (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A. M.; Needoba, J. A.; Davis, M.; Leinen, M.

    2013-12-01

    There is an urgent need to anticipate and manage environmental changes in estuaries, as these critical ecosystems provide services that are essential for regional and global sustainability. Collaboratively designed and operated estuarine observation and prediction systems are progressively enabling long-term and high-resolution characterizations of estuarine variability and function, thus providing a powerful foundation for stewardship activities. The benefits of these 'collaboratories' have been demonstrated regionally in various estuaries, and their broader scale potential is being explored through an emerging national and international initiative. The first part of this presentation will address the lessons learned from SATURN (http://www.stccmop.org), a mature multi-institutional 'collaboratory' for the Columbia River estuary. SATURN innovatively integrates sensors, models, flows of information, and communities of practice. This integration has fueled advances in understanding and prediction of the estuary as a complex and highly variable bioreactor, subject to shifts from global climate change and from evolving regional uses. Our focus will be on describing the aspects of the design and practice that make SATURN transformative as a scientific and management-support tool at a regional scale. The second part of the presentation will address the translation of lessons learned from and beyond SATURN into requirements for a global network of estuarine observation and prediction systems. 'Our Global Estuary' is an initiative designed to create and use such a network, to maximize the aggregate potential of estuaries as sentinels and key players in global sustainability. We will report on the main recommendations of the first planning workshop for this initiative, which will take place on October 2013.

  18. Development of a regional model for the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Sengupta, Debasis; Harrison, Matthew J.; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a one-way nested Indian Ocean regional model. The model combines the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM4p1) at global climate model resolution (nominally one degree), and a regional Indian Ocean MOM4p1 configuration with 25 km horizontal resolution and 1 m vertical resolution near the surface. Inter-annual global simulations with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II) surface forcing over years 1992-2005 provide surface boundary conditions. We show that relative to the global simulation, (i) biases in upper ocean temperature, salinity and mixed layer depth are reduced, (ii) sea surface height and upper ocean circulation are closer to observations, and (iii) improvements in model simulation can be attributed to refined resolution, more realistic topography and inclusion of seasonal river runoff. Notably, the surface salinity bias is reduced to less than 0.1 psu over the Bay of Bengal using relatively weak restoring to observations, and the model simulates the strong, shallow halocline often observed in the North Bay of Bengal. There is marked improvement in subsurface salinity and temperature, as well as mixed layer depth in the Bay of Bengal. Major seasonal signatures in observed sea surface height anomaly in the tropical Indian Ocean, including the coastal waveguide around the Indian peninsula, are simulated with great fidelity. The use of realistic topography and seasonal river runoff brings the three dimensional structure of the East India Coastal Current and West India Coastal Current much closer to observations. As a result, the incursion of low salinity Bay of Bengal water into the south-eastern Arabian Sea is more realistic.

  19. On global and regional spectral evaluation of global geopotential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustun, A.; Abbak, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spectral evaluation of global geopotential models (GGMs) is necessary to recognize the behaviour of gravity signal and its error recorded in spherical harmonic coefficients and associated standard deviations. Results put forward in this wise explain the whole contribution of gravity data in different kinds that represent various sections of the gravity spectrum. This method is more informative than accuracy assessment methods, which use external data such as GPS-levelling. Comparative spectral evaluation for more than one model can be performed both in global and local sense using many spectral tools. The number of GGMs has grown with the increasing number of data collected by the dedicated satellite gravity missions, CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE. This fact makes it necessary to measure the differences between models and to monitor the improvements in the gravity field recovery. In this paper, some of the satellite-only and combined models are examined in different scales, globally and regionally, in order to observe the advances in the modelling of GGMs and their strengths at various expansion degrees for geodetic and geophysical applications. The validation of the published errors of model coefficients is a part of this evaluation. All spectral tools explicitly reveal the superiority of the GRACE-based models when compared against the models that comprise the conventional satellite tracking data. The disagreement between models is large in local/regional areas if data sets are different, as seen from the example of the Turkish territory.

  20. Polar Low genesis over the North Pacific under different global warming scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; von Storch, Hans; Zeng, Lili; Du, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Following an earlier climatological study of North Pacific Polar Lows by employing dynamical downscaling of NCEP1 reanalysis in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, the characteristics of Polar Low genesis over the North Pacific under different global warming scenarios are investigated. Simulations based on three scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios were conducted using a global climate model (ECHAM5) and used to examine systematic changes in the occurrence of Polar Lows over the twenty first century. The results show that with more greenhouse gas emissions, global air temperature would rise, and the frequency of Polar Lows would decrease. With sea ice melting, the distribution of Polar Low genesis shows a northward shift. In the scenarios with stronger warming there is a larger reduction in the number of Polar Lows.

  1. Global and regional kinematics with VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    1994-01-01

    Since a VLBI station cannot operate in isolation and since simultaneous operation of the entire VLBI network is impractical, it is necessary to design observing programs with periodic observing sessions using networks of 3-7 stations that, when treated together, will have the necessary interstation data and network overlaps to determine the desired rates of change. Thus, there has been a mix of global, intercontinental, transcontinental, and regional networks to make measurements ranging from plate motions to deformation over a few hundred km. Over time, even networks focusing on regional deformation using mobile VLBI included large stations removed by several thousand km to increase sensitivity, determine EOP more accurately, and provide better ties to the terrestrial reference frame (TRF). Analysis products have also evolved, beginning with baseline components, and then to full three-dimensional site velocities in a global TRF.

  2. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales. The Task Force describes and prescribes solutions for policy gaps that have emerged since the inception of NAFTA...prevent competing coalitions from forming, it may be prudent to build a coalition in our own back yard, so to speak , through a strategy of North...likely to have conflict over natural resources in the future since they generally follow the rule of law, so to speak , that provides a mechanism to

  3. Surgical morbidity in the North Coast Health Region.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Clarke, Q; Eather, L; Garbutt, M; Leedow, M; Perry, J; Spencer, O; Spillane, P

    1994-06-01

    A comparison of morbidity following 20 selected surgical procedures was conducted in the North Coast Health Region of NSW in 1988. Morbidity rates between procedures, hospitals and hospital levels were compared and the effects of age, gender and the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating on morbidity were examined. The respective perceptions of doctors and patients regarding complications were also compared. The study gives conditional support to the continuation of a surgical programme in Level 3 hospitals in the North Coast Health Region.

  4. Global and Regional Modes of the Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, N.; Lohmann, G.; Lorenz, S.; Felis, T.; Grosfeld, K.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the relation between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) from the perspective of non-stationarity of Atlantic-Pacific atmospheric teleconnections. We detect decadal variations in the correlation of NAO and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices in observational data, proxy data and coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations. During periods when the NAO and Niño3 indices are significantly negative correlated the dominant mode of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation has an annular structure similar to AO (global mode). For these periods NAO can be viewed as a regional manifestation of AO. During periods when NAO and Niño3 indices are not significantly correlated the dominant mode of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation is concentrated in the Atlantic-European region and has a spatial structure similar to NAO (regional mode). During the last century, the global (regional) mode dominates the Northern Hemisphere circulation during the 1930s to 1960s (after the 1970s). The combined analysis of a snow accumulation time series from an ice core from Mount Logan (northwestern Canada) and a coral oxygen isotope time series from Ras Umm Sidd (northern Red Sea) reveals that the global mode dominates the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation also during the 1750s to 1850s. The correlation between NAO and ENSO indices in a millennial-scale climate simulation of the coupled ocean-atmosphere model ECHO-G indicates decadal variations as detected in observed and proxy data. The model shows more frequent occurencies of global-mode regimes relative to regional-mode regimes, showing that a large part of millennial scale variability is related to AO.

  5. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste.

  6. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    The first maps of the thermal properties of the north and south polar region of Mars are presented. The maps complete the mapping of the entire planet. The maps for the north polar region were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations obtained from 10 Jun. to 30 Sep. 1978. This period corresponds to the early summer season in the north, when the north residual water ice cap was exposed, and the polar surface temperatures were near their maximum. The maps in the south were derived from observations obtained between 24 Aug. to 23 Sep. 1977. This period corresponds to the late summer season in the south, when the seasonal polar cap had retreated to close to its residual configuration, and the second global dust storm of 1977 had largely subsided. The major results concerning the following topics are summarized: (1) surface water ice; (2) polar dune material; and (3) dust deposits.

  7. Global geologic mapping of Mars: The western equatorial region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Global geologic mapping of Mars was originally accomplished following acquisition of orbital spacecraft images from the Mariner 9 mission. The mapping program represented a joint enterprise by the U.S. Geological Survey and other planetary scientists from universities in the United States and Europe. Many of the Mariner photographs had low resolution or poor albedo contrast caused by atmospheric haze and high-sun angles. Some of the early geologic maps reflect these deficiencies in their poor discrimination and subdivision of rock units. New geologic maps made from higher resolution and better quality Viking images also represent a cooperative effort, by geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University, and the University of London. This second series of global maps consists of three parts: 1) western equatorial region, 2) eastern equatorial region, and 3) north and south polar regions. These maps, at 1:15 million scale, show more than 60 individual rock-stratigraphic units assigned to three Martian time-stratigraphic systems. The first completed map of the series covers the western equatorial region of Mars. Accompanying the map is a description of the sequence and distribution of major tectonic, volcanic, and fluvial episodes as recorded in the stratigraphic record. ?? 1985.

  8. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  9. Global Contrast Based Salient Region Detection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Ming; Mitra, Niloy J; Huang, Xiaolei; Torr, Philip H S; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-03-01

    Automatic estimation of salient object regions across images, without any prior assumption or knowledge of the contents of the corresponding scenes, enhances many computer vision and computer graphics applications. We introduce a regional contrast based salient object detection algorithm, which simultaneously evaluates global contrast differences and spatial weighted coherence scores. The proposed algorithm is simple, efficient, naturally multi-scale, and produces full-resolution, high-quality saliency maps. These saliency maps are further used to initialize a novel iterative version of GrabCut, namely SaliencyCut, for high quality unsupervised salient object segmentation. We extensively evaluated our algorithm using traditional salient object detection datasets, as well as a more challenging Internet image dataset. Our experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm consistently outperforms 15 existing salient object detection and segmentation methods, yielding higher precision and better recall rates. We also show that our algorithm can be used to efficiently extract salient object masks from Internet images, enabling effective sketch-based image retrieval (SBIR) via simple shape comparisons. Despite such noisy internet images, where the saliency regions are ambiguous, our saliency guided image retrieval achieves a superior retrieval rate compared with state-of-the-art SBIR methods, and additionally provides important target object region information.

  10. Land Cover / Climate Interaction at Global and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover and climate interact at regional and global scales through biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes. Land cover change (LCC) affects regional climate through impacts on surface albedo and surface net radiation, on the partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes, on the atmospheric heating, moisture flux convergence and circulation, and the partitioning of rainfall between evaporation and runoff. Meanwhile, the climate variability and change also affect the LCC. Based on historical anthropogenic land cover change data from 1948-2005, numerical experiments that were designed to test its impact using general circulation models indicate that the LCC enhances the global warming in past half century. This is because after land degradation, reduction of evaporation is dominant, leading to surface warming. The reduction of net radiation due to high surface albedo plays a secondary role. Meanwhile, its impact on the regional monsoon is significant. The produced monsoon rainfall anomaly is not only limited within the land degradation area but extend to much large area through its interaction with the atmospheric circulations. The warming climate and climate variability also affect the vegetation distribution. For instance, with a coupled biophysical and dynamic vegetation model forced by the observed meteorological data, the North America leaf area index (LAI) shows an increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Meanwhile, the effects of the severe drought during 1987-1992 and the last decade in the southwestern U.S. on vegetation are also evident from the simulated and satellite-derived LAIs. The land covers in some parts of North America also show substantial changes. Evaluations of these simulations using satellite data are crucial. The critical issues in applying satellite data for LCC studies are also discussed.

  11. Views from the Global South: exploring how student volunteers from the Global North can achieve sustainable impact in global health.

    PubMed

    Ouma, Brian D O; Dimaras, Helen

    2013-07-26

    The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or 'chaotic' approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student's short-term placement ended. Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student's placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes.

  12. Views from the global south: exploring how student volunteers from the global north can achieve sustainable impact in global health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. Discussion To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or ‘chaotic’ approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student’s short-term placement ended. Summary Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student’s placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes. PMID:23889908

  13. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  14. Sensitivity of northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation to surface and boundary forcing: A regional model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Bianucci, Laura; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation, influenced by both North Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres, is one of the hydrographically most variable regions in the North Atlantic Ocean and hosts biologically rich and productive fishing grounds. With the goal of simulating conditions in this productive and complex region, we implemented a nested regional ocean model for the northwest North Atlantic shelves including the Gulf of Maine, the Scotian Shelf, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Grand Banks, and the adjacent deep ocean. Configuring such a model requires choosing external data to supply surface forcing and initial and boundary conditions, as well as the consideration of nesting options. Although these selections can greatly affect model performance and results, often they are not systematically investigated. Here we assessed the sensitivity of our regional model to a suite of atmospheric forcing datasets, to sets of initial and boundary conditions constructed from multiple global ocean models and a larger scale regional ocean model, and to two variants of the model grid - one extending further off-shelf and resolving Flemish Cap topography. We conducted model simulations for a 6-year period and assessed model performance relative to a regional climatological dataset of temperature and salinity, observations collected from multiple monitoring stations and cruise transect lines, satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data, and descriptions of regional currents from literature. Based on this model assessment, we determined the model configuration that best reproduces observations. We find that while all surface forcing datasets are capable of producing model SST close to observed, the different datasets result in significant differences in model sea surface salinity (SSS). We find that initial and boundary conditions based on global ocean models do not necessary produce realistic circulation, and climatological initial and boundary conditions can

  15. Lessons From the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.; Dimego, G.; Kalnay, E.; Mitchell, K.

    2006-12-01

    The NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) project had a clear foremost objective: to create a long-term, consistent, high resolution climate dataset for the North American domain as a major improvement upon the earlier global reanalyses in both resolution and accuracy. The assessment of the authors of the NARR AMS Bulletin paper was that this objective has been fully met. Precipitation assimilation, the first in a reanalysis project, resulted in precipitation fields very near those of the ingested precipitation analyses, ensuring that over regions with reasonable density of gauge observations, the hydrological cycle is more realistic than if the model was free to forecast precipitation. With respect to fits to data, not only have the near-surface temperatures and winds been shown to be closer to the observations than those of the NCEP/DOE Global Reanalysis (GR2), as one would expect, but very substantial improvements in the accuracy of winds and temperatures throughout the troposphere compared to that of GR2 have been demonstrated as well. In regard to lessons that may benefit future regional reanalysis projects, three questions deserve attention. First, what are the features of the NARR system that are responsible for its success, to the extent their contributions can be assessed. Next, what are the disappointments, including features that were expected to be beneficial but failed to be confirmed as such, and why. And finally, what are the weaknesses that would or should have been addressed had there been more manpower and time to do so. The first two questions have been addressed in the published BAMS paper and will be briefly summarized in the presentation. As to the third question, a number of weaknesses come to mind. For example, the Eta 3DVAR data assimilation system (EDAS), as used in NARR, 1) achieved little or no benefit from assimilating near-surface data, 2) was resulting in considerable gravity-wave activity, and 3) derived no discernible

  16. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  17. Physically Based Global Downscaling: Regional Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.; Fox, Jared

    2006-02-01

    The climate simulated by a global atmosphere/land model with a physically-based subgrid orography scheme is evaluated in ten selected regions. Climate variables simulated for each of multiple elevation classes within each grid cell are mapped according the high-resolution distribution of surface elevation in each region. Comparison of the simulated annual mean climate with gridded observations leads to the following conclusions. At low to moderate elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates increasing precipitation, decreasing temperature, and increasing snow with increasing elevation within regions smaller than 100 km. At high elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates a decrease in precipitation with increasing elevation. Too little precipitation is simulated on the windward side of mountain ranges and too much precipitation is simulated on the lee side. The simulated sensitivity of surface air temperature to surface elevation is too strong, particularly in valleys influenced by drainage circulations. Observations show little evidence of a “snow shadow”, so the neglect of the subgrid rainshadow does not produce an unrealistic simulation of the snow distribution. Summertime snow area, which is a proxy for land ice, is much larger than observed. Summertime snow water equivalent is far less than the observed thickness of glaciers because a 1 m upper bound on snow water is applied to the simulations and because snow transport by slides is neglected. The 1 m upper bound on snow water equivalent also causes an underestimate of seasonal snow water during late winter, compared with gridded station measurements. Potential solutions to these problems are discussed.

  18. Global and Regional Modeling of Long-Range Transport and Intercontinental Source-Receptor Linkages

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compare air quality over North America simulated by the C-IFS global model and the CMAQ regional model driven by boundary conditions from C-IFS against surface and upper air observations. Results indicate substantial differences in model performance for surface ...

  19. Global and Regional Modeling of Long-Range Transport and Intercontinental Source-Receptor Linkages

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compare air quality over North America simulated by the C-IFS global model and the CMAQ regional model driven by boundary conditions from C-IFS against surface and upper air observations. Results indicate substantial differences in model performance for surface ...

  20. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  1. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1970

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1972-01-01

    The 1970 Lake States veneer-log production and mill receipts were 34.4 and 37.0 million board feet, respectively. The Central States produced 23.5 million board feet and received 30.0 million board feet of veneer logs. Veneer-log production and mill receipts dropped substantially throughout the north central region from 1968.

  2. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  3. Forest statistics for the mountain region of North Carolina 1974

    Treesearch

    Noel D. Cost

    1974-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the Mountain Region of North Carolina. The inventory was started in May 1974 and completed in September 1974. Three previous inventories, completed in 1938, 1955, and 1964, provide statistic for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this report, the primary...

  4. Observations in the Kuroshio Extension Region in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Chun; Li, Rui

    2017-04-01

    The Kuroshio extension region has been identified as a key location in the extratropics in the North Pacific. Until recently, there have been quite limited high-resolution observations in the Kuroshio extension region. Here we report the recent observational work and future plan in the Kuroshio extension region. These observations are under the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC), Air-Sea Interaction in the Kuroshio Extension and its Climate Impact (AIKEC) led by the Ocean University of China (OUC) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU), which aims to setup to maintain continuous and sustainable observations in this region.

  5. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Arritt, R.; Biner, S.; Bukovsky, Melissa; McGinnis, Seth; Sain, Steve; Caya, Daniel; Correia Jr., James; Flory, Dave; Gutowski, William; Takle, Gene; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; McDaniel, Larry; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun; Roads, J.; Sloan, Lisa; Snyder, Mark A.

    2012-09-20

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is an international effort designed to systematically investigate the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and produce high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, with a common domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The program also includes an evaluation component (Phase I) wherein the participating RCMs are nested within 25 years of NCEP/DOE global reanalysis II. The grid spacing of the RCM simulations is 50 km.

  6. Diversity of birds in eastern North America shifts north with global warming.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kenneth W; McClure, Christopher J W; Rolek, Brian W; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of diversity along latitudinal and elevation gradients, and the coupling of this phenomenon with climate, is a pattern long recognized in ecology. Hypothesizing that climate change may have altered this pattern over time, we investigated whether the aggregate of reported northward shifts of bird ranges in North America is now detectable in community-level indices such as richness and diversity. Here, we report that bird diversity in North America increased and shifted northward between 1966 and 2010. This change in the relationship of diversity to the latitudinal gradient is primarily influenced by range expansions of species that winter in the eastern United States as opposed to species which migrate to this area from wintering grounds in the tropics. This increase in diversity and its northward expansion is best explained by an increase in regional prebreeding season temperature over the past 44 years.

  7. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra; Keitt, Bradford S; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Jarman, Walter M; Rodriguez-Pastor, Sue; Anderson, David J; Sievert, Paul R; Smith, Donald R

    2006-04-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Pacific are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans.

  8. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Modeling global and regional energy futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethinaraj, T. S. Gopi

    A rigorous econometric calibration of a model of energy consumption is presented using a comprehensive time series database on energy consumption and other socioeconomic indicators. The future of nuclear power in the evolving distribution of various energy sources is also examined. An important consideration for the long-term future of nuclear power concerns the rate of decline of the fraction of energy that comes from coal, which has historically declined on a global basis about linearly as a function of the cumulative use of coal. The use of fluid fossil fuels is also expected to eventually decline as the more readily extractable deposits are depleted. The investigation here is restricted to examining a comparatively simple model of the dynamics of competition between nuclear and other competing energy sources. Using a defined tropical/temperate disaggregation of the world, region-specific modeling results are presented for population growth, GDP growth, energy use, and carbon use compatible with a gradual transition to energy sustainability. Results for the fractions of energy use from various sources by grouping nine commercial primary energy sources into pairs of competing fuel categories are presented in combination with the idea of experiential learning and resource depletion. Analysis based on this division provides estimates for future evolution of the fractional shares, annual use rates, cumulative use of individual energy sources, and the economic attractiveness of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This unified approach helps to conceptualize and understand the dynamics of evolution of importance of various energy resources over time.

  10. On the rapid cooling in the North Atlantic under a global warming trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier; Drijfhout, Sybren

    2014-05-01

    The human contribution in greenhouse gases emission is a potential significant component of the causes of recent global climate changes, and this makes the discussion on how and to what extent this can alter the future climate particularly debated. In order to tackle this topic, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have proposed different scenarios, i.e. CMIP5 protocol, representing possible evolutions of the future greenhouse gas concentration. Here the evolution of SST is analyzed by means of a set of model outputs within the CMIP5 framework. The discussion is aimed at the evaluation, model by model, of any hints of abrupt changes under RCPs and historical scenarios forcing. In particular, besides the general warming trend shown by all the models at global scale, we focus on a singular regional phenomenon, usually referred to as North Atlantic Warming Hole (NAWH), according to which a sub-regions located south of Greenland experience a rapid cooling despite the rise of global temperature under increasing radiative forcing. The NAWH was already reported by analyzing observational data, and it is notably associated with a rapid cooling in North Atlantic occurred in 1970. Many of the models analyzed are able to capture such a feature of the climatic system, and 3 of them (GFDL, CESM, GISS), depending on the scenario, show very abrupt decrease of SST of O(1 degree/decade) in a limited region of North Atlantic. In order to make a causal link with other processes that influence the climatic system, we investigate the rise of NAHW in conjunction with rapid slowing of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation which would diminish the heat transport in the North Atlantic. Moreover, we investigate the influence that subpolar gyre adjustments may have in supporting a rapid cooling in the North Atlantic. Although the rapid cooling associated with NAWH is not a common feature of all of the models, its identification is as well an important statement in terms of

  11. North American Gross Primary Productivity: Regional Characterization and Interannual Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.; Stockli, R.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonality and variability in North American photosynthetic activity are investigated. Using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) we simulate 24 years (1983-2006) and evaluate regional and seasonal contribution to annual mean Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as well as its interannual variability. The largest productivity occurs in tropical Mexico, the southeast U.S. and small areas in the Pacific Northwest. Annual variability is largest in tropical Mexico, the desert Southwest, and the Midwestern corridor that separates the eastern forests from the intermountain west. We find that several areas (Midwest, Northeast, SouthWest, Boreal Canada) have an elevated contribution to interannual variability when compared to other regions, but no single region or season consistently determines continental annual GPP anomaly on an annual basis. GPP variability in NA is highly heterogeneous in space and time. We find that GPP variability is generally dependent upon soil moisture in low- and mid-latitudes, and on temperature in the north. Soil moisture is a better metric than raw precipitation as it integrates precipitation events temporally. EOF analysis shows no significance on an annual basis, but a band from the central plains through New England shows a coherent signal for springtime GPP anomalies. As the springtime anomaly is the largest contributor to the annual GPP variability in almost half of the years simulated (11 of 24), we can posit that this region has significant influence over annual North American GPP variability. However, when regressed against climate modes such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Pacific-North America (PNA) patterns, we find that no climate mode can be associated with variability over the entire region highlighted by the EOF analysis. Furthermore, we find that while a general response to temperature is seen (warmer spring implies longer growing season implies anomalous GPP uptake of carbon), in some regions the

  12. The impact of global unknown teleconnection patterns on terrestrial precipitation across North and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Imen, Sanaz; Bai, Kaixu; Jeffrey Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can affect terrestrial precipitation via ocean-atmosphere interactions known as climate teleconnections. Nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of the teleconnection signals passing through the complex ocean-atmosphere-land system may provide a unique opportunity to quantify large-scale climate variability. This work explores the systematic relationships between global SST anomalies and terrestrial precipitation variability with respect to long-term nonlinear and nonstationary teleconnection signals during 1981-2010 over three regions in North America and one in Central America. The aim of this study was to investigate the surveillance capacity of teleconnections through varying atmospheric pathways toward different types of landscape and geographical environments. After finding possible associations between the dominant variation of seasonal precipitation and global SST anomalies through the integrated empirical mode decomposition, wavelet analysis, and lagged correlation analysis, the statistically significant SST regions were extracted to identify both known and unknown teleconnections. Results indicate that previously unidentified SST regions contribute a salient portion of terrestrial precipitation variability over different terrestrial regions. Central America and Pacific Northwest study sites receive highest probable impacts of climate variability driven by some unknown teleconnections that reveal unique coupling interactions between oceanic and atmospheric processes, implying possible linkages with atmospheric rivers.

  13. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  14. A North American and global survey of perfluoroalkyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The distribution of 32 per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils was determined at 62 locations representing all continents (North America n = 33, Europe n = 10, Asia n = 6, Africa n = 5, Australia n = 4, South America n = 3 and Antarctica n = 1) using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) systems. Quantifiable levels of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA-PFTeDA) were observed in all samples with total concentrations ranging from 29 to 14,300 pg/g (dry weight), while perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS, PFOS and PFDS) were detected in all samples but one, ranging from global distribution of PFASs in terrestrial settings. The geometric mean PFCA and PFSA concentrations were observed to be higher in the northern hemisphere (930 and 170 pg/g) compared to the southern hemisphere (190 and 33 pg/g). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were the most commonly detected analytes at concentrations up to 2670 and 3100 pg/g, respectively. The sum of PFCA homologues of PFOA commonly were roughly twice the concentration of PFOA. The PFCA and PFSA congener profiles were similar amongst most locations, with a few principal-component statistical anomalies suggesting impact from nearby urban and point sources. The ratio of even to odd PFCAs was consistent with the atmospheric oxidation of fluorotelomer-based precursors previously observed in laboratory and env

  15. A North American and global survey of perfluoroalkyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The distribution of 32 per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils was determined at 62 locations representing all continents (North America n = 33, Europe n = 10, Asia n = 6, Africa n = 5, Australia n = 4, South America n = 3 and Antarctica n = 1) using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) systems. Quantifiable levels of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA-PFTeDA) were observed in all samples with total concentrations ranging from 29 to 14,300 pg/g (dry weight), while perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS, PFOS and PFDS) were detected in all samples but one, ranging from global distribution of PFASs in terrestrial settings. The geometric mean PFCA and PFSA concentrations were observed to be higher in the northern hemisphere (930 and 170 pg/g) compared to the southern hemisphere (190 and 33 pg/g). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were the most commonly detected analytes at concentrations up to 2670 and 3100 pg/g, respectively. The sum of PFCA homologues of PFOA commonly were roughly twice the concentration of PFOA. The PFCA and PFSA congener profiles were similar amongst most locations, with a few principal-component statistical anomalies suggesting impact from nearby urban and point sources. The ratio of even to odd PFCAs was consistent with the atmospheric oxidation of fluorotelomer-based precursors previously observed in laboratory and env

  16. Interannual Comparison of Water Vapor in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand the current climate of Mars, we seek to understand atmospheric water in the north polar region. Our approach is to examine the water transport and cycling issues within the north polar region and in/out of the region on seasonal and annual timescales. Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) data showed that water vapor increased as the northern summer season progressed and temperatures increased, and that vapor appeared to be transported southward . However, there has been uncertainty about the amount of water cycling in and out of the north polar region, as evidenced by residual polar cap visible brightness changes between one Martian year (Mariner 9 data) and a subsequent year (Viking data). These changes were originally thought to be interannual variations in the amount of frost sublimed based on global dust storm activity . However, Viking thermal and imaging data were re-examined and it was found that 14-35 pr m of water -ice appeared to be deposited on the cap later in the summer season, indicating that some water may be retained and redistributed within the polar cap region. This late summer deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or due to snowfall. We seek to understand what happens to the water on seasonal and interannual timescales. We address these issues by examining water vapor in the north polar region of Mars during the north spring and summer period from MGS TES data and by comparing these results to the Viking MAWD results.

  17. Seasonal forecasting of global hydrologic extremes using the North American Multi-model Ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Yuan, Xing; Roundy, Joshua K.; Sheffield, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal hydrologic extremes in the form of droughts and wet spells have devastating impacts on human and natural systems. Improving our understanding and predictive capability of hydrologic extremes, and facilitating adaptations through establishing climate service systems at regional to global scales, are among the grand challenges proposed by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), and are the core themes of the Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHP) under the Global Energy and Water Exchanges Project (GEWEX). An experimental global seasonal hydrologic forecasting system has been developed, which is based on coupled climate forecast models participating in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project and an advanced land surface hydrologic model. The system is evaluated over major GEWEX/RHP river basins by comparing with Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP). The multi-model seasonal forecast system provides higher detectability for soil moisture droughts, more reliable low and high flow ensemble forecasts, and better "real-time" prediction for the 2012 North American extreme drought. The association of the onset of extreme hydrologic events with oceanic and land precursors is also investigated based on the joint distribution of forecasts and observations. Climate models have a higher probability of missing the onset of hydrologic extremes when there is no oceanic precursor. But oceanic precursor alone is insufficient to guarantee a correct forecast, a land precursor is also critical in avoiding a false alarm for forecasting extremes. This study is targeted at providing the scientific underpinning for the predictability of hydrologic extremes over GEWEX/RHP basins, and serves as a prototype for seasonal hydrologic forecasts within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).

  18. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  19. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Susan G.; Eilek, Jean A.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  20. Geologic map of the north polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2012-01-01

    The north polar region of Mars occurs within the central and lowest part of the vast northern plains of Mars and is dominated by the roughly circular north polar plateau, Planum Boreum. The northern plains formed very early in Martian time and have collected volcanic flows and sedimentary materials shed from highland sources. Planum Boreum has resulted from the accumulation of water ice and dust particles. Extensive, uncratered dune fields adjacent to Planum Boreum attest to the active and recent transport and accumulation of sand. Our geologic map of Planum Boreum is the first to record its entire observable stratigraphic record using the various post-Viking image and topography datasets released before 2009. We also provide much more detail in the map than previously published, including some substantial revisions based on new data and observations. The available data have increased and improved immensely in quantity, resolution, coverage, positional accuracy, and spectral range, enabling us to resolve previously unrecognized geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and compositional information. We also employ more carefully prescribed and effective mapping methodologies and digital techniques, as well as formatting guidelines. The foremost aspect to our mapping approach is how geologic units are discriminated based primarily on their temporal relations with other units as expressed in unit contacts by unconformities or by gradational relations. Whereas timing constraints of such activity in the north polar region are now better defined stratigraphically, they remain poorly constrained chronologically. The end result is a new reconstruction of the sedimentary, erosional, and structural histories of the north polar region and how they may have been driven by climate conditions, available geologic materials, and eolian, periglacial, impact, magmatic, hydrologic, and tectonic activity.

  1. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Volker; Bewersdorff, Ines; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2010-06-01

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased.

  2. Species pool, human population, and global versus regional invasion patterns

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo; Basil V. Iannone III; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Kevin M. Potter; Christopher M. Oswalt; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Context Biological invasions are among the greatest global and regional threats to biomes in the Anthropocene. Islands, in particular, have been perceived to have higher vulnerability to invasions. Because of the dynamic nature of ongoing invasions, distinguishing regional patterns from global patterns and their underlying determinants remains a challenge. Objectives...

  3. Salt transport in the Irminger Current: a regional and a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, A.; Stocker, T. F.; Sandø, A. B.

    2012-04-01

    Salt transport in the Irminger Current and thus the coupling between eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic play an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic correlate negatively with the circulation of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG). This has led to the perception that a weaker SPG also transports less salt. In contrast, global climate models simulate enhanced salt transport with a stronger gyre that acts as an important positive feedback mechanism for climate variability. Is this an artifact of insufficient model resolution or sub-grid parametrizations? We find that one of the current generation of global climate models shows good agreement with a regional ocean model in the simulated dynamics of the SPG. Enhanced salt transport in the Irminger Current is a robust feature of both models, because the increase in volume transport overcompensates the decrease in salinity.

  4. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  5. Sinking of North Atlantic waters in a global ocean model: location and controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsman, Caroline; Drijfhout, Sybren; Dijkstra, Henk; Spall, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) plays an important role in climate. The classical view of an ocean conveyor belt with northward surface currents and southward return currents transporting convectively-formed waters from the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean to other ocean basins suggests a tight relation between convection and sinking. However, convection regions feature very little vertical mass transport. Instead, it has been argued that the sinking of waters must take place near boundaries where ageostrophic processes affect the flow. So far, this has been confirmed in highly idealized regional model studies and in laboratory experiments. It is, however, unclear how well the sinking of dense waters is represented in the current generation of global ocean models and climate models, and whether the factors driving and controlling the sinking in these models are in accordance with the developed theory. This is of crucial importance for our confidence in projections of the future behavior of the AMOC, which are based on this type of model. In this study, we analyze the characteristics of the vertical transport in two global ocean models: an eddy-permitting model at 0.25 degree resolution and its coarser 1.0 degree resolution counterpart. We show that the sinking indeed predominantly occurs in a narrow region close to the boundary in both model simulations, and not in deep convection regions. Notably, the amount of vertical transport that is found along the edges of the North Atlantic Ocean is highly variable in space, and large differences exist between the two model versions. In the eddy-permitting model, the magnitude of the local sinking appears to be governed by alongshore variations in density near the boundary, in line with theory.

  6. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  7. Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations over the Great Lakes Region Driven by Three Global Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Li, Xiuping; Bian, Xindi; Heilman, Warren E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Gustafson, William I.

    2012-06-27

    The performance of regional climate simulations is evaluated for the Great Lakes region. Three 10-year (1990–1999) current-climate simulations are performed using the MM5 regional climate model (RCM) with 36-km horizontal resolution. The simulations employed identical configuration and physical parameterizations, but different lateral boundary conditions and sea-surface temperatures derived from the NCEP Global Reanalysis and output from the CCSM3 and GISS general circulation models (GCMs). The simulation results are compared to the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The three RCM simulations appeared to be more accurate in winter and least accurate in summer, and more accurate aloft than near the surface. The reanalysis-constrained simulation adequately captured the spatial distribution and seasonal cycle of the observed surface-air temperature and precipitation, but it produced consistently across all seasons a cold bias that is generally larger over the lakes than over land and a wet bias due to an overestimation of nonconvective precipitation. The simulated seasonal cycle of moisture–flux convergence over the region was in very good agreement with NARR. The two GCM-driven runs adequately simulated the spatial and seasonal variation of temperature, but overestimated cold-season precipitation and underestimated summer precipitation, reversing the observed annual precipitation cycle. The GISS-driven run failed to simulate the prevailing low-level flow and moisture convergence patterns. All three RCM simulations successfully captured the impact of the Great Lakes on the region's climate, especially on winter precipitation, a significant improvement over coarse-resolution GCM simulations over the region.

  8. Regional cloud cover change associated with global climate change: Case studies for three regions of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Croke, M.S. ); Cess, R.D.; Hameed, S. . Marine Sciences Research Center)

    1999-07-01

    Land-based observations of cloud cover, for the period 1900--87 and averaged over three geographical regions of the United States (coastal southwest, coastal northeast, and southern plains), show strong positive correlations with one estimate of global mean surface temperature, a finding consistent with prior investigations that suggest cloud cover over land has increased during global warm periods relative to cold periods. It is also found that the strengths of three permanent high/low pressure systems (North Pacific high, Icelandic low, and Azores high) are negatively correlated with global mean surface temperature, suggesting a possible connection between regional cloud cover, for certain locations, and the strengths of adjacent high/low pressure systems. Specifically, for the regions considered it is suggested that the coastal southwest cloud cover is related to changes in the strength of the subtropical North Pacific high, that for the southern plains also to the strength of the North Pacific high, and that for the coastal northeast to the strength of the Icelandic low. Thus the climate-induced change in cloud cover for certain regions appears related, at least in part, to climate-induced change in the strengths of adjacent high/low pressure systems, and plausible physical explanations for this relation are provided for the three regions that have been studied. This does not, of course, provide a direct physical cause-and-effect explanation for the changes in regional cloud cover, because the mechanisms that cause the intensities of the high/low pressure systems to change are not understood.

  9. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  10. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  11. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  12. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  13. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  14. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.193 - North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.193 North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  17. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  18. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  19. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  1. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  3. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  4. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  5. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  6. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  7. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  8. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  9. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. China, The Regional Hegemon with Global Reach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    with the transnational and environmental threats ( HIV /AIDs, pandemics, environmental issues) that could have drastic effects globally. President...multiple developing countries afloat.22 In December 2010 China signed a strategic bilateral deal with Venezuela . This alliance solidified a pact where... Venezuela sends 600,000 barrels a day to China in exchange for China’s investment in mining and energy production.23 Bilateral deals like this are

  11. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  12. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  13. The global monsoon across timescales: coherent variability of regional monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. X.; Wang, B.; Cheng, H.; Fasullo, J.; Guo, Z. T.; Kiefer, T.; Liu, Z. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Monsoon has earned increasing attention from the climate community since the last century, yet only recently have regional monsoons been recognized as a global system. It remains a debated issue, however, as to what extent and at which timescales the global monsoon can be viewed as a major mode of climate variability. For this purpose, a PAGES (Past Global Changes) working group (WG) was set up to investigate the concept of the global monsoon and its future research directions. The WG's synthesis is presented here. On the basis of observation and proxy data, the WG found that the regional monsoons can vary coherently, although not perfectly, at various timescales, varying between interannual, interdecadal, centennial, millennial, orbital and tectonic timescales, conforming to the global monsoon concept across timescales. Within the global monsoon system, each subsystem has its own features, depending on its geographic and topographic conditions. Discrimination between global and regional components in the monsoon system is a key to revealing the driving factors in monsoon variations; hence, the global monsoon concept helps to enhance our understanding and to improve future projections of the regional monsoons. This paper starts with a historical review of the global monsoon concept in both modern and paleo-climatology, and an assessment of monsoon proxies used in regional and global scales. The main body of the paper is devoted to a summary of observation data at various timescales, providing evidence of the coherent global monsoon system. The paper concludes with a projection of future monsoon shifts in a warming world. The synthesis will be followed by a companion paper addressing driving mechanisms and outstanding issues in global monsoon studies.

  14. Roles of production, consumption and trade in global and regional aerosol radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Tong, D.; Davis, S. J.; Ni, R.; Tan, X.; Pan, D.; Zhao, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Feng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Jiang, X.; Geng, G.; He, K.; Huang, Y.; Guan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert strong radiative forcing on the climate system. Prevailing view regards aerosol radiative forcing as a result of emissions from regions' economic production, with China and other developing regions having the largest contributions to radiative forcing at present. However, economic production is driven by global demand for computation, and international trade allows for separation of regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. It has recently been recognized that regions' consumption and trade have profoundly altered the spatial distribution of aerosol emissions and pollution. Building upon our previous work, this study quantifies for the first time the roles of trade and consumption in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions. We contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers like Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences in radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of

  15. Brain Region Mapping using Global Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Epstein, Adrian; Kurczy, Michael E.; Benton, H. Paul; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Fox, Howard S.; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Historically, studies of brain metabolism have been based on targeted analyses of a limited number of metabolites. Here we present a novel untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach that has successfully uncovered differences in broad array of metabolites across anatomical regions of the mouse brain. The NSG immunodeficient mouse model was chosen because of its ability to undergo humanization leading to numerous applications in oncology and infectious disease research. Metabolic phenotyping by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry revealed unique water-soluble and lipid metabolite patterns between brain regions. Neurochemical differences in metabolic phenotypes were mainly defined by various phospholipids and several intriguing metabolites including carnosine, cholesterol sulfate, lipoamino acids, uric and sialic acid whose physiological roles in brain metabolism are poorly understood. This study lays important groundwork by defining regional homeostasis for the normal mouse brain to give context to the reaction to pathological events. PMID:25457182

  16. Brain region mapping using global metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Epstein, Adrian A; Kurczy, Michael E; Benton, Paul H; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Fox, Howard S; Boska, Michael D; Gendelman, Howard E; Siuzdak, Gary

    2014-11-20

    Historically, studies of brain metabolism have been based on targeted analyses of a limited number of metabolites. Here we present an untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategy that has successfully uncovered differences in a broad array of metabolites across anatomical regions of the mouse brain. The NSG immunodeficient mouse model was chosen because of its ability to undergo humanization leading to numerous applications in oncology and infectious disease research. Metabolic phenotyping by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry revealed both water-soluble and lipid metabolite patterns across brain regions. Neurochemical differences in metabolic phenotypes were mainly defined by various phospholipids and several intriguing metabolites including carnosine, cholesterol sulfate, lipoamino acids, uric acid, and sialic acid, whose physiological roles in brain metabolism are poorly understood. This study helps define regional homeostasis for the normal mouse brain to give context to the reaction to pathological events.

  17. A new paradigm relating global climate and North Pacific Intermediate Water circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, K. P.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) is the primary water mass associated with Pacific meridional overturning circulation, yet little is known about how NPIW prominence and formation are linked to climate change. Models have predicted that the closure of the Bering Strait, during past glacials when relative sea level dropped at least 50 m, may have had a significant impact on NPIW and the climate of the North Pacific. However, until now, proxy records of NPIW were limited to just the last glacial cycle and were insufficient to evaluate the links between NPIW, climate, and sea level. Here, we use new, long cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 323 Site U1342 (818 m water depth) from the Bering Sea to reconstruct the first continuous records of NPIW over the past 35 Marine Isotope Stages (1.2 myrs). Records of benthic foraminiferal δ13C and δ18O from U1342 indicate that increased brine formation and NPIW ventilation occurred during extreme glacials when flow through the Bering Strait was cut off. During glacial climates in which the Bering Strait was still open, the region was as weakly ventilated as during interglacials. Additionally, cross-spectral analyses show that variations in NPIW are coherent and in-phase with variations in Upper North Atlantic Deep Water (UNADW), and are unrelated to changes in lower NADW. These results contradict many previous modeling studies that predict weaker NPIW influence with Bering Strait closure and an out-of-phase (see-saw) relationship between NPIW and NADW. We propose that NPIW formation was enhanced when the Bering Strait was closed due to changes in the position of the Aleutian Low that were conducive to increased sea ice formation and brine formation within the Bering Sea. These results offer a new paradigm relating global climate and North Pacific Ocean circulation and provide data to ground-truth model simulations of NPIW.

  18. Regional Climate Model Projection Credibility for the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovsky, M. S.; Carrillo, C. M.; Gochis, D. J.; Mearns, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change projections from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) suite of regional climate model (RCM) simulations for the North American monsoon system are assessed herein. We focus on changes in precipitation and the many factors effecting the projections. The end goal of our in-depth, process-based assessment is to establish the differential credibility of the ensemble members. In the end, there is a deceptively strong full-ensemble agreement for a decrease in precipitation during the monsoon season. Bias is considerably affecting many of the model projections, and we find that the simulations that are the most biased, in varying ways, in the baseline/current climate, produce the greatest decreases. Problems in the baseline simulations and projections include those related to: atmospheric moisture content, the monsoon high, the Gulf of California low-level jet, tropical easterly waves, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, precipitation intensity, and other features/phenomena. This presentation will provide a summary of our findings.

  19. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India. Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the differences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test. Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60%) followed by pet (29.16%) and stray dogs (17.75%). Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. PMID:27047976

  20. Test of High-resolution Global and Regional Climate Model Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, Georgiy; Nikulin, Grigory; Hansson, Ulf; Kjellström, Erik; Raj, Jerry; Bangalath, Hamza; Osipov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    In scope of CORDEX project we have simulated the past (1975-2005) and future (2006-2050) climates using the GFDL global high-resolution atmospheric model (HIRAM) and the Rossby Center nested regional model RCA4 for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Both global and nested runs were performed with roughly the same spatial resolution of 25 km in latitude and longitude, and were driven by the 2°x2.5°-resolution fields from GFDL ESM2M IPCC AR5 runs. The global HIRAM simulations could naturally account for interaction of regional processes with the larger-scale circulation features like Indian Summer Monsoon, which is lacking from regional model setup. Therefore in this study we specifically address the consistency of "global" and "regional" downscalings. The performance of RCA4, HIRAM, and ESM2M is tested based on mean, extreme, trends, seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface temperature, precipitation, and winds. The impact of climate change on dust storm activity, extreme precipitation and water resources is specifically addressed. We found that the global and regional climate projections appear to be quite consistent for the modeled period and differ more significantly from ESM2M than between each other.

  1. Globalization and medical tourism: the North American experience Comment on "Patient mobility in the global marketplace: a multidisciplinary perspective"

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Neil Lunt and Russel Mannion provide an overview of the current state of the medical tourism literature and propose areas for future research in health policy and management. The authors also identify the main unanswered questions in this field ranging from the real size of the medical tourism market to the particular health profiles of transnational patients. In addition, they highlight unexplored areas of research from health economics, ethics, policy and management perspectives. To this very insightful editorial I would add the international trade perspective. While globalization has permeated labor and capital, services such as healthcare are still highly regulated by governments, constrained to regional or national borders and protected by organized interests. Heterogeneity of healthcare regulations and lack of cross-country reciprocity agreements act as barriers to the development of more widespread and dynamic medical tourism markets. To picture these barriers to transnational health services I use evidence from North America, identifying different "pull and push factors" for medical tourist in this region, discussing how economic integration and healthcare reform might shift the incentives to utilize healthcare abroad. PMID:24987723

  2. Globalization and medical tourism: the North American experience Comment on "Patient mobility in the global marketplace: a multidisciplinary perspective".

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Neil Lunt and Russel Mannion provide an overview of the current state of the medical tourism literature and propose areas for future research in health policy and management. The authors also identify the main unanswered questions in this field ranging from the real size of the medical tourism market to the particular health profiles of transnational patients. In addition, they highlight unexplored areas of research from health economics, ethics, policy and management perspectives. To this very insightful editorial I would add the international trade perspective. While globalization has permeated labor and capital, services such as healthcare are still highly regulated by governments, constrained to regional or national borders and protected by organized interests. Heterogeneity of healthcare regulations and lack of cross-country reciprocity agreements act as barriers to the development of more widespread and dynamic medical tourism markets. To picture these barriers to transnational health services I use evidence from North America, identifying different "pull and push factors" for medical tourist in this region, discussing how economic integration and healthcare reform might shift the incentives to utilize healthcare abroad.

  3. Global and regional kinematics from SLR stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The stations of the Global Laser Tracking Network have significantly contributed to the measurement of plate kinematics. The expanding network of progressively improved instruments clearly demonstrates the systems' centimeter positioning accuracy. Several satellite laser ranging (SLR) analysis groups have adopted techniques to distill geodynamic information from the Lageos-1 satellite observations using orbital arc lengths from an hour to a decade. SLR observations now provide the scale for the International Terrestrial Reference System and help to define the Earth's polar motion in this system. Agreement between positions separately determined with SLR, VLBI and GPS systems has been established at the level of a few centimeters in position and a few millimeters per year in horizontal velocity.

  4. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF SUBSURFACE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of a magnetic loop evolving in either a convectively stable or unstable rotating shell. The magnetic loop is introduced into the shell in such a way that it is buoyant only in a certain portion in longitude, thus creating an {Omega}-loop. Due to the action of magnetic buoyancy, the loop rises and develops asymmetries between its leading and following legs, creating emerging bipolar regions whose characteristics are similar to those of observed spots at the solar surface. In particular, we self-consistently reproduce the creation of tongues around the spot polarities, which can be strongly affected by convection. We further emphasize the presence of ring-shaped magnetic structures around our simulated emerging regions, which we call 'magnetic necklace' and which were seen in a number of observations without being reported as of today. We show that those necklaces are markers of vorticity generation at the periphery and below the rising magnetic loop. We also find that the asymmetry between the two legs of the loop is crucially dependent on the initial magnetic field strength. The tilt angle of the emerging regions is also studied in the stable and unstable cases and seems to be affected both by the convective motions and the presence of a differential rotation in the convective cases.

  5. Response of the North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Climatology to Global Warming: Application of Dynamical Downscaling to CMIP5 Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Karnauskas, K. B.; Donnelly, J. P.; Emanuel, K.

    2016-12-01

    We apply a downscaling approach to future projection simulations from four CMIP5 climate models to investigate the response of the tropical cyclone (TC) climatology over the North Pacific basin to global warming. Under the influence of the anthropogenic rise in greenhouse gases, TC track density, power dissipation and TC genesis exhibit robust increasing trends over the North Pacific, especially over the central subtropical Pacific region. The increase in North Pacific TCs is primarily manifest as increases in the intense and relatively weak TCs. Examination of storm duration also reveals that TCs over the North Pacific have longer lifetimes under global warming. By employing a genesis potential index, we explore the mechanistic contributions of various physical climate factors to the simulated change in TC genesis. We find that more frequent TC genesis under global warming is mostly attributable to the smaller vertical wind shear and greater potential intensity (primarily due to higher sea surface temperature). In contrast, the effect of the saturation deficit of the free troposphere tends to suppress TC genesis, and the change in large-scale vorticity plays a negligible role.

  6. Regional seismic variations in the inner core under the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Deuss, A.

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetry between a nearly isotropic, faster `eastern' hemisphere and an anisotropic, slower `western' hemisphere in Earth's inner core has been revealed by previous seismic studies. However, it remains unclear if division of the inner core into just two hemispheres is too simplistic. Here, we carry out regional-scale tomography using a new body wave data set to study the hemisphere boundary region beneath the northern and central Pacific Ocean and North America. If anisotropy is not considered, then a hemispherical pattern seems to be present in the study region, though the hemisphere boundary appears to be irregular. However, once the presence of anisotropy is permitted we find that this region cannot be simply separated into an anisotropic western hemisphere and an isotropic eastern hemisphere; instead the strength of the anisotropy varies regionally. The global hemispherical pattern is not observed here, instead the strongest anisotropy is observed in the centre and south west of the study region. Some of the strongest anisotropy appears to be in the `eastern' inner core, while part of the inner core assumed to be in the western hemisphere shows weaker anisotropy. Thus, this part of the inner core displays complex variations in anisotropy which differ from a simple hemispherical division. We suggest that a long-lived global heterogeneity, such as uneven heat flow through the core-mantle boundary over a period of hundreds of millions of years, may be responsible for the observed pattern of inner core anisotropy.

  7. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  8. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  9. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  10. North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American daily precipitation and temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean daily sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and daily frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and daily precipitation/cold temperature extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of daily precipitation and cold temperature extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., air temperature at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone

  11. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  12. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  13. Complex molecules in the W51 North region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Jialei; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zapata, Luis A.; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular-line observations in two 2-GHz wide bands centred at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, towards the massive star-forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular-line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large number of transitions of acetone (CH3COCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO), which might suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of massive stars. We have also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium, with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities and rotation temperatures are estimated. We have found that the oxygen-bearing molecules have considerably higher column densities and fractional abundances than the nitrogen-bearing molecules. The rotation temperatures range from 100 to 200 K, suggesting that the molecular emission could originate from a warm environment. Finally, based on the gas distributions, fractional abundances and the rotation temperatures, we conclude that CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3 and CH3CH2CN might be synthesized on the grain surface, while gas phase chemistry is responsible for the production of CH3OCH3, CH3OCHO and CH2CHCN.

  14. Regional downscaling of global climate runs for Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granerød, M.; Mesquita, M. D.; Basnayake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Nepal is a vulnerable country to changes in climate. This is mainly due to its dependency on water resources from the Himalayas. There is evidence of significant warming in Nepal, with an average trend of around +0.06 degrees Celsius per year. Studies have shown that the warming rates are higher in higher altitudes. Such temperature trend will have an impact on the melting of the glaciers and consequently on Nepal. Precipitation has also been observed to have increased, but not at the same magnitude as temperature. The water supply is affected by more unpredictable precipitation that can lead to droughts and shorter heavy rainfall. Future projections can give an indication whether these factors will affect river runoff, which can have large impacts on agriculture and in other sectors. Global Climate Models (GCMs) have a coarse resolution and limitations in the numerical and in the physical treatment. More detailed climate datasets are needed to produce climate projections for countries like Nepal. In this study, we use the climate version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (clWRF3.1.1, developed at the University of Cantabria, Spain), which is a regional climate model (RCM), to provide a more detailed description of future climate scenarios in Nepal. The Atmospheric General Circulation Model, ARPEGE, has been used to provide lateral boundary conditions for the model evaluation. A control simulation from 1970 to 2000, and 4 future climate scenario runs from 2030 to 2060 are created based on these data. The parent domain has a horizontal grid resolution of 48 km, covering the area 68 to 100 degrees East and 1 degree South to 38 degree North. The nested domain has a horizontal grid resolution of 12 km, covering the area 79 to 90 degree East and 25 to 32 degree North. Both domains are run with 37 vertical levels reaching up to 50 hPa. In the clWRF setup, the microphysical scheme used is the WRF Single-Moment 3-class scheme and the cumulus option is the Grell

  15. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  16. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  17. North American regional climate reconstruction from underground temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, 514 North American temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were reconstructed from the subsurface temperature anomalies using a singular value decomposition (SVD) inversion that retains four principal components and takes into account time logging differences. Steady-state surface temperature and thermal gradient were estimated by linear regression for the lower 100 meters of the temperature profile, and climate induced subsurface temperature anomalies were estimated as departures from the steady-state conditions. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the minimum distance between the model and the data. A regional analysis was performed for the last 5 centuries yielding mean temperature change every 50 years. The GST history results, presented as the mean and 95% confidence interval, show a warming by 1.0°C to 2.5°C during the post industrial era.

  18. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  19. Tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean: experiments with the high-resolution global icosahedral grid point model GME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumkar, Yogesh V.; Sen, P. N.; Chaudhari, Hemankumar S.; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to conduct a numerical experiment with the high-resolution global model GME to predict the tropical storms in the North Indian Ocean during the year 2007. Numerical integrations using the icosahedral hexagonal grid point global model GME were performed to study the evolution of tropical cyclones, viz., Akash, Gonu, Yemyin and Sidr over North Indian Ocean during 2007. It has been seen that the GME model forecast underestimates cyclone's intensity, but the model can capture the evolution of cyclone's intensity especially its weakening during landfall, which is primarily due to the cutoff of the water vapor supply in the boundary layer as cyclones approach the coastal region. A series of numerical simulation of tropical cyclones have been performed with GME to examine model capability in prediction of intensity and track of the cyclones. The model performance is evaluated by calculating the root mean square errors as cyclone track errors.

  20. Relationships Between Global Warming and Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Western North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the relationships between global warming and tropical cyclone activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP). Our...hypothesis is that global warming impacts on TC activity occur through changes in the large scale environmental factors (LSEFs) known to be important in...averages. Using a least squares fit, we identify global warming signals in both the SST and vertical wind shear data across the WNP. These signals vary

  1. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds.

  2. Has global warming changed timing of winter-spring streamflows over North America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, J.; Knutson, T. R.; Milly, P. C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Wherever snowmelt runoff substantially contributes to winter-spring streamflows, warmer winter-spring temperature can accelerate snow melt and reduce later streamflows. These changes can adversely affect human activities and ecological communities (e.g. flood, drought, salmon survival rate, and blooming season). Here we investigate changes in timing of winter-spring streamflows over North America (NA) during 1933-2013 and 1951-2000 using observed streamflow and simulated runoff from pre-industrial (unforced) control and historical (realistically forced) runs from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3. The study regions are north of 41˚N in NA. We analyze winter-spring center of volume date (WSCV), the date by which half of the accumulated January through June daily streamflow volume occurs. We first performed a sliding trend analysis of WSCV for time periods starting in various years (1951 through 1984) and ending in 2000. We found that the observed decreasing trends (Theil-Sen slopes) of WSCV over the northeast and northwest U.S. regions are at the edge of detectability (i.e., lie near the edge of the 5th-95th percentile envelope of control runs) for trends beginning any time between 1950 and 1970, but are consistent with the envelope of historical runs for all beginning trend years. Interestingly, for the 1933-2013 analysis, results for the northwest U.S. show that the observed trends of WSCV are positive for periods beginning as early as the mid-1960s, and inconsistent with historical runs for periods beginning in the mid-1950s and later. Aside from this inconsistency, observed trends to 2013 are consistent with both control and historical runs. This study suggests that internal variability has played a major role in timing of winter-spring streamflows to date, despite global warming, and thus that clear detection and attribution of WSCV trends in the study regions may require longer streamflow records than those now available.

  3. Future Earth, Global Science and Regional Programs: Building regional integrated science capacities in a global science organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, J.

    2016-12-01

    Future Earth has emerged from the more than 30-year history of Global Change Research Programs, including IGBP, DIVERSITAS and IHDP. These programs supported interdisciplinary science in service of societies around the world. Now, their focus on building a greater understanding of changing Earth systems and their couplings with society has passed to Future Earth - with an important addition: Future Earth was also established to focus global change efforts around key societal challenges. The implications for the structure of Future Earth are large. Many challenges within topics, such as the water, energy, food nexus or the future of cities, are manifested within local, national, and regional contexts. How should we organize globally to most effectively confront these multi-scale challenges? The solution proposed in the framing of Future Earth was the formation of regional as well as national committees, as well as the formation of regional centers and offices. Regional Committees serve to both advocate for Future Earth in their regions and to advocate for regional interests in the global Future Earth platform, while regional Centers and offices are built into the Future Earth secretariat to perform a parallel regional implementation function. Implementation has not been easy, and the process has placed regionally-focused projects in an awkward place. Programs such as the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) represent some of the best global change communities in the world, but by design, their focus is regional. The effective integration of these communities into the Future Earth architecture will be critical, and this integration will require the formation of strong regional committees and regional centers.

  4. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  5. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  6. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results and Discussion Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal. PMID:26629702

  7. The Regional Impact of Current and Future Dust Levels on Climate in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, K. A.; O'Brien, T. A.; Sloan, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Recent global climate model (GCM) studies indicate that southwestern North America may transition to a more arid climate in the next century due to a shifting further north of the poleward edge of the Hadley cell (resulting from increased land and sea surface temperatures). Accompanying this aridification, it is possible that rates of dust production in this region will increase. While it is known that dust concentrations in the atmosphere affect climate, particularly at the regional level, the magnitude as well as the sign of predicted dust-climate effects vary significantly. Aerosols from dust can either reflect or absorb sunlight depending on several factors including concentration and particle size. Additionally, regional atmospheric circulation patterns (un-resolvable by GCMs) influence the distribution of dust. Using climate scenarios from the most recent version of the regional climate model RegCM with a newly developed dust module, this study examines possible changes in dust production in western North America in the next century and how these changes would affect climate. These results are presented in the context of present day dust-climate interactions. Future scenarios also assess the effects of different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, specifically from the two most disparate IPCC AR4 scenarios for the year 2100: one in which CO2 emissions were frozen at the year 2000 (the lowest atmospheric CO2 increase considered), and the other using the fossil fuel intensive A1F1 scenario (highest CO2 increase). For both CO2 scenarios, the model is run twice: once with and once without dust-climate interactions included in the climate system feedbacks. This study allows inferences to be made about the levels of dust that could occur in 2100 and how these dust concentrations could alter current predictions of climate for the study region. Further, the effect that increasing CO2 levels may have on both the levels of dust, and how dust affects climate, is

  8. The Intensification of Global and Regional Climate Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence from the IPCC and National Climate Assessment reports indicate that extreme climate events are increasing in many regions of the world. Interestingly, the nature and causes of the changes in extremes may be expressed differently for the global and regional scales, and also amongst climate variables (e.g., precipitation and temperature). For instance, over the last several decades the temperature probability density function on the global scale exhibits a mean shift to the warmer side, as opposed to a change in it's variability. Conversely, the interannual variability of precipitation is intensifying on the regional scale, especially over the U.S. during spring. Although the statistical characteristics of the temperature and precipitation changes may have a varied expression they both contribute to the potential for increases in extreme events. The causes and physical mechanisms for the intensification of mean global temperature and regional precipitation variability are explored using observationally constrained datasets and non-traditional climate model approaches.

  9. Regional High-resolution Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Modelling in the North Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumenil-Gates, Lydia; Bülow, Katharina; Ganske, Anette; Heinrich, Hartmut; Klein, Birgit; Klein, Holger; Möller, Jens; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schade, Nils; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Tinz, Birger

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of climate projections in the North Sea area is one of the research tasks of the research programme KLIWAS of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. A multi-model ensemble of three coupled regional atmosphere-ocean models was set up comprising very high resolution simulations for the German coastal regions of the North Sea and the Baltic to represent the complex land-sea-atmosphere conditions in the region. The ensemble consists of simulations made in cooperation with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Climate Service Centre and the Max-Planck-Institute for the period of 1950 to 2100. The KLIWAS project thereby adds coupled models to the band-width of possible future climate conditions in the atmosphere as given by the ENSEMBLES project, which were also analyzed. The coupled results are evaluated for present-day climate using a North Sea climatology of maritime conditions at a matching high resolution. In the future climate, while air and water temperatures will rise to the year 2100, the mean wind speed does not show a significant trend, but large decadal variability. The frequency of occurrence of westerly wind directions increases in the majority of simulations and results in an increase of significant wave height in the eastern parts of the North Sea. In an interdisciplinary approach, these results are used to provide regional to local information for the development of adaptation strategies for the estuary, and climate-proofing of infrastructure in the wider context of the project.

  10. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  11. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kuze, A.; Notholt, J.; Ohyama, H.; Parker, R.; Payne, V. H.; Sussmann, R.; Sweeney, C.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2015-06-01

    We use 2009-2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a-1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2-42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9-27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0-44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern-central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29-44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22-31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11-15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0-10.1 Tg a-1.

  12. The relationship between anthropogenic dust and population over global semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Yanting; Xie, Yongkun; Liu, Jingjing

    2016-04-01

    Although anthropogenic dust has received more attention from the climate research community, its dominant role in the production process is still not identified. In this study, we analysed the relationship between anthropogenic dust and population density/change over global semi-arid regions and found that semi-arid regions are major source regions in producing anthropogenic dust. The results showed that the relationship between anthropogenic dust and population is more obvious in cropland than in other land cover types (crop mosaics, grassland, and urbanized regions) and that the production of anthropogenic dust increases as the population density grows to more than 90 persons km-2. Four selected semi-arid regions, namely East China, India, North America, and North Africa, were used to explore the relationship between anthropogenic dust production and regional population. The most significant relationship between anthropogenic dust and population occurred in an Indian semi-arid region that had a greater portion of cropland, and the high peak of anthropogenic dust probability appeared with 220 persons km-2 of population density and 60 persons km-2 of population change. These results suggest that the influence of population on production of anthropogenic dust in semi-arid regions is obvious in cropland regions. However, the impact does not always have a positive contribution to the production of anthropogenic dust, and overly excessive population will suppress the increase of anthropogenic dust. Moreover, radiative and climate effects of increasing anthropogenic dust need more investigation.

  13. A Subtropical North Atlantic Regional Atmospheric Moisture Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, F.; D'Addezio, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the ideal location for the world's highest open ocean sea surface salinity. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/day and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/day but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/day. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/day and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water northward to the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for almost half of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  14. A subtropical North Atlantic regional atmospheric moisture budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Joseph M.; Bingham, Frederick M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-1) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the natural location for the world's highest open ocean SSS maximum. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS-1 region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/d and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/d but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/d. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/d and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water toward the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for about one third of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  15. U.S. Regional Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 O PPO RTUN ITIES...will stress South Korea’s ability to absorb them into their society and economy over the long-run. ECONOMIC INSTABILITY The North Korean economy is in...enormous costs of absorbing the broken economy of the North.40 When contrasted with German reunification, the economy and infrastructure of North Korea are

  16. Horror and hope: (re)presenting militarised children in global North-South relations.

    PubMed

    Lee-Koo, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the (re)presentations of militarised children in contemporary global politics. In particular, it looks at the iconic image of the 21st century's child soldier, the subject of which is constructed as a menacing yet pitiable product of the so-called new wars of the global South. Yet this familiar image is a small, one-dimensional and selective (re)presentation of the issues facing children who are associated with conflict and militarism. In this sense it is a problematic focal point for analysing the insecurity and human rights of children in and around conflict. Instead, this article argues that the image of the child soldier asserts an important influence in its effect upon global North-South relations. It demonstrates how the image of the child soldier can assist in constructing knowledge about the global South, and the global North's obligations to it, either through programmes of humanitarianism, or through war.

  17. Global linkages originating from decadal oceanic variability in the subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafik, L.; Häkkinen, S.; England, M. H.; Carton, J. A.; Nigam, S.; Ruiz-Barradas, A.; Hannachi, A.; Miller, L.

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous decadal warming of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean (SPNA), and the northward spreading of this warm water, has been linked to rapid Arctic sea ice loss and more frequent cold European winters. Recently, variations in this heat transport have also been reported to covary with global warming slowdown/acceleration periods via a Pacific climate response. We here examine the role of SPNA temperature variability in this Atlantic-Pacific climate connectivity. We find that the evolution of ocean heat content anomalies from the subtropics to the subpolar region, likely due to ocean circulation changes, coincides with a basin-wide Atlantic warming/cooling. This induces an Atlantic-Pacific sea surface temperature seesaw, which in turn, strengthens/weakens the Walker circulation and amplifies the Pacific decadal variability that triggers pronounced global-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies. We conclude that the decadal oceanic variability in the SPNA is an essential component of the tropical interactions between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

  18. Nature Run for the North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Region: System Evaluation and Regional Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V.; Androulidakis, I.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Kang, H.; Mehari, M. F.; Atlas, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype ocean Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) system, first developed and data validated in the Gulf of Mexico, has been applied on the extended North Atlantic Ocean hurricane region. The main objectives of this study are: a) to contribute toward a fully relocatable ocean OSSE system by expanding the Gulf of Mexico OSSE to the North Atlantic Ocean; b) demonstrate and quantify improvements in hurricane forecasting when the ocean component of coupled hurricane models is advanced through targeted observations and assimilation. The system is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and has been applied on a 1/250 Mercator mesh for the free-running Nature Run (NR) and on a 1/120 Mercator mesh for the data assimilative forecast model (FM). A "fraternal twin" system is employed, using two different realizations for NR and FM, each configured to produce substantially different physics and truncation errors. The NR has been evaluated using a variety of available observations, such as from AVISO, GDEM climatology and GHRSST observations, plus specific regional products (upper ocean profiles from air-borne instruments, surface velocity maps derived from the historical drifter data set and tropical cyclone heat potential maps derived from altimetry observations). The utility of the OSSE system to advance the knowledge of regional air-sea interaction processes related to hurricane activity is demonstrated in the Amazon region (salinity induced surface barrier layer) and the Gulf Stream region (hurricane impact on the Gulf Stream extension).

  19. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  20. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  1. Sensitivity of regional climate to global temperature and forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudia; O'Neill, Brian; Lamarque, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of regional climate to global average radiative forcing and temperature change is important for setting global climate policy targets and designing scenarios. Setting effective policy targets requires an understanding of the consequences exceeding them, even by small amounts, and the effective design of sets of scenarios requires the knowledge of how different emissions, concentrations, or forcing need to be in order to produce substantial differences in climate outcomes. Using an extensive database of climate model simulations, we quantify how differences in global average quantities relate to differences in both the spatial extent and magnitude of climate outcomes at regional (250-1250 km) scales. We show that differences of about 0.3 °C in global average temperature are required to generate statistically significant changes in regional annual average temperature over more than half of the Earth’s land surface. A global difference of 0.8 °C is necessary to produce regional warming over half the land surface that is not only significant but reaches at least 1 °C. As much as 2.5 to 3 °C is required for a statistically significant change in regional annual average precipitation that is equally pervasive. Global average temperature change provides a better metric than radiative forcing for indicating differences in regional climate outcomes due to the path dependency of the effects of radiative forcing. For example, a difference in radiative forcing of 0.5 W m-2 can produce statistically significant differences in regional temperature over an area that ranges between 30% and 85% of the land surface, depending on the forcing pathway.

  2. Regional Climate Response to Volcanic Radiative Forcing in Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G.; Dogar, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have tested the regional climate sensitivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to radiation perturbations caused by the large explosive equatorial volcanic eruptions of the second part of 20th century, El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred, respectively, in 1982 and 1991. The observations and reanalysis data show that the surface volcanic cooling in the MENA region is two-three times larger than the global mean response to volcanic forcing. The Red Sea surface temperature appears to be also very sensitive to the external radiative impact. E.g., the sea surface cooling, associated with the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, caused deep water mixing and coral bleaching for a few years. To better quantify these effects we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to conduct simulations of both the El Chichon and Pinatubo impacts with the effectively 25-km grid spacing. We find that the circulation changes associated with the positive phase of the arctic oscillation amplified the winter temperature anomalies in 1982-1984 and 1991-1993. The dynamic response to volcanic cooling also is characterized by the southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in summer and associated impact on the precipitation patterns. Thus, these results suggest that the climate regime in the MENA region is highly sensitive to external forcing. This is important for better understanding of the climate variability and change in this region.

  3. Globalization and Catholic Education: From the Perspective of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alcie B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the affects of globalization in the economic sphere and on higher education. The article asserts that educators need to assure access, quality control, and an educational focus on "the human person as a child of God, a member of a community, and a citizen of the planet." (SWM)

  4. Wildlife-associated recreation in the North Central Region: participation patterns and management implications

    Treesearch

    Allan Marsinko; John Dwyer

    2002-01-01

    The North Central Region (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, WI) is a diverse area of the United States. Compared to the remainder of the country, the region as a whole is demographically similar in terms of mean age, education, household income, and gender. However, the North Central region has a higher proportion of Whites and a slightly lower proportion of people residing in...

  5. Contrasting regional versus global radiative forcing by megacity pollution emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Unger, N.

    2015-10-01

    We assess the regional and global integrated radiative forcing on 20- and 100-year time horizons caused by a one-year pulse of present day pollution emissions from 10 megacity areas: Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York City, Sao Paulo, Lagos, Cairo, New Delhi, Beijing, Shanghai and Manila. The assessment includes well-mixed greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4); and short-lived climate forcers: tropospheric ozone (O3) and fine mode aerosol particles (sulfate, nitrate, black carbon, primary and secondary organic aerosol). All megacities contribute net global warming on both time horizons. Most of the 10 megacity areas exert a net negative effect on their own regional radiation budget that is 10-100 times larger in magnitude than their global radiative effects. Of the cities examined, Beijing, New Delhi, Shanghai and New York contribute most to global warming with values ranging from +0.03 to 0.05 Wm-2yr on short timescales and +0.07-0.10 Wm-2yr on long timescales. Regional net 20-year radiative effects are largest for Mexico City (-0.84 Wm-2yr) and Beijing (-0.78 Wm-2yr). Megacity reduction of non-CH4 O3 precursors to improve air quality offers zero co-benefits to global climate. Megacity reduction of aerosols to improve air quality offers co-benefits to the regional radiative budget but minimal or no co-benefits to global climate with the exception of black carbon reductions in a few cities, especially Beijing and New Delhi. Results suggest that air pollution and global climate change mitigation can be treated as separate environmental issues in policy at the megacity level with the exception of CH4 action. Individual megacity reduction of CO2 and CH4 emissions can mitigate global warming and therefore offers climate safety improvements to the entire planet.

  6. Stratigraphy of Midland basin in regional and global context

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.M. ); Hayner, D. )

    1994-03-01

    A new correlation of 85 well logs provides the data for a continuous set of structure and isopach maps covering one square degree of longitude and latitude from 101 to 102 west and 32 to 33 north. A corresponding set of maps showing paleogeography and tectonics relates each of the above maps to its surroundings in the southwest quarter of North America. A further set of maps of the globe then relates the paleogeographic settings to global plate tectonics. The logs were chosen for an even distribution throughout the study areas and they illustrate the stratigraphic development of the Midland basin from the Early Ordovician up to the middle of the Leonardian stage, i.e., up to the union of Gondwana.

  7. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Climate Change Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.

    2011-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) and multiple global model responses by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with a medium-high emissions scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within the NCEP reanalysis R2. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes six different RCMs that have been used in various intercomparison programs in Europe and the United States. Four different AOGCMs provide boundary conditions to drive the RCMS for 30 years in the current climate and 30 years for the mid 21st century. The resulting climate model simulations form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts and adaptation assessments over North America. Eleven of the planned 12 sets of current and future simulations have been completed. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple simulations are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from the climate change experiments for various subregions, along with measures of uncertainty, will be presented.

  8. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Climate Change Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.

    2012-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) and multiple global model responses by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with a medium-high emissions scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within the NCEP reanalysis R2. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes six different RCMs that have been used in various intercomparison programs in Europe and the United States. Four different AOGCMs provide boundary conditions to drive the RCMS for 30 years in the current climate and 30 years for the mid 21st century. The resulting climate model simulations form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts and adaptation assessments over North America. All 12 sets of current and future simulations have been completed. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple simulations are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from the various climate change experiments for various subregions, along with measures of uncertainty, will be presented

  9. Structure of North Atlantic upper mantle based on gravity modelling, regional geochemistry and tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.

  10. Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Sain, Steve; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; McGinnis, Seth; Biner, S.; Caya, Daniel; Arritt, R.; Gutowski, William; Takle, Eugene S.; Snyder, Mark A.; Jones, Richard; Nunes, A M B.; Tucker, S.; Herzmann, D.; McDaniel, Larry; Sloan, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of the domain in winter and greater decreases across a swath of the central part in summer, compared to the four GCMs driving the regional models as well as to the full set of CMIP3 GCM results. We pose some possible process-level mechanisms for the difference in intensity of change, particularly for summer. Detailed process-level studies will be necessary to establish mechanisms and credibility of these results. The GCMs explain more variance for winter temperature and the RCMs for summer temperature. The same is true for precipitation patterns. Thus, we recommend that future RCM-GCM experiments over this region include a balanced number of GCMs and RCMs.

  11. Global and regional sea level proxy-model consistency over the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, C. M.; Morrow, E.; Kopp, R. E.; Horton, B.; Kemp, A.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh proxy records along the North American Atlantic coast reveal sea level variability over the past 3000 years reflecting large-scale changes in climate and ocean circulation. Over the period corresponding to the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Millennium experiments (850-1850 CE), these reconstructions suggest four distinct multi-century periods of sea level variability in which global mean sea level varied by ±8 cm, with larger amplitude, regional, dynamic sea level changes that are often out-of-phase. Here, we analyze Last Millennium simulations from six modeling centers to determine whether the timing, magnitude, wavelength and spatial patterns of regional and global sea level variability are consistent across models and with the proxy record. Although most models show centennial-timescale variability in global mean and regional sea level, and a few models replicate the timing and phasing of anomalies North of Cape Hatteras, the amplitude of these anomalies are far smaller than inferred from proxies. We offer possible explanations for model-proxy mismatch, and suggest numerical simulations and analyses that might help to assess their validity.

  12. GBS: Global 3D simulation of tokamak edge region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ben; Fisher, Dustin; Rogers, Barrett; Ricci, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    A 3D two-fluid global code, namely Global Braginskii Solver (GBS), is being developed to explore the physics of turbulent transport, confinement, self-consistent profile formation, pedestal scaling and related phenomena in the edge region of tokamaks. Aimed at solving drift-reduced Braginskii equations [1] in complex magnetic geometry, the GBS is used for turbulence simulation in SOL region. In the recent upgrade, the simulation domain is expanded into close flux region with twist-shift boundary conditions. Hence, the new GBS code is able to explore global transport physics in an annular full-torus domain from the top of the pedestal into the far SOL. We are in the process of identifying and analyzing the linear and nonlinear instabilities in the system using the new GBS code. Preliminary results will be presented and compared with other codes if possible.[4pt] [1] A. Zeiler, J. F. Drake and B. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 4, 2134 (1997)

  13. Martian North Polar Impacts and Volcanoes: Feature Discrimination and Comparisons to Global Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakimoto, E. H.; Weren, S. L.

    2003-01-01

    The recent Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have greatly improved our available data for the north polar region of Mars. Pre- MGS and MO studies proposed possible volcanic features, and have revealed numerous volcanoes and impact craters in a range of weathering states that were poorly visible or not visible in prior data sets. This new data has helped in the reassessment of the polar deposits. From images or shaded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography grids alone, it has proved to be difficult to differentiate cratered cones of probable volcanic origins from impact craters that appear to have been filled. It is important that the distinction is made if possible, as the relative ages of the polar deposits hinge on small numbers of craters, and the local volcanic regime originally only proposed small numbers of volcanoes. Therefore, we have expanded prior work on detailed topographic parameter measurements and modeling for the polar volcanic landforms and mapped and measured all of the probable volcanic and impact features for the north polar region as well as other midlatitude fields, and suggest that: 1) The polar volcanic edifices are significantly different topographically from midlatitude edifices, and have steeper slopes and larger craters as a group; 2) The impact craters are actually distinct from the volcanoes in terms of the feature volume that is cavity compared to feature volume that is positive relief; 3) There are actually several distinct types of volcanic edifices present; 4) These types tend to be spatially grouped by edifice. This is a contrast to many of the other small volcanic fields around Mars, where small edifices tend to be mixed types within a field.

  14. Global extreme events and their regional economic impact: 1996 update

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.

    1996-12-31

    The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. The regional economic impacts of global extreme events are what mankind needs to focus on in government and private sector policy and planning. The economic impact of global warming has been tracked by the Extreme Event Index (EEI) established by the Global Warming International Center (GWIC). This review will update the overall trend and the components of the EEI from 1960 to 1996. The regional components of the global EEI have provided an excellent gauge for measuring the statistical vulnerability of any geographical locality in climate related economic disasters. The author further explains why we no longer fully understand the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these extreme events, precipitation and temperature oscillations, atmospheric thermal unrest, as well as the further stratification of clouds, and changes in the absorptive properties of clouds. Hurricane strength winds are increasingly common even in continental areas. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts a high public health risk as a result of the earth`s transition to another equilibrium state in its young history.

  15. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  16. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval of a revision to the North Carolina state implementation plan (SIP) submitted by the State of North Carolina through the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality (NCDAQ), on December 17, 2007, that addresses regional haze for the first implementation period. This revision addresses the requirements of the Clean......

  17. Global environmental change issues in the western Indian ocean region

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, F.J.; Aubrey, D.G.; Gentile, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change caused by increased atmospheric trace gas loading is expected to cause a variety of direct and indirect impacts. These impacts include rising sea levels, changes in storm climates, changes in precipitation patterns, and alterations of ocean circulation patterns. The purpose of the paper is to place into a regional context for the Western Indian Ocean region the problems arising from changes in global climate. Specifically, the paper will focus on the potential for impacts in the coastal zone, where the indirect pressures of climate change and anthropogenic forcings (e.g. pollution, dredging, coral mining) and policy (land use, coastal zone) collide.

  18. Random Forests for Global and Regional Crop Yield Predictions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jig Han; Resop, Jonathan P; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Fleisher, David H; Yun, Kyungdahm; Butler, Ethan E; Timlin, Dennis J; Shim, Kyo-Moon; Gerber, James S; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Accurate predictions of crop yield are critical for developing effective agricultural and food policies at the regional and global scales. We evaluated a machine-learning method, Random Forests (RF), for its ability to predict crop yield responses to climate and biophysical variables at global and regional scales in wheat, maize, and potato in comparison with multiple linear regressions (MLR) serving as a benchmark. We used crop yield data from various sources and regions for model training and testing: 1) gridded global wheat grain yield, 2) maize grain yield from US counties over thirty years, and 3) potato tuber and maize silage yield from the northeastern seaboard region. RF was found highly capable of predicting crop yields and outperformed MLR benchmarks in all performance statistics that were compared. For example, the root mean square errors (RMSE) ranged between 6 and 14% of the average observed yield with RF models in all test cases whereas these values ranged from 14% to 49% for MLR models. Our results show that RF is an effective and versatile machine-learning method for crop yield predictions at regional and global scales for its high accuracy and precision, ease of use, and utility in data analysis. RF may result in a loss of accuracy when predicting the extreme ends or responses beyond the boundaries of the training data.

  19. Random Forests for Global and Regional Crop Yield Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jig Han; Resop, Jonathan P.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Fleisher, David H.; Yun, Kyungdahm; Butler, Ethan E.; Timlin, Dennis J.; Shim, Kyo-Moon; Gerber, James S.; Reddy, Vangimalla R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate predictions of crop yield are critical for developing effective agricultural and food policies at the regional and global scales. We evaluated a machine-learning method, Random Forests (RF), for its ability to predict crop yield responses to climate and biophysical variables at global and regional scales in wheat, maize, and potato in comparison with multiple linear regressions (MLR) serving as a benchmark. We used crop yield data from various sources and regions for model training and testing: 1) gridded global wheat grain yield, 2) maize grain yield from US counties over thirty years, and 3) potato tuber and maize silage yield from the northeastern seaboard region. RF was found highly capable of predicting crop yields and outperformed MLR benchmarks in all performance statistics that were compared. For example, the root mean square errors (RMSE) ranged between 6 and 14% of the average observed yield with RF models in all test cases whereas these values ranged from 14% to 49% for MLR models. Our results show that RF is an effective and versatile machine-learning method for crop yield predictions at regional and global scales for its high accuracy and precision, ease of use, and utility in data analysis. RF may result in a loss of accuracy when predicting the extreme ends or responses beyond the boundaries of the training data. PMID:27257967

  20. Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks. Volume II: National and Regional Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This second volume of the "Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks" focuses on national and regional cases of national qualifications frameworks for eighty- six countries from Afghanistan to Uzbekistan and seven regional qualifications frameworks. Each country profile provides a thorough review of the main…

  1. Globalizing Lessons Learned from Regional-scale Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Mid Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) has accumulated a decade of experience designing, building and operating a Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System for the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). MARACOOS serves societal goals and supports scientific discovery at the scale of a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). Societal themes include maritime safety, ecosystem decision support, coastal inundation, water quality and offshore energy. Scientific results that feed back on societal goals with better products include improved understanding of seasonal transport pathways and their impact on phytoplankton blooms and hypoxia, seasonal evolution of the subsurface Mid Atlantic Cold Pool and its impact on fisheries, biogeochemical transformations in coastal plumes, coastal ocean evolution and impact on hurricane intensities, and storm sediment transport pathways. As the global ocean observing requirements grow to support additional societal needs for information on fisheries and aquaculture, ocean acidification and deoxygenation, water quality and offshore development, global observing will necessarily evolve to include more coastal observations and forecast models at the scale of the world's many LMEs. Here we describe our efforts to share lessons learned between the observatory operators at the regional-scale of the LMEs. Current collaborators are spread across Europe, and also include Korea, Indonesia, Australia, Brazil and South Africa. Specific examples include the development of a world standard QA/QC approach for HF Radar data that will foster the sharing of data between countries, basin-scale underwater glider missions between internationally-distributed glider ports to developed a shared understanding of operations and an ongoing evaluation of the global ocean models in which the regional models for the LME will be nested, and joint training programs to develop the distributed teams of scientists and technicians

  2. Surface-Wind Anomalies in North-Atlantic and North Pacific from SSM/I Observations: Influence on Temperature of Adjoining Land Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, R.; Ingraham, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Starr, D.; Terry, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surface winds over the oceans are derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements, assigning direction by Variational Analysis Method (VAM). Validations by comparison with other measurements indicate highly-satisfactory data quality. Providing global coverage from 1988, the dataset is a convenient source for surface-wind climatology. In this study, the interannual variability of zonal winds is analyzed concentrating on the westerlies in North Atlantic and North Pacific, above 30 N. Interannual differences in the westerlies exceeding 10 m sec (exp -1) are observed over large regions, often accompanied by changes of the same magnitude in the easterlies below 30 N. We concentrate on February/March, since elevated temperatures, by advancing snow-melt, can produce early spring. The extremely strong westerlies in 1997 observed in these months over North Atlantic (and also North Pacific) apparently contributed to large surface-temperature anomalies in western Europe, on the order of +3 C above the climatic monthly average for England and France. At these latitudes strong positive anomalies extended in a ring around the globe. We formulated an Index of South westerlies for the North Atlantic, which can serve as an indicator for day-by-day advection effects into Europe. In comparing 1997 and 1998 with the previous years, we establish significant correlations with the temperature anomalies (one to five days later, depending on the region, and on the season). This variability of the ocean-surface winds and of the temperature anomalies on land may be related to the El Nino/La Nina oscillations. Such large temperature fluctuations over large areas, whatever the cause, can be regarded as noise in attempts to assess long-term trends in global temperature.

  3. Linking the Mediterranean regional and the global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Scarascia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    This contribution analyzes 22 CMIP5 global climate projections to show how is the regional climate change in the Mediterranean related to the global climate change. The aim is to use these recent results to revisit evidences suggesting that the Mediterranean region is a climate change hot spot. Results show that future increase of temperature in the Mediterranean region has a strong seasonal connotation, with summer warming at a pace 40% larger than the global mean. This future trend is consistent with the global reduction of the meridional temperature gradient that is produced by climate change. However spatial distribution of changes shows a strong a sub-regional modulation depending of the land-sea contrast, the role of soil moisture feedback and changes of large scale atmospheric circulation leading to increased subsidence conditions. Projections show that precipitation decrease will affect most of the region, but with a strong difference between southern and northern areas, where CMIP5 projections suggest a 7% and 3% decrease of annual precipitation for each degree of global warming, respectively. For both Mediterranean temperature and precipitation, the dependence is substantially linear in the range up to 40C of global warming. Interannual variability and intermodel differences are a substantial source of uncertainty for precipitation (while there is a robust consensus for temperature changes). Therefore, future precipitation changes are still a controversial issue, in terms of intensity and precise location of the transition belt that separates the decrease of precipitation over the MR from areas in central and northern Europe, where precipitation is expected to increase. On this respect, though the overall drying trend appears consolidated in the scientific literature, its precise evaluation remains to some extent controversial.

  4. A reconstruction of regional and global temperature for the past 11,300 years.

    PubMed

    Marcott, Shaun A; Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; Mix, Alan C

    2013-03-08

    Surface temperature reconstructions of the past 1500 years suggest that recent warming is unprecedented in that time. Here we provide a broader perspective by reconstructing regional and global temperature anomalies for the past 11,300 years from 73 globally distributed records. Early Holocene (10,000 to 5000 years ago) warmth is followed by ~0.7°C cooling through the middle to late Holocene (<5000 years ago), culminating in the coolest temperatures of the Holocene during the Little Ice Age, about 200 years ago. This cooling is largely associated with ~2°C change in the North Atlantic. Current global temperatures of the past decade have not yet exceeded peak interglacial values but are warmer than during ~75% of the Holocene temperature history. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change model projections for 2100 exceed the full distribution of Holocene temperature under all plausible greenhouse gas emission scenarios.

  5. Global warming and the regional persistence of a temperate-zone insect (Tenodera sinensis)

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, T.P.; Smith, A.T.; Hurd, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Models based on the paleoecological record predict that animals in temperate regions will respond to global warming by migrating poleward to remain within their temperature tolerance ranges. The effect of global warming on invertebrates is of great concern because of their critical role in ecosystem structure and function. Migration poses a problem for many species because of their limited dispersal abilities. The life cycle of a typical temperature zone univoltine insect. Tenodera sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) is constrained by degree-days per season: too few prevent maturation before the killing frost in the autumn; too many allow egg hatch before a killing frost. We used field and laboratory observation on the life history and ecology of this species to predict the effect of global warming on the regional distribution of this insect by the end of the next century. Based on the simplified, best-case, biological assumptions of our model, the geographical range of T. sinensis in eastern North America would be compressed toward the northern part of its present contiguous regional distribution. This and other univoltine temperate species with long maturation periods and low vagility could face regional extinction if global warming predictions are accurate. 61 refs., 3 figs.

  6. The predicted circulation response to global warming and implications for regional hydroclimate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isla; Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Shaw, Tiffany

    2016-04-01

    A critical aspect of human-induced climate change is how it will affect regional hydroclimate around the world. To leading order, the increased ability of the atmosphere to hold moisture as it warms, intensifies moisture transports, making sub-tropical dry regions drier and mid- to high latitude wet regions wetter. But regional changes in hydroclimate will also depend on how the atmospheric circulation responds to warming. Here, the predictions of the future of the mid-latitude circulation by the current generation of global climate models will be discussed, with a particular focus on circulation changes that impact on regional hydroclimate. In the Northern Hemisphere winter, stationary wave changes are a leading order effect and impact on both North American and European hydroclimate. However, in certain regions, models exhibit considerable diversity in this response, motivating the need for improved understanding of the mechanisms involved and the reasons behind such a model spread. This is particularly true in the Pacific-North American sector during winter and so the mechanisms involved in circulation changes in this region and the reason for the inter-model spread will be discussed in detail.

  7. Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael R.; Marland, Gregg; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quéré, Corinne; Canadell, Josep G.; Klepper, Gernot; Field, Christopher B.

    2007-01-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning and industrial processes have been accelerating at a global scale, with their growth rate increasing from 1.1% y−1 for 1990–1999 to >3% y−1 for 2000–2004. The emissions growth rate since 2000 was greater than for the most fossil-fuel intensive of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenarios developed in the late 1990s. Global emissions growth since 2000 was driven by a cessation or reversal of earlier declining trends in the energy intensity of gross domestic product (GDP) (energy/GDP) and the carbon intensity of energy (emissions/energy), coupled with continuing increases in population and per-capita GDP. Nearly constant or slightly increasing trends in the carbon intensity of energy have been recently observed in both developed and developing regions. No region is decarbonizing its energy supply. The growth rate in emissions is strongest in rapidly developing economies, particularly China. Together, the developing and least-developed economies (forming 80% of the world's population) accounted for 73% of global emissions growth in 2004 but only 41% of global emissions and only 23% of global cumulative emissions since the mid-18th century. The results have implications for global equity. PMID:17519334

  8. Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael R; Marland, Gregg; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quéré, Corinne; Canadell, Josep G; Klepper, Gernot; Field, Christopher B

    2007-06-12

    CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning and industrial processes have been accelerating at a global scale, with their growth rate increasing from 1.1% y(-1) for 1990-1999 to >3% y(-1) for 2000-2004. The emissions growth rate since 2000 was greater than for the most fossil-fuel intensive of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenarios developed in the late 1990s. Global emissions growth since 2000 was driven by a cessation or reversal of earlier declining trends in the energy intensity of gross domestic product (GDP) (energy/GDP) and the carbon intensity of energy (emissions/energy), coupled with continuing increases in population and per-capita GDP. Nearly constant or slightly increasing trends in the carbon intensity of energy have been recently observed in both developed and developing regions. No region is decarbonizing its energy supply. The growth rate in emissions is strongest in rapidly developing economies, particularly China. Together, the developing and least-developed economies (forming 80% of the world's population) accounted for 73% of global emissions growth in 2004 but only 41% of global emissions and only 23% of global cumulative emissions since the mid-18th century. The results have implications for global equity.

  9. Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Santer, Benjamin D; Gleckler, Peter J

    2009-05-26

    Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simulated regional climate. Accordingly, 42 performance metrics based on seasonal temperature and precipitation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are constructed and applied to 21 global models. However, no strong relationship is found between the score of the models on the metrics and results of the D&A analysis. Instead, the importance of having ensembles of runs with enough realizations to reduce the effects of natural internal climate variability is emphasized. Also, the superiority of the multimodel ensemble average (MM) to any 1 individual model, already found in global studies examining the mean climate, is true in this regional study that includes measures of variability as well. Evidence is shown that this superiority is largely caused by the cancellation of offsetting errors in the individual global models. Results with both the MM and models picked randomly confirm the original D&A results of anthropogenically forced JFM temperature changes in the western U.S. Future projections of temperature do not depend on model performance until the 2080s, after which the better performing models show warmer temperatures.

  10. Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Gleckler, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simulated regional climate. Accordingly, 42 performance metrics based on seasonal temperature and precipitation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are constructed and applied to 21 global models. However, no strong relationship is found between the score of the models on the metrics and results of the D&A analysis. Instead, the importance of having ensembles of runs with enough realizations to reduce the effects of natural internal climate variability is emphasized. Also, the superiority of the multimodel ensemble average (MM) to any 1 individual model, already found in global studies examining the mean climate, is true in this regional study that includes measures of variability as well. Evidence is shown that this superiority is largely caused by the cancellation of offsetting errors in the individual global models. Results with both the MM and models picked randomly confirm the original D&A results of anthropogenically forced JFM temperature changes in the western U.S. Future projections of temperature do not depend on model performance until the 2080s, after which the better performing models show warmer temperatures. PMID:19439652

  11. Evaluation of global and regional climate simulations over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Grigory; Jones, Colin; Kjellström, Erik; Gbobaniyi, Emiola

    2013-04-01

    Two ensembles of climate simulations, one global and one regional, are evaluated and inter-compared over the Africa-CORDEX domain. The global ensemble includes eight coupled atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the CMIP5 project with horizontal resolution varying from about 1° to 3°, namely CanESM2, CNRM-CM5, HadGEM2-ES, NorESM1-M, EC-EARTH, MIROC5, GFDL-ESM2M and MPI-ESM-LR. In the regional ensemble all 8 AOGCMs are downscaled over the Africa-CORDEX domain at the Rossby Centre (SMHI) by a regional climate model - RCA4 at 0.44° resolution. The main focus is on ability of both global and regional ensembles to simulate precipitation in different climate zones of Africa. Precipitation climatology is characterized by seasonal means, inter-annual variability and by various characteristics of the rainy season: onset, cessation, mean intensity and intra-seasonal variability. To see potential benefits of higher resolution in the regional downscaling all precipitation statistics are inter-compared between the individual AOGCM-RCA4(AOGCM) pairs and between the two multi-model ensemble averages. A special attention in the study is on how the AOGCMs simulate teleconnection patterns of large-scale internal variability and how these teleconnection pattern are reproduced in the downscaled regional simulations.

  12. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Regional Climate Impact over Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalth, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; Zampieri, M.; Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.

    2012-04-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a unique region due in part to the abundance of atmospheric aerosols and their significant contribution to the energy balance of the region. Mineral dust plays a leading role in this process. In this study we evaluate the radiative forcing of dust aerosols in the MENA region and their impact on the regional circulation and temperature distribution using a global high-resolution atmospheric model HIRAM developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We found that dust aerosols reduce downward radiative fluxes at surface up to 30 W/m2 and warm by about this amount the lower five-km-deep atmospheric layer. To better quantify radiative impact of aerosols we have employed the available aerosol satellite observations that primarily provide column integral aerosol optical depth (AOD), as a measure of aerosol burden. Climatology of AOD from different satellites (MODIS, MISR, SEVIRI and CALIPSO) over MENA and their inter comparison is made to have a comprehension of the discrepancies and agreement between them. Though the observed AODs vary among the different instruments spatially and temporally, the difference falls within a factor of less than two. We implement these observed aerosols in HIRAM. The radiative forcing corresponding to the satellite aerosol observation and the sensitivity of regional climate to this forcing are analyzed. The analysis shows that the differential heating in the vertical and the corresponding response of the vertical temperature profile have a profound impact on the tropospheric dynamics and the structure of the boundary layer.

  13. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  14. Frictional strength of North Anatolian fault in eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three fault segments of North Anatolian fault (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island fault segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the fault plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.

  15. Regional patterns of sea level change in the German North Sea in a worldwide context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Thomas; Frank, Torsten; Jensen, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) is one of the major consequences we are facing in times of a warming climate and it is obvious that a higher sea level influences the heights of occurring storm surges and thus results in a higher risk of inundation for the affected coastal areas. Therefore, regional and global sea level rise are subjects to many recent scientific publications. In contrast, the mean sea level (MSL) and its variability over the last centuries in the German North Sea area have not been analysed in detail up to now. A methodology to analyse observed sea level rise (SLR) in the German Bight, the shallow south-eastern part of the North Sea, is presented. The contribution focuses on the description of the methods used to generate and analyse high quality mean sea level (MSL) time series. Parametric fitting approaches as well as non-parametric data adaptive filters, such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) are applied. For padding non-stationary sea level time series, an advanced approach named Monte-Carlo autoregressive padding (MCAP) is introduced. This approach allows the specification of uncertainties of the behaviour of smoothed time series near the boundaries. The results for the North Sea point to a weak negative acceleration of SLR since 1844 with a strong positive acceleration at the end of the 19th century, to a period of almost no SLR around the 1970s with subsequent positive acceleration and to high recent rates. The comparison between the German North Sea and a global sea level reconstruction clearly reveals the existence of different patterns of SLR. A stronger SLR in the German North Sea area is detected for a period covering some decades starting at the end of the 19th century and for another period covering the last ten to fifteen years. These findings and the indications for the natural variability of this complex system and further research topics will be discussed. This is a German Coastal Engineering Research Council (KFKI) project, funded by the

  16. Dreaming in Green: Service Learning, Global Engagement and the Liberal Arts at a North American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cororaton, Claire; Handler, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article documents and analyses the uneasy, if not contradictory, relationship between service learning and liberal arts thinking in an undergraduate programme in Global Development Studies (GDS) at a North American University. As an undergraduate, Cororaton participated in a service-learning project to build a greenhouse in Mongolia; at the…

  17. Dreaming in Green: Service Learning, Global Engagement and the Liberal Arts at a North American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cororaton, Claire; Handler, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article documents and analyses the uneasy, if not contradictory, relationship between service learning and liberal arts thinking in an undergraduate programme in Global Development Studies (GDS) at a North American University. As an undergraduate, Cororaton participated in a service-learning project to build a greenhouse in Mongolia; at the…

  18. North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.; Mearns, L.; Anderson, C.; Bader, D.; Buonomo, E.; Caya, D.; Duffy, P.; Elguindi, N.; Giorgi, F.; Gutowski, W.; Held, I.; Nunes, A.; Jones, R.; Laprise, R.; Leung, L. R.; Middleton, D.; Moufouma-Okia, W.; Nychka, D.; Qian, Y.; Roads, J.; Sain, S.; Snyder, M.; Sloan, L.; Takle, E.

    2006-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). NARCCAP is using six nested regional climate models at 50 km resolution to dynamically downscale realizations of current climate (1971-2000) and future climate (2041-2070, following the A2 SRES emission scenario) from four AOGCMs. Global time slice simulations, also at 50 km resolution, will be performed using the GFDL AM2.1 and NCAR CAM3 atmospheric models forced by the AOGCM sea surface temperatures and will be compared with results of the regional models. Results from this multiple-RCM, multiple-AOGCM suite will be statistically analyzed to investigate the cascade of uncertainty as one type of model draws information from another. All output will be made available to the climate analysis and climate impacts assessment communities through an archiving and data distribution plan. The climate impacts community will have these data at unprecedented spatial and temporal (hourly to six-hourly) resolution to support decision-relevant evaluations for public policy. As part of our evaluation of uncertainties, simulations are presently being concluded that nest the participating RCMs within reanalyses of observations. These simulations can be viewed as nesting the RCMs within a GCM that is nearly perfect (constrained by available observations), allowing us to separate errors attributable to the RCMs from those attributable to the driving AOGCMs. Results to date indicate that skill is greater in winter than in summer, and greater for temperature than for precipitation. Temperature and precipitation errors

  19. Forest soils bibliography for the North-Central Region (including subject matter index through 1972).

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1973-01-01

    Includes 793 publications dealing with forest soils in the North-Central States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana); Ohio; and the Northern Plains States (Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas). Includes some publications from other regions considered applicable to conditions in the North-Central Region.

  20. Uranus in 2012 from HST STIS: Methane depletion in north polar region indicates nonseasonal origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Karkoschka, E.; de Pater, I.; Rages, K. A.; Hammel, H. B.

    2013-10-01

    On 28 September 2012, Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observed Uranus (GO 12894, L. Sromovsky PI). The result is a hyperspectral data cube of one half of the planet with spectral coverage of 300-1000 nm. The observations were designed to characterize latitudinally (from about 50 deg S to the north pole) the vertical structure of aerosols and global distribution of methane after the planet's 2007 equinox. These observations form a unique counterpart to similar observations made in 2002 (GO 9035, E. Karkoschka PI) when Uranus' south pole was in view. In 2002, Uranus was found to have a depletion of methane in southern mid-to-high latitudes (Karkoschka and Tomasko 2009, Icarus 202, 287-309; Sromovsky et al. 2011, Icarus 215, 292-312). Characterizing this distribution is possible by the simultaneous sounding of both hydrogen and methane spectral absorption regions (hydrogen CIA peaks near 825 nm). As Uranus' northern hemisphere came into view, it became apparent from near-IR observations of the troposphere (sensing to about 10 bars), that the north and south hemispheres were asymmetric in brightness, and that unexpectedly rapid seasonal changes were taking place (Sromovsky et al. 2009, Icarus 203, 265-286). The north polar region also has what appear to be many small convective features poleward of 60 deg N, in stark contrast to the south polar region (Sromovsky et al. 2012, Icarus 220, 694-712). Sromovsky et al. 2012 speculated this difference could be due to a seasonally-forced methane abundance asymmetry. However, 2007 NICMOS F108N and Keck NIRC2 PaBeta (1271 nm) equinox imagery suggest that the north polar region is also depleted in methane, as do 2009 IRTF SpeX observations (Tice et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 684-698). We can now confirm this northern hemispheric methane depletion appears symmetric rather than a seasonal phenomenon, thanks to the new STIS observations with an excellent view of Uranus northern latitudes. We will also present

  1. Assessing and Responding to the Risks of Global and Societal Changes in the MENA Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Interactions and feedbacks between rapidly increasing multiple pressures on water, energy and food security drive social-ecological systems at multiple scales towards critical thresholds in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA Region). The MENA Region is expected to experience significantly above-global-mean changes in climatic conditions and has been designated as one of the global "climate change hot spots" (Giorgi, F., 2006). The MENA region is also characterized by one of the highest rates of population growth on Earth, having seen a 3.7-fold increase in population between 1950 to 2000. The region is expected to continue to see a roughly doubling of its population until 2050 (Population Reference Bureau, 2001). Significant gender inequalities and an extremely high rate of youth unemployment are repercussions of such developments that exacerbate the societal pressures and tensions in the region. In addition, the events of the "Arab Spring", have resulted in major political, economic and societal transitions and have frequently been accompanied by significant armed struggles within and between countries of the MENA Region. These developments and the still ongoing conflicts in parts of the region render this region to one of the global "political, societal and humanitarian hot-spots". Responding to these challenges requires integrated science and a close relationship between policy makers and stakeholders, a need that Future Earth (www.futureearth.org) has been designed to respond to. In order to address the requirements of nation states and local communities, Future Earth has adopted a regional governance structure. This has resulted in the establishment of the Future Earth MENA Regional Center at the Cyprus Institute (FEMRC) in Nicosia, Cyprus, as one of five Regional Centers worldwide. One of the major challenges in establishing a regional Future-Earth-related research agenda lies in a comprehensive assessments of the

  2. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  3. Global and Regional Temperature-change Potentials for Near-term Climate Forcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.J.; Fry, M.M.; Yu, H.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shindell, D. T.; West, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the climate effects of the emissions of near-term climate forcers (NTCFs) from 4 continental regions (East Asia, Europe, North America and South Asia) using results from the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model simulations. We address 3 aerosol species (sulphate, particulate organic matter and black carbon) and 4 ozone precursors (methane, reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide). We calculate the global climate metrics: global warming potentials (GWPs) and global temperature change potentials (GTPs). For the aerosols these metrics are simply time-dependent scalings of the equilibrium radiative forcings. The GTPs decrease more rapidly with time than the GWPs. The aerosol forcings and hence climate metrics have only a modest dependence on emission region. The metrics for ozone precursors include the effects on the methane lifetime. The impacts via methane are particularly important for the 20 yr GTPs. Emissions of NOx and VOCs from South Asia have GWPs and GTPs of higher magnitude than from the other Northern Hemisphere regions. The analysis is further extended by examining the temperature-change impacts in 4 latitude bands, and calculating absolute regional temperature-change potentials (ARTPs). The latitudinal pattern of the temperature response does not directly follow the pattern of the diagnosed radiative forcing. We find that temperatures in the Arctic latitudes appear to be particularly sensitive to BC emissions from South Asia. The northern mid-latitude temperature response to northern mid-latitude emissions is approximately twice as large as the global average response for aerosol emission, and about 20-30% larger than the global average for methane, VOC and CO emissions.

  4. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Villegas, Juan C.; Breshears, David D.; Law, Darin J.; Saleska, Scott R.; Stark, Scott C.

    2016-11-16

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates of deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia's GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. In conclusion, our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change.

  5. MICS-Asia II: Impact of global emissions on regional air quality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Tracey; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Ehlers, Susanna; Spak, Scott N.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Hozumi, Y.; Ueda, Hiromasa; Park, S. U.; Fung, Christopher; Kajino, M.; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Engardt, Magnuz; Bennet, Cecilia; Hayami, Hiroshi; Sartelet, Karine; Wang, Zifa; Matsuda, K.; Amann, Markus

    This study quantifies the seasonality and geographic variability of global pollutant inflow to Asia. Asia is often looked to as a major source of intercontinental air pollution transport with rising emissions and efficient pollutant export processes. However, the degree to which foreign emissions have been imported to Asia has not been thoroughly examined. The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) is an international collaboration to study air pollution transport and chemistry in Asia. Using the global atmospheric chemistry Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v. 2.4), and comparing results with a suite of regional models participating in MICS-Asia, we find that imported O 3 contributes significantly throughout Asia. The choice of upper boundary condition is found to be particularly important for O 3, even for surface concentrations. Both North America and Europe contribute to ground-level O 3 concentrations throughout the region, though the seasonality of these two sources varies. North American contributions peak at over 10% of monthly mean O 3 during winter months in East Asia, compared to Europe's spring- and autumn-maxima (5-8%). In comparison to observed data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), MOZART concentrations for O 3 generally fall within the range of the MICS models, but MOZART is unable to capture the fine spatial variability of shorter-lived species as well as the regional models.

  6. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elizabeth S; Swann, Abigail L S; Villegas, Juan C; Breshears, David D; Law, Darin J; Saleska, Scott R; Stark, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates of deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia's GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. Our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change.

  7. From Buried Bayous to Global Biogeochemical Fluxes: Submarine Groundwater Discharge in North America's Largest Delta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, A.; Breaux, A.; Kim, J.; Telfeyan, K.; Cable, J. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) associated with large river deltas stands is an understudied, but potentially important, pathway by which water and solutes flow from the continents to the oceans. Deltas are well known to be important loci for nutrient regeneration, carbon sequestration and authigenic mineral formation, and subsurface fluxes between marine and freshwaters in these systems could be geochemically important globally. This talk will examine the topic of deltaic SGD, its regional and global implications, and use case studies from ongoing work in the Mississippi River Delta (MRD). Recent results indicate that SGD fluxes in the MRD averages 1,000 m3 s-1, and can reach 5,000 m3 s-1; making this flux one the 25 largest pathways for water transport in North America. Flow appears to be driven by the stage differential between the Mississippi River (MR) and its surrounding wetlands, and fluctuates seasonally with stage variations in the MR. Water appears to pass through paleochannels, relict crevasse splays, and other buried semi-permeable bodies. Hydrological fluxes may be amplified by the network of levees along the MR that elevate river stages during floods. Given that subsurface flow can undermine levees, deltaic SGD may be an under-recognized component of coastal sustainability, which could accelerate in importance as additional flood control structures are constructed to cope with rising base levels during the Anthropocene. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) associated with large river deltas stands is an understudied, but potentially important, pathway by which water and solutes flow from the continents to the oceans. Deltas are well known to be important loci for nutrient regeneration, carbon sequestration and authigenic mineral formation, and subsurface fluxes between marine and freshwaters in these systems could be geochemically important globally. This talk will examine the topic of deltaic SGD, its regional and global implications, and use

  8. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  9. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, D.

    2009-12-01

    The assessment of the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change impacts in Alaska. The resulting findings are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Summers are getting hotter and drier, with increasing evaporation outpacing increased precipitation. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate change. Wildfires and insect problems are increasing. Climate plays a key role in determining the extent and severity of insect outbreaks and wildfire. The area burned in North America’s northern forest that spans Alaska and Canada tripled from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1990s, south-central Alaska experienced the largest outbreak of spruce bark beetles in the world because of warmer weather in all seasons of the year. Under changing climate conditions, the average area burned per year in Alaska is projected to double by the middle of this century10. By the end of this century, area burned by fire is projected to triple under a moderate greenhouse gas emissions scenario and to quadruple under a higher emissions scenario. Close-bodied lakes are declining in area. A continued decline in the area of surface water would present challenges for the management of natural resources and ecosystems on National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. These refuges, which cover over 77 million acres (21 percent of Alaska) and comprise 81 percent of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System, provide a breeding habitat for millions of waterfowl and shorebirds that winter in the lower 48 states. Permafrost thawing will damage public and private infrastructure. Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in

  10. Environmental changes in the North Atlantic Region: SCANNET as a collaborative approach for documenting, understanding and predicting changes.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Johansson, M; Heal, O W; Saelthun, N R; Barkved, L J; Bayfield, N; Brandt, O; Brooker, R; Christiansen, H H; Forchhammer, M; Høye, T T; Humlum, O; Järvinen, A; Jonasson, C; Kohler, J; Magnusson, B; Meltofte, H; Mortensen, L; Neuvonen, S; Pearce, I; Rasch, M; Turner, L; Hasholt, B; Huhta, E; Leskinen, E; Nielsen, N; Siikamäki, P

    2004-11-01

    The lands surrounding the North Atlantic Region (the SCANNET Region) cover a wide range of climate regimes, physical environments and availability of natural resources. Except in the extreme North, they have supported human populations and various cultures since at least the end of the last ice age. However, the region is also important at a wider geographical scale in that it influences the global climate and supports animals that migrate between the Arctic and all the other continents of the world. Climate, environment and land use in the region are changing rapidly and projections suggest that global warming will be amplified there while increasing land use might dramatically reduce the remaining wilderness areas. Because much of the region is sparsely populated--if populated at all--observational records of past environmental changes and their impacts are both few and of short duration. However, it is becoming very important to record the changes that are now in progress, to understand the drivers of these changes, and to predict future consequences of the changes. To facilitate research into understanding impacts of global change on the lands of the North Atlantic Regions, and also to monitor changes in real time, an EU-funded network of research sites and infrastructures was formed in 2000: this was called SCANNET--SCANdinavian/North European NETwork of Terrestrial Field Bases. SCANNET currently consists of 9 core sites and 5 sites within local networks that together cover the broad range of current climate and predicted change in the region. Climate observations are well replicated across the network, whereas each site has tended to select particular environmental and ecological subjects for intensive observation. This provides diversity of both subject coverage and expertise. In this paper, we summarize the findings of SCANNET to-date and outline its information bases in order to increase awareness of data on environmental change in the North Atlantic

  11. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  12. Surface Current Skill Assessment of Global and Regional forecast models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has been using SAROPS since January 2007 at all fifty of its operational centers to plan search and rescue missions. SAROPS relies on an Environmental Data Server (EDS) that integrates global, national, and regional ocean and meteorological observation and forecast data. The server manages spatial and temporal aggregation of hindcast, nowcast, and forecast data so the SAROPS controller has the best available data for search planning. The EDS harvests a wide range of global and regional forecasts and data, including NOAA NCEP's global HYCOM model (RTOFS), the U.S. Navy's Global HYCOM model, the 5 NOAA NOS Great Lakes models and a suite of other reginal forecasts from NOS and IOOS Regional Associations. The EDS also integrates surface drifter data as the U.S. Coast Guard regularly deploys Self-Locating Datum Marker Buoys (SLDMBs) during SAR cases and a significant set of drifter data has been collected and the archive continues to grow. This data is critically useful during real-time SAR planning, but also represents a valuable scientific dataset for analyzing surface currents. In 2014, a new initiative was started by the U.S. Coast Guard to evaluate the skill of the various models to support the decision making process during search and rescue planning. This analysis falls into 2 categories: historical analysis of drifter tracks and model predictions to provide skill assessment of models in different regions and real-time analysis of models and drifter tracks during a SAR incident. The EDS, using Liu and Wiesberg's (2014) autonomously determines surface skill measurements of the co-located models' simulated surface trajectories versus the actual drift of the SLDMBs (CODE/Davis style surface drifters GPS positioned at 30min intervals). Surface skill measurements are archived in a database and are user retrieval by lat/long/time cubes. This paper will focus on the comparison of models from in the period from 23 August to 21 September 2015. Surface

  13. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  14. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; ...

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore » methane source of 539 Tg a−1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1.« less

  15. Variation of radiative forcings and global warming potentials from regional aviation NOx emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, Agnieszka; Lee, David S.; De León, Ruben R.

    2015-03-01

    The response to hemispherical and regional aircraft NOx emissions is explored by using two climate metrics: radiative forcing (RF) and Global Warming Potential (GWP). The global chemistry transport model, MOZART-3 CTM, is applied in this study for a series of incremental aircraft NOx emission integrations to different regions. It was found that the sensitivity of chemical responses per unit emission rate from regional aircraft NOx emissions varies with size of aircraft NOx emission rate and that climate metric values decrease with increasing aircraft NOx emission rates, except for Southeast Asia. Previous work has recognized that aircraft NOx GWPs may vary regionally. However, the way in which these regional GWPs are calculated are critical. Previous studies have added a fixed amount of NOx to different regions. This approach can heavily bias the results of a regional GWP because of the well-established sensitivity of O3 production to background NOx whereby the Ozone Production Efficiency (OPE) is greater at small background NOx. Thus, even a small addition of NOx in a clean-air area can produce a large O3 response. Using this 'fixed addition' method of 0.035 Tg(N) yr-1, results in the greatest effect observed for North Atlantic and Brazil, ∼10.0 mW m-2/Tg(N) yr-1. An alternative 'proportional approach' is also taken that preserves the subtle balance of local NOx-O3-CH4 systems with the existing emission patterns of aircraft and background NOx, whereby a proportional amount of aircraft NOx, 5% (N) yr-1, is added to each region in order to determine the response. This results in the greatest effect observed for North Pacific that with its net NOx RF of 23.7 mW m-2/Tg(N) yr-1 is in contrast with the 'fixed addition' method. For determining regional NOx GWPs, it is argued that the 'proportional' approach gives more representative results. However, a constraint of both approaches is that the regional GWP determined is dependent on the relative global emission pattern

  16. North Atlantic / Arctic Oscillations in the Pliocene: A Mechanism for Regional Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Csank, Adam; Lunt, Daniel; Haywood, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Pliocene climate is significantly warmer than modern globally, but particularly so in the North Atlantic and adjacent portions of the Arctic. In order to fully understand these changes we must examine not only the mean climate state, but also changes to the significant oscillatory modes of regional climate. The Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations (AO/NAO) are the primary atmospheric oscillatory modes in the North Atlantic / Eastern Arctic region, observed mainly in mean sea level pressure, but accounting for typically a third of all climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Advanced General Circulation Models (GCMs) of both the modern and Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) enable the study of AO/NAO changes between the two intervals and the examination of the causes and significance of any changes. Models show that there is a large change in the mean state of the pressure systems in the North Atlantic, on which the NAO index is based. While the mean Azores High remains relatively constant throughout Pliocene and modern simulations, the mean Icelandic Low is much deeper in MPWP models. By changing the various parameters that are different between the modern and Pliocene simulations, the cause of this change can be examined. The observed changes in mean AO/NAO state can be largely attributed to changes in the orography of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in the Pliocene NAO also include the seasonal and interannual variability seen in the indexes. While the Hadley Centre GCM, used in this study, consistently performs well in studies of regional climate change and atmospheric phenomenon, different GCMs have been shown to produce different NAO responses to climate change. Multiple models can be used to find patterns that are robust between different GCMs, which should be possible in the new PlioMIP study. Secondly, comparison with palaeoclimate proxy data can be used to ground truth the modelled changes. Although this will always be difficult with an interannual

  17. How global extinctions impact regional biodiversity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shan; Davies, T. Jonathan; Gittleman, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) represents the evolutionary history of a species assemblage and is a valuable measure of biodiversity because it captures not only species richness but potentially also genetic and functional diversity. Preserving PD could be critical for maintaining the functional integrity of the world's ecosystems, and species extinction will have a large impact on ecosystems in areas where the ecosystem cost per species extinction is high. Here, we show that impacts from global extinctions are linked to spatial location. Using a phylogeny of all mammals, we compare regional losses of PD against a model of random extinction. At regional scales, losses differ dramatically: several biodiversity hotspots in southern Asia and Amazonia will lose an unexpectedly large proportion of PD. Global analyses may therefore underestimate the impacts of extinction on ecosystem processes and function because they occur at finer spatial scales within the context of natural biogeography. PMID:21957091

  18. Detecting Epileptic Regions Based on Global Brain Connectivity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Andrew; Venkataraman, Archana; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Liu, Hesheng; Tanaka, Naoro; Madsen, Joseph; Golland, Polina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to detect epileptic regions based on functional connectivity differences between individual epilepsy patients and a healthy population. Our model assumes that the global functional characteristics of these differences are shared across patients, but it allows for the epileptic regions to vary between individuals. We evaluate the detection performance against intracranial EEG observations and compare our approach with two baseline methods that use standard statistics. The baseline techniques are sensitive to the choice of thresholds, whereas our algorithm automatically estimates the appropriate model parameters and compares favorably with the best baseline results. This suggests the promise of our approach for pre-surgical planning in epilepsy. PMID:24505654

  19. Detecting epileptic regions based on global brain connectivity patterns.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew; Venkataraman, Archana; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Liu, Hesheng; Tanaka, Naoro; Madsen, Joseph; Golland, Polina

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to detect epileptic regions based on functional connectivity differences between individual epilepsy patients and a healthy population. Our model assumes that the global functional characteristics of these differences are shared across patients, but it allows for the epileptic regions to vary between individuals. We evaluate the detection performance against intracranial EEG observations and compare our approach with two baseline methods that use standard statistics. The baseline techniques are sensitive to the choice of thresholds, whereas our algorithm automatically estimates the appropriate model parameters and compares favorably with the best baseline results. This suggests the promise of our approach for pre-surgical planning in epilepsy.

  20. Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yaling; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.; Davies, Evan; Miralles, Diego G.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; He, Yujie; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-09-06

    Despite significant effort to quantify the inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process, for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 ± 5 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.2–3% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to surface water, 30% to groundwater, and 12% to non-fresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%) and wastewater treatment (18%). While the USA was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970’s until the 2000’s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

  1. Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaling; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H; Davies, Evan; Miralles, Diego G; Teuling, Adriaan J; He, Yujie; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-09-06

    Despite significant effort to quantify the interdependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.7%-2.7% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to fresh surface water, 30% to fresh groundwater, and 12% to nonfresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%), and wastewater treatment (18%). While the United States was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970s until the 2000s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

  2. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Kucharski, Fred; Azharuddin, Syed

    2017-03-01

    ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and regional circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical regions focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (`SPEEDY'). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the impact of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian region, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air-sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these regions. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO impacts are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude regions. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these regions during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger impact over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian region because of its significant impact

  3. The global problems of child malnutrition and mortality in different world regions.

    PubMed

    El-Ghannam, Ashraf Ragab

    2003-01-01

    The study of child mortality occupies a special place in the field of demographic research, since it represents the negative component of population growth. Also, the world food problem has become a familiar topic since the end of the World War II. The idea that population growth will sometime in the future outrun food supplies and universal starvation occurs. This study deals with what happened in global and regional variations regarding the child malnutrition and mortality rates. The main objective of the study is to explain and to explore the effect of the social, demographic, economic and health factors on child malnutrition and mortality rates among different regions in the globe. The study includes ten regions of the whole world compared to other studies that covered only one or two regions. Data were collected from various sources. The sample involved 191 countries. These countries divided by regions of world as following. East Southern Africa, West Africa, East Asia and Pacific, South Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Europe, Middle East, North Africa, North America, and South America. The results of descriptive analysis show that the highest mean rate of child malnutrition was found in South Asia region (57 children per 100), while the smallest mean rate was found in Europe region (just 1 child per 100). In West Africa region, the average of child mortality rate per 1000, 172 children, was the highest among all regions in the world, while in Europe was found to be 14 children per 1000. The results of correlation coefficients reveal that there were positive associations between illiteracy rate, unemployment, poverty, fertility rate, family size, food consumption, maternal mortality rate, population per physician, and child malnutrition and mortality in the whole world regions. Some regions have strong significant associations, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Americas, and other were non-significant association, such as Europe, Middle East, and

  4. Global and Regional Temperature-change Potentials for Near-term Climate Forcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.J.; Fry, M. M.; Yu, H.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shindell, D. T.; West, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The emissions of reactive gases and aerosols can affect climate through the burdens of ozone, methane and aerosols, having both cooling and warming effects. These species are generally referred to near-term climate forcers (NTCFs) or short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), because of their short atmospheric residence time. The mitigation of these would be attractive for both air quality and climate on a 30-year timescale, provided it is not at the expense of CO2 mitigation. In this study we examine the climate effects of the emissions of NTCFs from 4 continental regions (East Asia, Europe, North America and South Asia) using results from the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model simulations. We address 3 aerosol species (sulphate, particulate organic matter and black carbon - BC) and 4 ozone precursors (methane, reactive nitrogen oxides - NOx, volatile organic compounds VOC, and carbon monoxide - CO). For the aerosols the global warming potentials (GWPs) and global temperature change potentials (GTPs) are simply time-dependent scaling of the equilibrium radiative forcing, with the GTPs decreasing more rapidly with time than the GWPs. While the aerosol climate metrics have only a modest dependence on emission region, emissions of NOx and VOCs from South Asia have GWPs and GTPs of higher magnitude than from the other northern hemisphere regions. On regional basis, the northern mid-latitude temperature response to northern mid-latitude emissions is approximately twice as large as the global average response for aerosol emission, and about 20-30% larger than the global average for methane, VOC and CO emissions. We also found that temperatures in the Arctic latitudes appear to be particularly sensitive to black carbon emissions from South Asia.

  5. Politics of North Korean Refugees and Regional Security Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    addressed the refugee issue. Suzanne Scholte sums it up succinctly in an editorial in the Korea Times: The Chinese Government and even U.S. policy...Suzanne Scholte , “What President Obama Should Do About North Korea,” Korea Times, January 27, 2009. 37 sees that it cannot do anything about the...International, 1993. Scholte , Suzanne. “What President Obama Should Do About North Korea.” Korea Times, 27 January 2009. “Security Council Wrestles with N

  6. Projected impact of climate change in the North and Baltic Sea. Results from dynamical downscaling of global CMIP climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Sein, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    Climate models have predicted strongest climate change impact for the mid/high lattiude areas. Despite their importance, shelves seas (which are supposed to account for more than 20% of global marine primary production and for up to 50% of total marine carbon uptake) are not adequately resolved in climate models. In this study, the global ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model MPIOM/HAMOCC has been setup with an enhanced resolution over the NW European shelf (~10 km in the southern North Sea). For a realistic representation of atmosphere-ocean interactions the regional model REMO has been implemented. Thus, this model configuration allows a physically consistent simulation of climate signal propagation from the North Atlantic over the North Sea into the Baltic Sea since it interactively simulates mass and energy fluxes between the three basins. The results indicate substantial changes in hydrographic and biological conditions for the end of the 21st Century. A freshening by about 0.75 psu together with a surface warming of ~2.0 K and associated circulation changes in and outside the North Sea reduce biological production on the NW European shelf by ~35%. This reduction is twice as strong as the reduction in the open ocean. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the shelf break and the continental slope which reduces the winter mixed layer by locally more than 200 m compared to current conditions. As a consequence winter nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic declines between 40 and 50%. In addition to this, the volume transport of water and salt into the North Sea will slightly reduce (~10%) during summer. At the end of the 21st Century the North Sea appears nearly decoupled from the deep Atlantic. The projected decline in biological productivity and subsequent decrease of phytoplankton (by averaged 25%) will probably negatively affect the local fish stock in the North Sea. In the Baltic Sea the climate

  7. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  8. Healthy Cities in a global and regional context.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Roderick J; Fudge, Colin

    2009-11-01

    Since the beginning of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network in 1987, the global and regional contexts for the promotion of health and well-being have changed in many ways. First, in 2000, the United Nations Millennium Goals explicitly and implicitly addressed health promotion and prevention at the global and regional levels. Second, the concern for sustainable development at the Rio Conference in 1992 was confirmed at the World Summit in Johannesburg in 2002. During the same period, in many regions including Europe, the redefinition of the roles and responsibilities of national, regional and local governments, reductions in budgets of public administrations, the privatization of community and health services, the instability of world trade, the financial system and employment, migration flows, relatively high levels of unemployment (especially among youth and young adults) have occurred in many countries in tandem with negative impacts on specific policies and programmes that are meant to promote health. Since 1990, the European Commission has been explicitly concerned about the promotion of health, environment and social policies by defining strategic agendas for the urban environment, sustainable development and governance. However, empirical studies during the 1990s show that urban areas have relatively high levels of tuberculosis, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, adult obesity, malnutrition, tobacco smoking, poor mental health, alcohol consumption and drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS), crime, homicide, violence and accidental injury and death. In addition, there is evidence that urban populations in many industrialized countries are confronted with acute new health problems stemming from exposure to persistent organic pollutants, toxic substances in building structures, radioactive waste and increasing rates of food poisoning. These threats to public health indicate an urgent need for new strategic policies and

  9. Source Attribution for Mercury Deposition to the Great Lakes Region in the Context of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fisher, J. A.; Wu, S.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has important implications for human and wildlife health therein. Atmospheric deposition serves as an important pathway for mercury entering into the lakes and mercury originating from sources outside North America also contributes to part of the total mercury deposited to the Great Lakes. Understanding the source apportionment of mercury deposition to the Great Lakes region is critical for policy making. We investigate the present day source attribution of mercury deposition to the Great Lakes region as well as the perturbations driven by various factors in the context of global change (such as the changes in biomass burning emissions, anthropogenic emissions and land use/land cover) using the GEOS-Chem global model. We will quantify the relative contribution of different emission sources (e.g., anthropogenic vs natural) and different regions (e.g., domestic vs intercontinental-transport) to mercury deposition in the Great Lakes region. In addition, we will conduct sensitivity tests to evaluate the model's sensitivity to processes such as atmospheric redox reactions and how it affects the source attribution.

  10. Mars landscape evolution: Influence of stratigraphy on geomorphology in the north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Malin, Michael C.; Cantor, Bruce A.; Thomas, Peter C.

    2003-06-01

    Lithology and physical properties of strata exposed at the Earth's surface have direct influence on the erosion and geomorphic expression of landforms. While this is well known on our planet, examples on Mars are just coming to light among the tens of thousands of airphoto-quality images (resolutions 1.5-12 m/pixel) acquired since 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Specific examples occur among Martian north polar layered materials, which MOC images reveal are divided into two distinct stratigraphic units: a lower, dark-toned layered unit and a younger, upper, lighter-toned layered unit. The lower unit is less resistant to wind erosion than the upper unit. The upper unit most likely consists of stratified dust and ice, while the lower unit contains abundant, poorly-cemented sand. Sand is more easily mobilized by wind than dust; the lower resistance to erosion of the lower unit results from the presence of sand. Where wind erosion in polar troughs has penetrated to the lower unit, geomorphic change has proceeded more rapidly: sand has been liberated from the lower unit, and arcuate scarps have formed as the upper unit has been undermined. Wind erosion of the lower unit thus influences the geomorphology of the north polar region; this result likely explains the genesis of the large polar trough, Chasma Boreale, and the relations between dunes and arcuate scarps that have puzzled investigators for nearly three decades. The properties of the stratigraphic units suggest that the upper limit for the amount of water contained in the north polar layered materials may be 30-50% less than previously estimated.

  11. Tectonic Activity on Enceladus in the Context of a Pressurized Global Ocean or Regional Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesi, Laurent; Johnston, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    The rich history of tectonic activity on Enceladus has the potential to provide constraints on the internal structure of the satellite. The South Polar region is dominated by tectonic extension whereas the Southern Curvilinear Terrain surrounding it is interpreted as a compressional feature. Other tectonised terrains in the leading hemisphere and the trailing hemisphere of the satellite may constitute ancient analogues to the South Polar Terrain. The North Pole also presents evidence for recent tectonic extension. To explain the origin of the tectonic pattern featuring regions of extension at both poles, one of them being surrounded by an annulus of compressive tectonics, we study the stress field generated by a pressurized internal water reservoir. Recent geodetic data show that Enceladus likely features a global ocean, although the ice is thinner at the poles, especially the South Pole. Earlier models proposed that water is limited to a regional sea at the South pole. We consider both cases. Regardless of its geometry, the internal water body is likely to be overpressurised as it loses heat and water expands upon freezing. Our model considers an axisymmetric ice shell with an indentation representing the region of thinned ice at the South Pole. The regional sea and the global ocean (when present) exert a uniform pressure of 10 kPa to the base of the ice shell. If the base of the ice shell is fixed, failure takes place only at the South Pole. If the base of the ice shell is sliding, failure also takes place at the North Pole as the shell is pushed against the rigid core. This is the only case where failure at mid-latitude takes place by shear faulting without tensile cracking at the surface. If the base of the ice shell is in contact with the overpressurised ocean, the entire surface of the satellite undergoes failure by tensile cracking. If the intensity of the overpressure is reduced, failure concentrates at the South Pole. There is no local maximum in tension

  12. Future atmospheric abundances and climate forcings from scenarios of global and regional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Andersen, Stephen O.; McFarland, Mack

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are manufactured for use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. While HFCs do not deplete ozone, many are potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Here, new global scenarios show that baseline emissions of HFCs could reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050. The new baseline (or business-as-usual) scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. The scenarios rely on detailed data reported by countries to the United Nations; projections of gross domestic product and population; and recent observations of HFC atmospheric abundances. In the baseline scenarios, by 2050 China (31%), India and the rest of Asia (23%), the Middle East and northern Africa (11%), and the USA (10%) are the principal source regions for global HFC emissions; and refrigeration (40-58%) and stationary air conditioning (21-40%) are the major use sectors. The corresponding radiative forcing could reach 0.22-0.25 W m-2 in 2050, which would be 12-24% of the increase from business-as-usual CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2050. National regulations to limit HFC use have already been adopted in the European Union, Japan and USA, and proposals have been submitted to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries.

  13. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  14. Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinhui; Lopez N, Brenda N.; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lixia

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Source and Destination countries involved in the movement of WEEE have been studied. ► Legislation, facilities and EPR are presented in Source and Destination countries. ► Mostly Destination countries do not have EPR established and have informal facilities. ► Source countries: good technology, EPR established and mostly WEEE regulation enacted. ► Regional WEEE recycling should be under global standards for Sources and Destinations. - Abstract: If we consider Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management, we can see the development of different positions in developed and developing countries. This development started with the movement of WEEE from developed countries to the developing countries. However, when the consequences for health and the environment were observed, some developing countries introduced a ban on the import of this kind of waste under the umbrella of the Basel Convention, while some developed countries have been considering a regional or global WEEE recycling approach. This paper explores the current movements between Source and Destination countries, or the importers and exporters, and examines whether it is legal and why illegal traffic is still rife; how global initiatives could support a global WEEE management scheme; the recycling characteristics of the source an destination countries and also to ascertain whether the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been established between the different stakeholders involved in WEEE management. Ultimately, the Full Extended Producer Responsibility is presented as a possible solution because the compensation of the environmental capacity for WEEE recycling or treatment could be made by the contribution of extra responsibility; and also generating an uniform standard for processing WEEE in an environmentally sound manner could support the regional or international solution of WEEE and also improve the performance of the informal sector.

  15. Evaluating imputation and modeling in the North Central region

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service, in developing procedures for annual forest inventories include establishing the capability of producing annual estimates of timber volume and related variables. The inventory system developed to accomplish these objectives features an annual sample of measured field plots and techniques for...

  16. Education for Citizenship: Community Engagement between the Global South and the Global North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a fieldwork exercise in development geography undertaken by students in the UK. Based on community engagement in partnership with refugee and black minority communities in Liverpool, it explores how such fieldwork can deepen understanding of development geography, contribute to global citizenship and nurture personal skills.…

  17. Education for Citizenship: Community Engagement between the Global South and the Global North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a fieldwork exercise in development geography undertaken by students in the UK. Based on community engagement in partnership with refugee and black minority communities in Liverpool, it explores how such fieldwork can deepen understanding of development geography, contribute to global citizenship and nurture personal skills.…

  18. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  19. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950–2010

    PubMed Central

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7–71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet

  20. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950-2010.

    PubMed

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7-71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet that

  1. Meeting zeros in on past global change in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roger Y.; Dunbar, Robert B.

    A major effort is under way to reconstruct past changes in climate in western North America to address uncertainties in predicting physical and biologic responses to climate change at societal timescales. Sixty scientists from an array of disciplines recently met in Albuquerque to explore the reconstruction and modeling methods that can maximize the scientific return of this effort. Paleoclimate transects are one strategy for organizing climate-related research.Past Global Changes (PAGES), a core projectof the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, is using several paleoclimate transects which will eventually comprise a global network of paleoclimatological sites. PEP-I—which this article discusses—is comprised of North and South America, PEP-II covers Australia and Asia, and PEP-III includes Africa and Europe.

  2. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Treesearch

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  3. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  4. Global-scale regionalization of hydrologic model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Hylke E.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; de Roo, Ad; Miralles, Diego G.; McVicar, Tim R.; Schellekens, Jaap; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Current state-of-the-art models typically applied at continental to global scales (hereafter called macroscale) tend to use a priori parameters, resulting in suboptimal streamflow (Q) simulation. For the first time, a scheme for regionalization of model parameters at the global scale was developed. We used data from a diverse set of 1787 small-to-medium sized catchments (10-10,000 km2) and the simple conceptual HBV model to set up and test the scheme. Each catchment was calibrated against observed daily Q, after which 674 catchments with high calibration and validation scores, and thus presumably good-quality observed Q and forcing data, were selected to serve as donor catchments. The calibrated parameter sets for the donors were subsequently transferred to 0.5° grid cells with similar climatic and physiographic characteristics, resulting in parameter maps for HBV with global coverage. For each grid cell, we used the 10 most similar donor catchments, rather than the single most similar donor, and averaged the resulting simulated Q, which enhanced model performance. The 1113 catchments not used as donors were used to independently evaluate the scheme. The regionalized parameters outperformed spatially uniform (i.e., averaged calibrated) parameters for 79% of the evaluation catchments. Substantial improvements were evident for all major Köppen-Geiger climate types and even for evaluation catchments > 5000 km distant from the donors. The median improvement was about half of the performance increase achieved through calibration. HBV with regionalized parameters outperformed nine state-of-the-art macroscale models, suggesting these might also benefit from the new regionalization scheme. The produced HBV parameter maps including ancillary data are available via www.gloh2o.org.

  5. Global-scale regionalization of hydrologic model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Hylke; van Dijk, Albert; de Roo, Ad; Miralles, Diego; Schellekens, Jaap; McVicar, Tim; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno

    2016-04-01

    Current state-of-the-art models typically applied at continental to global scales (hereafter called macro-scale) tend to use a priori parameters, resulting in suboptimal streamflow (Q) simulation. For the first time, a scheme for regionalization of model parameters at the global scale was developed. We used data from a diverse set of 1787 small-to-medium sized catchments (10--10 000~km^2) and the simple conceptual HBV model to set up and test the scheme. Each catchment was calibrated against observed daily Q, after which 674 catchments with high calibration and validation scores, and thus presumably good-quality observed Q and forcing data, were selected to serve as donor catchments. The calibrated parameter sets for the donors were subsequently transferred to 0.5° grid cells with similar climatic and physiographic characteristics, resulting in parameter maps for HBV with global coverage. For each grid cell, we used the ten most similar donor catchments, rather than the single most similar donor, and averaged the resulting simulated Q, which enhanced model performance. The 1113 catchments not used as donors were used to independently evaluate the scheme. The regionalized parameters outperformed spatially-uniform (i.e., averaged calibrated) parameters for 79~% of the evaluation catchments. Substantial improvements were evident for all major Köppen-Geiger climate types and even for evaluation catchments >5000~km distance from the donors. The median improvement was about half of the performance increase achieved through calibration. HBV using regionalized parameters outperformed nine state-of-the-art macro-scale models, suggesting these might also benefit from the new regionalization scheme. The produced HBV parameter maps including ancillary data are available via http://water.jrc.ec.europa.eu/HBV/.

  6. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  7. Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go?

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Lopez, Brenda N; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lixia

    2013-04-01

    If we consider Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management, we can see the development of different positions in developed and developing countries. This development started with the movement of WEEE from developed countries to the developing countries. However, when the consequences for health and the environment were observed, some developing countries introduced a ban on the import of this kind of waste under the umbrella of the Basel Convention, while some developed countries have been considering a regional or global WEEE recycling approach. This paper explores the current movements between Source and Destination countries, or the importers and exporters, and examines whether it is legal and why illegal traffic is still rife; how global initiatives could support a global WEEE management scheme; the recycling characteristics of the source an destination countries and also to ascertain whether the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been established between the different stakeholders involved in WEEE management. Ultimately, the Full Extended Producer Responsibility is presented as a possible solution because the compensation of the environmental capacity for WEEE recycling or treatment could be made by the contribution of extra responsibility; and also generating an uniform standard for processing WEEE in an environmentally sound manner could support the regional or international solution of WEEE and also improve the performance of the informal sector.

  8. The Regional Nature of Global Challenges. A Need and Strategy for Integrated Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2013-01-31

    In this paper, we explore the regional nature of global environmental challenges. We take a broad approach by examining the scientific foundation that is needed to support policy and decision making and identifying some of the most important barriers to progress that are truly scale-dependent. In so doing, we hope to show that understanding global environmental changes requires understanding a number of intrinsically regional phenomena, and that successful decision making likewise requires an integrated approach that accounts for a variety of regional Earth system processes—which we define to include both human activities and environmental systems that operate or interact primarily at sub-continental scales. Understanding regional processes and phenomena, including regional decision-making processes and information needs, should thus be an integral part of the global change research agenda. To address some of the key issues and challenges, we propose an integrated regional modeling approach that accounts for the dynamic interactions among physical, ecological, biogeochemical, and human processes and provides relevant information to regional decision makers and stakeholders.

  9. Detecting Disturbance and its Impact on Ecosystem Carbon Balance from Global to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Anderegg, W.; Poulter, B.; Cooper, L. A.; Smith, W. K.; Miller, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the terrestrial biosphere is the removal of approximately one quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. However, as patterns of temperature and precipitation change so is the frequency and intensity of ecosystem disturbance. Despite evidence that ecosystem disturbance regimes have shifted leading to widespread forest mortality, the net effect of disturbance on the carbon (C) balance of forest ecosystems remains uncertain. We will use satellite and atmospheric observations to deconvolve net carbon exchange (NEE) into its component fluxes of gross primary productivity and total respiration (e.g. NEE= GPP - R) at global to regional scales. At the global scale we find that NEE has increased over the last 50 years and appears to have accelerated as a result of diminished R over the last 15 years. However the variance in global NEE has also increased perhaps due to inter-annual variability in R, especially within semi-arid ecosystems. These global trends are not necessarily consistent with regional patterns in the net carbon balance, especially across the western US. Atmospheric mass balance suggests that ecosystems of North America have shifted from a net C sink to a net C source. While prolonged drought across the Western US has likely caused this shift in continental scale NEE, attributing this shift in the net C balance to any one mechanism of disturbance (e.g. drought, insect infestation, and fire) or their interactions is challenging. Lastly, we will evaluate existing observing networks, such as NOAA/ESRL and Ameriflux, and how they can be combined with nascent networks, such as NEON, EarthNetworks, and OCO-2, to identify regional disturbance processes that may be causing increasing variance in the global C cycle.

  10. Implications of the permanent El Niño teleconnection "blueprint" for past global and North American hydroclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldner, A.; Huber, M.; Diffenbaugh, N.; Caballero, R.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for wetter-than-modern continental conditions in past warm climates. This is in apparent conflict with the robust global prediction for future climate change of a northward expansion of the subtropical dry zones that should drive aridification of many semiarid regions. Areas of expected aridification include much of Western North America, where extensive paleoenvironmental records from North America point to wetter conditions before the onset of Quaternary ice ages. It has been proposed that climates previous to the early Pliocene may have been characterized as being in a state with warmer-than-modern eastern equatorial sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Because Equatorial Pacific SSTs exert strong controls on midlatitude atmospheric circulation and the global hydrologic cycle, the teleconnected response from this permanent El Niño-like mean state has been proposed as a useful analogue model, or "blueprint", for understanding global climatological and hydrological anomalies in the past. The present study quantitatively explores the implications of this blueprint for past climates, using a global climate model (CAM3.0) and a nested high-resolution climate model (RegCM3) to study the hydrologic impacts of a permanent El Niño on global and North American climate. We find that the global circulation response to a permanent El Niño resembles a large, long El Niño event. However, this state also exhibits equatorial super-rotation, which would represent a fundamental change to the tropical circulations. We also find intensification and southward drift in winter storm tracks in the Pacific, which affects precipitation and temperature over the mid-latitudes via large shifts in atmospheric circulation. In addition, summertime precipitation increases over the majority of the continental United States, with these increases likely controlled by shifts in the subtropical jet and secondary atmospheric feedbacks. Based on these results, we conclude

  11. Global Change in Western North America - A TV Media Series for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrazek, R.; Byrne, J. M.; Cerney, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    "Just the Facts: Global Change in Western North America" is a television series for the ACCESS Television Network in Canada and the U.S. The series reviews some of the most pressing global change issues that threaten western North America, and beyond. Natural and human-induced changes are discussed, and the program strongly suggests the latter is a serious problem for all citizens to address. The series investigates points between the Canadian Arctic and southern California, and features location interviews with renowned global changes scientists in the Canadian and U.S. Rockies, Canadian Plains, the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran Desert and southern California. Ecological footprints of societies and individuals is featured in the latter portion of the series - the graphical portrayal of the impact of North American lifestyle on the ecology is striking, and will make a significant perceptional impact in the classroom; and we hope, with many citizens of the planet. The series has also been broken into video shorts using CDRom technology for presentation. These permit a more function "discussion" format to take place in any presentation.

  12. WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Erin H.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.; Pinto, Osmar; Dowden, Richard L.

    2004-02-01

    An experimental lightning detection network, the World Wide Lightning Location network (WWLL), is being developed to provide real time global coverage with 10 km location accuracy and at least 50% detection efficiency. This paper provides a ``worst case'' analysis of WWLL location accuracy in Brazil where the VLF lightning receivers that make up the network are very distant (>7000 km). Through comparison to a local lightning detection network, we analyze the detection accuracy in Brazil with respect to time, location, and peak current of lightning strokes. In this study, we find that WWLL detection is highly dependent upon the peak return stroke current, resulting in detection of about 0.3% of the total lightning strokes. However, the detected strokes have a location accuracy of 20.25 +/- 13.5 km and a temporal accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.2 ms, providing a good overview of regions of overall global lightning activity in real time.

  13. Implications of North American Boreal Fires on Air Quality and Composition in Nearby and Remote Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.; Edwards, D. P.; Thompson, A. M.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Herman, R. L.; Owen, C. R.; Honrath, R.; Val Martin, M.; Sachse, G. W.; Avery, M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    During the summer of 2004, Alaska and Canada experienced intense wildfire episodes that emitted large amounts of pollutants and aerosols into the atmosphere. We are using simulations with the global chemistry transport model MOZART to study the impact of these emissions on air quality and composition over North America, the Northern Atlantic region, and Europe. The emission inventory we apply for the Alaskan and Canadian wildfires in these simulations is based on a top-down approach using MODIS fire counts, MOPITT CO observations, and the MOZART model. The model has been evaluated by comparison with a large suite of observations such as data from ozone sondes, surface measurements of CO, ozone and nitrogen species, and aircraft observations. The impact of the fires on the concentrations and distributions of the aforementioned trace species will be discussed, including aspects related to air quality. The mid- and lower tropospheric ozone load over North America for summer 2004 is about 7% higher in a simulation including the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires compared to a reference simulation without fires in this region. During July 2004 we estimate that, for about half the time, at least 30% of the ozone load in the lower and middle troposphere over Eastern Canada can be attributed to chemical production from precursors emitted by the fires. Over Western Europe, we find contributions of 10% and higher about one-third of the time. We are investigating the importance of the injection height of fire emissions on atmospheric transport and chemistry, e.g. on the production of tropospheric ozone, and examine the effects of the non-linearity in ozone chemistry. We further compare the radiative forcing of the fire induced increase in ozone concentrations to the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases released by the fires such as CO2 and methane.

  14. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Over the North Pacific Ocean: an Integrated Assessment Using Aircraft, Satellites and a Global Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, E. M.; Mauger, G.; Lariviere, O.; Roberts, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Ming, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Interactions between aerosols and the cloud systems of the North Pacific Ocean were observed by aircraft during the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX) in April 2004. The CIFEX project seeks to determine the impact of aerosol indirect effects on the radiative forcing of highly reflective North Pacific clouds under the influence of aerosols traveling across the ocean basin from Asia. Toward this end, CIFEX aircraft observations from the Northeast Pacific of aerosol and cloud microphysics are blended with coincident satellite observations of cloud properties from MODIS and cloud radiative forcing from CERES. The satellite observations are then compared with global model simulations of aerosol indirect forcing over the entire North Pacific basin. During April 2004 the U. Wyoming King Air research aircraft sampled aerosol and cloud microphysical parameters including aerosol and cloud particle sizes and concentrations, cloud liquid water amounts, and cloud structure using the Wyoming Cloud Radar. A range of clean and polluted conditions were observed by the aircraft during the period, in addition to two major Asian dust storm events. CN concentrations below stratus clouds varied from 25 to 300 cm-3. A variety of cloud systems were sampled as well, ranging from shallow stratus and stratocumulus clouds to mixed-phase precipitating cumulus. Under pristine conditions, many shallow clouds were observed to be drizzling, suggesting that Northern Pacific Ocean cloud systems may be highly susceptible to the influence of aerosols. Clouds in this region are responsible for a large cooling of the ocean surface. The magnitude of shortwave cloud radiative cooling exceeded -80 W m-2 over much of the North Pacific during the experiment. Stratus cloud drop concentrations varied from 25 to 150 cm-3 and are correlated with the concentration of accumulation mode aerosols below cloud base. Mean cloud albedos vary from 0.3 to 0.5 for these same clouds, and MODIS observations of cloud

  15. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  16. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  17. Modelling and Prediction of Regions of the North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-08

    HARVARD UNIVERSITY DIVISION OF APPLIED SCIENCES IT S11 PIERCE HALLAD-A242 424 CMRDE ASCU~r 23ALLAN R. Ro41NSON CABIDE MASSACUSETT 0213 Gordon McKay...Fluid Dynamics Division of Applied Sciences Harvard University Lk t J This was a project for the identification and description of the phenomenology...Oceanography, Harvard University . Roden, G.I., and A.R. Robinson (1989), Subarctic-Subtropical Transition Zone in the North-Eastern Pacific: Mesoscale

  18. Nature of Hesperian Resurfacing in the Scandia-North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Hayward, R. K.; Skinner, J. A.

    2010-03-01

    Formational hypotheses based on preliminary observations and first-year mapping results of the Scandia-North Polar Region of Mars. The map area includes the Scandia Cavi, Scandia Tholi, Scandia Colles, northern Alba Patera, and Vastitas Borealis.

  19. Spatial distributions of 137Cs in surface soil in Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Jinyan; Hu, Hongxia

    2012-11-01

    Artificial Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) has been widely deposited over global soils. In this study, we measured (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil samples taken from Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China, during 2007-2008. The surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 452 sites in this region. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in the samples was measured using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCOM-100). The main findings are as following. (1) The activity concentration of (137)Cs in surface soils in the region of study fluctuates within 0.3±0.1 to 12.9±0.4 Bq/kg with mean value of 3.7 Bq/kg. Compared to other regions located at roughly the same latitude, the (137)Cs activity is relatively low. The results indicate that there are no new inputs of the radionuclides into the area at that time and the data obtained could serve as baseline levels of (137)Cs in Jing-Jin-Ji Region. (2) Considering land use types, surface soil in woodland mostly shows high (137)Cs activities with rare natural erosion and anthropogenic activities, and the surface soil with relatively low (137)Cs activities appears in the areas of intensive anthropogenic activities, especially in the cities, river banks, reservoirs and the strongly eroded areas. The findings suggest that the varying distribution of (137)Cs activities in surface soil corresponds with land use types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of mercury pollution on regional and global scales

    SciTech Connect

    Pirrone, Nicola; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.

    2005-07-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of our current understanding of different dynamic patterns involved in the redistribution of mercury in the global environment and its impact on human health and ecosystems. Mercury pollution in different regions of the world is a growing concern from environmental and epidemiological point of view. The increasing trends of energy production from fossil fuel combustion, mercury usage in a large variety of goods and products and the lack of emission control policy, especially in fast developing countries, represent a major environmental and political issue. In the last three years the European Commission, the United Nations, major international and national environmental agencies and governments have posed a significant attention on this growing issues primarily due to the lack of a concerted international effort in controlling and reducing the input of mercury in the global environment and its impact on human health and sensitive ecosystems. Chapters are entitled: preface - introduction - international and regional perspectives - monitoring and analytical methods - chemical and physical processes - human exposure and regional case studies.

  1. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81.124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  2. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...

  3. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section 81.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  4. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M. L.; Odoherty, S. J.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P.; Steele, P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also discrete air samples collected in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7%yr-1, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally-gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 yr since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in the recent years, most likely due

  5. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2014-05-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also collected discrete air samples in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7% per year, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 years since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in recent years, most likely

  6. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide ( N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also discrete air samples collected in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7 % yr-1, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally-gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 yr since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in the recent years, most likely

  7. The Pacific Islands Regional Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. GCOS Program [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/usgcos/index.htm htm] at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov] is involved in working to implement a sustainable and robust GCOS observing network for international atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial climate observing. The U.S. GCOS support philosophy is based upon a three-tiered approach involving a series of international, regional, and bi-lateral project efforts. One of the most active and important areas of involvement is in the Pacific Ocean region where we leverage support for this via formal climate bilateral agreements that the U.S. has with both Australia and New Zealand. NCDC and the U.S. GCOS Program Manager serve as the NOAA and U.S. lead on these bilateral climate agreements. This paper will describe the efforts undertaken in the Pacific region towards developing a more sustainable and robust GCOS observing ground-based network for atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial climate observing in the region. The paper will describe the actions to date, plans for the future, and how the efforts to date such as the establishment of a virtual Regional Climate Center for the region in order to, among other things, work towards improving data availability and access for and from the nations in the region in order to improve climate services across the region. NCDC is also interested in developing partnerships for installing U.S. Climate Reference Network [see http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn] equipment to be part of a global long-term climate reference network for improving climate information from more data sparse tropical and high-elevation areas. In order to properly document this, a full description of the overall climate observations program in the U.S. is required.

  8. The Pacific Islands Regional Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Howard J.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. GCOS Program [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/usgcos/index.htm htm] at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov] is involved in working to implement a sustainable and robust GCOS observing network for international atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial climate observing. The U.S. GCOS support philosophy is based upon a three-tiered approach involving a series of international, regional, and bi-lateral project efforts. One of the most active and important areas of involvement is in the Pacific Ocean region where we leverage support for this via formal climate bilateral agreements that the U.S. has with both Australia and New Zealand. NCDC and the U.S. GCOS Program Manager serve as the NOAA and U.S. lead on these bilateral climate agreements. This paper will describe the efforts undertaken in the Pacific region towards developing a more sustainable and robust GCOS observing ground-based network for atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial climate observing in the region. The paper will describe the actions to date, plans for the future, and how the efforts to date such as the establishment of a virtual Regional Climate Center for the region in order to, among other things, work towards improving data availability and access for and from the nations in the region in order to improve climate services across the region. NCDC is also interested in developing partnerships for installing U.S. Climate Reference Network [see http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn] equipment to be part of a global long-term climate reference network for improving climate information from more data sparse tropical and high-elevation areas. In order to properly document this, a full description of the overall climate observations program in the U.S. is required.

  9. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  10. National, Regional and Global Perspectives of Higher Education and Science Policies in the Arab Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction between science policies (and particularly in the area of scientific research) and higher education policies in Gulf and Mediterranean Arab countries. Our analysis reveals a discrepancy between the two sub-regions with respect to integration in the global market, cooperation in scientific research and…

  11. National, Regional and Global Perspectives of Higher Education and Science Policies in the Arab Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction between science policies (and particularly in the area of scientific research) and higher education policies in Gulf and Mediterranean Arab countries. Our analysis reveals a discrepancy between the two sub-regions with respect to integration in the global market, cooperation in scientific research and…

  12. Changes in extreme regional sea level under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, S.-E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, M. A.; Bal, H. E.; Seinstra, F.; van Werkhoven, B.; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, M.

    2017-01-01

    An important contribution to future changes in regional sea level extremes is due to the changes in intrinsic ocean variability, in particular ocean eddies. Here, we study a scenario of future dynamic sea level (DSL) extremes using a high-resolution version of the Parallel Ocean Program and generalized extreme value theory. This model is forced with atmospheric fluxes from a coupled climate model which has been integrated under the IPCC-SRES-A1B scenario over the period 2000-2100. Changes in 10-year return time DSL extremes are very inhomogeneous over the globe and are related to changes in ocean currents and corresponding regional shifts in ocean eddy pathways. In this scenario, several regions in the North Atlantic experience an increase in mean DSL of up to 0.4 m over the period 2000-2100. DSL extremes with a 10-year return time increase up to 0.2 m with largest values in the northern and eastern Atlantic.

  13. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  14. Regional to global changes in drought and implications for future changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Kam, J.

    2012-12-01

    Drought can have large impacts on multiple sectors, including agriculture, water resources, ecosystems, transport, industry and tourism. In extreme cases, regional drought can lead to food insecurity and famine, and in intensive agricultural regions, extend to global economic impacts in a connected world. Recent droughts globally have been severe and costly but whether they are becoming more frequent and severe, and the attribution of this, is a key question. Observational evidence at large scales, such as satellite remote sensing are often subject to short-term records and inhomogeneities, and ground based data are sparse in many regions. Reliance on model output is also subject to error and simplifications in the model physics that can, for example, amplify the impact of global warming on drought. This presentation will show the observational and model evidence for changes in drought, with a focus on the interplay between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand and its impact on the terrestrial water cycle and drought. We discuss the fidelity of climate models to reproduce our best estimates of drought variability and its drivers historically, and the implications of this on uncertainties in future projections of drought from CMIP5 models, and how this has changed since CMIP3.

  15. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside.

  16. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Pollock, Jacob F; Hicks, Alan C; Langwig, Kate E; Reynolds, D Scott; Turner, Gregory G; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-08-06

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern North America that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. First discovered in 2006 in New York State, WNS is spreading rapidly across eastern North America and currently affects seven species. Mortality associated with WNS is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to lead to regional extinction of the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), previously one of the most common bat species in North America. Novel diseases can have serious impacts on naïve wildlife populations, which in turn can have substantial impacts on ecosystem integrity.

  17. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? <1 Ga) began with a section of dark, sand-rich and light-toned ice-rich irregularly-bedded sequences (Planum Boreum cavi unit, Abbc) along with deposition of evenly-bedded light-toned ice- and moderate-toned dust-rich layers (Planum Boreum 1 unit, Abb1). These units have transgressive and gradational stratigraphic relationships. Materials in Olympia Planum underlying the dunes of Olympia Undae are interpreted to consist mostly of the Planum Boreum cavi unit (Abbc). Planum Boreum materials were then deeply eroded to form spiral troughs, Chasma Boreale, and marginal scarps that define the major aspects of the polar plateau's current regional topography. Locally- to regionally-extensive (though vertically minor) episodes

  18. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  19. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  20. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Fatima I; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M; Esenov, Constantin T; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized

  1. Global surgery in a postconflict setting--5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Fatima I; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M; Esenov, Constantin T; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized interventions such as microsurgery are integral

  2. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Fatima I.; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M.; Esenov, Constantin T.; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized

  3. Workshop on Spanning Regional-to-Global Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Newman, Paul A.; Gleason, James F.; Brune, William H.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2002-01-01

    Pollution is often considered a localized phenomenon, but it is now clear that it travels from region-to-region, country to country, and even continent to continent. In addition to urban pollution in developed countries, large emissions from developing nations and large-scale biomass fires add to the global pollution burden. Ozone and aerosols are two components of pollution that contribute to radiative forcing of the earth s climate. In turn, as climate changes, rates of chemical and microphysical reactions may be perturbed. Considering the earth as a coupled chemical-microphysical-climate system poses challenges for models and observations alike. These issues were the topic of a Workshop held in May 2002 at NASA GSFC s Laboratory for Atmospheres. Highlights of the Workshop are summarized in this article.

  4. Geomorphology from space: A global overview of regional landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nicholas M. (Editor); Blair, Robert W., Jr. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This book, Geomorphology from Space: A Global Overview of Regional Landforms, was published by NASA STIF as a successor to the two earlier works on the same subject: Mission to Earth: LANDSAT views the Earth, and ERTS-1: A New Window on Our Planet. The purpose of the book is threefold: first, to serve as a stimulant in rekindling interest in descriptive geomorphology and landforms analysis at the regional scale; second, to introduce the community of geologists, geographers, and others who analyze the Earth's surficial forms to the practical value of space-acquired remotely sensed data in carrying out their research and applications; and third, to foster more scientific collaboration between geomorphologists who are studying the Earth's landforms and astrogeologists who analyze landforms on other planets and moons in the solar system, thereby strengthening the growing field of comparative planetology.

  5. An online mineral dust model within the global/regional NMMB: current progress and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, C.; Haustein, K.; Janjic, Z.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Black, T.; Nickovic, S.

    2008-12-01

    While mineral dust distribution and effects are important on global scales, they strongly depend on dust emissions that are occurring on small spatial and temporal scales. Indeed, the accuracy of surface wind speed used in dust models is crucial. Due to the high-order power dependency on wind friction velocity and the threshold behaviour of dust emissions, small errors in surface wind speed lead to large dust emission errors. Most global dust models use prescribed wind fields provided by major meteorological centres (e.g., NCEP and ECMWF) and their spatial resolution is currently about 1 degree x 1 degree . Such wind speeds tend to be strongly underestimated over arid and semi-arid areas and do not account for mesoscale systems responsible for a significant fraction of dust emissions regionally and globally. Other significant uncertainties in dust emissions resulting from such approaches are related to the misrepresentation of high subgrid-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil and vegetation boundary conditions, mainly in semi-arid areas. In order to significantly reduce these uncertainties, the Barcelona Supercomputing Center is currently implementing a mineral dust model coupled on-line with the new global/regional NMMB atmospheric model using the ESMF framework under development in NOAA/NCEP/EMC. The NMMB is an evolution of the operational WRF-NMME extending from meso to global scales, and including non-hydrostatic option and improved tracer advection. This model is planned to become the next-generation NCEP mesoscale model for operational weather forecasting in North America. Current implementation is based on the well established regional dust model and forecast system Eta/DREAM (http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM/). First successful global simulations show the potentials of such an approach and compare well with DREAM regionally. Ongoing developments include improvements in dust size distribution representation, sedimentation, dry deposition, wet

  6. Spatial and temporal distributions of Martian north polar cold spots before, during, and after the global dust storm of 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwall, C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, Mariner and Viking observed features in the Mars northern polar region that were a few hundred kilometers in diameter with 20 fj,m brightness temperatures as low as 130 K (considerably below C02 ice sublimation temperatures). Over the past decade, studies have shown that these areas (commonly called "cold spots") are usually due to emissivity effects of frost deposits and occasionally to active C02 snowstorms. Three Mars years of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data were used to observe autumn and wintertime cold spot activity within the polar regions. Many cold spots formed on or near scarps of the perennial cap, probably induced by adiabatic cooling due to orographic lifting. These topographically associated cold spots were often smaller than those that were not associated with topography. We determined that initial grain sizes within the cold spots were on the order of a few millimeters, assuming the snow was uncontaminated by dust or water ice. On average, the half-life of the cold spots was 5 Julian days. The Mars global dust storm in 2001 significantly affected cold spot activity in the north polar region. Though overall perennial cap cold spot activity seemed unaffected, the distribution of cold spots did change by a decrease in the number of topographically associated cold spots and an increase in those not associated with topography. We propose that the global dust storm affected the processes that form cold spots and discuss how the global dust storm may have affected these processes. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  8. A Global Hydrological Model with Reservoir Operation Scheme: Global and Regional Applications (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Masaki, Y.; Mateo, C.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2013-12-01

    More than 45000 large dams have been constructed all over the world, and their total storage capacity exceeds 7000 km3 which corresponds to approximately 20% of the total annual global river discharge. Explicit incorporation of reservoir operation is indispensable for global-/macro-scale hydrological models, since their storage capacity and potential of altering flow regime are too large to neglect. Our presentation consists of three parts. In the first part, the H08 model, a global hydrological model with reservoir operation scheme is introduced. The H08 model includes an algorithm to estimate reservoir operating rules of individual reservoirs. This enables us to apply the model to the regions and periods with no recorded reservoir operation. The key concepts and challenges of the model are discussed. In the second part, the role of reservoirs in water scarcity is globally assessed. In many parts of the world, local people are suffered from temporal variability in precipitation and river flow. The contribution of reservoirs to water scarcity alleviation is quantitatively and globally assessed. The assessment is extended to the future periods utilizing the latest climate and socio-economic scenarios. In the last part, a regional model application is introduced. The Chao Phraya River in Thailand was suffered from a severe flood in 2011. Vast area was inundated for months and the economic damages reached 40 billion USD. The Chao Phraya River has two major reservoirs and their role is crucial for both water use and flood control. The H08 model is substantially enhanced and applied to the basin to reproduce the 2011 floods. The tradeoff between water use and flood control was investigated by changing reservoir operation options.

  9. Global Natural Disaster Risk Hotspots: Transition to a Regional Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Chen, R.; Dilley, M.

    2005-12-01

    The "Hotspots Project" is a collaborative study of the global distribution and occurrence of multiple natural hazards and the associated exposures of populations and their economic output. In this study we assess the global risks of two disaster-related outcomes: mortality and economic losses. We estimate risk levels by combining hazard exposure with historical vulnerability for two indicators of elements at risk-gridded population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per unit area - for six major natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, drought, and cyclones. By calculating relative risks for each grid cell rather than for countries as a whole, we are able to estimate risk levels at sub-national scales. These can then be used to estimate aggregate relative multiple hazard risk at regional and national scales. Mortality-related risks are assessed on a 2.5' x 2.5' latitude-longitude grid of global population (GPW Version 3). Economic risks are assessed at the same resolution for gridded GDP per unit area, using World Bank estimates of GDP based on purchasing power parity. Global hazard data were compiled from multiple sources. The project collaborated directly with UNDP and UNEP, the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) at Columbia, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) in the creation of data sets for several hazards for which global data sets did not previously exist. Drought, flood and volcano hazards are characterized in terms of event frequency, storms by frequency and severity, earthquakes by frequency and ground acceleration exceedance probability, and landslides by an index derived from probability of occurrence. The global analysis undertaken in this project is clearly limited by issues of scale as well as by the availability and quality of data. For some hazards, there exist only 15- to 25-year global records with relatively crude spatial information. Data on historical disaster losses, and particularly on

  10. Global and regional surface cooling in a warming climate: a multi-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Drange, Helge

    2016-06-01

    Instrumental temperature records show that the global climate may experience decadal-scale periods without warming despite a long-term warming trend. We analysed 17 global climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), identifying the likelihood and duration of periods without warming in the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, together with the preindustrial control and historical simulations. We find that non-warming periods may last 10, 15 and 30 years for RCP8.5, RCP6.0 and RCP4.5, respectively. In the models, anomalous ocean heat uptake and storage are the main factors explaining the decadal-scale surface temperature hiatus periods. The low-latitude East Pacific Ocean is a key region for these variations, acting in tandem with basin-scale anomalies in the sea level pressure. During anomalously cold decades, roughly 35-50 % of the heat anomalies in the upper 700 m of the ocean are located in the Pacific Ocean, and 25 % in the Atlantic Ocean. Decadal-scale ocean heat anomalies, integrated over the upper 700 m, have a magnitude of about 7.5 × 1021 J. This is comparable to the ocean heat uptake needed to maintain a 10 year period without increasing surface temperature under global warming. On sub-decadal time scales the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern Oceans all have the ability to store large amounts of heat, contributing to variations in global surface temperature. The likelihood of decadal-scale non-warming periods decrease with global warming, firstly at the low latitude region stretching eastward from the tropical Atlantic towards the western Pacific. The North Atlantic and Southern Oceans have largest likelihood of non-warming decades in a warming world.

  11. Global and regional temperature-change potentials for near-term climate forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, W. J.; Fry, M. M.; Yu, H.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shindell, D. T.; West, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    We examine the climate effects of the emissions of near-term climate forcers (NTCFs) from 4 continental regions (East Asia, Europe, North America and South Asia) using radiative forcing from the task force on hemispheric transport of air pollution source-receptor global chemical transport model simulations. These simulations model the transport of 3 aerosol species (sulphate, particulate organic matter and black carbon) and 4 ozone precursors (methane, nitric oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide). From the equilibrium radiative forcing results we calculate global climate metrics, global warming potentials (GWPs) and global temperature change potentials (GTPs) and show how these depend on emission region, and can vary as functions of time. For the aerosol species, the GWP(100) values are -37±12, -46±20, and 350±200 for SO2, POM and BC respectively for the direct effects only. The corresponding GTP(100) values are -5.2±2.4, -6.5±3.5, and 50±33. This analysis is further extended by examining the temperature-change impacts in 4 latitude bands. This shows that the latitudinal pattern of the temperature response to emissions of the NTCFs does not directly follow the pattern of the diagnosed radiative forcing. For instance temperatures in the Arctic latitudes are particularly sensitive to NTCF emissions in the northern mid-latitudes. At the 100-yr time horizon the ARTPs show NOx emissions can have a warming effect in the northern mid and high latitudes, but cooling in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. The northern mid-latitude temperature response to northern mid-latitude emissions of most NTCFs is approximately twice as large as would be implied by the global average.

  12. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  13. Simulated Topography in Western North America Impacts Hemispheric Circulation Patterns and Regional Precipitation in IPCC AR4 Coupled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAfee, S. A.; Russell, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Simulations of the late-20th century (1979-1999) by most of the coupled models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) overestimate mean winter (November to April) precipitation for all or part of western North America in comparison to observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. These precipitation errors appear to be associated with 1) a southward bias in 200-hPa zonal-wind speeds, 2) overly zonal flow patterns (weak Pacific-North America pattern), and 3) muted rain shadows, all of which are also prevalent among general circulation models. In addition, the magnitude of error in simulations of late-20th century winter precipitation is significantly correlated with projected changes in winter precipitation in the mid- and late-21st century over parts of the southwestern United States and Mexico, increasing uncertainty about the timing and extent of drying in a region where water resources are already stressed and intensifying drought is expected. We suggest that these problems are related to difficulties in simulating the extent, volume, and topographic complexity of the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Cascades and other mountain ranges in the West within the relatively coarse models. These results identify areas of concern in regional precipitation and water resource projections and suggest steps that can be taken to improve both hemispheric-scale circulation patterns and regional hydrological projections for western North America within general circulation models.

  14. Correlating regional natural hazards for global reinsurance risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steptoe, Hamish; Maynard, Trevor; Economou, Theo; Fox, Helen; Wallace, Emily; Maisey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Concurrent natural hazards represent an uncertainty in assessing exposure for the insurance industry. The recently implemented Solvency II Directive requires EU insurance companies to fully understand and justify their capital reserving and portfolio decisions. Lloyd's, the London insurance and reinsurance market, commissioned the Met Office to investigate the dependencies between different global extreme weather events (known to the industry as perils), and the mechanisms for these dependencies, with the aim of helping them assess their compound risk to the exposure of multiple simultaneous hazards. In this work, we base the analysis of hazard-to-hazard dependency on the interaction of different modes of global and regional climate variability. Lloyd's defined 16 key hazard regions, including Australian wildfires, flooding in China and EU windstorms, and we investigate the impact of 10 key climate modes on these areas. We develop a statistical model that facilitates rapid risk assessment whilst allowing for both temporal auto-correlation and, crucially, interdependencies between drivers. The simulator itself is built conditionally using autoregressive regression models for each driver conditional on the others. Whilst the baseline assumption within the (re)insurance industry is that different natural hazards are independent of each other, the assumption of independence of meteorological risks requires greater justification. Although our results suggest that most of the 120 hazard-hazard connections considered are likely to be independent of each other, 13 have significant dependence arising from one or more global modes of climate variability. This allows us to create a matrix of linkages describing the hazard dependency structure that Lloyd's can use to inform their understanding of risk.

  15. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    The first maps are presented of the north and south polar regions of Mars. The thermal properties of the midlatitude regions from -60 deg to +60 deg latitude were mapped in previous studies. The presented maps complete the mapping of entire planet. The maps for the north and south polar regions were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations. Best fit thermal inertias were determined by comparing the available IRTM 20 micron channel brightness within a given region to surface temperatures computed by a diurnal and seasonal thermal model. The model assumes no atmospheric contributions to the surface heat balance. The resulting maps of apparent thermal inertia and average IRTM measured solar channel lambert albedo for the north and south polar regions from the poles to +/- 60 deg latitude.

  16. Towards improving the representation of polar regions in global reanalyses at the NASA GMAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, R. I.; Zhao, B.; Nowicki, S.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Suarez, M.; Putman, W.; Shuman, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric reanalyses have been employed in a wide variety of studies investigating processes in the changing Arctic and Antarctic. However reanalyses underperform in polar regions due in part to limitations in the background model, which are associated with spatial resolution and with inadequate representations of physical processes. Some chronic issues include the use of incorrect topography over ice sheets, persistent temperature biases, and discontinuities in time series due to abrupt changes to the observing system. These limitations provoke caution in the use of global reanalyses in polar regions, but also call into question their general applicability to evolving polar climate topics. For example, the assessment of conditions over Greenland and Antarctica in the most recent IPCC report relied heavily on limited area models rather than global reanalyses. The performance of contemporary reanalyses over the north and south polar caps are reviewed with emphasis on differences in atmospheric energy and moisture budgets. In particular, the recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis is critically assessed. Significant changes that are relevant to polar regions in MERRA-2 over the previous MERRA version include an improved representation of glaciated land surfaces and sea ice albedo. Ongoing work to address issues of increased spatial resolution and the introduction of more complex physical processes related to surface hydrology over polar ice sheets will be described.

  17. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Villegas, Juan C.; Breshears, David D.; Law, Darin J.; Saleska, Scott R.; Stark, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates of deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia’s GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. Our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change. PMID:27851740

  18. Synergistic Ecoclimate Teleconnections from Forest Loss in Different Regions Structure Global Ecological Responses

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Villegas, Juan C.; ...

    2016-11-16

    Forest loss in hotspots around the world impacts not only local climate where loss occurs, but also influences climate and vegetation in remote parts of the globe through ecoclimate teleconnections. The magnitude and mechanism of remote impacts likely depends on the location and distribution of forest loss hotspots, but the nature of these dependencies has not been investigated. We use global climate model simulations to estimate the distribution of ecologically-relevant climate changes resulting from forest loss in two hotspot regions: western North America (wNA), which is experiencing accelerated dieoff, and the Amazon basin, which is subject to high rates ofmore » deforestation. The remote climatic and ecological net effects of simultaneous forest loss in both regions differed from the combined effects of loss from the two regions simulated separately, as evident in three impacted areas. Eastern South American Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased due to changes in seasonal rainfall associated with Amazon forest loss and changes in temperature related to wNA forest loss. Eurasia's GPP declined with wNA forest loss due to cooling temperatures increasing soil ice volume. Southeastern North American productivity increased with simultaneous forest loss, but declined with only wNA forest loss due to changes in VPD. In conclusion, our results illustrate the need for a new generation of local-to-global scale analyses to identify potential ecoclimate teleconnections, their underlying mechanisms, and most importantly, their synergistic interactions, to predict the responses to increasing forest loss under future land use change and climate change.« less

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions estimated with the Carbon Tracker Lagrange regional inversion framework suggest the North American source comes predominantly from agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, C. D.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Saikawa, E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Benmergui, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon Tracker Lagrange (CTL) regional inversion framework is used to estimate North American nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of 1.6 ± 0.4 Tg N/yr over 2008-2013. More than half of the North American emissions are estimated to come from the central agricultural belt, extending from southern Canada to Texas, and are strongest in spring and early summer, consistent with a nitrogen fertilizer-driven source. The estimated N2O flux from the Midwestern corn/soybean belt and the more northerly wheat belt corresponds to 5% of synthetic + organic N fertilizer applied to those regions. While earlier regional atmospheric inversion studies have suggested that global inventories such as EDGAR may be underestimating U.S. anthropogenic N2O emissions by a factor of 3 or more, our results, integrated over a full calendar year, are generally consistent with those inventories and with global inverse model results and budget constraints. The CTL framework is a Bayesian method based on footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model applied to atmospheric N2O data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, including surface, aircraft and tall tower platforms. The CTL inversion results are sensitive to the prescribed boundary condition or background value of N2O, which is estimated based on a new Empirical BackGround (EBG) product derived from STILT back trajectories applied to NOAA data. Analysis of the N2O EBG products suggests a significant, seasonally-varying influence on surface N2O data due to the stratospheric influx of N2O-depleted air. Figure 1. Posterior annual mean N2O emissions for 2010 estimated with the CTL regional inversion framework. The locations of NOAA surface and aircraft data used in the inversion are superimposed as black circles and grey triangles, respectively. Mobile surface sites are indicated with asterisks.

  20. Holocene deposits in the Mangyshlak Peninsula, North Caspian Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrodnykh, Yu. P.; Deliya, S. V.; Romanyuk, B. F.; Fedorov, V. I.; Sorokin, V. M.; Luksha, V. L.

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the data of high-precision seismoacoustic profiling, drilling and sampling of deposits using seabed corers, biostratigraphic studies, and radiocarbon age data was performed for the first time for Mangyshlak sediments in several bottom sites of the North Caspian. It was found that the Mangyshlak sediments comprise numerous linearly stretched depressions of 5-10 m in depth (morphologically similar to modern substeppe ilmen areas in the Volga River delta), which are covered by the Novocaspian sedimentary cover, and river incisions (among them the largest Volga River valley). In addition, the Mangyshlak sediments comprise the deltaic alluvial fans of different sizes along the shelf zone of the North Caspian. Analysis of mollusks and biogenic remains indicates that accumulation of the Mangyshlak sediments occurred in freshwater and slightly salty water environments under various hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions. According to radiocarbon dating of organic matter, the Mangyshlak sediments formed during sea regression in the range of 10-8 ka (isotopic age) or 11.5-8.5 ka (calendar age). Several types of sediments are distinguished: clayey-carbonate sediments, enriched with organic matter up to the formation of sapropel and peat, accumulated at the lowest sea level; weakly calcareous silty-clayey silts, formed during the subsequent intense filling of paleodepressions with terrigenous material. The features of the mineral composition of sediments are as follows: polymineral composition of clayey material with a high proportion of hydromica and disordered mixed-layered formations, a high content of minerals of the epidote group, amphiboles, and other accessory minerals. All of this indicates a genetic relationship between the Mangyshlak sediments and the Volga terrigenous material.

  1. North Atlantic Regional Water Resources Study. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    which provide habitats for many types of sweet gale, dogwoods, elder, witch hazel and organisms and interact in a vital way with the alder. This varied...the Region’s longer kinds of native aquatics found in the Region rivers originate in the higher elevations of the are water lilies, arrowheads, sweet ...and pro- forests and cultivated the land, trade with duced grain, potatoes and fruit as well as Europe increased and the port cities grew, livestock

  2. Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the past 570 kyr: Regional and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboth, Stefanie; de Boer, Bas; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christian; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2017-06-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz constitutes a prime area to study teleconnections between the North Atlantic Ocean and climate change in the Mediterranean realm. In particular, the highly saline Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is an important modulator of the North Atlantic salt budget on intermediate water levels. However, our understanding of its paleoceanographic evolution is poorly constrained due to the lack of high-resolution proxy records that predate the last glacial cycle. Here we present the first continuous and high-resolution ( 1 kyr) benthic δ18O and δ13C as well as grain size records from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1386 representing the last 570 kyr. We find three distinct phases of MOW variability throughout the Late to Middle Pleistocene at Site U1386 associated with prominent shifts in its composition and flow strength. We attribute this long-term variability to changes in water mass sourcing of the MOW. Superimposed on the long-term change in water mass sourcing is the occurrence of distinct and precession paced δ18O enrichment events, which contrast the pattern of global ice volume change as inferred from the global mean δ18O signal (i.e., LR04) but mimics that of the adjacent Mediterranean Sea. We attribute these enrichment events to a profound temperature reduction and salinity increases of the MOW, aligning with similar changes in the Mediterranean source region. These events might further signify ice volume increases as inferred from significant sea level drops recorded in the Red Sea and/or increased influence of North Atlantic intermediate water masses when MOW influence was absent at Site U1386.

  3. Are changes in the phytoplankton community structure altering the flux of CO2 in regions of the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostle, C.; Landschutzer, P.; Johnson, M.; Schuster, U.; Watson, A. J.; Edwards, M.; Robinson, C.

    2016-02-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is a globally important sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the strength of the sink varies temporally and regionally. This study uses a neural network method to map the surface ocean pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) and flux of CO2from the atmosphere to the ocean alongside measurements of plankton abundance collected from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey to determine the relationship between regional changes in phytoplankton community structure and regional differences in carbon flux. Despite increasing sea surface temperatures, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland show a decrease in sea surface pCO2 of -2 µatm yr-1 from 1993 to 2011. The carbon flux in the North Sea is variable over the same period. This is in contrast to most of the open ocean within the North Atlantic, where increases in sea surface pCO2 follow the trend of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, i.e. the flux or sink remains constant. The increasing CO2 sink in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the variable sink in the North Sea correlate with changes in phytoplankton community composition. This study investigates the biogeochemical and oceanographic mechanisms potentially linking increasing sea surface temperature, changes in phytoplankton community structure and the changing carbon sink in these two important regions of the Atlantic Ocean. The use of volunteer ships to concurrently collect these datasets demonstrates the potential to investigate relationships between plankton community structure and carbon flux in a cost-effective way. These results not only have implications for plankton-dynamic biogeochemical models, but also likely influence carbon export, as different phytoplankton communities have different carbon export efficiencies. Extending and maintaining such datasets is critical to improving our understanding of and monitoring carbon cycling in the surface ocean and improving climate model accuracy.

  4. Global diversity and genetic contributions of chicken populations from African, Asian and European regions.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. The intensification and shift of the annual North Atlantic Oscillation in a global warming scenario simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Wu, Zhaohua

    2004-03-01

    The impact of global warming on the annual North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated with a global warming scenario simulation of the ECHAM4/OPYC3 coupled general circulation model. It is shown that the annual meridional pressure gradient over the North Atlantic is significantly strengthened, and the two centers of action of the NAO, the Icelandic low and the Azores high, are intensified and shifted northeastward by 10° to 20° in latitude and 30° to 40° in longitude in the global warming scenario. The shift of the centers of action leads to a failure in capturing the NAO change with the traditional definition of the NAO index. A modified index is introduced that allows for this shift, and exhibits a tendency toward the positive phase and an enhancement of its intensity. The intensification of Icelandic low is tied up with zonal mean state change, and the strengthened Azores high is related to the stationary wave change. The shift of the centers of action of the NAO is associated with the stationary wave change.

  6. Global and regional/seasonal color mosaics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1993-01-01

    Four regional mosaics of Mars acquired during different seasons, along with their composite as a single global mosaic, have been completed in two colors (red and violet) at scales of 1/16 and 1/64 degrees/pixel. These mosaics were put together from a set of 51 separate mosaics, each acquired from a single Viking orbiter spacecraft orbital revolution. Special techniques were developed and applied to suppress large variations between mosaics introcued by highly variable, optically thin, condensate hazes. The techniques utilize a combination of the spatial characteristics of the hazes (generally broad, low-frequency) along with their modulation of the reginal color ratios (strongly enhancing the violet/red ratios). Photometric-function normalization was applied following the haze removal. Most of the single-orbit mosaics consist of red and violet or red, green, and violet filters, but a few mosaics with only red-filter data were included to fill gaps in global coverage at high northern latitudes. Global coverage is approximately 99 percent complete in red-filter mosaics and approximately 95 percent and approximately 60 percent complete in corresponding violet- and green-filter mosaics, respectively. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the 1/256 deg per pixel Mars Digital Image Map (MDIM), which is available on Compact Disk (CD), and which will be used as the base map for Mars Observer data sets. Early in 1993, the single-orbit color mosaics will be distributed to the science community in a six-volume set of CDs. Perhaps the most scientifically interesting parts of this dataset are the overlap regions, which show significant temporal variations in surface and atmospheric features. Surface changes can be categorized as (1) changes that probably occurred during the great dust storms of 1977; (2) changes that occurred soon after 1977 storms due to removal of redistribution of recently deposited dust; (3) changes in the northern lowlands that probably occurred

  7. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. Plate Motions Predicted from Global Dynamic Models and Seismic Tomography: The Problem of North American Plate Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; King, S. D.; Adam, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a snapshot of the mantle convection system and provides important constraints on Earth's internal dynamics. An increasing number of global seismic tomography models along with various rheological structures have been used to compute mantle flow pattern and the resulting surface expressions, including dynamic topography and geoid. Accurately predicting the plate motion from the mantle dynamic models is a challenge particularly with the newest generation of seismic tomography models (e.g., S40RTS, SAVANI), especially for the North American plate which only has a little subduction along it's boundary. The difficulties include the uncertainty of the velocity-to-density scaling, discrepancies between different seismic tomography models, and the computational technology to solve for global mantle flow with observationally constrained high resolution models. We use the code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth CovecTion) to make a series of tests to derive mantle flow pattern from different global seismic tomography models and rheological structures. We further make a quantitative statistical comparison between the modeled and observed plate motions in terms of flow magnitude, flow direction, and plateness within each plate area. We investigate how the velocity-to-density scaling, the features of seismic tomography models, and the lateral rheological structures of the lithosphere and upper mantle influence the modeled plate motions. We find that the velocity-to-density scaling mainly changes the flow magnitude and has little impact on the flow direction. The results of different seismic tomography models are similar broadly but can be quite different in some regions. The presence of lateral viscosity variations including stiff cratons, weak plate boundary zones, and high viscosity slabs along with density variations from seafloor age and subducting slabs can improve the fit to observed plate motions. With a very small fraction of subduction

  9. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  10. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  11. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  12. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  13. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  14. North Frisian: The North Frisian Language in Education in Germany. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alastair, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union--the northwestern part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Details are provided about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies,…

  15. North Frisian: The North Frisian Language in Education in Germany, 3rd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alastair G. H., Comp.

    2015-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  16. Closing the gap between regional and global travel time tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bijwaard, H.; Spakman, W.; Engdahl, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent global travel time tomography studies by Zhou [1996] and van der Hilst et al. [1997] have been performed with cell parameterizations of the order of those frequently used in regional tomography studies (i.e., with cell sizes of 1??-2??). These new global models constitute a considerable improvement over previous results that were obtained with rather coarse parameterizations (5?? cells). The inferred structures are, however, of larger scale than is usually obtained in regional models, and it is not clear where and if individual cells are actually resolved. This study aims at resolving lateral heterogeneity on scales as small as 0.6?? in the upper mantle and 1.2??-3?? in the lower mantle. This allows for the adequate mapping of expected small-scale structures induced by, for example, lithosphere subduction, deep mantle upwellings, and mid-ocean ridges. There are three major contributions that allow for this advancement. First, we employ an irregular grid of nonoverlapping cells adapted to the heterogeneous sampling of the Earth's mantle by seismic waves [Spakman and Bijwaard, 1998]. Second, we exploit the global data set of Engdahl et al. [1998], which is a reprocessed version of the global data set of the International Seismological Centre. Their reprocessing included hypocenter redetermination and phase reidentification. Finally, we combine all data used (P, pP, and pwP phases) into nearly 5 million ray bundles with a limited spatial extent such that averaging over large mantle volumes is prevented while the signal-to-noise ratio is improved. In the approximate solution of the huge inverse problem we obtain a variance reduction of 57.1%. Synthetic sensitivity tests indicate horizontal resolution on the scale of the smallest cells (0.6?? or 1.2??) in the shallow parts of subduction zones decreasing to approximately 2??-3?? resolution in well-sampled regions in the lower mantle. Vertical resolution can be worse (up to several hundreds of kilometers) in

  17. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  18. Multiscale Parameter Regionalization for consistent global water resources modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanders, Niko; Wood, Eric; Pan, Ming; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-04-01

    Due to an increasing demand for high- and hyper-resolution water resources information, it has become increasingly important to ensure consistency in model simulations across scales. This consistency can be ensured by scale independent parameterization of the land surface processes, even after calibration of the water resource model. Here, we use the Multiscale Parameter Regionalization technique (MPR, Samaniego et al. 2010, WRR) to allow for a novel, spatially consistent, scale independent parameterization of the global water resource model PCR-GLOBWB. The implementation of MPR in PCR-GLOBWB allows for calibration at coarse resolutions and subsequent parameter transfer to the hyper-resolution. In this study, the model was calibrated at 50 km resolution over Europe and validation carried out at resolutions of 50 km, 10 km and 1 km. MPR allows for a direct transfer of the calibrated transfer function parameters across scales and we find that we can maintain consistent land-atmosphere fluxes across scales. Here we focus on the 2003 European drought and show that the new parameterization allows for high-resolution calibrated simulations of water resources during the drought. For example, we find a reduction from 29% to 9.4% in the percentile difference in the annual evaporative flux across scales when compared against default simulations. Soil moisture errors are reduced from 25% to 6.9%, clearly indicating the benefits of the MPR implementation. This new parameterization allows us to show more spatial detail in water resources simulations that are consistent across scales and also allow validation of discharge for smaller catchments, even with calibrations at a coarse 50 km resolution. The implementation of MPR allows for novel high-resolution calibrated simulations of a global water resources model, providing calibrated high-resolution model simulations with transferred parameter sets from coarse resolutions. The applied methodology can be transferred to other

  19. Two centuries of coherent decadal climate variability across the Pacific North American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.; Villaescusa, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The decadal variability of the Pacific Ocean and North American hydroclimate are subjects of immediate concern for society, yet the length of the instrumental record limits full mechanistic understanding of this variability. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved coral oxygen isotopic record from Clarion Island (18°N, 115°W), a sampling a subtropical region that is strongly influenced by the decadal-scale fluctuations of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and a region that serves as a critical locus for the communication of climate anomalies with the tropics. This Mexican Pacific coral record is highly correlated to coral records from the central tropical Pacific and tree ring records from western North America. Significant changes in the amplitude of oceanic decadal variability in the early nineteenth century are mirrored in the drought reconstructions in western North America. The spatial manifestation of this relationship was relatively invariant, despite notable changes in the climatic mean state.

  20. Early Jurassic black shales: Global anoxia or regional "Dead Zones"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J.; Wignall, P.

    2012-12-01

    The so-called "Schwarzer Jura" or "Black Jurassic" in Germany is informally used to designate a series of organic-rich sediments that roughly span the Early Jurassic (201.6 - 175.6 Myr), and which culminate in the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Based on organic and inorganic geochemical as well as (micro)palaeontological data from several recently drilled cores, black shales deposited directly following the end-Triassic extinction (201.6 Ma) during the Hettangian are extremely similar to Toarcian black shales. Both events are characterized by laminated black shales that contain high amounts of the biomarker isorenieratane, a fossilized pigment derived from green sulphur bacteria. Furthermore, the two intervals show similar changes in phytoplankton assemblages from chromophyte (red) to chlorophyte (green) algae. Combined, the evidence suggests that photic zone euxinia developed repeatedly during the Early Jurassic, making wide swaths of shelf area inhospitable to benthic life. In the oceans today such areas are called "Dead Zones" and they are increasing in number and extent due to the combined effects of man-made eutrophication and global warming. During the Early Jurassic, regional anoxic events developed in response to flood basalt volcanism, which triggered global warming, increased run-off, and changes in ocean circulation. The patchiness of Early Jurassic anoxia allows comparisons to be made with present-day "Dead Zones", while at the same time ocean de-oxygenation in the past may serve to predict future perturbations in the Earth system.

  1. Regional and Global Impacts of Megacity Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyi

    2014-05-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in many megacities of China because of their rapid economic developments. For example, as the world's second largest economy, China has experienced severe air pollution, with aerosols or fine particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) reaching unprecedented high levels across many cities in recent winters. In addition to the impacts of aerosols on air chemistry, visibility, and human health, intense aerosol pollution is believed to exert profound impacts on the regional and global atmosphere and climate. In the first part of the talk, perspectives are provided on formation and transformation of haze in China. In the second part the long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over a megacity area in China will be presented, on the basis of atmospheric observations and simulations using a cloud-resolving WRF model. Our results reveal that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation, but enhances heavy precipitation. Also, we demonstrate climatically modulated mid-latitude cyclones by Asian pollution over past three decades, using a novel hierarchical modeling approach and observational analysis. Our results unambiguously reveal a large impact of the Asian pollutant outflows on the global general circulation and climate.

  2. Variability of daily winter wind speed distribution over Northern Europe during the past millennium in regional and global climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierstedt, Svenja; Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian; José Gomez-Navarro, Juán

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the variability of the probability distribution of daily wind speed in wintertime over Northern and Central Europe in a series of global and regional climate simulations covering the last centuries, and in reanalysis products covering approximately the last 60 years. The focus of the study lies on identifying the link of the variations in the wind speed distribution to the regional near-surface temperature, to the meridional temperature gradient and to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The climate simulations comprise three simulations, each conducted with a global climate model that includes a different version of the atmospheric model ECHAM. Two of these global simulations have been downscaled with the regional climate models MM5 and CCLM. The reanalysis products are the global NCEP/NCAR meteorological reanalysis version 1 and a regional reanalysis conducted with a regional atmospheric model driven at its domain boundaries by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Our main result is that the link between the daily wind distribution and the regional climate drivers is strongly model dependent. The global models tend to behave similarly, although they show some discrepancies. The two regional models also tend to behave similarly to each other, but surprisingly the results derived from each regional model strongly deviates from the results derived from its driving global model. The links between wind speed and large-scale drivers derived from the reanalysis data sets overall tend to resemble those of the global models. In addition, considering multi-centennial time scales, we find in two global simulations a long term tendency for the probability distribution of daily wind speed to widen through the last centuries. The cause for this widening is likely the effect of the deforestation prescribed in these simulations. We conclude that no clear systematic relationship between the mean temperature, the temperature gradient and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation, with the

  3. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  4. Regional and global modeling estimates of policy relevant background ozone over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, Christopher; Jung, Jaegun; Downey, Nicole; Johnson, Jeremiah; Jimenez, Michele; Yarwood, Greg; Morris, Ralph

    2012-02-01

    Policy Relevant Background (PRB) ozone, as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), refers to ozone concentrations that would occur in the absence of all North American anthropogenic emissions. PRB enters into the calculation of health risk benefits, and as the US ozone standard approaches background levels, PRB is increasingly important in determining the feasibility and cost of compliance. As PRB is a hypothetical construct, modeling is a necessary tool. Since 2006 EPA has relied on global modeling to establish PRB for their regulatory analyses. Recent assessments with higher resolution global models exhibit improved agreement with remote observations and modest upward shifts in PRB estimates. This paper shifts the paradigm to a regional model (CAMx) run at 12 km resolution, for which North American boundary conditions were provided by a low-resolution version of the GEOS-Chem global model. We conducted a comprehensive model inter-comparison, from which we elucidate differences in predictive performance against ozone observations and differences in temporal and spatial background variability over the US. In general, CAMx performed better in replicating observations at remote monitoring sites, and performance remained better at higher concentrations. While spring and summer mean PRB predicted by GEOS-Chem ranged 20-45 ppb, CAMx predicted PRB ranged 25-50 ppb and reached well over 60 ppb in the west due to event-oriented phenomena such as stratospheric intrusion and wildfires. CAMx showed a higher correlation between modeled PRB and total observed ozone, which is significant for health risk assessments. A case study during April 2006 suggests that stratospheric exchange of ozone is underestimated in both models on an event basis. We conclude that wildfires, lightning NO x and stratospheric intrusions contribute a significant level of uncertainty in estimating PRB, and that PRB will require careful consideration in the ozone standard setting process.

  5. A North American regional reanalysis climatology of the Haines Index

    Treesearch

    Wei Lu; Joseph J. (Jay) Charney; Sharon Zhong; Xindi Bian; Shuhua. Liu

    2011-01-01

    A warm-season (May through October) Haines Index climatology is derived using 32-km regional reanalysis temperature and humidity data from 1980 to 2007. We compute lapse rates, dewpoint depressions, Haines Index factors A and B, and values for each of the low-, mid- and high-elevation variants of the Haines Index. Statistical techniques are used to investigate the...

  6. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely…

  7. North Central regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2: Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential.

  8. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes

  9. Regional assessment of North America: Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhearson, Timon; Auch, Roger F.; Alberti, Marina

    2013-01-01

    North America contains some of the most urbanized landscapes in the world. In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, approximately 80 % of the population is urban, with Mexico slightly less (Kaiser Family Foundation 2013). Population growth combined with economic growth has fueled recent urban land expansion in North America. Between 1970 and 2000, urban land area expanded at a rate of 3.31 % (Seto et al. 2011) creating unique challenges for conserving biodiversity and maintaining regional and local ecosystem services.

  10. Passive margin uplift around the North Atlantic region and its role in Northern Hemisphere late Cenozoic glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nicholas

    1996-02-01

    Tectonic-climatic models of late Cenozoic global cooling emphasize the importance of middle latitude uplifts (e.g., Tibetan Plateau and the American west) but ignore widespread tectonic events on the margins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Pleistocene glaciations, after 2.5 Ma, are characterized by circum North Atlantic continental ice sheets that formed by the coalescence of perennial snow fields on extensive plateau surfaces in eastern Canada, northwest Britain, and Scandinavia. Plateaus record Cenozoic uplift of peneplains in response to semisynchronous magmatic underplating and thermal buoyancy of rifted continental margins. High-standing plateaus are very sensitive to small reductions in summer temperature. As late Cenozoic climate cooling proceeded, driven by uplift in regions external to the North Atlantic region, elevated plateaus became sites for extensive snow fields and ultimately ice sheets. Circum-Atlantic uplift took place in the key latitudinal belt that is most sensitive to orbitally forced changes in solar irradiation; this, together with albedo effects from large snow fields, could have amplified the relatively weak Milankovitch signal.

  11. Drivers of diel and regional variations of halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Ziska, F.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Peeken, I.; Krüger, K.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2013-07-01

    Methyl iodide (CH3I}, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which are produced naturally in the oceans, take part in ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The significance of oceanic upwelling regions for emissions of these trace gases in the global context is still uncertain although they have been identified as important source regions. To better quantify the role of upwelling areas in current and future climate, this paper analyzes major factors that influenced halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic including the Mauritanian upwelling during the DRIVE expedition. Diel and regional variability of oceanic and atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 was determined along with biological and meteorological parameters at six 24 h-stations. Low oceanic concentrations of CH3I from 0.1-5.4 pmol L-1 were equally distributed throughout the investigation area. CHBr3 of 1.0-42.4 pmol L-1 and CH2Br2 of 1.0-9.4 pmol L-1 were measured with maximum concentrations close to the Mauritanian coast. Atmospheric mixing rations of CH3I of up to 3.3, CHBr3 to 8.9 and CH2Br2 to 3.1 ppt above the upwelling and 1.8, 12.8, respectively 2.2 ppt at a Cape Verdean coast were detected during the campaign. While diel variability in CH3I emissions could be mainly ascribed to oceanic non-biological production, no main driver was identified for its emissions in the entire study region. In contrast, oceanic bromocarbons resulted from biogenic sources which were identified as regional drivers of their sea-to-air fluxes. The diel impact of wind speed on bromocarbon emissions increased with decreasing distance to the coast. The height of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) was determined as an additional factor influencing halocarbon emissions. Oceanic and atmospheric halocarbons correlated well in the study region and in combination with high oceanic CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 concentrations, local hot spots of atmospheric halocarbons could solely

  12. On the Elastic Strength (and Its Anisotropy) of the North American Continental Lithosphere (in a Global Perspective)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. V.; Simons, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    While we are have become aware of the difficulties and pitfalls of estimating the effective elastic strength of the lithosphere via the spectral analysis and inversion of the coherence between gravity anomalies and topography - and will provide a brief summary on what we have discovered in this regard - we have made one final attempt at characterizing the elastic lithosphere via the coherence of Bouguer anomalies with topography. We have conducted a global study, on each of the worlds' continents, and will use this global scope to guide our presentation of the results for the North American region. Two key innovations distinguish our approach. The first is that we are investigating a possible anisotropy in the coherence or isostatic response, based on advanced spectral analysis methods and sound statistical judgment. For North America, the results are not unambiguous: lithospheric elastic anisotropy may be weakly expressed but is certainly hard to measure with confidence. The second innovation is that we have definitely thrown off the yoke of needing to analyze rectangular regions when Fourier-based methods are involved. For this we developed a Cartesian technique of spatiospectral localization in the sense of Slepian, with which regions of arbitrary geometry can be handled, and directionally sensitive (or agnostic) analyses carried out. This in contrast to any other Fourier based method. By "final attempt" we mean that while we are now in the position to analyze gravity/topography with the theoretically "best", geologically sensitive, method of spectral analysis, the quality of the results remains strongly influenced by the marriage (of convenience and of popular choice) to coherence or admittance, as we will show. Thus, after presenting what we have learned about lithospheric-thickness estimation in general, and the results for the North American continent in particular, we will conclude our presentation with a series of caveats as to the general applicablity of

  13. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.

    2003-12-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. Even though the seismicity varied significantly, the regional crustal conditions appear to be roughly uniform. In some areas like Arroyo Seco, in the Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by

  14. Enhanced or Weakened Western North Pacific Subtropical High under Global Warming?

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Zhou, Tianjun; Lin, Ailan; Wu, Bo; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2015-11-26

    The Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) regulates East Asian climate in summer. Anomalous WNPSH causes floods, droughts and heat waves in China, Japan and Korea. The potential change of the WNPSH under global warming is concerned by Asian people, but whether the WNPSH would be enhanced or weakened remains inconclusive. Based on the multi-model climate change projection from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we show evidences that the WNPSH tends to weaken and retreat eastward in the mid-troposphere in response to global warming, accompanied by an eastward expansion of East Asian rain belt along the northwestern flank of WNPSH. Weakened meridional temperature gradient on the northern flank of WNPSH and the associated thermal wind account for the weakened WNPSH in the mid troposphere. We recommend the WNPSH be measured by eddy geopotential height (He) instead of traditionally used geopotential height, especially in climate change studies.

  15. Enhanced or Weakened Western North Pacific Subtropical High under Global Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Zhou, Tianjun; Lin, Ailan; Wu, Bo; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) regulates East Asian climate in summer. Anomalous WNPSH causes floods, droughts and heat waves in China, Japan and Korea. The potential change of the WNPSH under global warming is concerned by Asian people, but whether the WNPSH would be enhanced or weakened remains inconclusive. Based on the multi-model climate change projection from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we show evidences that the WNPSH tends to weaken and retreat eastward in the mid-troposphere in response to global warming, accompanied by an eastward expansion of East Asian rain belt along the northwestern flank of WNPSH. Weakened meridional temperature gradient on the northern flank of WNPSH and the associated thermal wind account for the weakened WNPSH in the mid troposphere. We recommend the WNPSH be measured by eddy geopotential height (He) instead of traditionally used geopotential height, especially in climate change studies.

  16. Methodology of the global and regional burden of stroke study.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Derrick A

    2012-01-01

    Setting priorities for the prevention of stroke requires an empirical understanding of the pattern of disease burden and exposure to major risk factors. In this manuscript we aim to report the methodology of a systematic review of the epidemiological literature on stroke and how this information will be synthesized to produce updated estimates of the global burden of stroke. We will use multi-state models implemented in the software program DisMod III to estimate age-specific prevalence, incidence, and early case-fatality (defined as either 28-day, 30-day or 1-month case fatality) for stroke by the 21 global burden of disease (GBD) regions as well as by gender and pathological stroke type based on information obtained from a systematic review. We conducted a two-stage search strategy in order to identify studies published between 1980 and 2011 for the GBD stroke review. Eligible studies: (a) distinguished between stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA); (b) distinguished between 1st ever and recurrent stroke; (c) reported on age-specific rates; (d) if reported, provided survival status within 28 days, 30 days or 1 month of onset for fatal and nonfatal events; (e) specified methods for ascertaining stroke cases, and (f) described imaging modalities to determine stroke subtypes. Details of included studies were recorded on a detailed data extraction form by trained reviewers. We will gather information on demographics, natural history and clinical outcomes (e.g. Rankin scale, Glasgow Coma Scale), after stroke which will be used to facilitate the estimation of epidemiological parameters. Reporting and methodological quality was rated. Populations were coded as urban, rural, or combined and studies classified as national, subnational, healthcare system-based, or community level. Studies published in non-English languages were translated and coded centrally. In international health research, there is a crucial need for accurate assessment of global health patterns

  17. Cenamps: adding value to the North East region.

    PubMed

    Maw, Alex; Pitkethly, Mike; Gohir, Shak; McMurray, Amanda; Robbins, Dave

    2006-12-01

    Cenamps' highly talented and commercially experienced team work closely with business leaders to stimulate and manage market-led innovation, enabling businesses to develop new products and services as well as strengthen the regional economic foundation, R&D capabilities and performance. Cenamps achieves this by establishing new state-of-the-art R&D facilities and applied research projects for developing new technologies that will yield significant societal, economic and commercial benefits.

  18. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  19. Anaesthetic agents for advanced regional anaesthesia: a North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Bleckner, Lisa L

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of regional anaesthesia, particularly peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) and continuous PNBs, has increased in recent years. Accompanying this resurgence in interest has been the development of new local anaesthetics and additives designed to enhance block duration and quality. This manuscript provides a literature-based review on accepted uses of local anaesthetics and adjuncts for a variety of regional anaesthesia techniques. A brief review of local anaesthetic pharmacodynamics describes the action of these drugs in preventing nerve depolarisation, thus blocking nerve impulses. Toxic adverse effects of local anaesthetics, specifically CNS and cardiac manifestations of excessive local anaesthetic blood concentrations and the direct neurotoxic properties of local anaesthetics, are discussed generally and specifically for many commonly used local anaesthetics. Clinically useful ester and amide local anaesthetics are evaluated individually in terms of their physical properties and toxic potential. How these properties impact on the clinical uses of each local anaesthetic is explored. Particular emphasis is placed on the long-acting local anaesthetic toxic potential of racemic bupivacaine compared with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, which are both levorotatory stereoisomers. Guidelines for using ropivacaine and mepivacaine, based on the authors' experience using advanced regional anaesthesia in a busy practice, is provided. Finally, epinephrine (adrenaline), clonidine and other local anaesthetic additives and their rationale for use is covered along with other future possibilities.

  20. Resolving global versus local/regional Pu sources in the environment using sector ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketterer, M.E.; Hafer, K.M.; Link, C.L.; Kolwaite, D.; Wilson, Jim; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a versatile method for the determination of plutonium activities and isotopic compositions in samples containing this element at fallout levels. Typical detection limits for 239+240Pu are 0.1, 0.02 and 0.002 Bq kg -1Pu for samples sizes of 0.5 g, 3 g, and 50 g of soil, respectively. The application of sector ICP-MS-based Pu determinations is demonstrated in studies in sediment chronology, soil Pu inventory and depth distribution, and the provenance of global fallout versus local or regional Pu sources. A sediment core collected from Sloans Lake (Denver, Colorado, USA) exhibits very similar 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity profiles; 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios indicate possible small influences from the Nevada Test Site and/or the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. An undisturbed soil profile from Lockett Meadow (Flagstaff, Arizona, USA) exhibits an exponential decrease in 239+240Pu activity versus depth; 240Pu/239Pu in the top 3 cm is slightly lower than the global fallout range of 0.180 ?? 0.014 due to possible regional influence of Nevada Test Site fallout. The 239??240Pu inventory at Lockett Meadow is 56 ?? 4 Bq m-2, consistent with Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude fallout. Archived NdF3 sources, prepared from Polish soils, demonstrate that substantial 239+240Pu from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been deposited in north eastern regions of Poland; compared to global fallout, Chernobyl Pu exhibits higher abundances of 240Pu and 241Pu. The ratios 240Pu/239pu and 241Pu/239Pu co-vary and range from 0.186-0.348 and 0.0029-0.0412, respectively, in forest soils (241Pu/239Pu = 0.2407??[240Pu/239Pu] - 0.0413; r2 = 0.9924). ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2004.

  1. Comparison of the GOCE based GEMMA Moho with other global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguzzoni, Mirko; Sampietro, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    The use of gravity data to globally estimate the depth of the separation surface between Earth crust and mantle (Moho) is nowadays becoming more and more important thanks to the availability of GOCE observations. In particular in the GEMMA project (GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Application), funded by ESA-STSE and ASI, a new crustal model constrained by GOCE gravity observations has been computed. This model is also based on ETOPO1 and a 1°x1° sediment model for the shallowest layers. The crust is divided into geological provinces, each of them characterized by its own relation between density and depth. Lateral density variations of the upper mantle are also taken into account. The GEMMA Moho with its estimation error as well as the entire model including layer boundaries and densities are freely available at the website http://gocedata.como.polimi.it. In the present work the GEMMA Moho is compared with other global models based on both seimic and gravitational observations and with regional models of Australia, Europe and North America. Comparisons with seismic profiles are performed too. Apart from validating our model, this exercise gives also a hint on the accuracy with which the Moho is actually known in different regions of the world.

  2. Projected changes in atmospheric river events in Arizona as simulated by global and regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Erick R.; Dominguez, Francina

    2016-09-01

    Inland-penetrating atmospheric rivers (ARs) affect the United States Southwest and significantly contribute to cool season precipitation. In this study, we examine the results from an ensemble of dynamically downscaled simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and their driving general circulation models (GCMs) in order to determine statistically significant changes in the intensity of the cool season ARs impacting Arizona and the associated precipitation. Future greenhouse gas emissions follow the A2 emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report simulations. We find that there is a consistent and clear intensification of the AR-related water vapor transport in both the global and regional simulations which reflects the increase in water vapor content due to warmer atmospheric temperatures, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. However, the response of AR-related precipitation intensity to increased moisture flux and column-integrated water vapor is weak and no significant changes are projected either by the GCMs or the NARCCAP models. This lack of robust precipitation variations can be explained in part by the absence of meaningful changes in both the large-scale water vapor flux convergence and the maximum positive relative vorticity in the GCMs. Additionally, some global models show a robust decrease in relative humidity which may also be responsible for the projected precipitation patterns.

  3. Global and regional cooling in a warming climate from CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Drange, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Instrumental temperature records show that the global climate may experience decadal-scale (hiatus) periods without warming despite an indisputable long-term warming trend. A large range of factors have been proposed to explain these non-warming decades, like volcanic cooling, reduced solar energy input, low stratospheric water vapor content, elevated tropospheric aerosols, internal variability of the climate system, or a combination thereof. We have analysed 17 global climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), identifying the likelihood and duration of periods without warming in the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, together with the preindustrial control and historical simulations. We find that non-warming periods, when the effect of volcanic eruptions and variations in the solar cycle are neglected, may last for up to 10, 15 and 30 years for RCP8.5, RCP6.0 and RCP 4.5, respectively. Regionally, the likelihood of a decadal-scale hiatus periods decrease first in the tropical Atlantic, Indian Ocean and western Pacific with increasing global temperatures in the RCP scenarios. The North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean are the regions with largest variability relative to the regional warming signal. As a response to the global temperature increase, the radiative imbalance at top of the atmosphere increases and the global oceans warm. This holds for both the upper and the deep ocean in all scenarios. In the CMIP5 simulations, anomalous uptake and storage of ocean heat are the main factors explaining the decadal-scale surface temperature hiatus periods. The tropical East Pacific is a key region for these variations, acting in tandem with basin-scale anomalies in the sea level pressure. On sub-decadal time scales, ocean storage of heat is largest and comparable in magnitude in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, followed by the Atlantic Ocean. We find no relation

  4. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  5. Fast globally optimal single surface segmentation using regional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xin; Wu, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Efficient segmentation of globally optimal surfaces in volumetric images is a central problem in many medical image analysis applications. Intra-class variance has been successfully utilized, for instance, in the Chan-Vese model especially for images without prominent edges. In this paper, we study the optimization problem of detecting a region (volume) bounded by a smooth terrain-like surface, whose intra-class variance is minimized. A novel polynomial time algorithm is developed. Our algorithm is based on the shape probing technique in computational geometry and computes a sequence of O(n) maximum flows in the derived graphs, where n is the size of the input image. Our further investigation shows that those O(n) graphs form a monotone parametric flow network, which enables to solving the optimal region detection problem in the complexity of computing a single maximum flow. The method has been validated on computer-synthetic volumetric images. Its applicability to clinical data sets was demonstrated on 20 3-D airway wall CT images from 6 subjects. The achieved results were highly accurate. The mean unsigned surface positioning error of outer walls of the tubes is 0.258 +/- 0.297mm, given a voxel size of 0.39 x 0.39 x 0.6mm3.

  6. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  7. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  8. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  9. Uptake of OCS in Alaska North-America Land Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Shia, R. L.; Weng, K.; Zeng, Z. C.; Kuai, L.; Miller, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), a sulfur-containing analogue of carbon dioxide (CO2), is taken up by plants during photosynthesis, and has been shown to be a potentially useful tracer for photosynthesis by plants. In this study, we examine the vertically resolved OCS data from the Carbon in Arctic Reservoir Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE, https://carve.jpl.nasa.gov) over the summer months from 2011 to 2015 in Alaska. The results are compared to model. The OCS concentrations are simulated by GEOS-Chem, a global chemical transport model, with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5° and 47 vertical levels. The model is driven by assimilated meteorological data from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) meteorological data and OCS fluxes for several years, with a 2-year spin-up. The primary land sink are the same as Berry et al. (2013), calculated by a carbon cycle model, the Simple Biosphere Model (Sib3) (Baker et al., 2007, 2008). Berry et al.'s inventory included terrestrial fluxes that were 3 times larger than terrestrial fluxes in Kettle et al.'s inventory. However, the land sinks at Alaska are still quite small and insufficient to account for the CARVE observations. An attempt is made to estimate the additional fluxes needed to reconcile the model to observations.

  10. Atmospheric Extreme Events in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, C.

    2012-04-01

    An important part of European weather and climate are storms. European winter storms cause economic damage and insurance losses on the order of billions of Euro per year. European winter storms rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss. Many of these hazard events are not independent; for instance, severe storms can occur in trains of storms. Recent examples of such subsequently occurring storms include January 2008 (Paula and Resi) and March 2008 (Emma, Johanna and Kirsten). Each of these trains of storms caused damages on the order of ~€1bn. Extreme value statistics are based on the premise that extreme events are iid but this is rarely the case in natural systems where extreme events tend to cluster. Thus, no account is taken of memory and correlation that characterise many natural time series; this fundamentally limits our ability to forecast and to estimate return periods of extreme events. In my presentation I will discuss two possible causes of this clustering: (i) The propensity of extreme events to depend on large-scale circulation regimes and (ii) the long-range correlation properties of surface windspeeds enhances the likelihood of extreme events to cluster. These two characteristics affect the return periods of atmospheric extreme events and thus insurance pricing.

  11. Bipolar Magnetic Regions on the Sun: Global Analysis of the SOHO/MDI Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    turbulent dynamo. To confirm the profound role of fluctuations at large scales, we show explicit examples in which large bipolar regions differ from the average Joy's law orientation by an amount between 90° and 100°. We see no observational support for a separation of scales or a division between a global and a local dynamo, since also the smallest scales in our sample retain a non-random component that significantly contributes to the accumulated emergence of a north-south dipole moment that will lead to the replacement of the old global poloidal field with a new one that has the opposite orientation.

  12. Global and Regional Diurnal Variations of Organized Convection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakraklides, Giorgos; Evans, Jenni L.

    2003-05-01

    An automated objective classification procedure, the Convection Classification and Automated Tracking System (CCATS), is used to analyze the mean life cycles of organized convection in the global Tropics and midlatitudes (40°N-40°S). Five years (1989-93) of infrared satellite imagery are examined for the Pacific and Atlantic basins and one year (April 1988-March 1989) is studied for the Indian basin.Two main classes of organized convection (lifetime of 6 h or more) are tracked: MCT and CCC. MCT represent a combined dataset of tropical cyclones and mesoscale convective complexes (MCC). Convective cloud clusters (CCC) meet the same cold cloud-top temperature, time, and size criteria used to distinguish MCC, but fail to sustain the same high degree of symmetry for at least 6 h. That is, CCC represent more elongated systems, such as squall lines. The frequency of CCC exceeds that of MCT by a factor of 30 over both land and sea.MCT and CCC are each stratified to into 12 continental and oceanic regions and the diurnal variation of system characteristics in each geographic region are studied, leading to composite life cycle descriptions for each region. Oceanic CCC formed overnight and the shorter-lived, land-based CCC formed in the afternoon; apart from this time offset, oceanic and land-based CCC were found to have very similar life cycle evolution patterns.Continental MCT exhibit a rapid size expansion early; this is not part of the oceanic system life cycle. Apart from this growth spurt, the evolution of land and ocean MCT follows the same pattern of CCC with early symmetry, then size expansion until just before termination. Land-based MCT are longer lived and more symmetric than oceanic MCT.

  13. Evaluation of the Recent GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sideris, M. G.; Amjadiparvar, B.; Rangelova, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) dedicated satellite gravity field mission was launched on March 17, 2009. The GOCE came to an end in October 21, 2013. Five generations of global geopotential models (GGMs) have been computed and released based on the data collected by GOCE so far. The models are available via IAG's International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM, http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM/). The first generation models were computed from the first two months of the data, but the final generation models have been recently computed based on approximately 42 months of GOCE observations. Evaluation of these models in North America is important in view of the availability of high quality geodetic data in Canada and USA and the upcoming redefinition of the North American vertical datum through a continental geoid model based on a GOCE GGM. In this study, the performance of the models, developed by ESA's High-level Processing Facility (HPF), is evaluated by degree variances and also by comparing to the GNSS-levelling geoid undulations as independent control values. The GNSS-leveling stations in Canada, USA, Alaska and Mexico are used in this study. The results provide evidence that the signal of the Earth's gravitational field has been obtained solely from GOCE measurements up to degree and order (DO) 220, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of approximately 91 km. The cumulative global geoid error of TIM5 and DIR5 models up to DO 220 are 3.6 and 1.2 cm, respectively. The evaluation of the models by the North American GNSS-leveling stations in different spectral bands showed that the TIM5 and DIR5 models have slightly better performance than the EGM2008 model in the spectral band between DO 100 and 210 in Canada and the USA. The improvement brought by GOCE to Alaska and Mexico is more significant. In Alaska, the TIM5 and DIR5 models improve the geoid signal in the spectral band between DO 100 and 250. In Mexico

  14. SOCCR2: North America within the context of the global carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, A. M.; Bruhwiler, L.; Birdsey, R.; Fisher, J.; Houghton, R. A.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Miller, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will frame North America within the context of the global carbon cycle, including both the natural and anthropogenic components of carbon fluxes. We will examine this role along several complementary axes, including (i) the major components or the carbon cycle, (ii) the drivers and temporal scales of flux variability, and (iii) the available lines of evidence for constraining our understanding. Along each of these axes, we will examine the historical, contemporary, and future states of the carbon cycle. Most importantly, we aim to present a clear overview of the degree of (un)certainty associated with different aspects of carbon cycling, with an emphasis on the role of North America within the global context. Indeed, in assessing the state of the carbon cycle, it is critical to recognize that some aspects are well understood, while others remain highly uncertain. Critical knowledge gaps can then be defined as areas of the science that combine two features, namely high uncertainty coupled with high potential for major impacts on future net carbon balance and therefore decision support.

  15. Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity profile of the North Central region of Nigeria was determined using the quiet day ionospheric current variations (Sq). The employed magnetic averaged hourly data were obtained from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) ground based observatories at two Nigerian stations located at Ilorin (8°30‧N, 4°33‧E) and Abuja (8°59‧N, 7°23‧E) for the year 2009 and 2010. The magnetometer data from Pankshin (9°20‧N, 9°27‧E) and Katsina-Ala (7°10‧N, 9°17‧E) for the same years were equally employed. The separation of both the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations was successfully carried out employing spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Transfer function was performed in computing the conductivity-depth profile for North Central region of Nigeria from the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA. The conductivity value of approximately 0.039 S/m was estimated at a depth of 100 km which rose gradually to 0.087 S/m at 207 km depth and 0.142 S/m at 367 km (close to the base of upper mantle). Subsequently, the conductivity profile continued rising to a value of 0.144 S/m at 442 km, 0.164 S/m at 653 km and 0.174 S/m at 710 km. Finally, value of approximately 0.195 S/m at a depth of 881 km and 0.240 S/m at 1100 km depth were recorded at the lower mantle with no indication of leveling off. Some evidence of discontinuities near 100-214 km, 214-420 km, 420-640 km, 640-900 km and 900-1100 km were clearly obvious. The sharp increase in conductivity from about 100 km depth to 230 km was interpreted to correspond to the global seismic low velocity zone - the asthenosphere.

  16. Diurnal Weather Cycles at the Tropical Treeline in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, F.

    2007-12-01

    future comparisons, provide a clear example of the value of permanent plots in the portion of the American Cordillera that is affected by the North American Monsoon system, and fill a data gap in tropical treeline environments. From the uncovered patterns and processes, it also follows that better understanding of weather and climate processes is needed for both forecasting and backcasting of regional and global changes in monsoon systems across multiple timescales.

  17. HIV Due to Female Sex Work: Regional and Global Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Wolf, Jennyfer; Driscoll, Tim; Degenhardt, Louisa; Neira, Maria; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. Methods Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. Results An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe) female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. Discussion Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. Conclusion FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population. PMID:23717432

  18. Optimal estimation of regional N2O emissions using a three-dimensional global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Golombek, A.; Prinn, R.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we use the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model and Kalman filtering techniques to optimally estimate N2O emissions from seven source regions around the globe. The MATCH model was used with NCEP assimilated winds at T62 resolution (192 longitude by 94 latitude surface grid, and 28 vertical levels) from July 1st 1996 to December 31st 2000. The average concentrations of N2O in the lowest four layers of the model were then compared with the monthly mean observations from six national/global networks (AGAGE, CMDL (HATS), CMDL (CCGG), CSIRO, CSIR and NIES), at 48 surface sites. A 12-month-running-mean smoother was applied to both the model results and the observations, due to the fact that the model was not able to reproduce the very small observed seasonal variations. The Kalman filter was then used to solve for the time-averaged regional emissions of N2O for January 1st 1997 to June 30th 2000. The inversions assume that the model stratospheric destruction rates, which lead to a global N2O lifetime of 130 years, are correct. It also assumes normalized emission spatial distributions from each region based on previous studies. We conclude that the global N2O emission flux is about 16.2 TgN/yr, with {34.9±1.7%} from South America and Africa, {34.6±1.5%} from South Asia, {13.9±1.5%} from China/Japan/South East Asia, {8.0±1.9%} from all oceans, {6.4±1.1%} from North America and North and West Asia, {2.6±0.4%} from Europe, and {0.9±0.7%} from New Zealand and Australia. The errors here include the measurement standard deviation, calibration differences among the six groups, grid volume/measurement site mis-match errors estimated from the model, and a procedure to account approximately for the modeling errors.

  19. The response of European and Asian climate to global and regional aerosol emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Laura; Dunstone, Nick; Highwood, Eleanor; Bollasina, Massimo; Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan

    2017-04-01

    Asia has the world's highest anthropogenic aerosol loading and has experienced a dramatic increase in emissions since the 1950s, which has continued in the 21st century, in stark contrast with European (and North American) emissions which started to decrease in the 1970s. We use a set of transient coupled model experiments (HadGEM2-GC2) to explore the regional climate effects of anthropogenic aerosol changes since the 1980s, with a focus on the European and Asian responses. Comparing simulations with globally varying aerosol emissions to an equivalent set with Asian emissions fixed at their 1971-1980 mean over Asia, we identify the contribution of Asian emissions to the total impact. Identifying thermodynamic and dynamic responses to global and regional aerosol changes, we diagnose atmospheric teleconnections and their interactions with local processes, and the mechanisms by which aerosol affects both European and Asian climate. It is found that Asian aerosols led to substantial changes in Asian climate, weakening the summer monsoon, which is a key driver of the observed precipitation changes there in recent decades. Asian emissions are also able to induce planetary-scale teleconnection patterns in both winter and summer. The impact of the regional diabatic heating anomaly propagates remotely by exciting northern hemisphere wave-trains which, enhanced by regional feedbacks, cause changes in near-surface climate over Europe. To examine the robustness of the mechanisms we identify in HadGEM2, we analyse similar sets of experiments from NorESM1-M and GFDL-CM3: models with very different climatologies and representations of aerosol processes.

  20. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breshears, D.D.; Cobb, N.S.; Rich, P.M.; Price, K.P.; Allen, C.D.; Balice, R.G.; Romme, W.H.; Kastens, J.H.; Floyd, M. Lisa; Belnap, J.; Anderson, J.J.; Myers, O.B.; Meyer, Clifton W.

    2005-01-01

    Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and associated bark beetle infestations. At an intensively studied site within the region, we quantified that after 15 months of depleted soil water content, >90% of the dominant, overstory tree species (Pinus edulis, a pin??on) died. The die-off was reflected in changes in a remotely sensed index of vegetation greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), not only at the intensively studied site but also across the region, extending over 12,000 km2 or more; aerial and field surveys confirmed the general extent of the die-off. Notably, the recent drought was warmer than the previous subcontinental drought of the 1950s. The limited, available observations suggest that die-off from the recent drought was more extensive than that from the previous drought, extending into wetter sites within the tree species' distribution. Our results quantify a trigger leading to rapid, drought-induced die-off of overstory woody plants at subcontinental scale and highlight the potential for such die-off to be more severe and extensive for future global-change-type drought under warmer conditions. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  1. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought.

    PubMed

    Breshears, David D; Cobb, Neil S; Rich, Paul M; Price, Kevin P; Allen, Craig D; Balice, Randy G; Romme, William H; Kastens, Jude H; Floyd, M Lisa; Belnap, Jayne; Anderson, Jesse J; Myers, Orrin B; Meyer, Clifton W

    2005-10-18

    Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and associated bark beetle infestations. At an intensively studied site within the region, we quantified that after 15 months of depleted soil water content, >90% of the dominant, overstory tree species (Pinus edulis, a piñon) died. The die-off was reflected in changes in a remotely sensed index of vegetation greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), not only at the intensively studied site but also across the region, extending over 12,000 km2 or more; aerial and field surveys confirmed the general extent of the die-off. Notably, the recent drought was warmer than the previous subcontinental drought of the 1950s. The limited, available observations suggest that die-off from the recent drought was more extensive than that from the previous drought, extending into wetter sites within the tree species' distribution. Our results quantify a trigger leading to rapid, drought-induced die-off of overstory woody plants at subcontinental scale and highlight the potential for such die-off to be more severe and extensive for future global-change-type drought under warmer conditions.

  2. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

    PubMed Central

    Breshears, David D.; Cobb, Neil S.; Rich, Paul M.; Price, Kevin P.; Allen, Craig D.; Balice, Randy G.; Romme, William H.; Kastens, Jude H.; Floyd, M. Lisa; Belnap, Jayne; Anderson, Jesse J.; Myers, Orrin B.; Meyer, Clifton W.

    2005-01-01

    Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and associated bark beetle infestations. At an intensively studied site within the region, we quantified that after 15 months of depleted soil water content, >90% of the dominant, overstory tree species (Pinus edulis, a piñon) died. The die-off was reflected in changes in a remotely sensed index of vegetation greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), not only at the intensively studied site but also across the region, extending over 12,000 km2 or more; aerial and field surveys confirmed the general extent of the die-off. Notably, the recent drought was warmer than the previous subcontinental drought of the 1950s. The limited, available observations suggest that die-off from the recent drought was more extensive than that from the previous drought, extending into wetter sites within the tree species' distribution. Our results quantify a trigger leading to rapid, drought-induced die-off of overstory woody plants at subcontinental scale and highlight the potential for such die-off to be more severe and extensive for future global-change-type drought under warmer conditions. PMID:16217022

  3. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  4. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  5. Estimating North American background ozone in U.S. surface air with two independent global models: Variability, uncertainties, and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, A. M.; Oberman, J. T.; Lin, M. Y.; Zhang, L.; Clifton, O. E.; Jacob, D. J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Pinto, J. P.; Milly, G. P.

    2014-10-01

    Accurate estimates for North American background (NAB) ozone (O3) in surface air over the United States are needed for setting and implementing an attainable national O3 standard. These estimates rely on simulations with atmospheric chemistry-transport models that set North American anthropogenic emissions to zero, and to date have relied heavily on one global model. We examine NAB estimates for spring and summer 2006 with two independent global models (GEOS-Chem and GFDL AM3). We evaluate the base simulations, which include North American anthropogenic emissions, with mid-tropospheric O3 retrieved from space and ground-level O3 measurements. The models often bracket the observed values, implying value in developing a multi-model approach to estimate NAB O3. Consistent with earlier studies, the models robustly simulate the largest nation-wide NAB levels at high-altitude western U.S. sites (seasonal average maximum daily 8-h values of ˜40-50 ppb in spring and ˜25-40 ppb in summer) where it correlates with observed O3. At these sites, a 27-year GFDL AM3 simulation simulates observed O3 events above 60 ppb and indicates that year-to-year variations in NAB O3 influence their annual frequency (with NAB contributing 50-60 ppb or more during individual events). During summer over the eastern United States (EUS), when photochemical production from regional anthropogenic emissions peaks, NAB is largely uncorrelated with observed values and it is lower than at high-altitude sites (average values of ˜20-30 ppb). Four processes contribute substantially to model differences in specific regions and seasons: lightning NOx, biogenic isoprene emissions and chemistry, wildfires, and stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. Differences in the representations of these processes within the GFDL AM3 and GEOS-Chem models contribute more to uncertainty in NAB estimates, particularly in spring when NAB is highest, than the choice of horizontal resolution within a single model (GEOS

  6. Creating Airborne ESDR Products for Global and Regional Model Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleb, M.; Chen, G.; Pippin, M.; Olson, J.; Crawford, J.; Mertens, A.

    2008-12-01

    Since the early 1980s NASA and partner agencies have conducted over 30 major tropospheric airborne field campaigns to investigate atmospheric composition over a wide range of geographical regions, from the remote marine boundary layer to polluted urban centers. Compared to satellite data, airborne data provides a longer historical perspective, a more extensive suite of observed species/parameters, and higher spatial resolution both horizontally and vertically. Consequently, airborne observations are of unique value to the modeling community's ability to predict future atmospheric composition and its impact on climate change and air quality issues. Nevertheless, there are significant challenges in using airborne data for model assessment and validation, including the lack of a standardized data format or centralized data source. Furthermore, measurement uncertainties are often missing or poorly defined. Since these airborne datasets were collected using different in-situ instruments/techniques and multiple aircraft platforms, it is also imperative to assess the level of consistency among these measurements. To overcome these difficulties, NASA's MEaSUREs program funded a project entitled 'Creating a Unified Airborne Database for Assessment and Validation of Global Models of Atmospheric Compositions.' The primary objective of this project is to develop airborne Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) by creating a unified database, which will be suitable for use in global and regional model assessment and validation activities, especially those organized by the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate (AC&C), the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCOM), and the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (HTAP) communities. The Tropospheric Airborne Measurement Evaluation Panel (TAbMEP), a group of measurement and modeling experts, was assembled to address the critical issues of historical measurement uncertainty and measurement consistency. The first TAb

  7. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  8. An approach to derive regional snow lines and glacier mass change from MODIS imagery, western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. M.; Menounos, B.; Moore, R. D.; Tennant, C.

    2013-04-01

    We describe a method to calculate regional snow line elevations and annual equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) from daily MODIS imagery (MOD02QKM) on large glaciers and icefields in western North America. An automated cluster analysis of the cloud-masked visible and near-infrared bands at 250 m resolution is used to delineate glacier facies (snow and ice) for ten glacierized regions between 2000-2011. For each region and season, the maximum observed value of the 20th percentile of snow-covered pixels (ZS(20)) is used to define a regional ELA proxy (ELAest). Our results indicate significant increases in the regional ELA proxy at two continental sites (Peyto Glacier and Gulkana Glacier) over the period of observation, though no statistically significant trends are identified at other sites. To evaluate the utility of regional ELA proxies derived from MOD02QKM imagery, we compare standard geodetic estimates of glacier mass change with estimates derived from historical mass balance gradients and observations of ZS(20) at three large icefields. Our approach yields estimates of mass change that more negative than traditional geodetic approaches, though MODIS-derived estimates are within the margins of error at all three sites. Both estimates of glacier mass change corroborate the continued mass loss of glaciers in western North America. Between 2000 and 2009, the geodetic change approach yields mean annual rates of surface elevation change for the Columbia, Lillooet, and Sittakanay icefields of -0.29 ± 0.05, -0.26 ± 0.05, and -0.63 ± 0.17 m a-1, respectively. This study provides a new technique for glacier facies detection at daily timescales, and contributes to the development of regional estimates of glacier mass change, both of which are critical for studies of glacier contributions to streamflow and global sea level rise.

  9. Regional aridity in North America during the middle Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Anderson, R.Y.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Increased aridity throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain region during the middle Holocene has been documented from pollen records, aeolian proxy variables in lake cores, and active sand dune migration. Varve calibration provided by a continuously varved record of the Holocene from a core from Elk Lake, northwestern Minnesota, shows that the influx of aeolian elastic material increased beginning about 8 ka and ended about 3.8 ka, with peak aeolian activity at about 6 ka. If aeolian influx to Elk Lake corresponds in time to aeolian influx in other lakes and to maximum dune activity in Minnesota dune fields, then the varve calibration in Elk Lake provides precise time calibration of periods of peak aeolian activity in Minnesota. Palaeowind studies from the Minnesota dune fields show that the dominant wind direction when the dunes were active was from the northwest, the same as the dominant wind direction in dune fields throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. If the mid-Holocene aeolian activity in Minnesota was driven by an increase in westerly zonal winds, then the varve calibration can be extended to more precisely determine the timing of activity of dunes over a much broader area. We suggest that an increase in the westerly zonal wind field might have a solar-geomagnetic cause.

  10. Mean Mesoscale Global Ocean Currents from Geodetic Pre-GOCE MDTs with a Synthesis of the North Pacific Circulation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, M. L.; Menezes, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    A new milestone in satellite geodesy is about to be completed with the expected availability of the high resolution data from the already in orbit GOCE satellite. There are still some open questions related to capability of recovering mean mesoscale (50km plus) geostrophic circulation (MGC) patterns from observational GRACEbased geodetic MDTs, which we examine here in detail. A new set of global geodetic MDTs with high grid resolutions was computed (0.1 deg-VM08-HR and 0.25 deg VM08 models) based on the newest EGM08 and GRACE GGM02 geoid models. The high resolution coupled to good mesoscale feature discrimination was derived using efficient filtering procedure based on Singular Spectrum Analysis. The new solutions were contrasted with five important MDTs, including the hybrid and the geodetic MDTs, through EOF analysis, which permit the determination of the mutual correlation among the MDTs and establishment of error bounds. The methodology made viable a detailed and robust analysis of the North Pacific Ocean circulation based on these MGCs including comparisons with known results from other studies. We prove the superiority of the geodetic EGM08 (as opposed to hybrid) MDT models by obtaining less noisy and more intense and slender North Pacific and Atlantic currents, as exemplified in the Pacific by the confirmed existence of a Kuroshio Extension northern recirculation eddy first detected in a study by Niiler et al. (2003), the bifurcations at the Shatsky Rise and the known mean eddies in the low latitude shear region (NEC-NECC). Although most of the known global mean currents are reproduced, one exception was found in the Mindanao area, where the current is totally erroneous due most likely to a GRACE geoid steep gradient error. Comments on the possible importance of these results as related to the mitigation of problems encountered on altimetric data assimilation into predictive GCMs are also presented.

  11. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  12. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  13. Regional features of global climate change in the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongrácz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Matyasovszky, I.; Schlanger, V.

    2003-04-01

    IPCC TAR suggests that eastern and central European countries could become highly vulnerable to global warming. Our investigations support these findings, especially, in case of two subregions: (1) Hungarian Great Plain, (2) watershed of the Lake Balaton. Severe shortage of precipitation occurred in the last few decades in both areas, thus, ecosystems must face to high risk of environmental change. The Great Plain is the largest agricultural area in Hungary where high variability of floods and droughts causes severe damages in crop yields and human settlements. Frequent extreme events may result in unstable climate conditions and increased vulnerability of agricultural activity in this region. One of the largest lake in Europe is the Lake Balaton with its unique 3.3 meter depth on average. In the last few years, the mean water level has decreased by 0.6-0.8 m several times for a few months period. The only outflow of the lake, a small creek (called Sio) has been regulated in 1863 in order to control the water runoff from the lake to the river Danube (120 km distance). The aim of our investigations is to compare climate change scenarios for these two sensitive regions. Two downscaling techniques have been compared, namely, (1) stochastical downscaling method nested in coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs, (2) an upwelling diffusion energy balance model combined with GCM outputs and IPCC emission scenarios. The stochastical downscaling method includes large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, and also, it is able to represent the linkage between the local surface variables and large-scale circulation. Seasonal and annual changes in temperature and precipitation have been determined in case of the 2xCO2 climate and compared to historical data. Furthermore, several IPCC emission scenarios have been compared and GCM outputs have been analysed in order to project climate conditions for the 21st century in the Carpathian Basin.

  14. Middle Pleistocene raised beach anomalies in the English Channel: regional and global stratigraphic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Laurent, M.; Bahain, J. L.; Balescu, S.; Falguères, C.; Field, M.; Hallégouët, B.; Keen, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Palaeo-shore positions help to evidence long-term eustatic changes and assist in the understanding of tectonic movements at a regional scale. Raised beaches anomalies exist in the Channel region and may result from deformations induced by neotectonic or by glacio-isostasy. The aim of this paper is to re-analyse, within their geodynamic context in the Channel and Dover Strait regions, the stratigraphy and the datings of palaeo-shores of Middle and Upper Pleistocene ages. This sector of Europe is characterised by strong geological contrasts and is controlled by two main geological boundaries: in the north, the Variscan Overthrust (corresponding approximately to the position of the Dover Strait) and, in the south, the Northern Branch of the Southern Brittany shearing zone. These two boundaries border a domain which seems to behave rather homogeneously on a large scale under the control of plate tectonics. Today, shorelines are subsiding north and south of this 'Channel' region. Episodic uplift largely controlled the open or closed status of the Dover Strait, especially after the Messinian and Early Quaternary, by reactivating Variscan structures. After 400 ka, global cooling allowed supplementary deformations in the area to be induced by glacio-isostatic rebound and clustered seismic activity during the phase of ice sheet building. Evidence of eight different transgressions dated by ESR from Oxygen Isotopic Stage (OIS) 13 to the end of OIS 5 shows the complexity of the sea-level records in a region unstable for isostatic and neotectonic reasons. Due to glacio-isostatic depression, transgressions are possible in late glacial times as well as during full interglacials. Most platforms were initially cut, during the Late Miocene, and seem to have been re-trimmed several times, especially by shore ice rafting since OIS 9. Regionally, the sea apparently rose to about the same level in O.I. Stages 11, 9 and 7. Glacio-isostatic and glacio-eustatic relative displacements of

  15. Global and Regional Potential for Biofuels From Residue and Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Smith, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues as well as municipal solid waste (MSW) represent potential low cost lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for the production of second generation biofuels. For agriculture, the maximum supply is a function of crop-specific attributes (harvest index and energy content of residue) and total crop production (yield and total harvested area). For forestry, two potential residue streams are considered: residue left from timber harvesting (tree tops and branches), and residue from mills (wood scraps and sawdust). The harvest index, milling efficiencies, and energy content of wood are used to estimate the total potential supply of forestry residues. MSW is predicted as a function of GDP and the proportional waste composition indicative of various regions. Limiting factors for supply of biomass feedstock from these sources include agricultural and forest productivity, residue required to prevent soil erosion and maintain soil nutrients, and cost of aggregation and transport. Using the ObjECTS MiniCAM Integrated Assessment Model, the global role of residue biomass as a feedstock for biofuels is modeled for the next century under different climate policy scenarios.

  16. Space observations for global and regional studies of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space observations for studies of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such observations for studies of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite observations for Earth system studies. The most important contribution of space observations is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem studies.

  17. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict.

    PubMed

    Mills, Michael J; Toon, Owen B; Turco, Richard P; Kinnison, Douglas E; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-04-08

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at midlatitudes, and 50-70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical "ozone hole." The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous "nuclear winter/UV spring" calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion.

  18. Evolution of regional to global paddy rice mapping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Paddy rice agriculture plays an important role in various environmental issues including food security, water use, climate change, and disease transmission. However, regional and global paddy rice maps are surprisingly scarce and sporadic despite numerous efforts in paddy rice mapping algorithms and applications. In this presentation we would like to review the existing paddy rice mapping methods from the literatures ranging from the 1980s to 2015. In particular, we illustrated the evolution of these paddy rice mapping efforts, looking specifically at the future trajectory of paddy rice mapping methodologies. The biophysical features and growth phases of paddy rice were analyzed first, and feature selections for paddy rice mapping were analyzed from spectral, polarimetric, temporal, spatial, and textural aspects. We sorted out paddy rice mapping algorithms into four categories: 1) Reflectance data and image statistic-based approaches, 2) vegetation index (VI) data and enhanced image statistic-based approaches, 3) VI or RADAR backscatter-based temporal analysis approaches, and 4) phenology-based approaches through remote sensing recognition of key growth phases. The phenology-based approaches using unique features of paddy rice (e.g., transplanting) for mapping have been increasingly used in paddy rice mapping. Based on the literature review, we discussed a series of issues for large scale operational paddy rice mapping.

  19. North American Carbon Balance: Results from the Regional Synthesis Project of the North America Carbon Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Davis, K. J.; Raczka, B. M.; Hayes, D. J.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Nacp Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants

    2010-12-01

    Past studies have documented continental scale carbon balances for North America but there are large differences among the results. Recent improvements in the amount and quality of available observation-based data, and application of comparative analyses among approach methods, may allow us to reduce disagreement and resolve sources of discrepancies among flux estimates. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis project has brought together a large number of spatial data sets, and terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TBM) and atmospheric inversion simulation results to construct a holistic assessment of North America carbon fluxes for the years 2000 to 2005. One of the goals of the interim synthesis project has been to investigate the magnitude and potential causes of the large differences in estimated component and net fluxes over regional scales. Although the results to date have not resolved the disparity in estimates of NA carbon fluxes, they have lead to insights into the ability of various types of data and analysis approaches to understand some of the flux discrepancies among the different estimation approaches. Regional TBM results were compared with inversion and inventory-based estimates, as well as modeled and observed flux estimates from eddy covariance sites. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimates range from -2.9 to 0.68 PgC/yr (inversions) and -1.64 to 0.52 PgC/yr (TBMs) for temperate NA. In boreal NA, TBMs, on average, estimate slightly greater uptake than inversions (-0.12 PgC/yr versus -0.07 PgC/yr), but both methods have similar range in estimates. In Temperate NA, inversions, on average, estimate twice the uptake of TBMs (-0.96 PgC/yr versus -0.41 PgC/yr) and have a greater range in estimates. A comparison of NEE estimates for TBMs with both regional drivers and site-specific data indicates that a component for TBM uncertainty is the quality of reanalysis data used as weather forcing in the regional simulations

  20. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure and near-surface temperature differences between the Azores High and the Icelandic Low for the period of 1900-2012 within the spatial-temporal average-out (20º latitude, 20º longitude and 12 years) were considered. The secular term of phase states of the system under consideration was found to divide into three non-intersecting subsets. Each of that was put in consequence with one of three climatic scenarios related to the periods of 1905-1935 (relatively warm phase), 1940-1970 (colder phase) and 1980-2000 (warmer phase). A life time of such a scenario lasted about 20-35 years, and the transition from one scenario to another covered 4-6 years, i.e. it run comparatively quickly. The revealed non-overlapping sub-aggregates of the thermodynamic indices related to each particular climate scenario gave an idea to follow the circulation peculiarities and the interrelated temperature differences within the limits of the Northern Atlantic ocean-atmosphere regional system. The results of this analysis bear evidence that the most probable intermittent strengthening and weakening of Hadley and Ferrell circulations occurred there in coincided phase. The analogous character of the climate system behavior was also detected in some other regional atmospheric activity centers that can be considered as a witness on the global nature of the detected phase type of modern climate inter-decadal variability. Hence, we have the grounds to suppose that mentioned above the short-period inter-decadal excitations of the modern climate have a global nature and appears everywhere. Finally, the attention was paid to the fact that at the early XXI century the thermodynamic state of the Northern Atlantic regional climate system has shown a tendency to face towards the situation, similar to the cooler scenario of the 1940-1970. We used the heat content of upper 700m Atlantic Ocean layer data from NODC to calculate its anomalies for the periods of 1955-1970, 1980-2000 and

  1. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Butler, J. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  2. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  3. Mean mesoscale global ocean currents from geodetic pre-GOCE MDTs with a synthesis of the North Pacific circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, M. L.; Menezes, V. V.

    2010-02-01

    A new milestone in satellite geodesy is about to be completed with the expected availability of the high-resolution data from the already in-orbit Global Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite. There are still some open questions related to capability of recovering mean mesoscale (50 km plus) geostrophic circulation (MGC) patterns from observational Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-based geodetic Mean Dynamic Topography (MDTs), which we examine here in detail. A new set of global geodetic MDTs with high grid resolutions was computed (0.1° and 0.25°) based on the newest EGM08 and GRACE GGM02 geoid models. The high resolution coupled to good mesoscale feature discrimination was derived using efficient filtering procedure based on singular spectrum analysis. The new solutions were contrasted with five important MDTs, including the hybrid and the geodetic MDTs, through empirical orthogonal functions analysis, which permit the determination of the mutual correlation among the MDTs, and establishment of error bounds. The methodology made viable a detailed and robust analysis of the North Pacific Ocean circulation based on these MGCs including comparisons with known results from other studies. We prove the superiority of the geodetic EGM08 (as opposed to hybrid) MDT models by obtaining less noisy and more intense and slender western boundary currents and their recirculations, the bifurcations at the Shatsky Rise, and the known mean eddies in the low-latitude shear region (NEC-NECC).

  4. Assimilating the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Estimates in the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) Over North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluwade, A.; Rasmussen, P. F.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Fortin, V.; Guy, R.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of precipitation measurement using estimates from satellite products cannot be over emphasized. Observations from space using sensors mounted on satellites cover wider areas and provide high spatial and temporal resolution. The estimates derived from this process are very useful in integrated hydrologic modeling, weather forecasting and monitoring landslides, droughts and floods, etc. Example of a satellite precipitation product is the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). TRMM was primarily designed to measure heavy-to-moderate rainfall over tropical and subtropical regions. GPM was designed to extend, enhance, and improve TRMM precipitation data. The primary objective of this study is the assimilation GPM satellite based precipitation estimates into the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). CaPA combines the Global Environmental Multi-Scale model (GEM) dataset and observed precipitation from monitoring stations to provide precipitation estimates at 6hr and 24hr time steps and spatial resolution of 10km covering North America. In the result, we used the Equitable Threat Score (ETS) as performance evaluation. GPM assimilation provides higher skill (ETS) at precipitation values below 3mm while being used as additional data source. GPM has better skill as background field at precipitation value above 3mm.

  5. On the Dynamics of the North-South Seasonal Migration of Global Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satori, G.; Williams, E. R.; Boccippio, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    The daily Schumann resonance (SR) frequency patterns are mainly determined by the lightning source-observer configuration consequently their variations are indicative for the changes of global lightning position. Four basic types of daily frequency patterns have been distinguished corresponding to the four seasons observed for each SR mode at Nagycenk, Hungary. The number of days with daily frequency patterns characteristic for a season were very different. Similar daily frequency patterns have been observed during 160-165 consecutive days from the beginning of November to the first part of April in any year of SR observations at Nagycenk. The same time sequences (four seasons with different lengths) can be recognized in the global lightning distribution observed by OTD (Optical Transient Detector) (Christian et al., 2003) as it was shown in the seasonal distributions of the daily frequency patterns of Shumann resonances. The land/ocean ratio is smaller in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. It seems that oceanic thermodynamical properties (large thermal inertia) are manifested in the dynamics (speed) of the north-south lightning migration identified by the long lasting (160-165 days) southern position of global lightning in the Southern Hemisphere summer and by the time lag of the northward lightning migration in spring. The spring-fall asymmetry of the migration speed is attributed to the different thermodynamical properties of land and ocean.

  6. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  7. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Lin, J.; Hu, L.; Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the tropospheric ozone, but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models and chemistry-climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions. These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive) tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use a recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the regional and global tropospheric O3in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5º long. x 2º lat.) and its three nested models (at 0.667º long. x 0.5º lat.) covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Specifically, the nested models take lateral boundary conditions from the global model, better capture small-scale processes, and feed back to modify the global model simulation within the nested domains, with a subsequent effect on their LBCs. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled system better simulates the tropospheric O3 both within and outside the nested domains, as found by evaluation against a suite of ground (1420 sites from WDCGG, GMD, EMEP, and AQS), aircraft (HIPPO and MOZAIC), and satellite measurements (two OMI products). The two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean surface O3 with the ground measurements from 0.53 to 0.68, and it reduces the mean model bias from 10.8 to 6.7 ppb. Regionally, the coupled system reduces the bias by 4.6 ppb over Europe, 3.9 ppb over North America, and 3.1 ppb over other regions. The two-way coupling brings O3vertical profiles much closer to the HIPPO (for remote areas) and MOZAIC (for polluted regions) data, reducing the tropospheric mean bias by 3-10 ppb at most MOZAIC sites and by 5.3 ppb for HIPPO profiles. The two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric column ozone by 3.0 DU (9.5%, annual mean), bringing them closer to the OMI data in all

  8. Assessment of contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 in wild birds sampled in North America.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Hicks, Joseph T; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Poulson, Rebecca L; Stallknecht, David E; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L

    2017-03-03

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread of APMV-1 viruses are relevant to avian health. In this study we sequenced the fusion gene from 58 APMV-1 isolates recovered from thirteen species of wild birds sampled throughout the USA during 2007-2014. We analyzed sequence information with previously reported data in order to assess contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of APMV-1 in wild birds sampled in North America. Our results suggest that wild birds maintain previously undescribed genetic diversity of APMV-1; however, such diversity is unlikely to be pathogenic to domestic poultry. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that APMV-1 diversity detected in wild birds of North America has been found in birds belonging to numerous taxonomic host orders and within hosts inhabiting multiple geographic regions suggesting some level of viral exchange. However, our results also provide statistical support for associations between phylogenetic tree topology and host taxonomic order/region of sample origin which supports restricted exchange among taxa and geographical regions of North America for some APMV-1 sub-genotypes. We identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity of APMV-1 in wild birds in North America which is likely a function of continued viral evolution in reservoir hosts. We did not, however, find support for the emergence or maintenance of APMV-1 strains predicted to be pathogenic to poultry in wild birds of North America outside of the order Suliformes (i.e., cormorants). Furthermore, genetic evidence suggests that ecological drivers or other mechanisms may restrict viral exchange among taxa and regions of North America. Additional and more systematic sampling for APMV-1 in North America would likely provide further inference on viral dynamics for this infectious agent

  9. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject worker...

  10. Detecting the global and regional effects of sulphate aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Highwood, Ellie

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is unequivocal. In addition to carbon dioxide emission mitigation, some geoengineering ideas have been proposed to reduce future surface temperature rise. One of these proposals involves injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere to increase the planet's albedo. Monitoring the effectiveness of sulphate aerosol injection (SAI) would require us to be able to distinguish and detect its cooling effect from the climate system's internal variability and other externally forced temperature changes. This research uses optimal fingerprinting techniques together with simulations from the GeoMIP data base to estimate the number of years of observations that would be needed to detect SAI's cooling signal in near-surface air temperature, should 5 Tg of sulphur dioxide be injected into the stratosphere per year on top of RCP4.5 from 2020-2070. The first part of the research compares the application of two detection methods that have different null hypotheses to SAI detection in global mean near-surface temperature. The first method assumes climate noise to be dominated by unforced climate variability and attempts to detect the SAI cooling signal and greenhouse gas driven warming signal in the "observations" simultaneously against this noise. The second method considers greenhouse gas driven warming to be a non-stationary background climate and attempts to detect the net cooling effect of SAI against this background. Results from this part of the research show that the conventional multi-variate detection method that has been extensively used to attribute climate warming to anthropogenic sources could also be applied for geoengineering detection. The second part of the research investigates detection of geoengineering effects on the regional scale. The globe is divided into various sub-continental scale regions and the cooling effect of SAI is looked for in the temperature time series in each of these regions using total least squares multi

  11. Analysis of North Atlantic Aircraft Data on Oxygenated Intermediate Species Using an Adapted Regional Chemistry-Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Mathur, Rohit; Alapaty, Kiran; Hanna, Adel; Binkowski, Frank; Guan, Hong; Esswein, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Our study is on the interaction of nitrogen oxides with organics as they are exported from their complex sources in Eastern North America. Both urban and specific industrial emissions contribute the nitrogen of the C-H-O-N compounds that affect the global atmosphere, helping determine both ozone and the self-cleaning radical chemistry of the troposphere mediated by the OH radical. Different industrial sources, urban, and natural emissions contribute the organic C. Peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(double bonds O)OONO2 is the most interesting compound for which we can measure the outflow to the full depth of the Atlantic troposphere. As we adapt the 3-d chemical model to describe outflow for specific periods with sufficient accuracy, we are analyzing some valuable information in the NARE-97 complete airborne dataset. (NARE: North Atlantic Regional Experiment). Ames researchers find that there are substantial puzzles in the ratios of PAN/NO2. Peroxy acetyl nitrate provides one of the major long-distance export pathways for active nitrogen from Eastern North America. It should be closely linked with NO, (defined as the sum NO + NO2) by simple thermal association and decomposition reactions, at least when the ambient temperature is substantially above 5 C.

  12. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  13. Condom Availability at Four-Year State Universities in the North Central Census Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, K. R.; And Others

    This survey of 66 4-year state universities with enrollments greater than 5,000 students in the North Central census region investigated the availability of condoms on campuses to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The survey sought to determine condom availability, location, cost to students, and…

  14. Annual Forest Inventories for the North Central Region of the United States

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Mark H. Hansen

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective in developing procedures for annual forest inventories for the north central region of the United States is to establish the capability of producing standard forest inventory and analysis estimates on an annual basis. The inventory system developed to accomplish this objective features several primary functions, including (1) an annual sample of...

  15. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  16. Spatio-temporal variations in surface characteristics over the North American Monsoon region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper we summarize the surface characteristics for six locations in western Mexico and southwestern USA (from a subhumid climate in Jalisco, Mexico to the Sonoran Desert climate in Arizona, USA),that lie along a meridional transect within the North American Monsoon (NAM) core region using av...

  17. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  18. The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

    Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly…

  19. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  20. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  1. Rural Economic Revitalization: The Cooperative Extension Challenge in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, Kenneth E.

    The difficulties presently being faced by rural communities in the North Central Extension Region are well known. Many of these communities have economies which are closely tied to farming and therefore suffer economic hardship in direct relationship to those encountered by farmers. However, a dominant characteristic of communities in the region…

  2. Cucurbit germplasm collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  3. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of.... The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  4. Regional model simulation of the North Atlantic cyclone Caroline and comparisons with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keup-Thiel, E.; Klepp, C.-Ph.; Raschke, E.; Rockel, B.

    2003-03-01

    An individual regional model simulation of cyclone Caroline has been carried out to study water cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a comparison of the model results with SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) satellite data.

  5. Wilderness and wild lands in the Northern Appalachian Region of North America: An ecological perspective

    Treesearch

    Stephen C. Trombulak

    2007-01-01

    The ecological context of the Northern Appalachian region of North America is reviewed and general patterns of ownership and protection status of land discussed. Although there is wide variability among the states and provinces in the proportion of their land that is publicly owned, only a very small proportion, ranging from 0.1 percent to 8.0 percent, anywhere is...

  6. Making Educational Technology Work: State Policies in the North Central Region. NCREL Policy Issues. Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2004-01-01

    As the responsibility for allocating resources for technology shifts from federal administrators to state and local education agencies, state and local policymakers face greater accountability for making fiscally and educationally sound decisions. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), the research and development arm of Learning…

  7. Farm Crisis Response: Extension and Research Activities in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul, Comp.; And Others

    The 12 states comprising the North Central Region have been affected in similar ways by the farm crisis of the 1980s. Statewide surveys show sizeable proportions of farm operations that are experiencing moderately high levels of financial stress. The problems caused by chronic stress on family structure and functioning, the loss of mainstreet…

  8. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  9. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, Steve W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  10. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  11. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  12. Balancing Growth, Harvest, and Consumption of Hardwood Resources in the North Central Region

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Neal Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    The volume of timber in the North Central Region of the Unites States (IN, IL, IA, MN, WI, MI) has more than doubled since 1950. Annual growth of growing stock on timberland is about 2.3 billion cubic feet (8.5 billion board feet). Removals from growing stock are about 1.1 billion cubic feet (3.4 billion board feet). However, the people who live in the region consume...

  13. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry-climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE PAGES

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; ...

    2015-09-25

    Here we test the current generation of global chemistry–climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1° × 1° grid cells, allowing commensurate model–measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is lessmore » successfully matched. The observed summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 % of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes. Lastly, we conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.« less

  14. Use of North American and European Air Quality Networks to Evaluate Global Chemistry-Climate Modeling of Surface Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We test the current generation of global chemistry-climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1 degree by 1 degree grid cells, allowing commensurate model-measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (approximately 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfully matched. The observed summertime diurnal range (25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 parts per billion, and the observed seasonal range (approximately 21 parts per billion) is underestimated by about 5 parts per billion except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 parts per billion. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 percent of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 parts per billion for larger-sized episodes. We conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.

  15. Use of North American and European Air Quality Networks to Evaluate Global Chemistry-Climate Modeling of Surface Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Strode, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    We test the current generation of global chemistry-climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1 degree by 1 degree grid cells, allowing commensurate model-measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (approximately 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfully matched. The observed summertime diurnal range (25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 parts per billion, and the observed seasonal range (approximately 21 parts per billion) is underestimated by about 5 parts per billion except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 parts per billion. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 percent of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 parts per billion for larger-sized episodes. We conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.

  16. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry–climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE PAGES

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; ...

    2015-09-25

    We test the current generation of global chemistry–climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1° × 1° grid cells, allowing commensurate model–measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfullymore » matched. The observed summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 % of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes. We conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.« less

  17. Lithospheric Structure of the North American Craton Imaged Using Waveform Inversion of Global and Usarray Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2014-12-01

    The North American Craton, now forming the stable core of North America, has a long, eventful tectonic history. The assembly of the craton, collisions and accretion at its current boundaries, major rifting episodes within it, and the loss of ancient lithosphere beneath parts of it are type examples of these key components of cratonic dynamics and evolution. Seismic tomography offers rich evidence on the structure and evolution of the cratonic lithosphere. With the deployment of the USArray during the last decade, much of the North American continent has been densely sampled with broadband seismic data. The resolution of regional-scale imaging, however, remains uneven, with important questions regarding deep structure, lateral extent and evolution difficult to answer. Here we present a new high-resolution model of the upper mantle beneath North America constrained by waveform fits of over 700,000 vertical-component broadband seismograms. Automated multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S waveforms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone, and improved resolution for a variety of features in North America. The internal structure of the Craton is resolved in detail. The lithosphere surrounding the 1 Ga failed Mid-Continental Rift shows reduced wavespeeds compared to the surrounding craton, likely indicating thermo-chemical alteration of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. The sharp northern boundaries of the cratonic lithosphere closely follow the coastlines, with North America's and Greenland's lithospheric roots clearly separated. Strong lateral velocity gradients at depth observed in western Canada indicate the transition from cratonic lithosphere to Cordillera closely follows the surface trace of the Deformation Front. On the eastern margin of the continent, where multiple episodes of continental rifting are superimposed, the craton boundary coincides with the western extent of the

  18. Dynamical Downscaling over the Great Lakes Basin of North America using the WRF Regional Climate Model: The impact of the Great Lakes system on regional greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gula, J.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we investigate the regional climate changes to be expected over the Great Lakes Basin of North America during the next century. Large freshwater systems, such as the Great Lakes, play a key role in determining the climate of their basins and adjacent regions by air mass modification through the exchange of heat and moisture with the atmosphere. Even systems as extensive as the Great Lakes are unresolved in coarse resolution global climate simulations but may be accurately captured in finer-mesh regional simulations by dynamical downscaling. Historical (1979-2001) and future (2050-2060 and 2090-2100) conditions are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) forced by CCSM3 global simulations. Our analyses are based upon the IPCC SRES A2 and A1B emissions scenarios. A two-step nesting procedure is employed for the purpose of downscaling, in which the first nested WRF model is of North American continental scale at 30 km resolution, whereas the innermost domain at 10 km resolution covers the Great Lakes Basin and the Canadian Province of Ontario. The differences in extreme temperature and precipitation events delivered by the different scales of simulation are discussed. As the WRF model does not currently have an explicit lake component, lake ice and lake surface temperature need to be prescribed in the model. A first set of simulations is performed using climatological 1979-2001) data for lake ice and lake surface temperature. A second set is performed using outputs from the freshwater lake model "FLake" (Mironov, D. V., 2008, COSMO Technical Report, No. 11, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany) forced by atmospheric fields from the global simulations. A third set is performed using an interactive coupling of the lake model FLake with the regional model WRF. Changes in surface temperatures and ice cover, and especially ice-out dates, for the Great Lakes under future atmospheric conditions are discussed. The trends in

  19. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

    2016-05-01

    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  20. A sub-millimetre survey of dust enshrouded galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borys, C. J.

    2002-12-01

    This thesis investigates the emission of sub-millimetre-wave radiation from galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North region. The data were obtained from dedicated observing runs from our group and others using the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The data were combined using techniques specifically developed here for low signal-to-noise source recovery. The sources found represent over 10% of all cosmological sources SCUBA has detected since it was commissioned. The number of sub-mm galaxies we detect account for a significant fraction of the sub-mm background, and we show that mild extrapolations can reproduce it entirely. We comment on their clustering properties, both with themselves and other high-redshift galaxy types. A multi-wavelength analysis of these galaxies shows that SCUBA sources do not all have similar properties, and are made of a collection including: star-forming radio galaxies; optically invisible objects; active galactic nuclei; and extremely red objects. Reasonable attempts to determine the redshift distribution of the sample show that SCUBA galaxies have a median redshift of around 2, and suggest that the global star formation rate may be dominated by such objects at redshifts beyond about 1. The thesis summarises the current state of extra-galactic sub-mm astronomy, and comments on how new surveys and detectors will allow us to place stronger constraints on the evolution properties of the high-redshift Universe. The research described here was made possible from grants by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and a generous scholarship from the University of British Columbia.

  1. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy).

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Buja, Alessandra; Baldovin, Tatjana; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Saia, Mario

    2013-10-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of -1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC -6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC -4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue.

  2. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  3. Report from a Viral Hepatitis Policy Forum on implementing the WHO Framework for Global Action on viral hepatitis in North Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Shinn; Locarnini, Stephen; Wait, Suzanne; Bae, Si-Hyun; Chen, Pei-Jer; Fung, James Y Y; Kim, Hong Soo; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Sung, Joseph; Tanaka, Junko; Wakita, Takaji; Ward, John; Wallace, Jack

    2013-11-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) Prevention & Control of Viral Hepatitis Infection: Framework for Global Action offers a global vision for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis. In October 2012, the Coalition to Eradicate Viral Hepatitis in Asia Pacific (CEVHAP) organised the North Asia Workshop on Viral Hepatitis in Taipei to discuss how to implement the WHO Framework in the North Asia region. This paper presents outcomes from this workshop. Twenty-eight representatives from local liver associations, patient organisations, and centres of excellence in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan participated in the workshop. Priority areas for action were described along the four axes of the WHO Framework: (1) awareness, advocacy and resources; (2) evidence and data; (3) prevention of transmission; and (4) screening and treatment. Priorities included: axis 1: greater public and professional awareness, particularly among primary care physicians and local advocacy networks. Axis 2: better economic data and identifying barriers to screening and treatment uptake. Axis 3: monitoring of vaccination outcomes and targeted harm reduction strategies. Axis 4: strengthening links between hospitals and primary care providers, and secure funding of screening and treatment, including for hepatocellular carcinoma. The WHO Framework provides an opportunity to develop comprehensive and cohesive policies in North Asia and the broader region. A partnership between clinical specialists, primary care physicians, policy makers, and people with or at risk of viral hepatitis is essential in shaping future policies. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beringian Sea Level and Marine Climate History: Investigations into Regional & Global Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Driscoll, N.; Keigwin, L.; Lundeen, Z.; Hill, J.; Cook, M.; Donnelly, J.

    2003-12-01

    Glacial-interglacial cycles have imposed on the Bering Strait region some of the most radical changes in paleogeography documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Only 20,000 years ago during the last glaciation when sea level was about 130 m below present, the Bering Land Bridge separated the deeper Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from the Arctic Ocean by more than 1000 kilometers of herb-dominated tundra. Missing from existing literature are studies of how the Bering and Chukchi seas participate in controlling Beringian and global climate. Fluctuations in sea level caused the rapid migration of shorelines changing gradients in temperature and moisture with considerable downwind effects based on regional terrestrial records. The greatest east-west heterogeneity across Beringia occurred during warm (flooded) or warming (partially flooded) periods of late Pleistocene summers, when the cool maritime influence bifurcated the relatively warm continental interior. Oceanographic changes were also radically influenced by changes in sea level across the Bering Straits that regulated the northward flow of Pacific waters into the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic. Especially important in our collective research is an understanding of how the flow of water through the Bering Strait may have influenced documented changes in thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic (e.g., Younger Dryas) by changing the flux of fresher Pacific water into the Arctic Ocean. On board the USCGC Healy in the summer of 2002, we collected from -2800m to -50 m water depth, a set of nearly 100 different marine cores measuring over 500 meters in total length. Some are up to 21 meters long, from -1300 m water depth, the longest cores taken in this part of the western Arctic. Specific cores appear to hold a high-resolution record of the deglacial and Holocene history in this region and a few of the cores likely contain sediments back to nearly 140,000 yrs BP. We also learned that the stratigraphic

  5. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kuze, A.; Notholt, J.; Ohyama, H.; Parker, R.; Payne, V. H.; Sussmann, R.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2015-02-01

    We use 2009-2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently used for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a-1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2-42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9-27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0-44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29-44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22-31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11-15% to coal with an additional 9.0-10.1 Tg a-1 source from wetlands.

  6. Forecasting auroras from regional and global magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Myllys, Minna; Partamies, Noora; Viljanen, Ari; Peitso, Pyry; Juusola, Liisa; Ahmadzai, Shabana; Singh, Vikramjit; Keil, Ralf; Martinez, Unai; Luginin, Alexej; Glover, Alexi; Navarro, Vicente; Raita, Tero

    2016-06-01

    We use the connection between auroral sightings and rapid geomagnetic field variations in a concept for a Regional Auroral Forecast (RAF) service. The service is based on statistical relationships between near-real-time alerts issued by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center and magnetic time derivative (dB/dt) values measured by five MIRACLE magnetometer stations located in Finland at auroral and sub-auroral latitudes. Our database contains NOAA alerts and dB/dt observations from the years 2002-2012. These data are used to create a set of conditional probabilities, which tell the service user when the probability of seeing auroras exceeds the average conditions in Fennoscandia during the coming 0-12 h. Favourable conditions for auroral displays are associated with ground magnetic field time derivative values (dB/dt) exceeding certain latitude-dependent threshold values. Our statistical analyses reveal that the probabilities of recording dB/dt exceeding the thresholds stay below 50 % after NOAA alerts on X-ray bursts or on energetic particle flux enhancements. Therefore, those alerts are not very useful for auroral forecasts if we want to keep the number of false alarms low. However, NOAA alerts on global geomagnetic storms (characterized with Kp values > 4) enable probability estimates of > 50 % with lead times of 3-12 h. RAF forecasts thus rely heavily on the well-known fact that bright auroras appear during geomagnetic storms. The additional new piece of information which RAF brings to the previous picture is the knowledge on typical storm durations at different latitudes. For example, the service users south of the Arctic Circle will learn that after a NOAA ALTK06 issuance in night, auroral spotting should be done within 12 h after the alert, while at higher latitudes conditions can remain favourable during the next night.

  7. COMPILATION OF REGIONAL TO GLOBAL INVENTORIES OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    2002-11-01

    The mathematical modeling of the transport and transformation of trace species in the atmosphere is one of the scientific tools currently used to assess atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climatic conditions. From the scientific but also from the management perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal, and species resolution are required. There are two general methodologies used to estimate regional to global emissions: bottom-up and top-down (also known as inverse modeling). Bottom-up methodologies to estimate industrial emissions are based on activity data, emission factors (amount of emissions per unit activity), and for some inventories additional parameters (such as sulfur content of fuels). Generally these emissions estimates must be given finer sectoral, spatial (usually gridded), temporal, and for some inventories species resolution. Temporal and spatial resolution are obtained via the use of surrogate information, such as population, land use, traffic counts, etc. which already exists in or can directly be converted to gridded form. Speciation factors have been and are being developed to speciate inventories of NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. Top-down (inverse modeling) methodologies directly invert air quality measurements in terms of poorly known but critical parameters to constrain the emissions needed to explain these measurements; values of these parameters are usually computed using atmospheric transport models. Currently there are several strong limitations of inverse modeling, but the continued evolution of top-down estimates will be facilitated by the development of denser monitoring networks and by the massive amounts of data from satellite observations.

  8. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25–45% at midlatitudes, and 50–70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical “ozone hole.” The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N2O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous “nuclear winter/UV spring” calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:18391218

  9. Fast global interactive volume segmentation with regional supervoxel descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo, Imanol; Basham, Mark; French, Andrew P.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach towards fast multi-class volume segmentation that exploits supervoxels in order to reduce complexity, time and memory requirements. Current methods for biomedical image segmentation typically require either complex mathematical models with slow convergence, or expensive-to-calculate image features, which makes them non-feasible for large volumes with many objects (tens to hundreds) of different classes, as is typical in modern medical and biological datasets. Recently, graphical models such as Markov Random Fields (MRF) or Conditional Random Fields (CRF) are having a huge impact in different computer vision areas (e.g. image parsing, object detection, object recognition) as they provide global regularization for multiclass problems over an energy minimization framework. These models have yet to find impact in biomedical imaging due to complexities in training and slow inference in 3D images due to the very large number of voxels. Here, we define an interactive segmentation approach over a supervoxel space by first defining novel, robust and fast regional descriptors for supervoxels. Then, a hierarchical segmentation approach is adopted by training Contextual Extremely Random Forests in a user-defined label hierarchy where the classification output of the previous layer is used as additional features to train a new classifier to refine more detailed label information. This hierarchical model yields final class likelihoods for supervoxels which are finally refined by a MRF model for 3D segmentation. Results demonstrate the effectiveness on a challenging cryo-soft X-ray tomography dataset by segmenting cell areas with only a few user scribbles as the input for our algorithm. Further results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method to fully extract different organelles from the cell volume with another few seconds of user interaction.

  10. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    PubMed

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions. Some challenges were underestimated

  11. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    PubMed

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Design Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. Results The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. Conclusion The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions

  12. Mapping cropland GPP in the north temperate region with space measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y.; Jung, M.; Joiner, J.; Voigt, M.; Huete, A. R.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Frankenberg, C.; Lee, J.; Berry, J. A.; Moran, S. M.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Beer, C.; Camps-Valls, G.; Buchmann, N. C.; Gianelle, D.; Klumpp, K.; Cescatti, A.; Baker, J. M.; Griffis, T.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring agricultural productivity is important for optimizing management practices in a world under a continuous increase of food and biofuel demand. We used new space measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), a vegetation parameter intrinsically linked to photosynthesis, to capture photosynthetic uptake of the crop belts in the north temperate region. The following data streams and procedures have been used in this analysis: (1) SIF retrievals have been derived from measurements of the MetOp-A / GOME-2 instrument in the 2007-2011 time period; (2) ensembles of process-based and data-driven biogeochemistry models have been analyzed in order to assess the capability of global models to represent crop gross primary production (GPP); (3) flux tower-based GPP estimates covering the 2007-2011 time period have been extracted over 18 cropland and grassland sites in the Midwest US and Western Europe from the Ameriflux and the European Fluxes Database networks; (4) large-scale NPP estimates have been derived by the agricultural inventory data sets developed by USDA-NASS and Monfreda et al. The strong linear correlation between the SIF space retrievals and the flux tower-based GPP, found to be significantly higher than that between reflectance-based vegetation indices (EVI, NDVI and MTCI) and GPP, has enabled the direct upscaling of SIF to cropland GPP maps at the synoptic scale. The new crop GPP estimates we derive from the scaling of SIF space retrievals are consistent with both flux tower GPP estimates and agricultural inventory data. These new GPP estimates show that crop productivity in the US Western Corn Belt, and most likely also in the rice production areas in the Indo-Gangetic plain and China, is up to 50-75% higher than estimates by state-of-the-art data-driven and process-oriented biogeochemistry models. From our analysis we conclude that current carbon models have difficulties in reproducing the special conditions of those highly productive

  13. Clouds in North Polar Region Tracked by MOC Over Five Day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    It is mid-summer in the northern hemisphere of Mars--a time of enhanced heating that leads to the release of water vapor into the atmosphere. In the north polar region, temperature differences between bright areas of year-round ice and dark areas of sand and rock create strong winds that mix the atmosphere and create waves of clouds that swirl around the polar cap. Sometimes, as seen during the Viking mission, these winds form tight cyclones; other times, they weave an intricate pattern reflecting the turbulence of the circulation of the atmosphere.

    This animation shows four days of observations of a representative portion of the northern hemisphere. Five Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle image pairs(red/blue filters) were combined. These image pairs were warped to create a polar stereographic map projection, which is used by cartographers to present polar areas as if viewed from above. The edges of the pictures move back and forth because of the slightly different path taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft on each of the five orbits used in this sequence. Seen in the right-hand side of the image is the permanent ice cap and the dark areas that surround it.

    The motion of the clouds viewed in this image is typical for this season on Mars, and shows forms often seen on Earth. Waves of clouds are moving from the upper portion of the frame towards the bottom (towards the east northeast). This motion is most likely the movement of a moister portion of the martian atmosphere under the influence of circumpolar winds. Early in the sequence, a prominent circular band of clouds moves almost due east, rotating slightly counter-clockwise. Towards the end of the sequence, the circle dissipates and a linear set of clouds propagates towards the bottom of the frame. Linear cloud speeds vary from day today, averaging about 16 km/hr (10 miles/hr); rotational rates appear to have been less than 10 km/hr (6 miles/hr).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the

  14. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...EPA is proposing to partially approve and partially disapprove a revision to the North Dakota State Implementation Plan (SIP) addressing regional haze submitted by the Governor of North Dakota on March 3, 2010, along with SIP Supplement No. 1 submitted on July 27, 2010, and part of SIP Amendment No. 1 submitted on July 28, 2011. These SIP revisions were submitted to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) and our rules that require states to prevent any future and remedy any existing man-made impairment of visibility in mandatory Class I areas caused by emissions of air pollutants from numerous sources located over a wide geographic area (also referred to as the ``regional haze program''). EPA is proposing a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) to address the deficiencies identified in our proposed partial disapproval of North Dakota's regional haze SIP. In lieu of this proposed FIP, or a portion thereof, we are proposing approval of a SIP revision if the State submits such a revision in a timely way, and the revision matches the terms of our proposed FIP. In addition, EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the North Dakota SIP addressing the interstate transport of pollutants that the Governor submitted on April 6, 2009. We are proposing to disapprove it because it does not meet the Act's requirements concerning non- interference with programs to protect visibility in other states. To address this deficiency, we are proposing a FIP.

  15. Globalization and suicide: an ecological study across five regions of the world.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; McClure, Rod; De Leo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The impact of globalization on health is recognized to be influenced by country and regional-level factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between globalization and suicide in five world regions. An index measure of globalization was developed at the country level over 1980 to 2006. The association between the index and sex specific suicide rates was tested using a fixed-effect regression model. Over time, the globalization index seemed to be associated with increased suicide rates in Asia and the Eastern European/Baltic region. In contrast, it was associated with decreased rates in Scandinavia. There was no significant relationship between globalization and suicide in Southern and Western Europe. The effects of globalization could be determined by specific regional (i.e., cultural and societal) factors. Identification of these mediators might provide opportunities to protect countries from the adverse impacts of globalization.

  16. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  17. Large-Scale Forest Die-off in Temperate versus Tropical Regions: Comparison of Local and Global Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, E.; Swann, A. L. S.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.; Stark, S. C.; Law, D.; Villegas, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale loss of forests is becoming an increasing risk not only due to direct deforestation but increasingly due to broad-scale climate driven tree die-off events. Modeling studies have shown that the climate impacts of widespread forest loss depend on forest latitude. In general, northern latitude deforestation leads to cooling globally, and tropical forest loss leads to warming locally. Recent work also suggests that land cover changes in the mid latitudes are able to shift tropical precipitation bands through changes in global energy patterns. Our study examines how temperate and/or tropical continental-scale forested regions affect global climate. We focus on two questions: Does broad-scale forest die-off in one region influence climate, and consequently forest health, elsewhere? Would combined forest die-off in both regions lead to nonlinear changes in the impacts to climate and carbon cycling? We use a global climate model with fully coupled biogeophysical, atmosphere, and ocean models to investigate impacts to climate and carbon cycling with removal of forests in (1) western North America (wNA), (2) the Amazon basin, and (3) both wNA and the Amazon. Modeled climate response was consistent with expectations of North American forest removal leading to cooling globally with declines in absorbed radiation in the northern latitudes, and the Amazon forest die-off producing warming locally. Loss of both forests leads to greater spatial extent and magnitude in cooling in the northern hemisphere. Model results also show nonlocal declines in net primary productivity in the Siberian region, attributed to cooler temperatures directly reducing photosynthesis and leading to declines in liquid soil moisture and increases in ice. Forest loss in the individual experiments leads to shifts in the global energy balance that results in slight southward displacement of the tropical rain bands. However, forest removal in both regions shifts circulation patterns such that there

  18. Modeling the Response of the Mediterranean Sea Level to Global and Regional Climatic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsiopoulos, D. A.; Vergos, G. S.; Tziavos, I. N.

    2016-08-01

    The exploitation of satellite altimetry data from past and current satellite missions is crucial to both oceanographic and geodetic applications. This work presents a correlation analysis of Jason-1, Jason-2 and CryoSat-2 Sea Level Anomalies (SLAs) with global and regional climatic indexes that influence the ocean state. The Southern Oscillation Index, North Atlantic Oscillation index and Mediterranean Oscillation Index have been investigated, as representative of climate-change and seasonal forcing on the sea level. The raw data used are SLA values from Jason-1, Jason-2 (2002-2014) and CryoSat-2 (2010-2014) over the entire Mediterranean Basin. The possible correlation is investigated in seasonal and monthly scale, while a regional multiple regression and a principal component analysis between the SLAs and oscillation indexes is carried out. Finally, evidence of the sea level cyclo-stationarity in the Mediterranean Sea is deduced from the analysis of empirically derived covariance functions at monthly intervals from the available SLA data.

  19. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings

    2017-04-01

    Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions In the framework of the BACC 2 (for the Baltic Sea) and NOSCCA projects (for the North Sea region), studies of past and present variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period (roughly the past 200 years) have been investigated. Findings on trends in temperature and precipitation have already been presented. Here we focus on data homogeneity issues and examine how reliable reanalyses are in this context. Unlike most other regions in the world, there is a wealth of old observations available for the Baltic and North Sea regions, most of it in handwritten form in meteorological journals and other publications. These datasets need to be carefully digitised and homogenized. For this, a thorough quality control must be applied; otherwise the digitised datasets may prove useless or even counterproductive. We present evidence that this step cannot be conducted without human interference and thus cannot be fully automated. Furthermore, inhomogeneities due to e.g. instrumentation and station relocations need to be addressed. A wealth of reanalysis products is available, which can help detect such inhomogeneities in observed time series, but at the same time are prone to biases and/or spurious trends themselves e.g. introduced by changes in the availability and quality of the underlying assimilated data. It therefore in general remains unclear in how far we can simulate the pre-satellite era with respect to homogeneity with reanalyses based only on parts of the observing system. Extreme events and changes in extreme situations are more important and of greater (societal) significance than changes in mean climate. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess not only because they are, per definition, rare events, but also due to the homogeneity issues outlined above. Taking these into account, we present evidence for changes

  20. Lithospheric structure of North America imaged using waveform inversion of global and USArray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The North American continent has had a long, eventful tectonic history. The assembly of the stable cratonic core has undergone numerous collisions and accretion at its boundaries, major rifting episodes within it, as well