Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John
During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.
Wipfli, H; Samet, J M
Although the risks of tobacco smoking have been known for decades, the pandemic of tobacco use continues. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, along with millions more using various oral tobacco products. Recent global estimates place the mortality burden from tobacco use at over 6 million annually, with nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing countries. If current patterns persist, there will be an estimated 1 billion deaths from tobacco during the twenty-first century. Part 1 of this two-part paper provides an overview of the tobacco pandemic, the scope of the pandemic, and its economic and health consequences. Part 2 reviews the history of tobacco control to date and addresses the current global strategy, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package of interventions. Part 2 ends with a consideration of scenarios for the future of the pandemic.
Novotny, T E; Carlin, D
On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use.
Stillman, Frances; Wipfli, Heather; Samet, Jonathan
To slow and end the growing global burden of tobacco-related death and disease, schools of public health need to provide tobacco control education and training for public health professionals generally, and for the next generation of tobacco control professionals in low- and middle-income countries specifically. As the tobacco epidemic continues to grow, there is an increasing need for training to develop the research and intervention skills required to stem the epidemic and reduce the inevitable burden of disease and death. A wide range of educational approaches has been developed to increase tobacco control educational capacity in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, including traditional on-site classes, on-line courses, open source courseware, summer school programs, and training workshops. This article provides a perspective on the education and training needs of tobacco control researchers around the world and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of education and training approaches currently being used in tobacco control by schools of public health. In each case, we draw on the experience of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in educating national and international audiences in tobacco control.
Otañez, Martin G.; Mamudu, Hadii M.
Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC. PMID:19696392
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267
Corrao, M. A.; Guindon, G. E.; Cokkinides, V.; Sharma, N.
The tobacco control movement needs a global information system permitting routine monitoring of the tobacco trade, tobacco farming, the tobacco industry, the prevalence of tobacco use, associated mortality, and national resources for combating tobacco. The Tobacco Control Country Profiles database, a data collection initiative led by the American Cancer Society in collaboration with WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the first step in the development of such a system. Baseline data on several indicators of tobacco use were obtained from 191 Member States of WHO, two Associate Members, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (Hong Kong SAR), China (Province of Taiwan) and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The methods used to compile the data are described in the present paper. Selected indicators from the database were analysed in order to demonstrate the potential utility and value of data derived from an information system devoted to tobacco control. The analyses covered gender-specific smoking prevalence by WHO Region, per capita cigarette consumption by Human Development Index (HDI) category, and average real annual percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 1999 for selected countries in each category. In 1998, men were almost four times more likely than women to be smokers. The prevalence of smoking among men was highest in the Western Pacific Region. The differential in gender-specific smoking prevalence was narrowest in the Region of the Americas and the European Region. It was wider in the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region. The lowest and highest per capita consumption of manufactured cigarettes occurred in the lowest and highest HDI categories respectively. In the medium HDI category, China's growing cigarette consumption after 1975 had a major bearing on the rise in per capita consumption. Cigarette price trends suggest that there is considerable scope for increasing taxes on tobacco
Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette
To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.
Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira
Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…
Otañez, Marty G; Mamudu, Hadii; Glantz, Stanton A
Objective To examine the influence of US‐based tobacco leaf‐buying companies, Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, on Malawi's economy and trade policy in 2000–6. Design Analyses of ethnographic data and tobacco industry documents. Results Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, through their subsidiary companies Limbe Leaf and Alliance One, respectively, in Malawi, control policy‐making advisory groups and operate a tobacco cartel to influence Malawi's economic and trade sectors. Limbe Leaf's corporate secretary and lawyer is a member of several policy‐making committees that advise the Malawi government on tobacco‐related trade policy. The corporate representative's presence prevents other committee members from taking positions against the tobacco industry and ensures government policy that advances industry interests to obtain low‐cost tobacco. The World Bank and Malawi's Anti‐corruption Bureau report allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One over prices at tobacco markets. Allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One prompted Malawi President Bingu Mutharika in 2006 to warn the companies to end non‐competitive practices or leave the country, but there was no meaningful follow‐up action. Findings from interviews with small‐scale tobacco traders in Malawi suggest that Universal and Alliance One International purchase smuggled raw tobacco from the neighbouring countries, Zambia and Mozambique, undermining growers' efforts to benefit from tobacco farming in Malawi. Conclusion These actions restrict competition, depress tobacco prices for Malawi's farmers and contribute to poverty in Malawi, while keeping the country dependent on tobacco growing. PMID:17652242
Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Reddy, K Srinath; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira
India ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world's first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impacts of tobacco. Post ratification, each member state as part of general obligation has agreed to develop, implement, periodically update and review comprehensive multisectoral national tobacco control strategies, plans and programmes in accordance with this Convention and the protocols to which it is a Party. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to track tobacco use among young people across countries and the GYTS surveillance system intends to enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programs. The South-East Asia Region of WHO has developed the "Regional Strategy for Utilization of the GYTS" to meet this need for countries in the Region. In 2003, India has passed its national tobacco control legislation (India Tobacco Control Act [ITCA]), which includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to second hand smoke. Data in the GYTS (India) report can be used as a baseline measure for future evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. India has to upscale some provisions of its National Law to accommodate all of the requirements of FCTC. Using determinants measured by GYTS in India, the government can monitor the impact of enforcing various provisions of the ITCA and the progress made in achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC and the Regional Strategies. Effective enforcement of the provisions of ITCA will show in the receding numbers of tobacco use prevalence figures and reduction in the expenditures associated with tobacco use in India.
Cairney, Paul; Mamudu, Hadii
The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) has prompted major change in tobacco control globally. However, policy implementation has been uneven, making 'smoke free' outcomes possible in some countries, but not others. We identify the factors that would improve implementation. We describe an ideal type of 'comprehensive tobacco control regimes', where policy environments are conducive to the implementation of tobacco control measures designed to eradicate tobacco use. The ideal type requires that a country have certain policy processes: the department of health takes the policy lead; tobacco is 'framed' as a public health problem; public health groups are consulted at the expense of tobacco interests; socioeconomic conditions are conducive to policy change; and, the scientific evidence is 'set in stone' within governments. No country will meet all these criteria in the short term, and the gap between the ideal type and the current state is wide in many countries. However, the WHO experience provides a model for progress.
The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health demonstrates the renewed salience of health inequalities within the international health policy agenda. The tobacco pandemic is characterized by an escalating burden of death and disease that is increasingly being borne by developing countries. Efforts to promote global health equity must therefore prioritize reductions in tobacco consumption. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) offers a remarkable opportunity to address the health inequalities associated with tobacco use, and represents an important innovation within global governance. But the FCTC’s failure to adequately address the health impacts of trade liberalization highlights the difficulties of ensuring policy coherence across international health, development and economic policies. Recognition of such limitations is important both to inform the further development of the FCTC and to ensure that appropriate lessons are drawn for future initiatives. PMID:20595357
Global policy attention to tobacco control has increased significantly since the 1990 s and culminated in the first international treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization--the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the political process that led to the creation of the FCTC has been extensively researched, the FCTC's progression from an aspirational treaty towards a global health governance framework with tangible policy effects within FCTC member countries has not been well-understood to date. This article analyses the role of the global health network of tobacco control advocates and scientists, which formed during the FCTC negotiations during the late 1990 s, in translating countries' commitment to the FCTC into domestic policy change. By comparing the network's influence around two central tobacco control interventions (smoke-free environments and taxation), the study identifies several scope conditions, which have shaped the network's effectiveness around the FCTC's implementation: the complexity of the policy issue and the relative importance of non-health expertise, the required scope of domestic political buy-in, the role of the general public as network allies, and the strength of policy opposition. These political factors had a greater influence on the network's success than the evidence base for the effectiveness of tobacco control interventions. The network's variable success points to a trade-off faced by global health networks between their need to maintain internal cohesion and their ability to form alliances with actors in their social environment.
Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406
Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter
Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720
Global policy attention to tobacco control has increased significantly since the 1990s and culminated in the first international treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization—the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the political process that led to the creation of the FCTC has been extensively researched, the FCTC’s progression from an aspirational treaty towards a global health governance framework with tangible policy effects within FCTC member countries has not been well-understood to date. This article analyses the role of the global health network of tobacco control advocates and scientists, which formed during the FCTC negotiations during the late 1990s, in translating countries’ commitment to the FCTC into domestic policy change. By comparing the network’s influence around two central tobacco control interventions (smoke-free environments and taxation), the study identifies several scope conditions, which have shaped the network’s effectiveness around the FCTC’s implementation: the complexity of the policy issue and the relative importance of non-health expertise, the required scope of domestic political buy-in, the role of the general public as network allies, and the strength of policy opposition. These political factors had a greater influence on the network’s success than the evidence base for the effectiveness of tobacco control interventions. The network’s variable success points to a trade-off faced by global health networks between their need to maintain internal cohesion and their ability to form alliances with actors in their social environment. PMID:26253698
Hafez, N; Ling, P
Objective: To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. Methods: : Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci: lifestyle/psychographic research, brand studies, and advertising/communication effectiveness. Philip Morris identified core similarities in the lifestyles and needs of young consumers worldwide, such as independence, hedonism, freedom, and comfort. In the early 1990s Philip Morris adopted standardised global marketing efforts, creating a central advertising production bank and guidelines for brand images and promotions, but allowing regional managers to create regionally appropriate individual advertisements. Conclusions: Values and lifestyles play a central role in the global marketing of tobacco to young adults. Worldwide counter marketing initiatives, coupled with strong, coherent global marketing policies such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed to break associations between young adult values and tobacco brands. As globalisation promotes the homogenisation of values and lifestyles, tobacco control messages that resonate with young adults in one part of the world may appeal to young adults in other countries. Successful tobacco control messages that appeal to young people, such as industry denormalisation, may be expanded globally with appropriate tailoring to appeal to regional values. PMID:16046690
Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna
Background In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. Methods and Findings The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, “good governance,” and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. Conclusions TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance
Lambert, A; Sargent, J; Glantz, S; Ling, P
Background: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Methods: Analysis of internal company documents. Findings: Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Conclusions: Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market. PMID:15564622
Oppeltz, Richard F.; Jatoi, Ismail
The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888
The history of tobacco control in the twentieth century can be summed up by the phrase 'too little, too late'. The century saw the proliferation of the most deadly form of tobacco use: cigarette smoking. Until the 1970s, no government took serious action to protect its citizens. In fact, probably the most effective global tobacco control 'strategies' to date have not been motivated by health concerns: they have been inaccessible or uneconomic markets for tobacco companies and a cultural taboo on women smoking. Economic development has led to massive increases in male cigarette smoking in developing countries but even now <10% of women in non-Western countries such as China, Russia and India smoke. With 'westernization', this picture is changing. Without drastic action to get current smokers to stop, the annual rate of tobacco-related deaths will grow from 5 million in 2006 to 10 million in 2025. Without further action to prevent take up of smoking, the subsequent death toll will be even higher. The recently enacted World Health Organization (WHO)-initiated Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) can mitigate this impending disaster but only if it is implemented according to the spirit and not just the letter of the articles contained therein. Specific tobacco levies in every country should be the primary means of kick-starting the process, with the proceeds being used exclusively to fund other tobacco control initiatives, including product regulation.
Chantornvong, S.; Collin, J.; Dodgson, R.; Lee, K.; McCargo, D.; Seddon, D.; Vaughan, P.; Woelk, G.
Crucial to the success of the proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control will be an understanding of the political and economic context for tobacco control policies, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Policy studies in Thailand and Zimbabwe employed the analytical perspective of political economy and a research strategy that used political mapping, a technique for characterizing and evaluating the political environment surrounding a policy issue, and stakeholder analysis, which seeks to identify key actors and to determine their capacity to shape policy outcomes. These policy studies clearly revealed how tobacco control in low-income and middle-income countries is also being shaped by developments in the global and regional political economy. Hence efforts to strengthen national control policies need to be set within the context of globalization and the international context. Besides the transnational tobacco companies, international tobacco groups and foreign governments, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations are also playing influential roles. It cannot be assumed, therefore, that the tobacco control strategies being implemented in industrialized countries will be just as effective and appropriate when implemented in developing countries. There is an urgent need to expand the number of such tobacco policy studies, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Comprehensive guidelines for tobacco policy analysis and research are required to support this process, as is a broader international strategy to coordinate further tobacco policy research studies at country, regional and global levels. PMID:10994265
Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W
Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.
Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476
Carroll, Allison J; Labarthe, Darwin R; Huffman, Mark D; Hitsman, Brian
The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We emphasize the challenges to comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies faced by LMICs, and highlight the special role of cardiovascular health professionals in achieving CVH promotion and CVD prevention endpoints through tobacco control. Tobacco prevention and control strategies have a strong scientific basis, yet a distinct gap remains between this evidence and implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly in LMICs. Health professionals can contribute to tobacco control efforts, especially through patient-level clinical interventions, when supported by a health care system and government that recognize and support tobacco control as a critical strategy for CVH promotion and CVD prevention. Understanding, supporting, and applying current and evolving policies, programs, and practices in tobacco prevention and control is the province of all health professionals, especially those concerned with CVH promotion and CVD prevention. A new tobacco control roadmap from the World Heart Federation provides a strong impetus to the needed interdisciplinary collaboration.
Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T
School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p < 0.05). The median of prevalence of support for different tobacco control policies among all countries was as follows: complete ban on tobacco advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products.
Hipple, Bethany J.; Muramoto, Myra; Klein, Jonathan D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.
Tobacco use currently claims >5 million deaths per year worldwide and this number is projected to increase dramatically by 2030. The burden of death and disease is shifting to low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco control initiatives face numerous challenges including not being a high priority in many countries, government dependence upon immediate revenue from tobacco sales and production, and opposition of the tobacco industry. Tobacco leads to environmental harms, exploitation of workers in tobacco farming, and increased poverty. Children are especially vulnerable. Not only do they initiate tobacco use themselves, but also they are victimized by exposure to highly toxic secondhand smoke. Awareness of tobacco adverse health effects is often superficial even among health professionals. The tobacco industry continues to aggressively promote its products and recognizes that children are its future. The tools and knowledge exist, however, to dramatically reduce the global burden of tobacco. In 2003 the World Health Organization adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Aggressive tobacco control initiatives have been undertaken not only in high-income countries but also in less-wealthy countries such as Uruguay and Thailand. Stakeholders must come together in coordinated efforts and there must be a broad and sustained investment in global tobacco control. PMID:22375275
Stevens, Perry; Alexander, Vickie L.; Allison, Harmony; Coole, David F.; Fishman, Julie A.; Knox, Steven R.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Schooley, Michael W.; Shelton, Dana M.; Woollery, Trevor A.
This document provides a compilation of tobacco information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, covering topics such as the prevalence of tobacco use, the health impact and costs associated with tobacco use, tobacco control laws, and tobacco agriculture and manufacturing. Recommended practices for school-based programs are included.…
Valente, Thomas W.; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo
This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7,000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change. PMID:26460508
Valente, Thomas W; Dyal, Stephanie R; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo
This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change.
Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda
Nurse scientists have made important contributions to evidence-based practice in tobacco control. This chapter will discuss recent tobacco control developments in the United States and globally, such as legislation giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory authority over tobacco products manufacturing, marketing and sales, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and a brief review of research that has guided policy advances and nursing research in tobacco control. Suggestions for future research based on the update of the U.S. Public Health Services Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence clinical practice guideline will be explored. These developments offer nursing researchers a wealth of opportunities and challenges to advance nursing and tobacco control knowledge, address research gaps, and bring a unique nursing perspective to tobacco use prevention, reduction of exposure to secondhand smoke, tobacco dependence treatment, and tobacco control policies. Additionally, we will address how nursing scholarship can and should be supported by academic and organizational leadership to support nurses in realizing their full potential in mitigating the global epidemic of tobacco-caused death and disease.
The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.
Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina
It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.
Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.
The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability. Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858
Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of
Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G
Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.
Bertollini, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sofia; Mauer-Stender, Kristina; Galea, Gauden
Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised.
Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff
Introduction The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries’ ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. Methods We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. Results While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Conclusions Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation. PMID:23152101
Yach, D; Bettcher, D
The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.
Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow
Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…
OBJECTIVES—To assess the global amount of forest and woodland consumed annually for curing tobacco between 1990 and 1995; to estimate tobacco's share in total deforestation; to rank tobacco-growing countries by the degree of impact of tobacco deforestation; and to indicate environmental criticality emerging from tobacco's impact on forest resources. DESIGN—Production of country-specific estimates of forests/woodlands needed and depleted on the basis of growing stock/increment of woody biomass involved and wood consumption of tobacco. Comparison of results with secondary statistics on forest cover, deforestation, and population development. RESULTS—An estimated 200 000 ha of forests/woodlands are removed by tobacco farming each year. Deforestation mainly occurs in the developing world, amounting to 1.7% of global net losses of forest cover or 4.6% of total national deforestation. Environmental criticality exists or is emerging in 35 countries with an estimated serious, high, and medium degree of tobacco-related deforestation, mainly in southern Africa, middle east, south, and east Asia, South America, and the Caribbean. CONCLUSION—The hypothesis that deforestation from tobacco production does not have a significant negative effect has to be challenged. For empirical validation, the globally significant pattern of estimated tobacco-related environmental damage ought to be included in international research agendas on global environmental change, to become an integral and rational part of tobacco control policy. Keywords: deforestation; tobacco farming PMID:10465812
Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.
During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192
Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H
During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.
In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.
Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie
E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.
Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A
Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406
This article addresses the increasing influence of economic rationalities in global health over the past 30 years by examining the genealogy of one economic strategy – taxation – that has become central to international anti-smoking initiatives in the global South. It argues that this genealogy sits uncomfortably with the usual story about economics and global health, which reduces the economisation of international health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies aimed at stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation and laments their detrimental effect on health. While not disputing these policies' importance and damaging impact, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that the economisation of global health is not only about neoliberal structural adjustment policies but also about sin taxes, market failures and health economics. By stressing how changes in health like the global South's epidemiological transition can impact on economics and how beneficial taxation can be for health, it also shows that the relation between economics and health is not always unidirectional and detrimental to the latter. In doing so, the article contributes to the critique of the often mechanical use of neo-liberalism to explicate change and calls for other stories about the economisation of global health to be told. PMID:23750175
This article addresses the increasing influence of economic rationalities in global health over the past 30 years by examining the genealogy of one economic strategy - taxation - that has become central to international anti-smoking initiatives in the global South. It argues that this genealogy sits uncomfortably with the usual story about economics and global health, which reduces the economisation of international health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies aimed at stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation and laments their detrimental effect on health. While not disputing these policies' importance and damaging impact, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that the economisation of global health is not only about neoliberal structural adjustment policies but also about sin taxes, market failures and health economics. By stressing how changes in health like the global South's epidemiological transition can impact on economics and how beneficial taxation can be for health, it also shows that the relation between economics and health is not always unidirectional and detrimental to the latter. In doing so, the article contributes to the critique of the often mechanical use of neo-liberalism to explicate change and calls for other stories about the economisation of global health to be told.
Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.
We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses “youth smoking prevention” programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called “social reports,” media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted “youth smoking prevention” programs as part of their “Corporate Social Responsibility” campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry’s goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260
Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A
Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the
Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780
Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238
Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).
Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S
Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967
Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer
Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…
Van Walbeek, Corné
The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are
Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.
Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…
Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A
Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.
Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.
Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079
Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima
Objective (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. Data Sources (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by ‘Google Alerts’ (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. Study Selection (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. Data Abstraction (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of “tobacco product” and/or “smoking”. Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. Data Synthesis (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. Conclusions A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. PMID:25550418
Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.
Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns. Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361
The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other high-mortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436
The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts.
Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H
Adolescent tobacco use (ATU) is on the rise worldwide and the problem is particularly severe in developing countries. Based on nationally representative data, this study aims to investigate the association between ATU and its possible correlates for Bangladesh, where the prevalence rate of ATU is high. The data set is extracted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Bangladesh conducted in 2007. The survey collected information from a total of 3113 students from 52 schools, with a response rate of 100% at the school level, while a response rate of 88.9% was achieved from the students. Students covered in the survey were in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10, with age ranging from 11 to 17 years. The prevalence rate of ATU at the time of the survey was 8.4%, while 35.6% of the students had used at least a type of tobacco products before. Logistic regressions were used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) in favor of ATU for each of the possible determinants and the confidence intervals (CIs) of these ratios. Use of tobacco among friends (OR = 3.46; CI = 2.37-5.05), the experience of seeing others smoking at home (OR = 2.10; CI = 1.36-3.22) or other places (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.02-2.57), receiving pocket money (OR = 7.6; CI = 4.59-13.28), receiving free tobacco from vendors (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.44-3.78), and exposure to advertisements and promotions of tobacco products (OR = 1.83; CI = 1.23-2.79) were associated with a higher likelihood of ATU. Increased awareness of health hazards of tobacco use through education in schools helped mitigate the problem of ATU. The findings of this study have ramifications for tobacco control prevention strategies in Bangladesh.
Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca
There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature.
Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A
Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product... for Tobacco Product's (CTP's) Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program... authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, marketing, and sale of tobacco products in the...
Reubi, David; Berridge, Virginia
This article explores the internationalisation of tobacco control as a case study in the history of international health regulation. Contrary to the existing literature on the topic, it argues that the history of international anti-smoking efforts is longer and richer than the making of the World Health Organisation’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the early twenty-first century. It thereby echoes the point made by other scholars about the importance of history when making sense of contemporary global health. Specifically, the article shows how the internationalisation of tobacco control started in the 1950s through informal contacts between scientists working on cancer research and how these initial interactions were followed by a growing number of more formal initiatives, from the World Conferences on Tobacco or Health to the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Rather than arranging these efforts in a linear narrative of progress culminating with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, we take anthropological claims about global health’s uneven terrain seriously and portray a history of international tobacco control marked by ruptures and discontinuities. Specifically, we identify three successive periods, with each of them characterised by specific understandings of international action, tobacco control expertise, advocacy networks and funding strategies. PMID:27628857
Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga
Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.
Warren, C. W.; Riley, L.; Asma, S.; Eriksen, M. P.; Green, L.; Blanton, C.; Loo, C.; Batchelor, S.; Yach, D.
The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) project was developed by the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to track tobacco use among youth in countries across the world, using a common methodology and core questionnaire. The GYTS is school based and employs a two-stage sample design to produce representative data on smoking among students aged 13-15 years. The first stage consists of a probabilistic selection of schools, and the second consists of a random selection of classes from the participating schools. All students in the selected classes are eligible for the survey. In 1999, the GYTS was conducted in 13 countries and is currently in progress in over 30 countries. This report describes data from 12 countries: Barbados, China, Costa Rica, Fiji, Jordan, Poland, the Russian Federation (Moscow), South Africa, Sri Lanka, Ukraine (Kiev), Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. The findings show that tobacco use in the surveyed age group ranged from a high of 33% to a low of 10%. While the majority of current smokers wanted to stop smoking, very few were able to attend a cessation programme. In most countries the majority of young people reported seeing advertisements for cigarettes in media outlets, but anti-tobacco advertising was rare. The majority of young people reported being taught in school about the dangers of smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was very high in all countries. These results show that the GYTS surveillance system is enhancing the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco prevention and control programmes. PMID:10994259
Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey
Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences.
Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Morton, Jeremy; Hsia, Jason; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira; Talley, Brandon; Caixeta, Roberta D; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard
In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E
Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of
David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N
Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.
Stillman, F; Yang, G; Figueiredo, V; Hernandez‐Avila, M; Samet, J
The Fogarty International Center (FIC) initiative, “International Tobacco and Health Research Capacity Building Program” represents an important step in US government funding for global tobacco control. Low‐ and middle‐income countries of the world face a rising threat to public health from the rapidly escalating epidemic of tobacco use. Many are now parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and capacity development to meet FCTC provisions. One initial grant provided through the FIC was to the Institute for Global Tobacco Control (IGTC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) to support capacity building and research programmes in China, Brazil, and Mexico. The initiative's capacity building effort focused on: (1) building the evidence base for tobacco control, (2) expanding the infrastructure of each country to deliver tobacco control, and (3) developing the next generation of leaders as well as encouraging networking throughout the country and with neighbouring countries. This paper describes the approach taken and the research foci, as well some of the main outcomes and some identified challenges posed by the effort. Individual research papers are in progress to provide more in‐depth reporting of study results. PMID:16723670
Chapman, S; Byrne, F; Carter, S M
"Australia is one of the darkest markets in the world... it probably is the darkest, I mean ourselves and Canada fight every month for who's got the darkest conditions to do tobacco manufacturing and marketing. And one of the things we can offer the world is what we do best, which is how to work, maximize, proactively drive our market position in a market that's completely dark. Now that takes a different skillset... a different type of learning. We need to export that... we know we have a lot of expatriates who come down to Australia for learning. they can come here and learn these techniques and take them back to Europe or Latin America or to the United States or to Africa... But the other thing that is really good for us is that we are also a huge net exporter of Australian talent. about 30 or 40 people currently off-shore... We do things really differently here than most other BAT organizations." David Crowe, Marketing Director, British American Tobacco (BAT) Australia(1).
Palipudi, Krishna M.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Andes, Linda J.; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim
Background Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008–2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate a significant but
A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob
Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze
Smoking is prevalent across Europe, but the severity and stage of the smoking epidemic, and policy responses to it, vary substantially between countries. Much progress is now being made in prohibition of paid-for advertising and in promotion of smoke-free policies, but mass media campaigns are widely underused, provision of services for smokers trying to quit is generally poor, and price policies are undermined by licit and illicit cheap supplies. Monitoring of prevalence is inadequate in many countries, as is investment in research and capacity to address this largest avoidable cause of death and disability across Europe. However, grounds for optimism are provided by progress in implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and in the development of a new generation of nicotine-containing devices that could enable more widespread adoption of harm-reduction strategies. The effect of commercial vested interests has been and remains a major barrier to progress.
Gupta, Ritu; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Pandita, Venisha; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Prasad, Monika
Introduction Tobacco use is a major public health challenge in India and government of India has taken various initiatives for tobacco control in the country. India was among the first few countries to ratify WHO the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in 2004 and to make it easy, WHO introduced the MPOWER measures. Objective This study aimed to quantify the implementation of MPOWER tobacco control policies in India. Materials and Methods In this retrospective analysis information was collected from the WHO report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic Program, India for the year 2009, 2011 and 2013 using MPOWER and this analysis was based on the checklist which was designed previously by Iranian and international tobacco control specialists in their study on tobacco control and its cut-offs were set according to the scoring of key sections of the MPOWER 2011 report. Results In this study India was ranked by scores and these scores were obtained from each indicator for each activity. The highest scores were achieved in 2013 and there are marked increase in scores in health warning on cigarette packages but as far as the cessation programmes and taxation is concerned, there is decline in the progress. Conclusion MPOWER programmes are accepted in the India but there is considerable room for improvement as we are still far from the ideal situation. PMID:26674509
Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P
Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.
Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley; Sejpal, Nidhi
The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world's cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to 'go global'. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets. The paper concludes that the company has undergone substantial change over the past two decades and is consequently poised to become a new global player in the tobacco industry. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.
Husain, Muhammad Jami; English, Lorna McLeod; Ramanandraibe, Nivo
Tobacco smoking prevalence remains low in many African countries. However, growing economies and the increased presence of multinational tobacco companies in the African Region have the potential to contribute to increasing tobacco use rates in the future. This paper used data from the 2014 Global Progress Report on implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), as well as the 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, to describe the status of tobacco control and prevention efforts in countries in the WHO African Region relative to the provisions of the WHO FCTC and MPOWER package. Among the 23 countries in the African Region analyzed, there are large variations in the overall WHO FCTC implementation rates, ranging from 9% in Sierra Leone to 78% in Kenya. The analysis of MPOWER implementation status indicates that opportunities exist for the African countries to enhance compliance with WHO recommended best practices for monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from tobacco smoke, offering help to quit tobacco use, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing bans on tobacco advertising and promotion, and raising taxes on tobacco products. If tobacco control interventions are successfully implemented, African nations could avert a tobacco-related epidemic, including premature death, disability, and the associated economic, development, and societal costs.
Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu
Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue 'The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance'.
... as high tobacco taxes and smoke-free public spaces. They also agreed to warning labels, advertising bans, and support for smoking cessation services. "The study provides strong evidence that the FCTC has led ...
Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M
Mississippi is unique among the 50 states in settling a lawsuit against tobacco companies earlier than the Master Settlement Agreement, devoting a relatively high amount of per capita funding on tobacco control, and avoiding tobacco-control budget cuts. Using a social-ecological approach combining insider and outsider strategies, tobacco-prevention coalitions in Mississippi succeeded in sustaining funding despite serious obstacles. Lessons learned included taking specific actions to embed themselves in the local community, wisely aligning with legislators, choosing courageous and effective champions, and ensuring that people are keenly aware of their existence and efforts. In using these strategies, tobacco-prevention coalitions in Mississippi have become an institution of the community and in so doing helped sustain their funding.
Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina
Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country.
Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.
Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Jihye; Kashiwabara, Mina
Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8%) reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5%) than in girls (2.6%). Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. PMID:28173685
MAMUDU, H. M.
Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806
Mamudu, H M; Glantz, S A
Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies, including publication of a newsletter, shaming symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process, by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet, and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health.
Al-Lawati, Jawad; Mabry, Ruth M.; Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q
Tobacco use is the world’s leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Although Oman remains a country with the lowest tobacco use in the Arab Gulf States, the prevalence of tobacco use is projected to increase to 33.3% by 2025. In 2005, Oman acceded to the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, an international treaty with numerous obligations aiming to reduce the global burden of tobacco use. This paper documents, for the first time, Oman’s experience in tobacco control by providing a descriptive analysis of the evolution of tobacco control policies in relation to the country’s international obligations. In order to curb tobacco use and maintain current low prevalence levels, the paper concludes that Oman needs to accelerate action in adopting the highest attainable policies recommended by the World Health Organization’s MPOWER package. PMID:28042396
Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick
Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death. PMID:16354305
Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross
In 1999 the World Bank published a landmark study on the economics of tobacco control, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (CTE), which concluded that tobacco control brings unprecedented health benefits without harming economies, threatening the transnational tobacco companies’ ability to use economic arguments to dissuade governments from enacting tobacco control policies and supporting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used tobacco industry documents to analyze how tobacco companies worked to discredit CTE. They hired public relations firms, had academics critique CTE, hired consultants to produce “independent” estimates of the importance of tobacco to national economies, and worked through front groups, particularly the International Tobacco Growers’ Association, to question CTE’s findings. These efforts failed, and the report remains an authoritative economic analysis of global tobacco control during the ongoing FCTC negotiations. The industry’s failure suggests that the World Bank should continue their analytic work on the economics of tobacco control and make tobacco control part of its development agenda. PMID:18950924
Gilmore, Anna B
This paper builds on tobacco document research by analysing contemporary materials to explore how the global tobacco market has changed, how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) are responding and the implications for tobacco control. The methods involved analysis of a variety of materials, including tobacco company annual reports, investor relations materials, financial analyst reports, market research reports and data. Once China, where TTCs have little market share, is excluded, global cigarette volumes are already declining. Nevertheless, industry profits continue to increase. This pattern is explained by the pricing power of TTCs-their ability to increase prices faster than volumes fall, a consequence of market failure. Pricing power is now fundamental to the long term future of TTCs. Consequently, and in light of growing regulations, the business model of the TTCs is changing. Product innovation is now a key marketing technique used to drive consumers to buy more expensive (ie, profitable) premium cigarettes. Contrary to established wisdom, high tobacco excise rates, particularly where increases in excise are gradual, can benefit TTCs by enabling price (profit) increases to be disguised. Large intermittent tax increases likely have a greater public health benefit. TTC investments in smokeless tobacco appear designed to eliminate competition between smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, thereby increasing the pricing power of TTCs while enabling them to harness the rhetoric of harm reduction. Monitoring TTCs can inform effective policy development. The value maximising approach of TTCs suggests that a ban on product innovation and more informed tobacco excise policies are needed.
Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; Eckhardt, Jappe; Lee, Kelley
Tobacco is widely considered to be a uniquely harmful product for human health. Since the mid-1990s, the strategies of transnational tobacco corporations to undermine effective tobacco control policy has been extensively documented through internal industry documents. Consequently, the sale, use and marketing of tobacco products are subject to extensive regulation and formal measures to exclude the industry from policy-making have been adopted in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In contrast to tobacco, alcohol is subject to less stringent forms of regulation, and the alcohol industry continues to play a central role in policy-making in many countries and at the global level. This article examines whether there is a sufficient rationale for such different regulatory approaches, through a comparative analysis of the political economy of the tobacco and alcohol industries including the structure of the industries, and the market and political strategies they pursue. Despite some important differences, the extensive similarities which exist between the tobacco and alcohol industries in terms of market structure and strategy, and political strategy, call into question the rationale for both the relatively weak regulatory approach taken towards alcohol, and the continued participation of alcohol corporations in policy-making processes.
Tobacco represents the single most preventable cause of disease and death in the world today. Of 260 million male deaths in the developed world between 1950 and 2000, it is estimated that 50 million will be due to smoking. In the oral and craniofacial region tobacco use has been associated with the occurrence of cleft palate, periodontal disease and tooth loss, and a variety of soft tissue lesions including oral cancer. For example, smoking is estimated to account for 92% of cancers of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx. Few studies have examined relative efficiency of the many different approaches to tobacco control but, in general, legislative approaches such as increasing tobacco taxes and prohibiting advertising are most effective and those based on printed educational materials and cessation groups, the least effective. In all cases, advice or intervention by health care professionals ranked among the most effective non-legislative approaches to control. A very wide range of professionally-based interventions have been described, including pharmacologic interventions, behavioral approaches and group counseling. The dental profession has a unique opportunity to influence tobacco use by their patients. Its use is almost always immediately evident to the dentist or dental assistant in terms of odor, staining, poor oral hygiene or obvious oral disease. There is also a tendency for the length of personal contact with the dentist to be greater than with a physician. Guidelines are now available that provide the dental professional with advice on the best approaches to tobacco control with their patients.
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.
Roemer, Ruth; Taylor, Allyn; Lariviere, Jean
The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control originated in 1993 with a decision by Ruth Roemer and Allyn Taylor to apply to tobacco control Taylor’s idea that the WHO should utilize its constitutional authority to develop international conventions to advance global health. In 1995, Taylor and Ruth Roemer proposed various options to WHO, recommending the framework convention-protocol approach conceptualized by Taylor. Despite initial resistance by some WHO officials, this approach gained wide acceptance. In 1996, the World Health Assembly voted to proceed with its development. Negotiations by WHO member states led the World Health Assembly in May 2003 to adopt by consensus the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control—the first international treaty adopted under WHO auspices. The treaty formally entered into force for state parties on February 27, 2005. PMID:15914812
Schmidt, Allison M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Goldstein, Adam O.
Objectives Perceived credibility of a message’s source can affect persuasion. This paper reviews how beliefs about the source of tobacco control messages may encourage attitude and behavior change. Methods We conducted a series of searches of the peer-reviewed literature using terms from communication and public health fields. We reviewed research on source credibility, its underlying concepts, and its relation to the persuasiveness of tobacco control messages. Results We recommend an agenda for future research to bridge the gaps between communication literature on source credibility and tobacco control research. Our recommendations are to study the impact of source credibility on persuasion with long-term behavior change outcomes, in different populations and demographic groups, by developing new credibility measures that are topic- and organization-specific, by measuring how credibility operates across media platforms, and by identifying factors that enhance credibility and persuasion. Conclusions This manuscript reviews the state of research on source credibility and identifies gaps that are maximally relevant to tobacco control communication. Knowing first whether a source is perceived as credible, and second, how to enhance perceived credibility, can inform the development of future tobacco control campaigns and regulatory communications. PMID:27525298
Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A
We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T
Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.
MacKenzie, Ross; Ross, Hana; Lee, Kelley
The Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM) controlled the country's tobacco industry from its formation in the 1940s, until the government dropped restrictions on imported cigarettes in the late 1980s in response to pressure from the United States. The TTM has since competed with transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in a semi-monopoly market in which TTCs have steadily increased their market share. Coupled with a decline in national smoking prevalence, the result of Thailand's stringent tobacco control agenda, the TTM now accounts for a diminishing share of a contracting market. In response, the monopoly has looked to regional trade liberalisation, and proximity to markets with some of the world's highest smoking rates to expand its operations. Expansion strategies have gone largely unrealised however, and the TTM effectively remains a domestic operation. Using TTM publications, market and trade reports, industry publications, tobacco industry documents and other resources, this paper analyses TTM expansion strategies, and the limited extent to which they have been achieved. This inability to expand its operations has left the monopoly potentially vulnerable to global strategies of its transnational competitors. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.
Warner, Kenneth E
Despite their lethality, cigarettes are subject to little regulation that directly restricts their contents or their legality. This may change in the near future with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the world's first global health treaty, now in force, as well as developments in a few individual countries. Cigarettes are subject to a substantial number of country-specific regulations regarding their conditions of sale: their price (mostly through taxation), the places where they can be consumed (clean indoor air laws), who can smoke them (prohibitions on their use by or sales to minors), how they can be advertised or promoted (if at all), and how they must be packaged (minimum pack sizes, warning labels, plain packaging). Such policies constitute the core of successful tobacco control. The FCTC has been ratified by 180 countries representing 90% of the world's population. The FCTC requires compliance with numerous provisions relating to the kinds of regulations noted above. The treaty also mandates explicit attention to direct product regulation. Several countries have such authority, at least in limited forms. In the US, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the legal authority to regulate tobacco products, including their contents. The possibility exists that, in the foreseeable future, a country will mandate product standards that will substantially reduce the appeal of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products, which are by far the leading sources of the death and disease associated with tobacco.
Gilmore, Anna B
Background This paper builds on tobacco document research by analysing contemporary materials to explore how the global tobacco market has changed, how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) are responding and identify the implications for tobacco control. Methods Analysis of a variety of materials including tobacco company annual reports, investor relations materials, financial analyst reports, market research reports and data. Findings Once China, where TTCs have little market share, is excluded, global cigarette volumes are already declining. Nevertheless, industry profits continue to increase. This pattern is explained by TTCs’ pricing power - their ability to increase prices faster than volumes fall; a consequence of market failure. Pricing power is now fundamental to the TTCs’ long-term future. Consequently, and in light of growing regulations, the TTCs’ business model is changing. Product innovation is now a key marketing technique used to drive consumers to buy more expensive (ie profitable) premium cigarettes. Contrary to established wisdom, high tobacco excise rates, particularly where increases in excise are gradual, can benefit TTCs by enabling price (profit) increases to be disguised. Large intermittent tax increases likely have a greater public health benefit. TTC investments in smokeless appear designed to eliminate competition between smokeless and cigarettes, thereby increasing TTCs’ pricing power while enabling them to harness the rhetoric of harm reduction. Conclusions Monitoring TTCs can inform effective policy development. The TTC’s value maximising approach suggests that a ban on product innovation and more informed tobacco excise policies are needed. PMID:22345234
.Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow?
Daynard, Richard A.; Parmet, Wendy; Kelder, Graham; Davidson, Patricia
The 1998 master settlement agreement between major tobacco manufacturers and the US states will have a profound effect on many tobacco industry practices and will significantly influence future settlements with the tobacco industry. This article analyzes the settlement's key provisions pertaining to youth sales, advertising, marketing, and lobbying. It also examines the ways in which the settlement restricts industry practices as well as the many industry practices that remain unregulated. PMID:11726376
The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2011 by the Indonesian National Institute of Health Research and Development and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, showed that more than 67% of men and almost 40% of boys aged 13-15 use tobacco.
Muramoto, Myra L.; Lando, Harry
Issues Cessation programs are essential components of comprehensive tobacco control. Health care providers, especially physicians, have major responsibility for role modeling and promoting cessation. For successful, sustainable cessation training programs, countries need health care professionals with knowledge and skills to deliver and teach tobacco cessation. Approach Review literature relevant to faculty development in tobacco cessation and discuss its strategic potential in tobacco control. Key findings Faculty development is essential for sustainable tobacco cessation training programs, and a potentially powerful strategy to shift professional and societal norms toward cessation and support of comprehensive tobacco control in countries with normative tobacco use and underdeveloped tobacco control programs. Implications Medical faculty are in a key position to influence tobacco cessation and control programs because of their roles as educators and researchers, receptivity to innovation and, influence on competencies and standards for medical education and practice. Faculty development programs must consider the number and type of faculty, and tobacco cessation curricula needed. Faculty development fosters the ability to institutionalize cessation education for students and community practitioners. Academic faculty are often leaders in their professional disciplines, influential in establishing clinical practice standards, and technical experts for government and other key health organizations. Conclusion Training health care professional faculty to become knowledgeable and committed to tobacco cessation opens opportunities to promote cessation and shift professional and societal norms away from tobacco use. PMID:19737208
Sargent, James D; DiFranza, Joseph R
Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death in the developed world, and is rapidly becoming an important cause of death in the developing world. Nicotine is a powerfully addictive substance, and the tobacco industry spends billions annually promoting it in the United States. It is therefore important for clinicians to understand why people smoke, to address smoking in patients of all ages, and to lobby for health-preserving tobacco control policies at the community level. Children take up smoking in response to social influences: smoking by friends, parents, and family, and through exposure to smoking in media. Parents who smoke not only model the behavior, but also often make the product available by leaving cigarettes around the house. Media influences include the dollar 10 billion spent per year on tobacco marketing, but more importantly, the modeling of the behavior on screen by movie and television stars. Once children start smoking, many rapidly lose autonomy over the behavior. Youth can get hooked after smoking just a few cigarettes. The most effective community efforts for reducing tobacco use are: raising the price of tobacco; halting the sale of tobacco to minors; enforcing strict school tobacco policies; and making public places smoke free through local ordinances. Working with individuals, clinicians should support cessation in all smokers, including parents of children and adolescents. They should screen children for smoking risk factors beginning at age 10. They should teach parents to maintain smoke-free households, to set nonsmoking expectations early on, and to monitor adolescents for signs of smoking. Parents should limit exposure to adult media (e.g., R-rated movies) and use family television time to discuss the effect of seeing screen depictions of smoking on adolescent behavior. Adolescents who smoke should be assessed for signs of nicotine dependence and counseled about quitting. Clinicians are effective community voices; they
Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Miligi, Lucia; Chellini, Elisabetta
In the European Union almost 300,000 tons of raw tobacco are produced every year, contributing for 4% of the world production. In Italy, tobacco crop produces around 90,000 tons/year and is concentrated in Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria and Campania Regions. In 1970, Common Market Organisation provided a virtually unlimited support for European tobacco production. After 2004, funds progressively has been cut by half, even though the other half has been given for restructuring or reconversion of tobacco farms through the Rural Development Plan. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends conversion of tobacco crops, although there are no effective measures. Tobacco production requires large quantities of chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, fertilisers), with significant workers' exposure if applied without personal protective equipments. Pesticides may have genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal, and carcinogenic effects. Tobacco itself may cause also a disease called "Green tobacco sickness" syndrome, as a consequence of nicotine dermal absorption due to skin exposure to tobacco leaves. In Italy, financial resources for tobacco production and restructuring/conversion to other crops of previously tobacco planted fields are available. On the contrary, anti-smoking media interventions do not receive funds comparatively relevant as those for tobacco production.
Young, David; Coghill, Ken; Zhang, Jian Ying
We use systems thinking to develop a strategic framework for analyzing the tobacco problem and we suggest solutions. Humans are vulnerable to nicotine addiction, and the most marketable form of nicotine delivery is the most harmful. A tobacco use management system has evolved out of governments’ attempts to regulate tobacco marketing and use and to support services that provide information about tobacco's harms and discourage its use. Our analysis identified 5 systemic problems that constrain progress toward the elimination of tobacco-related harm. We argue that this goal would be more readily achieved if the regulatory subsystem had dynamic power to regulate tobacco products and the tobacco industry as well as a responsive process for resourcing tobacco use control activities. PMID:20466970
Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Reynales-Shiguematsu, Luz Myriam; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio
Smoking prevention efforts should either prevent target groups from becoming susceptible to smoking or prevent susceptible adolescents from progressing to becoming regular smokers. To describe the prevalence of susceptibility to smoking among never smoker students from cities that applied the GYTS in 2003 and 2006. The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12–15 years enrolled in public, private, and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 399 schools in 9 cities. The GYTS surveyed 33,297 students during the academic years 2003–04 and 2006–07. Among never smokers, about 25% are likely to initiate smoking in the next 12 months. There are no differences in susceptibility to smoking by gender. When comparing results from 2003 and 2006, the susceptibility index has not changed, but for one city. The GYTS results are useful for monitoring susceptibility to smoking among adolescents and provide evidence for strengthening the efforts of tobacco control programs in Mexico. PMID:19440444
Huang, Jidong; Walton, Kimp; Gerzoff, Robert B; King, Brian A; Chaloupka, Frank J
Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases and deaths. States that made larger investments in tobacco prevention and control have seen larger declines in cigarettes sales than the United States as a whole, and the prevalence of smoking has declined faster as spending for tobacco control programs has increased. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs (Best Practices) outlines the elements of an evidence-based state tobacco control program and provides recommended state funding levels to substantially reduce tobacco-related disease, disability, and death. To analyze states' spending in relation to program components outlined within Best Practices, CDC assessed state tobacco control programs' expenditures for fiscal year 2011. In 2011, states spent approximately $658 million on tobacco control and prevention, which accounts for less than 3% of the states' revenues from the sale of tobacco products and only 17.8% of the level recommended by CDC. Evidence suggests that funding tobacco prevention and control efforts at the levels recommended in Best Practices could achieve larger and more rapid reductions in tobacco use and associated morbidity and mortality.
Distefan, Janet M.; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.; Pierce, John P.
Reports expenditures on tobacco control programs in California schools since 1989 and data from students interviewed as part of the California Tobacco Surveys in 1990, 1993, and 1996. Results indicate that the provision of substantial money for tobacco control to schools from 1989-1997 was not sufficient to ensure that effective interventions were…
Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M
This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region.
Gathecha, Gladwell Koku
This review examines the existing tobacco control research done in the country. It further identifies key gaps present in research and gives recommendations on priority research areas required to implement effective tobacco control programmes. Published literature, technical reports and reports by the Ministry of Health were reviewed. It included studies that measure tobacco use and its effects, monitor progress of tobacco control, or articles that are discussing tobacco control policy. The review was conducted in January 2013 and included 18 papers. There are six studies that assessed the prevalence of current tobacco consumption which yielded prevalence's of between 3.8%-19%. Only one study tried to determine an association between Tobacco use and Health. Studies that monitored progress of legislation indicated that the country lacked coordinated efforts for tobacco control, enforcement was weak and monitoring of the existing tobacco legislation was poor. This review has demonstrated that Kenya has made efforts to generate knowledge on tobacco control through research. However there is lack of research that demonstrates the effects of tobacco consumption on health and studies that detail the impact of the various tobacco control interventions.
Jandoo, Tarveen; Mehrotra, Ravi
Tobacco imposes a colossal burden of disease and death leading to catastrophic health, social, economic and environmental effects. Prevalence and practices of tobacco use in India are varied and disparate. Tobacco consumption continues to grow at 2-3% per annum, and by 2020 it is predicted that it will account for 13% of all deaths in the country. India is now demonstrating a steely resolve to contain the menace of tobacco through a comprehensive control strategy that combines several demand and supply reduction measures. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be inefficient. The 'Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Bill, 2003' represented an advance in tobacco control. It included demand reduction measures like outlawing smoking in public places, forbidding sale of tobacco to minors, requiring more prominent health warning labels, and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. India, as a signatory to FCTC, is actively involved in combating the menace of tobacco with renewed fervor. There is a need to devise innovative methods of mobilizing financial and human resources for tobacco control, establish efficient national coordinating mechanisms, integrate tobacco control into health and development programs and periodically evaluate these activities. The Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
Crawford, M; Balch, G; Mermelstein, R
Objective: Explore adolescents' response to current and potential tobacco control policy issues. Design: The 13 site Tobacco Control Network (TCN), sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted 129 sex and ethnic homogeneous focus groups. Participants: 785 white, African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, American Indian, and Hispanic adolescents who were primarily smokers from rural, urban, and suburban locations across the USA. Main outcome measures: Awareness, knowledge, opinions, and behaviour regarding laws and rules, prices, cigarette ingredients, and warning labels. Results: Teenagers were generally familiar with laws and rules about access and possession for minors, but believed them ineffective. They were knowledgeable about prices, and reported that a sharp and sudden increase could lead them to adjust their smoking patterns but could also have negative consequences. They found a list of chemical names of cigarette ingredients largely meaningless, but believed that disclosing and publicising their common uses could be an effective deterrent, especially for those who were not yet smoking. They were aware of current warning labels, but considered them uninformative and irrelevant. Conclusions: Understanding teenagers' attitudes and behaviours before implementing policies that will affect them will likely increase their effectiveness. Disclosing and publicising the chemical contents of cigarettes, and increasing prices quickly and sharply, are potentially effective areas for policy change to impact adolescent tobacco use. PMID:11891362
Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon
With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.
Pierce, John P
Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.
Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756
Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe
The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.
This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted.
Chandirasekar, R; Suresh, K; Sasikala, K; Kumar, B Lakshman; Venkatesan, R; Ganesh, G Karthik; Jacob, Raichel
India has a long history of tobacco, which includes chewing tobacco and smoking tobacco in various forms. Initially, the smokeless tobacco chewing habit was seen among the majority of the farmers who cultivated tobacco; but in recent years, smokeless tobacco is available in many forms and is cheaper as well and hence it is widely being used among literate and illiterate people. The subjects of our study are living in hilly regions of Yerkaud in Salem district, South India. Most of the inhabitants of our study area are illiterate and more particularly they are unaware of the health effects due to tobacco use. Recent epidemiological reports have strongly indicated the association of cancer risk with usage of smokeless tobacco. The prime aim of our study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of tobacco use by analysing the cytogenetic end points such as chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood and micronucleus in peripheral blood and buccal cells. About 85 smokeless tobacco users were enrolled for the study and same numbers of age- and sex-matched nontobacco users were also enrolled to serve as controls. The result of our study revealed that tobacco users displayed varied levels of elevated chromosomal damage and micronucleated cells than nontobacco users. The variation in the extent of genetic damage was dependent on the duration of the tobacco use. In conclusion, this study might be helpful in creating awareness on the hazards of the smokeless tobacco products among the global population as a whole for those who chose such products as a cheap alternative to tobacco smoke.
Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley
Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL's efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL's alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.'
Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam
Nearly two-thirds of all deaths globally are caused by noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes). The UN General Assembly approved Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of non communicable diseases and recommending five priority interventions: 1. Tobacco control (the most urgent and immediate), 2. Salt reduction, 3. Improved diet and physical activity, 4 Reduction of hazardous alcohol intake, 5. Access to essential drugs and technologies. The Assembly recognizes the fundamental conflict of interest between tobacco industry and public health and recommends the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and MPOWER strategies. The full implementation of FCTC could prevent 5.5 Million of death in the next 10 years in low and middle income countries. All these recommendations are feasible to implement considering the willingness of Governments, the infrastructure available, the capacity building existing and the participation of all sectors, including civil society and the community as a whole.
Dhooge, Lucien J.
Tobacco has been an agricultural staple from the time of the first recorded European encounter with the plant in the fifteenth century. The pervasive nature of its cultivation and consumption has made tobacco one of the most profitable crops in world agricultural history. This case study examines the role of tobacco in the global marketplace with…
Cohen, J E; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M J
Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.
Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777
Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina
The use of tobacco products has been described by the World Health Organization as the risk factor responsible for six out of eight causes of death in the world. Informing about the harm of smoking may be presented in many ways like media campaigns, text warnings, or graphic warnings placed on tobacco products. The aim of this article is to describe the role of graphic warnings placed on tobacco products in light of tobacco control. In this work, the available current data, including researches and reports of WHO, have been used. Graphic warnings may be a very valuable source of knowledge about health consequences of smoking. They are also much more visible, draw attention much better compared with text warnings and more clearly communicate the threats of tobacco use. They also have a stronger impact, are better memorized and better motivate to quit smoking. Pictorial warnings are also approved by the society. Smokers themselves perceive them as more effective than text warnings. Moreover, this kind of labeling makes tobacco products less attractive. The introduction of legal regulations enforcing these types of warnings does not cost anybody but the tobacco companies. This kind of solution helps to gain public acceptance for other methods of tobacco control like totally free tobacco smoke places.
Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J; Silvestri, Gerard
We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of -0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states.
Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric
Objective Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Data sources Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). Study selection All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Data extraction Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second‐hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. Data synthesis The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. Conclusion While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use. PMID:17130631
Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B
Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.
Balwicki, Łukasz; Stokłosa, Michał; Balwicka-Szczyrba, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Wioleta
Background Since 2006, when Poland ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), there have been efforts to improve tobacco control regulation in the country. At the same time, at the European Union level, Poland took part in discussions over revision of the Tobacco Tax Directive and the Tobacco Products Directive. This study aims to explore the tobacco industry's tactics to interfere with the creation of those policies. Methods Analysis of 257 documents obtained through freedom of information request. Results We identified three means that the tobacco industry used to interfere with tobacco control policies: creating a positive attitude, expressing a will to be a part of the policymaking process, and exerting pressure. We found that those tactics have often been used unethically, with the industry providing the government with ready legislation proposals, overstating its contribution to the economy and the government revenues, misrepresenting the illicit cigarette problem and misusing scientific evidence. The industry also used legal threats, including use of bilateral trade agreements, against implementation of tobacco control measures. The companies lobbied together directly and through third parties, with the cigarette excise tax structure being the only area of disagreement among the companies. The industry also pushed the Polish government to challenge tobacco control policies in countries with stronger public policy standards, including UK display bans and the Australian plain-packaging law. Conclusions From an object of regulation, the tobacco industry in Poland became a partner with the government in legislative work. Implementation of provisions of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC could prevent further industry interference. PMID:26418616
Kadobera, Daniel; Chaussard, Martine; Lee, Kyung Ah; Ayebazibwe, Nicholas; Ndyanabangi, Sheila
Introduction To assess changes from 2007 to 2011 in the prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-related indicators in Uganda by examining results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods Both the 2007 (n=2,251) and 2011 (n=2,026) Uganda GYTS were conducted among students in primary seven, secondary one, two, and three. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to generate a representative sample of students for the surveys. Stata 12 software was used to provide weighted prevalence estimates and logistic regression models were developed to examine the relationship between factors that influence tobacco use and current tobacco use. Results The percentage of students who had ever smoked a cigarette, even just one or two puffs, declined from 15.6% in 2007 to 10.9% in 2011 (p=0.03). From 2007 to 2011, neither the percentage of current use of any tobacco (16.6% to 17.3%, p=0.75), nor the percentage of current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking (5.5% to 4.8%,p=0.59) changed significantly. Following adjustment, having parents [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):1.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.3-2.8] and friends [AOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0)] who smoke, and having seen tobacco advertisements in print media [AOR 1.8(1.3-2.4)], were associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2007.Having parents who smoke [AOR;1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0] was associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2011. Conclusion From 2007 to 2011, no significant change occurred in the prevalence of current tobacco use or cigarette smoking among youth in Uganda. These findings underscore the importance of implementing effective population-level public health interventions, as outlined in the articles of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to prevent and reduce the use of tobacco among youth in Uganda. PMID:28292114
Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Yiqun; Yang, Jie; Wan, Xia
The non-communicable disease burden in China is enormous, with tobacco use a leading risk factor for the major non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of tobacco use in men is one of the highest in the world, with more than 300 million smokers and 740 million non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke. In the past decade public awareness of the health hazards of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke has grown, social customs and habits have changed, aggressive tactics used by the tobacco industry have been revealed, and serious tobacco control policies have been actively promoted. In 2014, national legislators in China began actively considering national bans on smoking in public and work places and tobacco advertising. However, tobacco control in China has remained particularly difficult because of interference by the tobacco industry. Changes to the interministerial coordinating mechanism for implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are now crucial. Progress towards a tobacco-free world will be dependent on more rapid action in China.
Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao
In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements
Mejia, Raul; Ferrante, Daniel; De Maio, Fernando G.; Diez Roux, Ana V.
Introduction: The relationship between poverty and tobacco consumption among adolescents has not been extensively studied, and what evidence exists has come almost entirely from developed countries. Moreover, the impact of contextual factors—such as school-level poverty—remains unclear. Methods: We obtained information about smoking behavior from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Argentina in 2007. School-level characteristics were derived by matching schools to census areas from the 2001 Census. Additional school-level information was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Random intercept models were used to evaluate the associations of school-level variables (poverty in the census area of the school, school receipt of social assistance, and public or private status) with current smoking, intention to quit, secondhand smoke exposure outside the home, support for smoke-free laws, purchase of single cigarettes among smokers, and susceptibility to smoking in 5 years among nonsmokers. Results: After controlling for age and sex, students attending schools receiving social assistance were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.80) and to purchase loose cigarettes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08–2.54), whereas school poverty was significantly associated with secondhand smoke exposure (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.58). Conclusion: This study shows that an association exists between unfavorable contextual school characteristics and tobacco consumption and related measures among youth in Argentina. Efforts to prevent smoking may need to address the school-level factors that place youth at higher risk. PMID:22394595
Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki
The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.
Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy
For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement.
The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.
Singh, Ankur; Arora, Monika; English, Dallas R.; Mathur, Manu R.
Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use) in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2009-10 (n = 69,296) was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education. PMID:26273649
Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B
An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.
Zeigler, Donald W
This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.
D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.
Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859
Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W
Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.
Zhang, P.; Husten, C.
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the impact of the United States Tobacco Price Support Program (TPSP) on domestic cigarette consumption and the potential political impact of the TPSP on efforts to reduce smoking. DATA SOURCES—Published studies known to the authors and a search of AGRICOLA from 1980 to 1996. STUDY SELECTION—Studies published in a refereed journal or research reports published by an accredited university or institution. DATA SYNTHESIS—The TPSP decreases cigarette use by increasing the price of cigarettes. The price increase resulting from the TPSP, however, is small—about one cent per pack. The resulting decrease in cigarette consumption is also very modest—an estimated 0.23%. However, the TPSP creates tobacco quota owners, who have a strong financial interest in opposing measures to reduce smoking. The TPSP also changes the political influence of tobacco farmers by keeping a large number of small farmers in tobacco production. CONCLUSIONS—The negative impact of the TPSP (opposition to tobacco control measures) is probably greater than the positive impact of the programme (reducing smoking). Therefore, the net impact of the TPSP on tobacco control efforts is likely to be negative. Keywords: cigarette consumption; Tobacco Price Support Program; United States PMID:9789937
McIntosh, Scott; Selby, Peter; Eysenbach, Gunther
Tobacco control in the 21st century faces many of the same challenges as in the past, but in different contexts, settings and enabled by powerful new tools including those delivered by information and communication technologies via computer, videocasts, and mobile handsets to the world. Building on the power of electronic networks, Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) provide a vehicle for delivering tobacco prevention, cessation, social support and training opportunities on-demand and direct to practitioners and the public alike. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global public health treaty, requires that all nations develop comprehensive tobacco control strategies that include provision of health promotion information, population interventions, and decision-support services. WATI research and development has evolved to provide examples of how eHealth can address all of these needs and provide exemplars for other areas of public health to follow. This paper discusses the role of WATI in supporting tobacco control and introduces a special issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research that broadens the evidence base and provides illustrations of how new technologies can support health promotion and population health overall, empowering change and ushering in a new era of public eHealth. PMID:19033147
Xiao, Dan; Bai, Chun-Xue; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Chen
China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. Consequently, the burden of tobacco-related diseases in China is enormous. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) may lead to a significant reduction in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality both in China and globally. In this review, the authors summarize the epidemic of tobacco use and the progress made in implementing the WHO FCTC, including the promotion of legislation for smoke-free public places; smoking-cessation assistance; labeling of tobacco packaging; enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; increased taxes on tobacco products; increased tobacco prices; improvements in public awareness of the dangers of smoking; and identifying the barriers to implementing effective tobacco-control measures in China. Since the WHO FCTC officially took effect in China on January 9, 2006, China has taken some important steps, especially in promoting legislation for smoke-free public places. Because tobacco permeates the fabric of society, business, commerce, and politics in China, commitments and actions from the government are crucial, and implementing the WHO FCTC in China will be an arduous and long-term task.
Pujari, Sameer J; Palipudi, Krishna M; Morton, Jeremy; Levinsohn, Jay; Litavecz, Steve; Green, Michael
Introduction: Portable handheld computers and electronic data management systems have been used for national surveys in many high-income countries, however their use in developing countries has been challenging due to varying geographical, economic, climatic, political and cultural environments. In order to monitor and measure global adult tobacco use, the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative household survey of adults, 15 years of age or older, using a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and data collection and management procedures. The Survey has been conducted in 14 low- and middle-income countries, using an electronic data collection and management system. This paper describes implementation of the electronic data collection system and associated findings. Methods: The Survey was based on a comprehensive data management protocol, to enable standardized, globally comparable high quality data collection and management. It included adaptation to specific country needs, selection of appropriate handheld hardware devices, use of open source software, and building country capacity and provide technical support. Results: In its first phase, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey was successfully conducted between 2008 and 2010, using an electronic data collection and management system for interviews in 302,800 households in 14 countries. More than 2,644 handheld computers were fielded and over 2,634 fieldworkers, supervisors and monitors were trained to use them. Questionnaires were developed and programmed in 38 languages and scripts. The global hardware failure rate was < 1% and data loss was almost 0%. Conclusion: Electronic data collection and management systems can be used effectively for conducting nationally representative surveys, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, irrespective of geographical, climatic, political and cultural
Sarna, Linda; Danao, Leda Layo; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Shin, Sung Rae; Baldago, Lily Ann; Endo, Emiko; Minegishi, Hideko; Wewers, Mary Ellen
role in tobacco control during "World No Tobacco Day" on May 31, 2005. The involvement of nurses, as the largest group of health care professionals, could boost these efforts. Thus, education of nurses regarding the multiple aspects of tobacco control has strategic implications in controlling global tobacco use and promoting health.
Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P
International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.
Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T
International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697
Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…
Offen, N; Smith, E; Malone, R
Objectives: To propose criteria to help advocates: (1) determine when tobacco related boycotts may be useful; (2) select appropriate targets; and (3) predict and measure boycott success. Methods: Analysis of tobacco focused boycotts retrieved from internal tobacco industry documents websites and other scholarship on boycotts. Results: Tobacco related boycotts may be characterised by boycott target and reason undertaken. Most boycotts targeted the industry itself and were called for political or economic reasons unrelated to tobacco disease, often resulting in settlements that gave the industry marketing and public relations advantages. Even a lengthy health focused boycott of tobacco industry food subsidiaries accomplished little, making demands the industry was unlikely to meet. In contrast, a perimetric boycott (targeting institutions at the perimeter of the core target) of an organisation that was taking tobacco money mobilised its constituency and convinced the organisation to end the practice. Conclusions: Direct boycotts of the industry have rarely advanced tobacco control. Perimetric boycotts of industry allies offer advocates a promising tool for further marginalising the industry. Successful boycotts include a focus on the public health consequences of tobacco use; an accessible point of pressure; a mutual interest between the target and the boycotters; realistic goals; and clear and measurable demands. PMID:16046691
Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii
The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.
Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N
Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (p<0.01). The findings from this study reiterate the need for stronger legislation and strict enforcement of bans on direct and indirect advertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.
Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.
Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (p<0.01). The findings from this study reiterate the need for stronger legislation and strict enforcement of bans on direct and indirect advertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648
Knight, J; Chapman, S
Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's efforts to influence public policy and block the legislative process on tobacco control in Hong Kong, 1973 to 1997. Method: Systematic review of relevant tobacco industry documents made public via the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The tobacco industry in Hong Kong has sought to manipulate the policymaking process and delay the introduction of tobacco control legislation in Hong Kong from at least 1973. The industry ensured that each of the government's initial meagre steps toward tobacco control were delayed and thwarted by drawn out "cooperation" followed by voluntary concessions on issues the industry regarded as minor. By the 1980s the government had became increasingly active in tobacco control and introduced a number of initiatives, resulting in some of the tightest legislative restrictions on smoking in Asia. The tobacco industry was successful in thwarting only one of these initiatives. Conclusions: Throughout the 1980s and 1990s two factors played a significant role in hindering the tobacco industry from successfully blocking policy initiatives: a growing political imperative, and an active and sophisticated tobacco control movement. Political will to promote public health and a strong tobacco control advocacy presence can enable governments to resist the enormous pressure exerted upon them by multinational tobacco companies. PMID:15564215
Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone
Purpose Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify providing investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organizations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to economic development policy in Zambia. Results We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: 1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, 2) economic benefits outweigh health costs, and 3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Conclusions Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia’s development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must understand and work within this context of economic development in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global analysis on the barriers and facilitators of FCTC implementation. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of other sectors and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonizing FCTC implementation across sectors. PMID:26135987
Macdonald, H; Aguinaga, S; Glantz, S A
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the strategies used by Philip Morris and other tobacco companies to promote a California initiative (Proposition 188) preempting local control of tobacco and those used by public health groups to defeat the initiative. METHODS: Interviews with key informants were conducted, and the written record was reviewed. RESULTS: Tobacco companies nearly succeeded in passing Proposition 188 by presenting it as a pro-health measure that would prevent children from obtaining cigarettes and provide protection against secondhand smoke. Public health groups defeated it by highlighting tobacco industry backing. A private charitable foundation also played an innovative role by financing a non-partisan public education campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Public health forces must be alert to sophisticated efforts by the tobacco industry to enact preemptive state legislation by making it look like tobacco control legislation. The coalition structure that emerged in the "No on 188" campaign represents an effective model for future tobacco control activities. The new role of charitable foundations defined in the Proposition 188 campaign can be used in other public health issues. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9431289
Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon
Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.
Public health efforts to promote tobacco control are not performed within a vacuum. They are subject to interpretation and misinterpretation by consumers and policymakers based largely upon the initial framing of the issues. This paper notes how the tobacco industry has established a particular frame that it is the protector of individual rights and that the public health community is trying to eliminate those rights. This paper then shows how the public health community uses metaphors that may unintentionally support this framing and suggests that by reframing public health efforts in accordance with core ethical principles, the public health community can create more positive messages. A public health ethical framework is proposed to examine how the application of the principles can influence the tobacco control movement. Through the increased use of ethics in tobacco control, the public health community may be better positioned to claim the high road as the protector of the public's interests. PMID:16046701
Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A
Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual
de Guia, N A; Cohen, J; Ashley, M; Ferrence, R; Rehm, J; Studlar, D; Northrup, D
Objective: To propose and test a new classification system for characterising legislator support for various tobacco control policies. Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects: Federal and provincial legislators in Canada serving as of October 1996 who participated in the Canadian Legislator Study (n = 553; response rate 54%). Main outcome measures: A three factor model (Voters, Tobacco industry, Other interest groups) that assigns nine tobacco control policies according to legislators' hypothesised perceptions of which group is more directly affected by these policies. Results: Based on confirmatory factor analysis, the proposed model had an acceptable fit and showed construct validity. Multivariate analysis indicated that three of the predictors (believing that the government has a role in health promotion, being a non-smoker, and knowledge that there are more tobacco than alcohol caused deaths) were associated with all three factor scales. Several variables were associated with two of the three scales. Some were unique to each scale. Conclusions: Based on our analyses, legislator support for tobacco control policies can be grouped according to our a priori factor model. The information gained from this work can help advocates understand how legislators think about different types of tobacco control policies. This could lead to the development of more effective advocacy strategies. PMID:12773721
Jacobson, P; Banerjee, A
After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission. PMID:16046702
Anderson, Carrie L.; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker
The study aimed to describe worldwide levels and trends of tobacco control policy by comparing low and middle income countries with other income categories from 2007 to 2014 and to analyze the corresponding relation to recent changes in smoking prevalence. Policy measure data representing years 2007 to 2014 were collected from all available World Health Organization (WHO) reports on the global tobacco epidemic. Corresponding policy percentage scores (PS) were calculated based on MPOWER measures. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data for years 2010 and 2015 were collected from the WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Trends of PS were analysed with respect to WHO region and OECD country income category. Scatter plots and regression analysis were used to depict the relationship between tobacco control policy of 2010 and change in smoking prevalence between 2015 and 2010 by sex and income category. Combined PS for all countries increased significantly from 47% in 2007 to 61% by 2014 (p < 0.001). When grouped by income category and region, policies were strengthened in all categories, albeit with varying progression. By 2014, tobacco control policy legislation had reached 45% in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), 59% in Low Middle Income Countries (LMICs), 66% in Upper Middle Income Countries (UMICs) and 70% in High Income Countries (HICs). Overall, there was a negative relationship between higher policy scores and change in smoking prevalence. Although policy strengthening had been conducted between 2007 and 2014, room for considerable global improvement remains, particularly in LDCs. PMID:27783060
Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy
Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak policies. The study determined whether overall strength of Resources, Capacity, and Efforts in tobacco control predicts readiness for smoke-free policy in rural communities, controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. This was a correlational, cross-sectional analysis of data from key informants (n = 148) and elected officials (n = 83) from 30 rural counties who participated in telephone interviews examining smoke-free policy. Six dimensions of community readiness (knowledge, leadership, resources, community climate, existing smoke-free policies, and political climate) were identified and summed to assess overall readiness for smoke-free policy. General strength of overall Resources, Capacity and Efforts in tobacco control at the county level was measured. Readiness for smoke-free policy was lower in communities with higher smoking rates, higher tobacco production, and smaller population. Efforts related to general tobacco control (i.e., media advocacy, training, and technical assistance) predicted readiness for local smoke-free policy development (standardized β = .35, p = .05), controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. Given that small, rural tobacco-growing communities are least ready for smoke-free policy change, tailoring and testing culturally sensitive approaches that account for this tobacco-growing heritage are warranted.
Warner, K; Martin, E
Objective: Tobacco harm reduction (THR) has garnered recent attention due to the introduction of novel nicotine delivery products ostensibly intended to reduce risk for inveterate cigarette smokers. This study evaluates the grassroots tobacco control community's knowledge, opinions, and beliefs about THR. Design: A web/mail survey conducted in October and November 2002, with a telephone survey of a sample of non-respondents. Subjects: The 2833 US based registrants for the 2001 National Conference on Tobacco or Health. Main outcome measures: Respondents' awareness of THR, perception of its importance, support for regulation, and perception of which THR products should be recommended to inveterate cigarette smokers. Results: 70% of respondents were aware of THR but respondents had low recognition of specific products at the forefront of the debate, such as Swedish snuff. Half believe THR will reduce smoking cessation and cause nicotine experimentation by children; 63% anticipate unintended adverse side effects. More expect THR to have a negative than a positive impact on health. Large majorities support government regulation of THR and conventional tobacco products, but fewer than 30% expect legislation regulating either. Most would recommend nicotine patches (76%) and gum (70%) to inveterate smokers, but no other product was supported by a majority. Scientists are more supportive of THR than activists, while respondents focusing on national/international issues are more supportive than those concentrating on local/state issues. Conclusions: Many members of the US tobacco control community are unaware of the THR "movement", while others possess only rudimentary familiarity with it. If and as THR achieves an increasingly prominent role on the tobacco-or-health scene, this community will have to become educated about THR, and be prepared to advocate for regulatory policies that will maximise the potential for positive outcomes. The potential for negative outcomes
Hassounah, S; Rawaf, D; Khoja, T; Rawaf, S; Hussein, M S; Qidwai, W; Majeed, A
This paper reports a review into the current state of tobacco use, governance and national commitment for control, and current intervention frameworks in place to reduce the use of tobacco among the populations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states and Yemen. It further reviews structured policy-oriented interventions (in line with the MPOWER package of 6 evidence-based tobacco control measures) that represent government actions to strengthen, implement and manage tobacco control programmes and to address the growing epidemic of tobacco use. Our findings show that tobacco control in the GCC countries has witnessed real progress over the past decades. These are still early days but they indicate steps in the right direction. Future investment in implementation and enforcement of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, production of robust tobacco control legislation and the establishment of universally available tobacco cessation services are essential to sustain and strengthen tobacco control in the GCC region.
Charrier, Lorena; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Coppo, Alessandro; Di Stefano, Francesca; D'Elia, Paolo; Molinar, Roberta; Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Segnan, Nereo
Effective tobacco control policies include law issuing: bans/restrictions on smoking in public areas and workplaces, increasing of taxes on tobacco products, bans on advertising of tobacco products, warning labels on cigarette boxes. For some of these policies the European Union (EU) has introduced specific directives that EU member states have to put into law. This paper briefly presents literature data, EU directives and the laws consequently issued in Italy. The importance of standardizing European legislation, especially for those policies that are not enforced by EU directives is also discussed. In Italy and in some other European countries smoking is forbidden in public and work-places, despite no EU directive. The positive impact of this ban in these countries suggests that it should be considered a priority in the European policies against tobacco in order to reduce the gap between literature recommendations and actions.
Paoletti, Luca; Jardin, Bianca; Carpenter, Matthew J; Cummings, K Michael; Silvestri, Gerard A
Behaviors pertaining to tobacco use have changed significantly over the past century. Compared with 1964, smoking prevalence rates have halved from 40% to 20%, and as a result there has been a slow but steady decline in the rates of tobacco-induced diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Growing awareness of the health risks of smoking was aided by the US Surgeon Reports that were issued on a nearly annual basis starting from 1964. Concerns about the hazards of breathing in second-hand smoke further contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, which evolved into regulatory actions restricting smoking on buses, planes, retail outlets, restaurants, and bars. Today, 23 states and 493 localities have comprehensive laws restricting indoor smoking. This paper examines public policies that have made a significant impact on smoking and lung cancer rates and discusses potential future research directions to further reduce the diseases caused by smoking.
Paoletti, Luca; Jardin, Bianca; Carpenter, Matthew; Cummings, K. Michael; Silvestri, Gerard A.
Summary Tobacco use behaviors have changed significantly over the past century. Compared to 1964, smoking prevalence rates have halved from 40% to 20% and as a result there has been a slow but steady decline in the rates of tobacco-induced diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Growing awareness of the health risks of smoking were aided by the United States Surgeon Reports which were issued on a nearly annual basis starting in 1964. Concerns about the hazards of breathing in secondhand smoke pollution further contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, which evolved into regulatory actions restricting smoking on buses, planes, retail outlets, restaurants and bars. Today, 23 states and 493 localities have comprehensive laws restricting indoor smoking. This paper examines public policies that have made a significant impact on smoking and lung cancer rates and discusses potential future research directions to further reduce the diseases caused by smoking. PMID:22847588
... from poor households are frequently employed in tobacco farming to provide family income. These children are especially ... 19% of the world's population, meet the best practice for pictorial warnings, which includes the warnings in ...
Muggli, Monique E; Zheng, Annie; Liberman, Jonathan; Coxon, Nicholas; Candler, Liz; Donley, Kaitlin; Lambert, Patricia
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is increasingly referenced and incorporated into the objectives, definitions and provisions of domestic legislation worldwide. It is also relied upon by courts in interpreting and upholding strong tobacco control measures challenged by the tobacco industry. In this special communication, we describe these trends and explore the important new online resource-Tobacco Control Laws (http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org)--that has been used to track them.
Williams, Terrinieka T.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.
This study examined adolescent attitudes towards tobacco control laws. An exploratory factor analysis, using surveys from over 9,000 students, identified the following three factors: (1) youth attitudes towards the efficacy of tobacco control laws, (2) youth attitudes towards tobacco possession laws and (3) youth attitudes towards tobacco sales…
Glynn, Thomas; Seffrin, John R; Brawley, Otis W; Grey, Nathan; Ross, Hana
The globalization of tobacco began more than 500 years ago, but the public health response to the death, disease, and economic disruption that it has caused is fewer than 50 years old. In this report, the authors briefly trace the history of tobacco use and commerce as it moved from the Americas in the late 15th century and then eastward. They then discuss the wide range of issues that must be addressed, and the equally wide range of expertise that is needed if the global health community is to be successful in reducing, and eventually eliminating, the rising tide of tobacco use, particularly in the low- and middle-income nations that are the target of the multinational tobacco industry.
Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be done. If current smoking prevalence among teenagers remains unchanged, there will be a significant increase in the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco consumption in future decades.
The Transnational Commercial Tobacco Companies are expanding their empires--denying the health evidence on the effects of smoking; advertising and promoting their products in every corner of the earth; obstructing government action; overpowering national monopolies; and selling more and more cigarettes. Their grip on the big markets in developing countries will become stronger as they move their agriculture and manufacturing processes out of the United States, and by 2025 there may be no tobacco grown in the United States. Images p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a PMID:9475929
Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Background and Objectives while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths’ experimental smoking. Methods Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007–2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents’ smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p < 0.01), and that this association is seen for both genders (boys OR = 0.74, p < 0.1; girls OR = 0.52, p < 0.001). Conclusions POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans. PMID:27294172
Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason A; Lynskey, Michael T; Winstock, Adam R
Cannabis and tobacco are common drugs of abuse worldwide and are often used in combination through various routes of administration (ROAs). Here, we aimed to provide an overview of how cannabis and tobacco routes varied across countries and assess the impact of tobacco-based ROAs on motivation to use less cannabis, and less tobacco, in different models. A cross-sectional online survey (Global Drugs Survey 2014) was completed by 33,687 respondents (mean age = 27.9; % female = 25.9) who smoked cannabis at least once in the last 12 months. Most common ROA, frequency of cannabis/tobacco use, and questions about motivation to use less cannabis/tobacco were recorded. Tobacco-based ROA were used by 65.6% of respondents. These were most common in Europe (77.2-90.9%) and Australasia (20.7-51.6%) and uncommon in the Americas (4.4-16.0%). Vaporizer use was most common in Canada (13.2%) and the United States (11.2%). Using a non-tobacco ROA was associated with a 10.7% increase in odds for "desire to use less" tobacco (OR: 1.107, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.221), 80.6% increase in odds for "like help to use less tobacco" (OR: 1.806, 95% CI: 1.556, 2.095), and a 103.9% increase in the odds for "planning to seek help to use less tobacco" (OR: 2.039, 95% CI: 1.638, 2.539), in comparison to using a tobacco-based ROA. Associations between ROA and intentions to use less cannabis were inconsistent. Results support considerable global variation in cannabis and tobacco ROA. Tobacco routes are common, especially "joints with tobacco," especially in Europe, but not in the Americas. Non-tobacco-based routes are associated with increased motivation to change tobacco use. Interventions addressing tobacco and cannabis need to accommodate this finding and encourage non-tobacco routes.
Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery
Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems.
Turner, Ronald W.; And Others
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…
Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira
Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified
Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam
This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio
Assunta, M; Chapman, S
Objective: To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement and secondary websites; relevant information from news articles and financial reports. Results: Commencing in the 1970s, the industry began to systematically thwart government tobacco control. Guidelines were successfully promoted in the place of legislation for over two decades. Even when the government succeeded in implementing regulations such as health warnings and advertising bans they were compromised and acted effectively to retard further progress for years to come. Conclusion: Counter-measures to delay or thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco were initiated by the industry. Though not unique to Malaysia, the main difference lies in the degree to which strategies were used to successfully counter stringent tobacco control measures between 1970 and 1995. PMID:15564220
Koh, Howard K.; Judge, Christine M.; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K.; Connolly, Gregory N.
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of MTCP in the current climate of national and state fiscal crises. The first decade of the MTCP offers many lessons learned for the future of tobacco control. PMID:16224981
Smith, Elizabeth A; Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Malone, Ruth E
Tobacco use prevalence is unacceptably high in the U.S. military, and the Department of Defense and service branches have implemented tobacco control policies and cessation programs. To explore aspects of programs regarded as exemplary by their services, we visited four installations, nominated by their service's health promotion leaders, and conducted interviews, observations, and focus groups. Installations included Naval Hospital Guam, Tripler Army Medical Center, MacDill Air Force Base, and the Naval Hospital at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms. The tobacco control managers (TCMs) at the programs studied were all civilian employees, highly motivated and enthusiastic, and had remained in their positions for approximately a decade. Other commonalities included support from command, a "culture" of health, and location in warm climates. Programs varied in their involvement in establishing designated tobacco use areas, and length and requirement of attending cessation classes; however, no evaluation of cessation programs is currently underway. TCMs should be more engaged in policy discussions for the larger installations they serve. A strong policy framework and command support for TCMs will be necessary to achieve the goal of a tobacco-free military.
Smith, Elizabeth A.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Malone, Ruth E.
Tobacco use prevalence is unacceptably high in the U.S. military, and the Department of Defense and service branches have implemented tobacco control policies and cessation programs. To explore aspects of programs regarded as exemplary by their services, we visited four installations, nominated by their service's health promotion leaders, and conducted interviews, observations, and focus groups. Installations included Naval Hospital Guam, Tripler Army Medical Center, MacDill Air Force Base, and the Naval Hospital at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms. The tobacco control managers (TCMs) at the programs studied were all civilian employees, highly motivated and enthusiastic, and had remained in their positions for approximately a decade. Other commonalities included support from command, a “culture” of health, and location in warm climates. Programs varied in their involvement in establishing designated tobacco use areas, and length and requirement of attending cessation classes; however, no evaluation of cessation programs is currently underway. TCMs should be more engaged in policy discussions for the larger installations they serve. A strong policy framework and command support for TCMs will be necessary to achieve the goal of a tobacco-free military. PMID:27244072
Galán, Iñaki; Mata, Nelva; Estrada, Carmen; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Velázquez, Luis; Zorrilla, Belén; Gandarillas, Ana; Ortiz, Honorato
Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750) was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17) and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18). For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44) and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32); for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19), respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of strategies that
Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for controlling tobacco consumption. The
Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P.; Ferris, Jason A.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Winstock, Adam R.
Cannabis and tobacco are common drugs of abuse worldwide and are often used in combination through various routes of administration (ROAs). Here, we aimed to provide an overview of how cannabis and tobacco routes varied across countries and assess the impact of tobacco-based ROAs on motivation to use less cannabis, and less tobacco, in different models. A cross-sectional online survey (Global Drugs Survey 2014) was completed by 33,687 respondents (mean age = 27.9; % female = 25.9) who smoked cannabis at least once in the last 12 months. Most common ROA, frequency of cannabis/tobacco use, and questions about motivation to use less cannabis/tobacco were recorded. Tobacco-based ROA were used by 65.6% of respondents. These were most common in Europe (77.2–90.9%) and Australasia (20.7–51.6%) and uncommon in the Americas (4.4–16.0%). Vaporizer use was most common in Canada (13.2%) and the United States (11.2%). Using a non-tobacco ROA was associated with a 10.7% increase in odds for “desire to use less” tobacco (OR: 1.107, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.221), 80.6% increase in odds for “like help to use less tobacco” (OR: 1.806, 95% CI: 1.556, 2.095), and a 103.9% increase in the odds for “planning to seek help to use less tobacco” (OR: 2.039, 95% CI: 1.638, 2.539), in comparison to using a tobacco-based ROA. Associations between ROA and intentions to use less cannabis were inconsistent. Results support considerable global variation in cannabis and tobacco ROA. Tobacco routes are common, especially “joints with tobacco,” especially in Europe, but not in the Americas. Non-tobacco-based routes are associated with increased motivation to change tobacco use. Interventions addressing tobacco and cannabis need to accommodate this finding and encourage non-tobacco routes. PMID:27458388
Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J
Raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. Since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. Thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. This means that tobacco taxes are regressive. However, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. This is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. Recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. Research in China confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. Therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality.
Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin
Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793
Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee
Purpose Little is known about Veterans Service Organizations (VSOs) and their perspectives on veterans smoking or military tobacco control. Veterans have high smoking rates and many started smoking in the military, where a culture promoting use exists. Design We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative content analysis of VSO websites to classify health topics and identify tobacco-related information. Setting Websites were coded by trained raters from January-June of 2011. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed from July 2011-January 2012. Participants 24 active VSO websites meeting inclusion criteria were rated independently. Method A comprehensive form was used to code 15 veteran-relevant health topics across multiple content areas/domains within the websites. Raters achieved 94.5% inter-rater agreement over nearly 5,000 data-points. Results A total of 277 health topics were addressed with the top five being Insurance/Tricare/VA issues (28.2%), PTSD (15.5%), disability/amputation/wounds (13.4%), Agent Orange (10.5%), and traumatic brain injury (TBI; 9.0%). Tobacco was mentioned four times (1.4%) across all 24 VSO websites and smoking cessation was never addressed. Conclusions VSO websites provide little information on tobacco-related topics and none offered information about smoking cessation. Given the high rates of tobacco use among veterans and active duty service members, and the interaction between smoking and PTSD symptoms and treatment outcomes, VSOs should consider making tobacco control and smoking cessation higher priority health issues on their websites. PMID:23631454
Background Nowadays the European Union faces a debate on the ban of sale of flavoured cigarettes. There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers are more vulnerable to the use of flavoured cigarettes. However in some European countries, figures on the use of these cigarettes are still scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of flavoured cigarettes use in Poland, and examine whether its use among adults varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data on tobacco use including flavoured cigarettes and other characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS provided data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals covering 2,254 current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the selected socio-economic variables on the use of flavoured cigarettes. Results Among females the aromatized cigarettes use was 26.1% compared to 10.5% in males (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.62–3.2; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aged 20–29 years had an increased likelihood of using flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects aged 60 years or older (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aware of negative health consequences of smoking had OR = 1.4 95% CI: 1.1–2.1 (p ≤ 0.05) of smoking aromatized cigarettes compared to those who were unaware. Participants who perceived some kinds of cigarettes less harmful than others were also more likely to use flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects who were convinced that all cigarettes are equally harmful (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.8; p ≤ 0.01). High educational attainment, living in large cities, being non-economically active was also associated with use of flavoured cigarettes. Conclusion Our results are consistent with majority of epidemiology studies on this topic to date and
Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle
Aims To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Design Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. Setting England. Measurements Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. Findings A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. Conclusions A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies—negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. PMID:23834209
Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834
Ferry, L Hyder; Job, J; Knutsen, S; Montgomery, S; Petersen, F; Rudatsikira, E; Singh, P
Design The aim of the programme was to ultimately affect public health practice and policy in the Kingdom of Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) by training key health professionals to conduct tobacco control research. Setting Encouraged by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global partnership formed to build effective leadership to develop and guide national tobacco control agendas. The partners were the Ministries of Health (Cambodia and Lao PDR), non‐government organisations (Adventist Development and Relief Agency in Cambodia and Laos) and an academic institution (Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA). Subjects 16 health professionals, 10 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR, were selected by local advisory committees to enter a two‐year, intensive tobacco research graduate certificate and research training programme. Intervention We developed a “Global Tobacco Control Methods” (GTCM) 28 unit certificate programme that was offered in five sessions from September 2003 to September 2005 at the National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. As part of their coursework, the 16 trainees actively participated in the development and implementation of two research projects. In the first project, “Healthy Doc Healthy Patient” (HDHP), trainees adapted an existing, self‐administered questionnaire designed to assess health practices and beliefs of medical students in Cambodia and Lao PDR. The second project involved the design of a national prevalence of tobacco use and health beliefs study in Cambodia using a multi‐stage, cluster sample method. Trainees were sponsored to attend and present at international tobacco control conferences to enhance their awareness of the tobacco epidemic. Results As of September 2005, 14 trainees (8 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR) completed the courses in the GTCM certificate programme. The HDHP study sampled four medical school classes (years
Offen, Naphtali; Arvey, Sarah R; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E
In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships' stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces.
Arvey, Sarah R.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.
In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships’ stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces. PMID:21233435
Yamato, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ying; Ohta, Masanori
It is necessary to implement 100% smoke-free environments in all indoor workplaces and indoor public places in order to protect people from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). Forty-four countries have already implemented comprehensive smoke-free legislations according to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Guidelines on protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. The Occupational Safety and Health Law (OSHL) was partially revised to strengthen the countermeasures against SHS in Japan in 2014. However, the revision was only minimal. Firstly, it is necessary to make efforts to implement countermeasures against SHS (their implementations are not obligatory, as required in Article 8). Secondly, the revised OSHL allowed the implementation of designated smoking rooms inside workplaces (Article 8 requires 100% smoke-free environments). Thirdly, revised OSHL does not effectively cover the small-scale entertainment industry so that workers in restaurants and pubs will not be protected from occupational SHS. We explain the importance of implementation of 100% smoke-free environments by law, using the data on leakage of smoke from designated smoking rooms, and occupational exposure to SHS among service industry workers. The decrease in the incidence of smoking-related diseases in people where a comprehensive smoke-free law is implemented is also introduced. These data and information should be widely disseminated to policy makers, media, owners of service industries, and Japanese people.
Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.
The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…
Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H
Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626
Schmitt, Carol L; Malarcher, Ann M; Clark, Pamela I; Bombard, Jennifer M; Strauss, Warren; Stillman, Frances A
Objective To identify the level of effort state tobacco control programmes and partners have expended on interventions recommended by the community guide and how those efforts have changed over time between 1999 and 2004. Design Longitudinal study. Setting United States. Participants State tobacco control partners, including the state health department, voluntary agencies and tobacco control coalitions. Main outcome measure We used the Strength of Tobacco Control survey responses in 1999, 2002 and 2004 to calculate the mean proportion of state tobacco control partners working on recommended interventions and subsequently analysed changes in effort over time. Results The proportion of state tobacco control partners working to promote clean indoor air legislation remained at more than 70% in all three years. The proportion working to increase taxes on tobacco rose significantly between 1999 and 2002 (from 54% to 70%), and those working to reduce patient costs for tobacco cessation treatments never exceeded 31% in any year. Use of mass media targeting youths decreased significantly in all years (from 40% to 32% to 26%), and the proportion of state tobacco control partners participating in a quitline has increased steadily and significantly in all years (from 24% to 36% to 41%). The level of effort in each area varied widely between states and over time. Conclusions State tobacco control partners are implementing evidence based interventions, but more focus is needed on the tobacco cessation and mass media campaign components of comprehensive tobacco control programmes. PMID:17897990
Ribisl, Kurt M
This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.
Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Extensive research has demonstrated that public education through media campaigns is an effective means to reduce smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Aggressive media campaigns that confront the tobacco industry’s deceptive practices are most effective and are therefore a prime target for attack. The tobacco industry has attacked public tobacco control media campaigns since 1967, when the first public tobacco control media advertisements ran. Through studying tobacco control media campaigns in Arizona, California, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Oregon, and of the American Legacy Foundation, we identified industry strategies to prevent a campaign’s creation, limit the target audience and the content of the messages, limit or eliminate the campaign’s funding, and pursue litigation against the campaigns. Tobacco control advocates must learn from the past and continue to confront the tobacco industry and its third-party allies to defend antitobacco media campaigns or, despite evidence of their effectiveness, they will be eliminated. PMID:17600257
Rodgers, Kirsten C.
Objective: Multicomponent tobacco control programs have been implemented at the state and community levels and have led to a reduction in tobacco use. The purpose was to review the public health research literature on tobacco prevention and control programs on college campuses and derive evidence-based implications for comprehensive program…
LeRoy, Lisa; Benet, Dana Jones; Mason, Theresa; Austin, W David; Mills, Sherry
Whereas most evaluations of youth empowerment focus on individual outcomes (i.e., were individual youths empowered?), this article focuses on the program as the unit of analysis and seeks to explain how organizational structures, program design features, and processes lead to organizational empowerment (OE). OE is defined as organizational efforts that generate psychological empowerment among members and organizational effectiveness needed for goal achievement. Case studies of five American Legacy Foundation-funded tobacco control youth empowerment programs were conducted during the first 2 years of implementation. Using an OE framework, the authors assessed program design features of the youth empowerment programs that contributed to or detracted from processes leading to OE. Comparing and contrasting the programs led to the identification of models and strategies that contribute to OE. Ecological influences of the state contexts (i.e., political climate, history of tobacco control, and public health infrastructure) were also examined.
Jabbour, Samer; Fouad, Fouad Mohammad
Using religion to improve health is an age-old practice. However, using religion and enlisting religious authorities in public health campaigns, as exemplified by tobacco control interventions and other activities undertaken by WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although all possible opportunities within society should be exploited to control tobacco use and promote health, religion-based interventions should not be exempted from the evidence-based scrutiny to which other interventions are subjected before being adopted. In the absence of data and debate on whether this approach works, how it should be applied, and what the potential downsides and alternatives are, international organizations such as WHO should think carefully about using religion-based public health interventions in their regional programmes. PMID:15654406
Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.
Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847
Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine
Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…
Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y
This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.
[The need for tobacco control in Japan based on Articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), regulation of the contents of tobacco products, and regulation of tobacco product disclosures].
Inaba, Yohei; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Kunugita, Naoki
In Japan, ultralow-nicotine cigarette brands with ventilation holes on the cigarette filters have been widely marketed to smokers. The use of these cigarette brands leads to compensation smoking. Menthol cigarette brands that have a cooling and numbing effect are also sold. In 2013, smokeless tobacco products similar to the Swedish snus, which is banned for sale in the European Union except in Sweden, were released in Japanese markets. These tobacco products have "toxicity," have a "ventilation filter," are "attractive," and promote "dependence." Tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco are classified into "Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The purpose of Articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is to regulate the contents of tobacco products as well as to regulate tobacco product disclosures. The implementation of some other articles has gradually advanced in Japan. However, that of Articles 9 and 10 is late. Japanese governmental authorities are being urged to immediately implement Articles 9 and 10.
Efforts to control environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could be assisted if the tobacco control movement gave greater emphasis to the issue of individual rights. Benefits that may accrue from the promotion of a clear individual rights perspective in tobacco control include adding coherence to the tobacco control advocacy agenda and winning support from those who may have been concerned about loss of personal freedom, excessive governmental power, use of social coercion, or the rights of smokers. Risks also attend to such a policy. It might inadvertently assist the tobacco industry, stir resistance to ETS limitation efforts, or confuse tobacco control supporters. On balance, though, liabilities are outweighed by the ethical and operational merits in tobacco control of a heightened pro-individual rights stance. PMID:16046700
Many parallels can be drawn between cigarettes and motor vehicles, smoking and car driving, and the tobacco and the auto/oil industries. Those promoting healthy and sustainable transport policies can learn lessons from tobacco control activities over the past 50 years. Evidence-based legislation is more effective than negotiated voluntary agreements between industry and government. Media advocacy is crucial to reframe the issues to allow changes in national policies that facilitate healthier choices. Worthwhile public health policies seen as a threat by multinational companies will be opposed by them but active national and international networks of healthcare professionals, voluntary organizations, charities and their supporters can match the political power of these industries.
Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.
This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly. From 2006 to 2010, in Canada, the percentages noticing POS tobacco displays declined from 74.1 to 6.1% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P < 0.001]; and reported exposure to POS tobacco advertising decreased from 40.3 to 14.1% (adjusted OR = 0.61, P < 0.001). Similarly, in Australia, noticing of POS displays decreased from 73.9 to 42.9%. In contrast, exposure to POS marketing in the United States and United Kingdom remained high during this period. In parallel, there were declines in reported exposures to other forms of advertising/promotion in Canada and Australia, but again, not in the United States or United Kingdom. Impulse purchasing of cigarettes was lower in places that enacted POS display bans. These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes. PMID:23640986
Background Media coverage of tobacco-related issues can potentially shape individual beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about tobacco use. This study aims to describe news coverage of tobacco control related issues in Chinese newspapers from 2000 to 2010. Methods All 1149 articles related to tobacco control were extracted from the Database of Chinese Important Newspapers and content analyzed for the period Jan 1, 2000 to Dec 31, 2010. The changing pattern of tobacco control topic, article type, viewpoint, and article origin, and their relationship were analysed. Results News coverage of tobacco control related issues increased significantly (p < 0.01) from 2000 to 2010, with news coverage being relatively intensive in May and June (p < 0.01), around World No Tobacco Day. 24.9% (n = 286) of all articles focused on secondhand smoke, 25.3% (n = 291) warned about the dangers of active smoking, and 10.0% (n = 115) focused on prevention and cessation programs and campaigns. Tobacco control topics varied significantly between national vs city/regional newspapers (χ2 = 24.09, p = 0.002) and article types (χ2 = 193.35, p < 0.001). Articles in national newspapers had more coverage of the dangers of tobacco and on enforcing bans on tobacco-advertising. News stories centered around monitoring tobacco use and smoke free activity, while editorials focused on enforcing bans on tobacco-advertising, youth access and programs and campaigns. Letters to editors focused on the dangers of smoking, raising tax, and smoking cessation. More articles (50.4%) took an anti-tobacco position (compared with 10.5% which were pro-smoking), with the amount of negative coverage growing significantly across the decade. National articles tended to lean toward anti-tobacco, however, local articles tended mix of pro-tobacco and neutral/balance positions. Editorials seemed to be more anti-tobacco oriented, but letters to the editor tended to show a mix of anti-tobacco and pro-tobacco positions
Jiloha, Ram C.
India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442
Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.
Martínez, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Puig, Montse; García, Montse; Carabasa, Esther; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve
Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102). We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005) and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007) in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5) in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2) in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p < 0.01). The hospitals with greater improvement were general hospitals (48% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with > 300 beds (41.1% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with employees' tobacco consumption prevalence 35–39% (72.2% increase; p < 0.05) and hospitals that had recently implemented smoke-free policies (74.2% increase; p < 0.01). Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network. PMID:19473549
Mishra, Gauravi A; Pimple, Sharmila A; Shastri, Surendra S
This is a review paper comprehensively encompassing the different aspects of tobacco control with particular reference to the Indian scenario. The information on prevalent tobacco habits in India, health hazards and environmental hazards due to tobacco use, passive smoking and its impact, economics of tobacco, legislation to control tobacco in India, the tobacco cessation services and the way ahead for effective tobacco control are discussed. Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death, killing nearly six million people worldwide each year. Reversing this entirely preventable manmade epidemic should be our top priority. This global tobacco epidemic kills more people than tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. This epidemic can be resolved by becoming aware of the devastating effects of tobacco, learning about the proven effective tobacco control measures, national programmes and legislation prevailing in the home country and then engaging completely to halt the epidemic to move toward a tobacco-free world. India is the second largest consumer of tobacco globally, and accounts for approximately one-sixth of the world's tobacco-related deaths. The tobacco problem in India is peculiar, with consumption of variety of smokeless and smoking forms. Understanding the tobacco problem in India, focusing more efforts on what works and investigating the impact of sociocultural diversity and cost-effectiveness of various modalities of tobacco control should be our priority.
MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade
Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.
Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein
This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…
Li, Xiang; Zheng, PinPin; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla; Kegler, Michelle
Background Large-scale international events such as World Expos and Olympic Games have the potential to strengthen smoke-free norms globally. The Shanghai 2010 World Expo was one of the first large-scale events to implement and evaluate the adoption of strict tobacco control policies. Objective To evaluate implementation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China. Methods This mixed methods evaluation was conducted from July to October 2010. Observations were conducted in all 155 pavilions and outdoor queuing areas, all 45 souvenir shops, a random sample of restaurants (51 of 119) and selected outdoor non-smoking areas in all sections of the Expo. In addition, intercept surveys were completed with 3022 visitors over a 4-month period. Results All pavilions and souvenir shops were smoke-free. Restaurants were smoke-free, with only 0.1% of customers observed smoking. Smoking was more common in outdoor non-smoking areas, but still relatively rare overall with only 4.5% of visitors observed smoking. Tobacco products were not sold or marketed in any public settings except for three pavilions that had special exemptions from the policy. Overall, 80.3% of visitors were aware of the smoke-free policy at the World Expo, 92.5% of visitors supported the policy and 97.1% of visitors were satisfied with the smoke-free environment. Conclusions Tobacco control policies at the World Expo sites were generally well-enforced and accepted although compliance was not 100%, particularly in outdoor non-smoking areas. PMID:23708269
Rachiotis, George; Barbouni, Anastasia; Katsioulis, Antonis; Antoniadou, Eleni; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Kourea, Kallirrhoe; Khoury, Rula N; Tsouros, Agis; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Objectives Greece is one of the leading tobacco-producing countries in European Union, and every year over 19 000 Greeks die from tobacco-attributable diseases. The aim of the present study was to provide nationally representative estimates on current and secondhand smoking prevalence in Greece and their determinants. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Greece. Participants A total of 4359 individuals participated in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a household survey of adults ≥15 years old (overall response rate 69%). They were selected through a multistage geographically clustered sampling design with face-to-face interview. Primary and secondary outcome measures In 2013, we investigated the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking and their determinants. Univariate and logistic regression analysis was used in order to identify possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking. Results The prevalence of current smoking was 38.2% (95% CI 35.7% to 40.8%), and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 19.8. Multivariate analysis confirmed that male gender (OR=3.24; 95% CI 2.62 to 4.00), age groups (25–39, OR=4.49; 95% CI 3.09 to 8.46 and 40–54, OR=3.51; 95% CI 1.88 to 5.87) and high school education (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.41 to 2.74) were independently associated with the current smoking. Remarkably, responders with primary or less education had the lowest prevalence of current smoking (p<0.001). The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at work, home and restaurants, was 52.3%, 65.7% and 72.2%. In total, 90.0% (95% CI 87.8% to 91.9%) of Greek population is exposed to tobacco smoke (current smoking and secondhand smoke). Conclusions Our results revealed an extremely high prevalence of current smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult population and a positive gradient between education and current smoking. These findings are alarming and implementation of comprehensive tobacco control and
Young, Walter F; Montgomery, Debbie; Nycum, Colleen; Burns-Martin, Lavon; Buller, David B
In 1998 the tobacco industry was released of claims that provided monetary relief for states. A significant expansion of tobacco control activity in many states created a need to develop local capacity. Technical assistance and training for new and experienced staff became a significant challenge for tobacco control leadership. In Colorado, this challenge was addressed in part through the development of a technical assistance and training Web site designed for local tobacco control staff and coalition members. Researchers, technical Web site development specialists, state health agency, and state tobacco control coalition staff collaborated to develop, promote, and test the efficacy of this Web site. The work group embodied a range of skills including tobacco control, Web site technical development, marketing, training, and project management. Persistent marketing, updating of Web site content, and institutionalizing it as a principal source of information and training were key to use by community coalition members.
Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael
Palpable tension continues at the intersection of tobacco control and trade policy. Through consideration of four major tobacco control-related trade disputes, we suggest how to empower public health proponents in the face of entrenched economic policymaking norms. We argue that a more effective pro-tobacco control message should: (a) seek to be broadly consistent with core principles of the world trading system, (b) boldly assert countries' international commitments to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, (c) marshal deep scientific evidence, and (d) come from a broad range of actors, including from low- and middle-income countries as well as from other trade policy community members.
Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. PMID:27697941
Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T
Introduction Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. Objective To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. Methods A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Results Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (p<0.001). Establishments at which managers had lower levels of education were less likely to have a workplace policy (p<0.001) and less likely to have ‘no smoking’ signs and designated smoking areas (p<0.005). Conclusions and recommendations Kenya's implementation of the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 does not provide sufficient protection of patrons and workers in bars and restaurants. It is important to sensitise hospitality workers to the dangers of tobacco smoke. Bar and restaurants managers should have a minimum post-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. PMID:27683518
Jenssen, Brian P; Wilson, Karen M
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and exposure to tobacco smoke harms children from conception forward. There is no safe level of tobacco exposure. Although overall smoking rates have declined, the advent of new products, such as electronic cigarettes, threatens to perpetuate nicotine addiction without clear health benefits. In addition to reviewing traditional and new tobacco products, we discuss the unique role that pediatricians should play in tobacco treatment and control efforts. New policies and technologies can empower pediatric clinicians and pediatric health care systems to help parent smokers quit, and new policies outside of the health care setting might help prevent smoking initiation as well as improve cessation treatments. Future research is needed to continue to study the consequences of tobacco use exposure as well as the best ways to help patients and parents stop tobacco use.
Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira
We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.
Hefler, Marita; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon
The tobacco industry's use of social media sites, such as Facebook, is an emerging area of research; however, this is the first study of the potential for social media to advance tobacco control. This paper presents three case studies of using social media for tobacco control advocacy, demonstrates how social media can facilitate direct and effective action, and provides tools and lessons learned for future campaigns.
Arvey, Sarah R.; Malone, Ruth E.
This archival study explored why military tobacco control initiatives have thus far largely failed to meet their goals. We analyzed more than 5,000 previously undisclosed internal tobacco industry documents made public via an online database and additional documents obtained from the U.S. military. In four case studies, we illustrate how pressures exerted by multiple political actors resulted in weakening or rescinding military tobacco control policy initiatives. Our findings suggest that lowering military smoking rates will require health policymakers to better anticipate and counter political opponents. The findings also suggest that effective tobacco control policies may require strong, explicit implementation instructions and high-level Department of Defense support. Finally, policy designers should also consider ways to reduce or eliminate existing perverse incentives to increase tobacco consumption, such as allowing exchange store tobacco sales to fund Morale, Recreation, and Welfare Programs. PMID:19160617
Arvey, Sarah R; Malone, Ruth E
This archival study explored why military tobacco control initiatives have thus far largely failed to meet their goals. We analyzed more than 5,000 previously undisclosed internal tobacco industry documents made public via an online database and additional documents obtained from the U.S. military. In four case studies, we illustrate how pressures exerted by multiple political actors resulted in weakening or rescinding military tobacco control policy initiatives. Our findings suggest that lowering military smoking rates will require health policymakers to better anticipate and counter political opponents. The findings also suggest that effective tobacco control policies may require strong, explicit implementation instructions and high-level Department of Defense support. Finally, policy designers should also consider ways to reduce or eliminate existing perverse incentives to increase tobacco consumption, such as allowing exchange store tobacco sales to fund Morale, Recreation, and Welfare Programs.
McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William
According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413
Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the “Act”), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Methods: Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. Results: The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms “light” and “mild,” and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote “greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco.” As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Conclusion: Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action. PMID:22039072
Foley, Kristie L.; Balázs, Péter
SUMMARY Background More than 1 in 5 deaths in Hungary can be attributed to tobacco smoking. The role of the public health agency in responding to and ameliorating the tobacco epidemic in Hungary has been, until now, unexplored. This paper explores the social will of the public health agency workers to adopt tobacco control measures. Methods 269 Hungarian public health workers throughout Hungary completed an electronic survey on the types of programs offered by the public health agency, the perceived level of responsibility to reduce tobacco use, and the social will of the agencies to curb tobacco use. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate factors which contribute to the social will to curb tobacco use. Results 48% of public health workers in Hungary report that it is absolutely important for local public health agencies to offer tobacco prevention and cessation programs, but only 3% indicate that they have earmarked funds to support anti-tobacco programs. Most workers favor more programs and policies to curb tobacco use in Hungary, such as taxation (67%) and banning smoking in restaurants (81%) and confined sporting events (93%). Factors positively associated with a stronger social will for tobacco control included being a former or never smoker (versus a current smoker) (p<0.001) and being middle age (40–49, p=0.04 and 50–59, p=0.01) (versus being under the age of 30). Conclusion Based on a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analyses, we argue that public health workers have the potential to play an important role in disseminating health promotion programs and advocating for broader statewide policies that could reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, such an opportunity is missed with neither designated funding nor a nationally-dedicated office to tobacco control in Hungary. PMID:20586227
Levy, David; Fergus, Cristin; Rudov, Lindsey; McCormick-Ricket, Iben; Carton, Thomas
Despite the presence of tobacco control policies, Louisiana continues to experience a high smoking burden and elevated smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke model provides projections of these health outcomes in the face of existing and expanded (simulated) tobacco control polices. The SimSmoke model utilizes population data, smoking rates, and various tobacco control policy measures from Louisiana to predict smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The model begins in 1993 and estimates are projected through 2054. The model is validated against existing Louisiana smoking prevalence data. The most powerful individual policy measure for reducing smoking prevalence is cigarette excise tax. However, a comprehensive cessation treatment policy is predicted to save the most lives. A combination of tobacco control policies provides the greatest reduction in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The existing Louisiana excise tax ranks as one of the lowest in the country and the legislature is against further increases. Alternative policy measures aimed at lowering prevalence and attributable deaths are: cessation treatments, comprehensive smoke-free policies, and limiting youth access. These three policies have a substantial effect on smoking prevalence and attributable deaths and are likely to encounter more favor in the Louisiana legislature than increasing the state excise tax.
Sorensen, Glorian; Fagan, Pebbles; Hunt, Mary Kay; Stoddard, Anne M.; Girod, Kathy; Eisenberg, Marla; Frazier, Lindsay
Worksites represent an untapped resource for reaching teens with tobacco control messages, given that 80% of teens have held at least one job by the time they graduate from high school. This paper presents formative research findings from a methods development study aimed at designing and testing a tobacco control intervention targeting working…
Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Potvin, Louise; Denis, Jean-Louis; Kishchuk, Natalie
Examined organizational and professional correlates of the integration of the ecological approach in Canadian public health organizations' youth tobacco control programs. Surveys of 110 tobacco control programs in 90 organizations indicated that organizational environment and staff preparation played a critical role in adoption of the ecological…
Nathanson, Constance A.
Cross-national comparative analysis of tobacco control strategies can alert health advocates to how opportunities for public health action, types of action, and probabilities for success are shaped by political systems and cultures. This article is based on case studies of tobacco control in the United States, Canada, Britain, and France. Two…
Willis, Daniel N.; Popovech, Mary A.; Gany, Francesca; Hoffman, Carol; Blum, Jason L.; Zelikoff, Judith T.
The popularity of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and its prevalence of use is rising globally. Consumption of Gutkha, an addictive form of ST, is particularly common amongst South Asian communities throughout the World. This includes within the US, following large-scale immigration into the country. However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products. To this end, a study was carried out to determine the toxicity of gutkha, and what role, if any, nicotine contributes to the effects. Adult male mice were treated daily for 3-week (5 day/week, once/day), via the oral mucosa, with equal volumes (50 μL) of either sterile water (control), a solution of nicotine dissolved in water (0.24 mg of nicotine), or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolved in water (21 mg lyophilized gutkha). Serum cotinine, measured weekly, was 36 and 48 ng/mL in gutkha- and nicotine-treated mice, respectively. Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls). These findings suggest that short-term guhtka use adversely impacts growth and circulating testosterone levels, and that gutkha toxicity may be driven by components other than nicotine. As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made. PMID:24413704
Background GHPSS is a school-based survey that collects self-administered data from students in regular classroom settings. GHPSS produces representative data at the national or city level in each country. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation counseling among medical students using the GHPSS data. Methods The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) was conducted among 3rd year medical students in 47 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank from 2005-2008 to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and amount of formal training in cessation counseling. Results In 26 of the 48 sites, over 20% of the students currently smoked cigarettes, with males having higher rates than females in 37 sites. Over 70% of students reported having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places in 29 of 48 sites. The majority of students recognized that they are role models in society (over 80% in 42 of 48 sites), believed they should receive training on counseling patients to quit using tobacco (over 80% in 41 of 48 sites), but few reported receiving formal training (less than 40% in 46 of 48 sites). Conclusion Tobacco control efforts must discourage tobacco use among health professionals, promote smoke free workplaces, and implement programs that train medical students in effective cessation-counseling techniques. PMID:21284864
Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina
The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.
Redmon, Pamela; Chen, Lincoln C; Wood, Jacob L; Li, Shuyang; Koplan, Jeffrey P
Objective To identify the international philanthropies that have invested in tobacco control in China, describe their role and strategies in changing the social norms of tobacco use, and define the outcomes achieved. Methods Information on the international philanthropic donor China projects, including activities and outcomes, was gathered from multiple sources including organisational websites, key informant interviews and emails with project officers, and published research papers and reports. Results Philanthropic donations to China's tobacco control efforts began in 1986. The donors provided funds to national, city, provincial government organisations, non-government organisations, universities, and healthcare organisations throughout China to establish a tobacco control workforce and effective programmes to reduce the burden of tobacco use. Conclusions International engagement has been an important dimension of tobacco control in China. Recognising the large burden of illness and capitalising on proven effective control measures, philanthropic organisations understandably seized the opportunity to achieve major health gains. Much of the international philanthropic investment has been directed at public information, policy change and building the Chinese research knowledge base. Documenting research and evaluation findings will continue to be important to ensure that promising practices and lessons learned are identified and shared with the China tobacco control practitioners. The ultimate question is whether foreign philanthropy is making a difference in tobacco control and changing social norms in China? The answer is plainly and simply that we do not know; the evidence is not yet available. PMID:23708270
... Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... protect children and adolescents as required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control...
Objective: To outline a novel strategy for controlling the tobacco market. Arguments: More comprehensive controls over the tobacco market are essential and long overdue. Effective controls need to encourage the development of less harmful products; control commercial communication to ensure that potential harms are highlighted relative to any benefits; and provide mechanisms to move consumers away from tobacco use, or at least towards less harmful alternatives. Achieving this by regulating the existing industry is one strategy. This paper puts the case for an alternative: to have marketing controlled by an agency (called here the Tobacco Products Agency, or TPA) which tendered to manufacturers for product and which distributed to retailers in ways that reduce incentives to bend or break the law. The TPA would be backed by legislation that made tobacco a controlled substance with possession sale and use only allowed as permitted by the regulations, which in reality would be only as provided by the TPA. Conclusions: The overall effect of such a model, which we call a "regulated market model", would be to eliminate most of the incentives and remaining opportunities for commercial promotion of tobacco and to create incentives to encourage the development of less harmful tobacco products. Such a model preserves the competition inherent in a free market, but directs it towards the challenge of reducing the harm from tobacco use. PMID:14660771
Emmons, K M; Kawachi, I; Barclay, G
Smoking prevalence among American adults is at its lowest point in the last 30 years, and there is unprecedented popular support for tobacco control measures. The financial resources to carry on the battle for tobacco control are still heavily stacked in favor of the industry, which by current estimates is worth $45 billion, including $6 billion spent each year on advertising and promotion alone. Nonetheless, industry executives must realize that, even if they can win individual battles, they are losing the war. This article has discussed key events in the history of tobacco control, as well as some of the most innovative strategies currently being used for tobacco control. Although it is important that tobacco control efforts be disseminated widely and through novel channels, the challenge facing public health advocates in the next several decades will be to anticipate the industry's response to key initiatives, as well as to launch organized and strategic counterattacks against efforts to dissuade acceptance of such initiatives. The history of tobacco control demonstrates that public health advocacy resources should be strategically focused in precisely the areas in which the industry feels most vulnerable (e.g., nicotine addiction, regulation of nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke), rather than in areas in which the industry maintains a vocal presence for the purposes of public relations (e.g., youth access). Through its lobbying efforts and financial clout, the tobacco industry has played a key role in the development of public health policy. Although it is no secret that the tobacco industry regularly makes campaign contributions to both Republicans and Democrats, the impact of these donations on public policy making have only recently begun to be quantified and documented. Moore et al found that the more tobacco money a politician received, the less likely he or she was to support tobacco control legislation. Similar distortional effects of tobacco money
Wewers, Mary Ellen; Bailey, William C; Carlsen, Kai-Häkon; Eisner, Mark D; Folan, Patricia; Heath, Janie; Klinnert, Mary D; Kovesi, Tom; Pien, Grace W; Reichart, Virginia C; Talwar, Arunabh; Thompson, Katherine
Cigarette smoking represents the single most preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States and the burden of tobacco use is apparent world-wide. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2004. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and its members have contributed significantly to an understanding of the biological and pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the development and management of tobacco-attributable disease and disability. The society's active involvement in tobacco control advocacy and policy-related initiatives are central to its mission. Within the ATS, there is also increased interest in accelerating the society's efforts to understand the mechanisms responsible for the uptake, persistence, and cessation of tobacco use. Scientific, clinical, and educational activities that include an examination of these underlying mechanisms are warranted. This paper describes findings from an ATS initiative that developed a preliminary strategy for enhancing scientific, clinical, educational, and policy-related tobacco control efforts that are consistent with the vision of the ATS. The specific aims of this project included the identification of existing mechanisms, as well as the current governance in place within the ATS infrastructure, to address tobacco control issues related to scientific inquiry, policy initiatives, and advocacy for tobacco control. This assessment generated recommendations to inform the ATS leadership with regard to the future development of relevant tobacco control initiatives.
Sullivan, Sarah; Glantz, Stanton
To document the behavior of tobacco manufacturers' agricultural third-party allies in South Carolina from the 1970s through 2009, we analyzed news reports, public documents and internal tobacco industry documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. We found that agriculture-based interest groups (the Farm Bureau), elected state agency heads (Commissioners of Agriculture) and tobacco-area legislators acted as an iron triangle containing strong third-party allies of tobacco manufacturers from the 1970s through the 1990 s. The Farm Bureau and Commissioners of Agriculture reacted to national-level changes in the tobacco leaf market structure by shifting towards a neutral position on tobacco control, while some tobacco-area legislators remained manufacturer allies (Sullivan, Barnes, & Glantz, 2009). This shift was reinforced by public health outreach and successes, which were in turn facilitated by the lack of opposition from agricultural groups. We conclude that public health advocates in tobacco-growing states should use the pragmatic shift of agricultural groups' position to challenge remaining third-party manufacturer alliances and agriculture-based opposition to tobacco control policies.
Halperin, Abigail C.; Rigotti, Nancy A.
To address the rise in tobacco use among college students, several national health organizations, including the American College Health Association,recommend that colleges enact smoking bans in and around all campus buildings, including student housing, and prohibit the sale, advertisement, and promotion of tobacco products on campus. Key…
Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.
This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…
Sears, Kirsten E.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Drope, Jacqui
Introduction: To respond to the increasing need to build capacity for planning, implementing, and supporting tobacco control strategies, an evidence-based, online continuing education (CE) course aimed at Canadian public health professionals was developed. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the course, Tobacco and Public…
Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A
Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509
Sexton, Donald W.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Levy, David T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Objectives. We assessed the impact of tobacco control on adult per capita cigarette consumption in the United States from 1964 to 2011. Methods. We used logit regression to model the diffusion of smoking from 1900 to 2011. We also projected hypothetical cigarette consumption after 1963 in the absence of tobacco control. Model predictors included historical events such as wars, specific tobacco control interventions, and other influences. Results. Per capita consumption increased rapidly through 1963, consistent with S-shaped (sigmoid) diffusion. The course reversed beginning in 1964, the year of publication of the first surgeon general’s report on smoking and health. Subsequent tobacco control policy interventions significantly reduced consumption. Had the tobacco control movement never occurred, per capita consumption would have been nearly 5 times higher than it actually was in 2011. Conclusions. Tobacco control has been one of the most successful public health endeavors of the past half century. Still, the remaining burden of smoking in the United States augurs hundreds of thousands of deaths annually for decades to come. Reinvigorating the tobacco control movement will require novel interventions as well as stronger application of existing evidence-based policies. PMID:24228645
Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam
Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.
Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C
This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.
Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur
Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059
Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview) among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p < 0.01). Former smokers declared concerns about the health hazard of smoking (60.8%) and the high price of cigarettes (11.6%) as primary reasons for smoking cessation. Older age, high education attainment, awareness of smoking health consequences was associated with long-term quitting among both genders. Also employed males had over twice the probability of giving up smoking compared with unemployed, and being religious did not contribute to successful smoking cessation. Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on
Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda
Introduction: Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Results: An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance’s success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. Conclusions: The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. PMID:25634938
Rigotti, N; Regan, S; Moran, S; Wechsler, H
Objective: Comprehensive tobacco control policies for US colleges and universities have been proposed by several groups in order to counter the rising use of tobacco by students enrolled in these institutions. Student opinion of these policies is not known, and concern about student opposition is one barrier that deters administrators from adopting the policies. This study measured student support for recommended college tobacco control policies. Design: Mailed survey of US college students (2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study). Setting: 119 nationally representative, four-year colleges and universities in the USA. Participants: 10 904 randomly selected undergraduate students enrolled at participating schools. Main outcome measures: Students' opinion of 7 proposed tobacco control policies. Results: A majority of students supported each policy. Over three quarters of students favoured smoke-free policies for all college buildings, residences, and dining areas, while 71% supported prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship of campus social events, 59% favoured prohibiting tobacco sales on campus, and 51% supported smoke-free campus bars. All policies had more support among non-smokers than smokers (p < 0.001). Among smokers, support for policies was inversely related to intention to quit and intensity of tobacco consumption. Because college students' tobacco consumption is low, a majority of smokers favoured banning smoking in college buildings and dining areas and prohibiting tobacco marketing on campus. Conclusions: Student support for proposed campus tobacco control policies is strong, even among smokers, and broadly based across demographic subgroups. These findings should provide reassurance to college administrators who are considering adopting these policies. PMID:12958381
panic within the booming commercial satellite industry or, worse, suggesting a space arms race . The US Air Force uses the terminology of “ space ...Views November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 66 A Global Space Control Strategy Dr. B. T. Cesul The 2011 National Security Space ...Strategy notes that space is becoming an operating medium in which the continued dominance of the United States is not assured.1 Already, potential
Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth
Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation.
McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral
Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.
York, Nancy L; Pritsos, Chris A; Gutierrez, Antonio P
The purpose of this study was to identify Nevada legislators' views on comprehensive smoke-free (SF) policy development. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA) is a weak law that prohibits smoking in most indoor public places, excluding stand-alone bars and casino gaming areas. Nevada's state senators and assembly members were contacted to participate in the study. A literature review guided modifications of an instrument previously used to measure county-level officials' policy views in Kentucky. Descriptive statistics were conducted for selected variables, while independent t tests and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences between various groups. 23 of 63 legislators participated. Even though the majority of officials recognized smoking as a health hazard and nicotine as addictive, there was not overwhelming support for strengthening the NCIAA, raising cigarette excise taxes or providing cessation benefits to citizens. Officials believed that the NCIAA was having a negative economic impact on smaller gaming businesses, but not on the casino industry. Democrats were more likely than Republicans to agree that raising the excise tax by $1 is important for needed state revenues. 63% of legislators believed that they would be persuaded to strengthen the NCIAA regardless of its financial impact on small businesses, if their constituents supported such a move. No other state relies on gaming revenues as much as Nevada. Given that legislators are strongly influenced by their constituents' views, policy advocates need to establish grassroots support for strengthening the current NCIAA and also tobacco control laws in general.
Jackson-Morris, Angela M.; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Warner, Valerie; Bleymann, Kayleigh
The MPOWER policy package enables countries to implement effective, evidence-based strategies to address the threat posed to their population by tobacco. All countries have challenges to overcome when implementing tobacco control policy. Some are generic such as tobacco industry efforts to undermine and circumvent legislation; others are specific to national or local context. Various factors influence how successfully challenges are addressed, including the legal-political framework for enforcement, public and administrative attitudes towards the law, and whether policy implementation measures are undertaken. This paper examines District Tobacco Control Taskforces, a flexible policy mechanism developed in Bangladesh to support the implementation of the Smoking and Tobacco Products Usage (Control) Act 2005 and its 2013 Amendment. At the time of this study published research and/or data was not available and understanding about these structures, their role, contribution, limitations and potential, was limited. We consider Taskforce characteristics and suggest that the “package” comprises a distinctive tobacco control implementation model. Qualitative data is presented from interviews with key informants in ten districts with activated taskforces (n = 70) to provide insight from the perspectives of taskforce members and non-members. In all ten districts taskforces were seen as a crucial tool for tobacco control implementation. Where taskforces were perceived to be functioning well, current positive impacts were perceived, including reduced smoking in public places and tobacco advertising, and increased public awareness and political profile. In districts with less well established taskforces, interviewees believed in their taskforce’s ‘potential’ to deliver similar benefits once their functioning was improved. Recommendations to improve functioning and enhance impact were made. The distinctive taskforce concept and lessons from their development may provide
Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.
This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…
The goals of tobacco control endgame strategies are specified in terms of the desired levels of tobacco use and/or tobacco related health consequences. Yet the strategies being considered may have other consequences beyond tobacco use prevalence, forms and related harms. Most of the proposed strategies threaten to create large black markets with potential attendant harms: corruption, high illegal earnings, violence and/or organised crime. Western societies of course have considerable experience with these problems in the context of prohibition of drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine. These experiences suggest that low prevalence has been achieved only by tough enforcement with damaging unintended consequences. Tobacco prohibition (total or partial) may not present the same trade-off but there is little basis for making a projection of the scale, form and harms of the attendant black markets. Nonetheless, these harms should not be ignored in analyses of the endgame proposals. PMID:23591511
Willemsen, M C
- As early as 1975, the Health Council of the Netherlands was aware of what an effective tobacco control policy should constitute.- Centre-right governments in the 1980's and 1990's impeded the implementation of such a policy. In 1988, the Tobacco Act was introduced, but this had no effect on smoking rates.- In 2002, the Tobacco Act was amended, introducing more far-reaching measures, which resulted in a reduction in the number of smokers.- To accelerate the downward trend in smoking rates, more investments need to be made in mass media campaigns, and tobacco tax rates will need to be increased each year.- One of the concrete measures recommended in 1975 by the Health Council of the Netherlands, which has still not materialised, is reducing the number of tobacco vendors. New regulations for this policy are expected to be developed in the coming years.
Brownson, R C; Koffman, D M; Novotny, T E; Hughes, R G; Eriksen, M P
Despite its declining prevalence during the past few decades, tobacco use remains one of the most significant public health issues of the 1990s. Environmental and policy interventions are among the most cost-effective approaches to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular diseases. In this article, the authors review and offer to state and local health departments and other public health partners a summary of recommended policy and environmental interventions that have either reduced or show potential to reduce tobacco use. Priority recommendations include clean indoor air policies, restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion, policies limiting youth access to tobacco, comprehensive school health programs, and excise taxes and other economic incentives. Many of these recommendations should be integrated with other health promotion interventions to also improve nutrition and physical activity. The authors also highlight several successful interventions and strategies used to establish policies at the state and local levels.
Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses
Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. PMID:25908597
Balbach, E.; Glantz, S.
OBJECTIVE—To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates. METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments. RESULTS—In 1988 California voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign. CONCLUSION—Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by non-governmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns. Keywords: media campaigns; anti-tobacco advocacy; California PMID:10093175
Teaching tobacco dependence treatment and counseling skills during medical school: rationale and design of the Medical Students helping patients Quit tobacco (MSQuit) group randomized controlled trial
Hayes, Rashelle B.; Geller, Alan; Churchill, Linda; Jolicoeur, Denise; Murray, David M.; Shoben, Abigail; David, Sean P.; Adams, Michael; Okuyemi, Kola; Fauver, Randy; Gross, Robin; Leone, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Waugh, Jonathan; Crawford, Sybil; Ockene, Judith K.
INTRODUCTION Physician-delivered tobacco treatment using the 5As is clinically recommended, yet its use has been limited. Lack of adequate training and confidence to provide tobacco treatment are cited as leading reasons for limited 5A use. Tobacco dependence treatment training while in medical school is recommended, but is minimally provided. The MSQuit trial (Medical Students helping patients Quit tobacco) aims to determine if a multi-modal and theoretically-guided tobacco educational intervention will improve tobacco dependence treatment skills (i.e. 5As) among medical students. METHODS/DESIGN 10 U.S. medical schools were pair-matched and randomized in a group-randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multi-modal educational (MME) intervention compared to traditional education (TE) will improve observed tobacco treatment skills. MME is primarily composed of TE approaches (i.e. didactics) plus a 1st year web-based course and preceptor-facilitated training during a 3rd year clerkship rotation. The primary outcome measure is an objective score on an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) tobacco-counseling smoking case among 3rd year medical students from schools who implemented the MME or TE. DISCUSSION MSQuit is the first randomized to evaluate whether a tobacco treatment educational intervention implemented during medical school will improve medical students’ tobacco treatment skills. We hypothesize that the MME intervention will better prepare students in tobacco dependence treatment as measured by the OSCE. If a comprehensive tobacco treatment educational learning approach is effective, while also feasible and acceptable to implement, then medical schools may substantially influence skill development and use of the 5As among future physicians. PMID:24486635
Husten, Corinne G; Deyton, Lawrence R
The USA has a rich history of public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Comprehensive tobacco-prevention programmes, when robustly implemented, reduce the prevalence of youth and adult smoking, decrease cigarette consumption, accelerate declines in tobacco-related deaths, and diminish health-care costs from tobacco-related diseases. Effective public health interventions include raising the price of tobacco products, smoke-free policies, counter-marketing campaigns, advertising restrictions, augmenting access to treatment for tobacco use through insurance coverage and telephone help lines, and comprehensive approaches to prevent children and adolescents from accessing tobacco products. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has six major areas of regulatory authority: regulation of tobacco products; regulation of the advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products; regulation of the distribution and sales of tobacco products; enforcement of the provisions of the Tobacco Control Act and tobacco regulations; regulatory science to support FDA authorities and activities; and public education about the harms of tobacco products and to support FDA regulatory actions. With passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in June, 2009, important new regulatory approaches were added to the tobacco prevention and control arsenal.
Zatoński, Witold; Zatoński, Mateusz; Przewoźniak, Krzysztof
Tobacco smoking is a major avoidable single cause of premature mortality in Poland. Almost one in three Polish males do not live to 65 years of age, and almost half of this premature mortality can be traced back to the much higher smoking prevalence in Poland than in Western Europe--every third Polish male and every fourth Polish female smokes daily. However, the current health situation in Poland is much better than two decades ago when the country entered a period of political and economic upheaval. In the early 1990s, the state of health of the Polish population was catastrophic and its tobacco consumption levels the highest in the world. In the early 1990s, the probability of a 15-year-old Polish boy living to the age of 60 was not just twice lower than in Western Europe, but also lower than in China or India. The health policy of limiting the health consequences of smoking conducted by the European Union and, in the last two decades, by the Polish parliament and government, helped to stop this health catastrophe. In Poland, cigarette consumption has decreased by 30% since 1990, as did lung cancer mortality among males. Despite this progress, tobacco smoking remains the most serious health problem in Poland. Therefore, comprehensive tobacco control policy should not only be continued, but expanded and accelerated. The EU Tobacco Products Directive proposes a package of actions for reducing tobacco-related health harm in Europe. The Directive proposal is rational, science-and-evidence based, and grounded on the best practice examples from other countries. Both the Polish tobacco control law and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), ratified by Poland in 2006, oblige our country to support tobacco control, including all the initiatives taken by the European Union.
Montini, T.; Bero, L.
OBJECTIVE—To identify, from policy makers' perspectives, strategies that enhance tobacco control advocates' effectiveness in the regulatory arena. DESIGN—Key informant interview component of a comparative case study of regulatory agencies in the USA. SUBJECTS—Policy makers involved in the development of four regulatory tobacco control policies (three state and one federal). METHODS—Interviews of policy makers, field notes, and deliberation minutes were coded inductively. RESULTS—Policy makers considered both written commentary and public testimony when developing tobacco control regulations. They triaged written commentary based upon whether the document was from a peer reviewed journal, a summary of research evidence, or from a source considered credible. They coped with in-person testimony by avoiding being diverted from the scientific evidence, and by assessing the presenters' credibility. Policy makers suggested that tobacco control advocates should: present science in a format that is well organised and easily absorbed; engage scientific experts to participate in the regulatory process; and lobby to support the tobacco control efforts of the regulatory agency. CONCLUSIONS—There is an important role for tobacco control advocates in the policy development process in regulatory agencies. Keywords: health policy; regulations; policy makers PMID:11544384
Bump, Jesse B; Reich, Michael R
Tobacco is already the world's leading cause of preventable death, claiming over 5 million lives annually, and this toll is rising. Even though effective tobacco control policies are well researched and widely disseminated, they remain largely unimplemented in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). For the most part, control attempts by advocates and government regulators have been frustrated by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and their supporters. One reason tobacco is so difficult to control is that its political economy has yet to be adequately understood and addressed. We conducted a review of the literature on tobacco control in LMICs using the databases PubMed, EconLit, PsychInfo and AGRICOLA. Among the over 2500 papers and reports we identified, very few explicitly applied political economy analysis to tobacco control in an LMIC setting. The vast majority of papers characterized important aspects of the tobacco epidemic, including who smokes, the effects of smoking on health, the effectiveness of advertising bans, and the activities of TTCs and their allies. But the political and economic dynamics of policy adoption and implementation were not discussed in any but a handful of papers. To help control advocates better understand and manage the process of policy implementation, we identify how political economy analysis would differ from the traditional public health approaches that dominate the literature. We focus on five important problem areas: information problems and the risks of smoking; the roles of domestic producers; multinational corporations and trade disputes in consumption; smuggling; the barriers to raising taxes and establishing spatial restrictions on smoking; and incentive conflicts between government branches. We conclude by discussing the political economy of tobacco and its implications for control strategies.
Regalado-Pineda, Justino; Rodríguez-Ajenjo, Carlos José
Tobacco smoking as the first cause of preventable dead in the world requires the implementation of proper public policies. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) sets the basis for this purpose at the national level. But the successful implementation of FCTC depends on a series of actions of every single member of the convention for the development of National Capacity. Building capacity implies the construction of human resources and organizational engineering or "institutional building" in order to enforce and guarantee the Plan of Action for the implementation of FCTC. The creation of the National Office for Tobacco Control of México will allow the enforcement of Mexican government initiatives on implementation of policies for tobacco control, according with FCTC on a sustainable and permanent platform. This essay presents the importance on the office, their main functions and their medium and long term objectives.
Lane, Ch'uyasonqo H; Carter, Marina I
This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1) the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2) the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico.
Mamudu, Hadii M.; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A.
Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association’s support generated an environment for 100 % SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes. PMID:24370600
Gottlieb, N; Loukas, A; Corrao, M; McAlister, A; Snell, C; Huang, P
Objectives: To test: (1) whether citation under the Minors in Possession (MIP) law, vicarious citation (knowing someone who was cited), and threat of driving licence suspension are associated with decreased intentions to smoke next year; and (2) whether the policy is differentially enforced. Subjects: 28 249 white, Hispanic, and African American students in grades 6–12 (11–18 years old) participated in the study. Method: The 86 item anonymous Texas Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by students attending 37 schools in 14 east and central Texas communities. Results: Hierarchical linear modelling showed that MIP citation was unrelated to the future smoking intentions of most youth. However, there was a negative association between citation and smoking intentions for ever daily smoking youth at four schools. Threat of licence suspension was associated with a lower likelihood of future smoking intentions among ever daily smoking youth and vicarious citation did not deter youth from future smoking. African American and Hispanic youth had a higher probability of being cited than their peers. Conclusions: Threat of driving licence suspension has the intended effect upon youth who are/were committed smokers and MIP citation has the intended effect upon committed smokers at only four schools. However, differential enforcement of the law based on ethnicity may be occurring. Before drawing firm conclusions, current findings must be replicated with longitudinal data to determine the consequences of citation on subsequent tobacco use. PMID:15333878
Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Baum, Christopher F.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.
IMPORTANCE It is unclear whether the benefits of tobacco control policies extend to pregnant women and infants, especially among racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic populations that are at highest risk for adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations of state cigarette taxes and the enactment of smoke-free legislation with US birth outcomes according to maternal race/ethnicity and education. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a quasi-experimental approach, we analyzed repeated cross sections of US natality files with 16 198 654 singleton births from 28 states and Washington, DC, between 2000 and 2010. We first used probit regression to model the associations of 2 tobacco control policies with the probability that a pregnant woman smoked (yes or no). We then used linear or probit regression to estimate the associations of the policies with birth outcomes. We also examined the association of taxes with birth outcomes across maternal race/ethnicity and education. EXPOSURES State cigarette taxes and smoke-free restaurant legislation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Birth weight (in grams), low birth weight (<2500 g), preterm delivery (<37 weeks), small for gestational age (<10th percentile for gestational age and sex), and large for gestational age (>90th percentile for gestational age and sex). RESULTS White and black mothers with the least amount of education (0–11 years) had the highest prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (42.4% and 20.0%, respectively) and the poorest birth outcomes, but the strongest responses to cigarette taxes. Among white mothers with a low level of education, every $1.00 increase in the cigarette tax reduced the level of smoking by 2.4 percentage points (−0.0024 [95% CI, −0.0004 to −0.0001]), and the birth weight of their infants increased by 5.41 g (95% CI, 1.92–8.89 g). Among black mothers with a low level of education, tax increases reduced smoking by 2.1 percentage points (−0.0021 [95% CI
Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A
For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction.
Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A
For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction.
Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ranney, Leah
Objective In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. Methods We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Results Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Conclusions Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics. PMID:27668270
Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K
In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.
Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C.K.
In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers’ reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them. PMID:26287219
McDaniel, P A; Smith, E A; Malone, R E
Objective To analyse the implications of Philip Morris USA's (PM's) overtures toward tobacco control and other public health organisations, 1995–2006. Data sources Internal PM documents made available through multi‐state US attorneys general lawsuits and other cases, and newspaper sources. Methods Documents were retrieved from several industry documents websites and analysed using a case study approach. Results PM's Project Sunrise, initiated in 1995 and proposed to continue through 2006, was a long‐term plan to address tobacco industry delegitimisation and ensure the social acceptability of smoking and of the company itself. Project Sunrise laid out an explicit divide‐and‐conquer strategy against the tobacco control movement, proposing the establishment of relationships with PM‐identified “moderate” tobacco control individuals and organisations and the marginalisation of others. PM planned to use “carefully orchestrated efforts” to exploit existing differences of opinion within tobacco control, weakening its opponents by working with them. PM also planned to thwart tobacco industry delegitimisation by repositioning itself as “responsible”. We present evidence that these plans were implemented. Conclusion Sunrise exposes differences within the tobacco control movement that should be further discussed. The goal should not be consensus, but a better understanding of tensions within the movement. As the successes of the last 25 years embolden advocates to think beyond passage of the next clean indoor air policy or funding of the next cessation programme, movement philosophical differences may become more important. If tobacco control advocates are not ready to address them, Project Sunrise suggests that Philip Morris is ready to exploit them. PMID:16728753
Joossens, L; Raw, M
Objectives To quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level using a new Tobacco Control Scale and to report initial results using the scale. Method A questionnaire sent to correspondents in 30 European countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of a panel of international tobacco control experts. Results The 30 countries are ranked by their total score on the scale out of a maximum possible score of 100. Only four countries (Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway, Iceland) scored 70 or more, with an eight point gap (most differences in scores are small) to the fifth country, Malta, on 62. Only 13 countries scored above 50, 11 of them from the European Union (EU), and the second largest points gap occurs between Denmark on 45 and Portugal on 39, splitting the table into three groups: 70 and above, 45 to 62, 39 and below. Ireland had the highest overall score, 74 out of 100, and Luxembourg was bottom with 26 points. However even Ireland, much praised for their ban on smoking in public places, did not increase tobacco taxes in 2005, for the first time since 1995. Conclusions Although the Tobacco Control Scale has limitations, this is the first time such a scale has been developed and applied to so many countries. We hope it will be useful in encouraging countries to strengthen currently weak areas of their tobacco control policy. PMID:16728757
Rich, J. R.; Arnett, J. D.; Shepherd, J. A.; Watson, M. C.
A survey was conducted in four major flue-cured tobacco producing countries to determine use of nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes on flue-cured tobacco. Included in the survey were scientists from Brazil, Canada, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Nematicides were used on 60-95% of the flue-cured tobacco crop in these regions. The choice of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides, however, varied greatly as influenced by the edaphic factors, nematode species, and other pests present. The major nematicides, application methods, and efficacy evaluation systems used in these countries were addressed. PMID:19287656
Campayo, Javier García; Sobradiel, Natalia; Alda, Marta; Mas, Adoración; Andrés, Eva; Magallón, Rosa; Crucelaegui, Arantxa; Sanz, Beatriz
Background Tobacco dependence management is a multi-component intervention that includes pharmacological treatments such as Nicotine Substitution Therapy (NST) or bupropion, and psychological therapy. There are some preliminary reports on topiramate efficacy for tobacco dependence. The aim of this study is to determine whether topiramate is as effective as the standard NST treatment for tobacco cessation at 1-year follow-up in patients with depression. Method/design Design: A randomised, controlled trial involving two groups, one of which is the control group consisting of patients on the standard pharmacological treatment for tobacco cessation (NST) and the other is the intervention group consisting of patients on topiramate as pharmacological treatment. Setting: 29 primary care health centres in the city of Zaragoza, Spain. Sample: 180 patients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with major depression, smoke more than 20 cigarettes/day, who have voluntarily asked for tobacco cessation therapy. Intervention: A multi-component programme for tobacco cessation is offered to all of the patients in the study. This programme is made up of pharmacological therapy + group cognitive-behavioural therapy. Pharmacological therapy consists of NST for the control group and topiramate (200 mg/day) for the intervention group. Psychological therapy is made up of 16 sessions of manualised group therapy. Measurements: Cessation will be assessed by patient self-declared abstinence, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and cotinine levels in saliva. Questionnaires on tobacco dependence, anxiety, depression, impulsiveness and self-efficacy will be administered. The interviewers will not know which group the patient belongs to (blind). The assessments will be carried out at baseline, D (cessation day) -1, D+1, weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 13, and months 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Main variables: Tobacco cessation rates and tobacco dependence. Analysis: The analysis will be per intent to treat
McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew
Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884
Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Kilgalen, Barbara; Austin, Janet; Weaver, Michael F.; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas
Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking usually involves heating flavored tobacco with charcoal and inhaling the resulting smoke after it has passed through water. Waterpipe tobacco smoking increases heart rate and produces subjective effects similar to those reported by cigarette smokers. These responses are thought to be nicotine-mediated, though no placebo-control studies exist. Accordingly, this double-blind, placebo-control study compared the acute physiological and subjective effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking to those produced when participants used a waterpipe to smoke a flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. Methods Occasional waterpipe tobacco smokers (N=37; 2–5 monthly smoking episodes for ≥ 6 months) completed two double-blind, counterbalanced sessions that differed by product: preferred brand/flavor of waterpipe tobacco or flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. For each 45-minute, ad lib smoking episode blood and expired air CO were sampled, cardiovascular and respiratory response were measured, and subjective response was assessed. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking significantly increased mean (±SEM) plasma nicotine concentration (3.6±0.7 ng/ml) and heart rate (8.6±1.4 bpm) while placebo did not (0.1±0.0 ng/ml; 1.3±0.9 bpm). For carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and expired air CO, significant increases were observed for tobacco (3.8±0.4%; 27.9±2.6 ppm) and for placebo (3.9±0.4%; 27.7±3.3 ppm) with no differences across condition. Independent of condition, symptoms of nicotine/tobacco abstinence (e.g., “urges to smoke”, “anxious”) were reduced and direct effects (e.g., “dizzy”, “satisfy”) increased. Discussion These results from the first placebo-control study of waterpipe tobacco smoking demonstrate that waterpipe-induced heart rate increases are almost certainly mediated by nicotine though the subjective effects observed in these occasional smokers were not. PMID:21277706
Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies. PMID:24921015
Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.
Fletcher, Jason M.
Background Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general’s report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. Methods A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6) genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. Results Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample) responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = −0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = −0.071 se 0.029. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence of “gene-policy” interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use
Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Neha
The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children.
Purcell, Kate R; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Rivis, Maya
Despite Australia's success in reducing smoking rates, substantial inequities persist--with high smoking prevalence among disadvantaged groups. This article uses Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity to identify promising strategies for promoting equity within tobacco control policies and programmes. A rapid review of the Australian and international literature was conducted in March 2014 using Pubmed, ISI web of Science and Scopus, Cochrane library and Google Scholar. A search of the grey literature was conducted to identify promising policy interventions. Population health surveys suggest that tobacco-related inequities in Victoria are beginning to decline. Data from the Victorian Smoking Survey shows that the inequity gap is narrowing, and in recent years, the prevalence of regular smoking declined fastest among disadvantaged smokers. Future approaches to accelerate reductions in tobacco-related inequities include: (i) continue proven population-based tobacco control policies--especially increasing the price of tobacco (while remaining cognisant of the increased economic burden for those smokers who do not quit), and continuing mass media campaigns; (ii) strengthening social policies to promote equity in early child development; educational experiences; quality of local environments; employment and working conditions; (iii) identifying and investing in targeted approaches to influence social norms and more effectively identify and support disadvantaged smokers to quit; (iv) within tobacco control programmes, give greatest priority to interventions focused on adult smokers (including pregnant women and their partners).
Thananithisak, Chuanchom; Nimpitakpong, Piyarat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn
Community pharmacists' involvement in tobacco control and their perceived role and barriers were assessed. In part I, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 164 community pharmacists who applied for community pharmacy accreditation from the Thai Pharmacy Council in 2003. In part II, an in-depth interview was conducted among 13 community pharmacists who participated in the 1-day smoking cessation services training. Main outcome measures were tobacco control-related activities, perceived tobacco control role, and perceived barriers. The questionnaire response rate was 51% (83/164 pharmacists), with half of the respondents (42/83, 51%) reporting active tobacco control activities. Of these pharmacists, seven (7/42, 17%) reported participating in public or policy advocacy by campaigning against smoking in the community. Thirty-four (34/42, 81%) and thirty-six (36/42, 86%) reported engaging in activities in their own pharmacies by providing educational materials and smoking cessation services, respectively. Even though the perceived roles in tobacco control of these pharmacists were high, they also reported several barriers, especially in five categories: lack of client demand, lack of educational materials, lack of smoking cessation products, lack of knowledge and skill, and lack of follow-up visits. On the other hand, lack of time and lack of reimbursement were not indicated as important barriers. Data from in-depth interviews confirmed these findings. This study revealed that Thai community pharmacists were engaged in various levels of tobacco control-related activities. Most of them perceived the significance of tobacco control activities. However, several barriers were also reported and need to be addressed further.
Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Results Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Conclusions Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective. PMID:21261991
D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of
... Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing. The Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids was a ... gives the FDA authority to regulate the manufacturing, marketing and sale of tobacco products National Tobacco Control ...
Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir
Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.
Springvloet, L; Willemsen, M C; Mons, U; van den Putte, B; Kunst, A E; Guignard, R; Hummel, K; Allwright, S; Siahpush, M; de Vries, H; Nagelhout, G E
This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P < 0.001). Noticing anti-tobacco information was associated with more negative smoking-related attitudes (β = 0.05, P < 0.001) and more quit intentions (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001). Among smokers without a quit intention at baseline, a positive association was found for noticing anti-tobacco information at baseline with follow-up quit intention (OR = 1.14, P = 0.003). No other longitudinal associations were found. No educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001) and not among moderate educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group.
Driezen, Pete; Abdullah, Abu S; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary E; Quah, Anne C K; Xu, Steve
This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011-2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a) cigarette smoking and (b) smokeless tobacco use and (c) whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco's harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.
Panda, Rajmohan; Srivastava, Swati; Persai, Divya; Mendenhall, Emily; Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj
Introduction: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world, and varieties of both smoked and smokeless tobacco products are widely available. The national program for tobacco control is run like a vertical stand-alone program. There is a lack of understanding of existing opportunities and barriers within the health programs that influence the integration of tobacco control messages into them. The present formative research identifies such opportunities and barriers. Methods: We conducted a multi-step, mixed methodological study of primary care personnel and policy-makers in two Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate health worker and policy-maker perceptions on the integration of tobacco control intervention. We systematically collected data in three steps: In Step I, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions with primary care health personnel, Step II consists of a quantitative survey among health care providers (n = 1457) to test knowledge, attitudes and practices in tobacco control and Step III we conducted 75 IDIs with program heads and policy-makers to evaluate the relative congruence of their views on integration of the tobacco control program. Results: Majority of the health care providers recognized tobacco use as a major health problem. There was a general consensus for the need of training for effective dissemination of information from health care providers to patients. Almost 92% of the respondents opined that integration of tobacco control with other health programs will be highly effective to downscale the tobacco epidemic. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for integration of tobacco control program into existing health programs. Integration of tobacco control strategies into the health care system within primary and secondary care will be more effective and counseling for tobacco cessation should be available for population at large. PMID
In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401
Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.
Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252
Seidenberg, Andrew B; Mahalingam-Dhingra, Aditya; Weinstock, Martin A; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C
Youth use of ultraviolet-emitting indoor tanning beds represents a present and emerging public health crisis. Nearly 30% of white female high school students report tanning indoors, and a quarter of high school tanners have used a tanning bed more than 20 times in the past year. Despite the significant health risks of tanning beds, including potentially deadly melanoma and eye problems, limited actions have been taken in the U.S. to protect youth. Tobacco control policies and campaigns, which have sharply reduced youth smoking, may provide a useful framework to control indoor tanning among young people. This article describes several evidence-based tobacco control strategies with potential applicability to indoor tanning within the context of the U.S. Further, current tobacco control policies and current indoor tanning policies in the U.S. are compared, and recommendations on how to curtail youth indoor tanning are discussed.
Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G
The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training... ``Tobacco Retailer Training Programs.'' The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) does not require retailers to implement retailer training programs. However, the...
Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E
This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non-smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre-specified, theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first-ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy-specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC.
Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E
This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944
Powers, Catherine A; Zapka, Jane; Biello, Katie B; O'Donnell, Joseph; Prout, Marianne; Geller, Alan
Tobacco-related morbidity and mortality disproportionately burdens America's most vulnerable populations, and many physicians in the USA are untrained in smoking cessation skills with patients of various literacy levels and races and ethnicities. An anonymous survey was administered to 860 second year and 827 fourth year students at 12 medical schools. A faculty representative at each of the schools completed an assessment of the curriculum and rated medical students' knowledge and skills for cultural competency. Report of experience in tobacco counseling for persons of various literacy levels and ethnicities rose from 42% (second year students) to 82% (fourth year students) and 48% (second year students) to 91% (fourth year students), respectively. However, only 37% of second year students and 40% of fourth year students reported that they had ever been taught to employ culturally competent strategies for tobacco cessation. This study found that almost two thirds of students in 12 medical schools reported no exposure to teaching about cultural competency and tobacco cessation, and approximately one third reported no practical experience with tobacco cessation counseling persons of various races and ethnicities. Effective cultural competency training for tobacco control should include teaching the social constructs of race, ethnicity, and socio-cultural concepts within a medical context. Additionally, students should receive supervised clinical opportunities to practice counseling, including opportunities to discuss and reflect on their experiences.
Mao, Zhengzhong; Shi, Jian; Chen, Wendong
Objectives To identify key economic issues involved in raising the tobacco tax and to recommend possible options for tobacco tax reform in China. Methods Estimated price elasticities of the demand for cigarettes, prevalence data and epidemiology are used to estimate the impact of a tobacco tax increase on cigarette consumption, government tax revenue, lives saved, employment and revenue loss in the cigarette industry and tobacco farming. Results The recent Chinese tax adjustment, if passed along to the retail price, would reduce the number of smokers by 630 000 saving 210 000 lives, at a price elasticity of −0.15. A tax increase of 1 RMB (or US$0.13) per pack of cigarettes would increase the Chinese government's tax revenue by 129 billion RMB (US 17.2 billion), decrease consumption by 3.0 billion packs of cigarettes, reduce the number of smokers by 3.42 million and save 1.14 million lives. Conclusion The empirical economic analysis and tax simulation results clearly indicate that increasing the tobacco tax in China is the most cost-effective instrument for tobacco control. PMID:20008158
Yadav, Amit; Kumar, Sanjay; Chaterjee, Manjusha; Sharma, Nikunj; Shrivastav, Radhika; Bassi, Abhinav; Mishra, Deepak; Arora, Monika
Developing a synergistic relationship between the government machinery and civil society is crucial for advancing the tobacco control movement in India. With diverse patterns of tobacco use and far reach of the tobacco industry, stringent enforcement mechanisms along with innovative and culturally appropriate advocacy efforts are imperative. In this paper, we evaluate multi- level tobacco control interventions undertaken in the Indian state of Bihar and the subsequent success achieved in strengthening government-non-government partnerships and commitment towards tobacco control in the state. Our experience shows that sustained advocacy at the policy and grassroots levels, along with willingness of the administrative machinery, can present result- oriented tobacco control initiatives at the state and grassroots levels.
Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff
In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061
Konfino, Jonatan; Ferrante, Daniel; Mejia, Raul; Coxson, Pamela; Moran, Andrew; Goldman, Lee; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Background Argentina’s congress passed a tobacco control law that would enforce 100% smoke-free environments for the entire country, strong and pictorial health warnings on tobacco products and a comprehensive advertising ban. However, the Executive Branch continues to review the law and it has not been fully implemented. Our objective was to project the potential impact of full implementation of this tobacco control legislation on cardiovascular disease. Methods The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model was used to project future cardiovascular events. Data sources for the model included vital statistics, morbidity and mortality data, and tobacco use estimates from the National Risk Factor Survey. Estimated effectiveness of interventions was based on a literature review. Results were expressed as life-years, myocardial infarctions and strokes saved in an 8-year-period between 2012 and 2020. In addition we projected the incremental effectiveness on the same outcomes of a tobacco price increase not included in the law. Results In the period 2012–2020, 7500 CHD deaths, 16 900 myocardial infarctions and 4300 strokes could be avoided with the full implementation and enforcement of this law. Annual per cent reduction would be 3% for CHD deaths, 3% for myocardial infarctions and 1% for stroke. If a tobacco price increase is implemented the projected avoided CHD deaths, myocardial infarctions and strokes would be 15 500, 34 600 and 11 900, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of the tobacco control law would produce significant public health benefits in Argentina. Strong advocacy is needed at national and international levels to get this law implemented throughout Argentina. PMID:23092886
Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei
The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.
Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.
Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…
This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge. PMID:23024247
Gray, Nigel; Borland, Ron
This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge.
On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.
Background Although there is some evidence to support an association between exposure to televised tobacco control campaigns and recall among youth, little research has been conducted among adults. In addition, no previous work has directly compared the impact of different types of emotive campaign content. The present study examined the impact of increased exposure to tobacco control advertising with different types of emotive content on rates and durations of self-reported recall. Methods Data on recall of televised campaigns from 1,968 adult smokers residing in England through four waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United Kingdom Survey from 2005 to 2009 were merged with estimates of per capita exposure to government-run televised tobacco control advertising (measured in GRPs, or Gross Rating Points), which were categorised as either “positive” or “negative” according to their emotional content. Results Increased overall campaign exposure was found to significantly increase probability of recall. For every additional 1,000 GRPs of per capita exposure to negative emotive campaigns in the six months prior to survey, there was a 41% increase in likelihood of recall (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.24–1.61), while positive campaigns had no significant effect. Increased exposure to negative campaigns in both the 1–3 months and 4–6 month periods before survey was positively associated with recall. Conclusions Increased per capita exposure to negative emotive campaigns had a greater effect on campaign recall than positive campaigns, and was positively associated with increased recall even when the exposure had occurred more than three months previously. PMID:24885426
Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.
Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638
Asaria, Perviz; Chisholm, Dan; Mathers, Colin; Ezzati, Majid; Beaglehole, Robert
In 2005, WHO set a global goal to reduce rates of death from chronic (non-communicable) disease by an additional 2% every year. To this end, we investigated how many deaths could potentially be averted over 10 years by implementation of selected population-based interventions, and calculated the financial costs of their implementation. We selected two interventions: to reduce salt intake in the population by 15% and to implement four key elements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used methods from the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment project to estimate shifts in the distribution of risk factors associated with salt intake and tobacco use, and to model the effects on chronic disease mortality for 23 countries that account for 80% of chronic disease burden in the developing world. We showed that, over 10 years (2006-2015), 13.8 million deaths could be averted by implementation of these interventions, at a cost of less than US$0.40 per person per year in low-income and lower middle-income countries, and US$0.50-1.00 per person per year in upper middle-income countries (as of 2005). These two population-based intervention strategies could therefore substantially reduce mortality from chronic diseases, and make a major (and affordable) contribution towards achievement of the global goal to prevent and control chronic diseases.
Driezen, Pete; Abdullah, Abu S.; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A. K. M. Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thompson, Mary E.; Quah, Anne C. K.; Xu, Steve
This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011–2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a) cigarette smoking and (b) smokeless tobacco use and (c) whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco’s harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:27571090
Chapman, S; Wakefield, M
Australia has one of the world's most successful records on tobacco control. The role of public health advocacy in securing public and political support for tobacco control legislation and policy and program support is widely acknowledged and enshrined in World Health Organization policy documents yet is seldom the subject of analysis in the public health policy research literature. Australian public health advocates tend to not work in settings where evaluation and systematic planning are valued. However, their day-to-day strategies reveal considerable method and grounding in framing theory. The nature of media advocacy is explored, with differences between the conceptualization of routine "programmatic" public health interventions and the modus operandi of media advocacy highlighted. Two case studies on securing smoke-free indoor air and banning all tobacco advertising are used to illustrate advocacy strategies that have been used in Australia. Finally, the argument that advocacy should emanate from communities and be driven by them is considered.
Kennedy, Allison; Sullivan, Sarah; Hendlin, Yogi; Barnes, Richard
Florida’s Tobacco Pilot Program (TPP; 1998–2003), with its edgy Truth media campaign, achieved unprecedented youth smoking reductions and became a model for tobacco control programming. In 2006, 3 years after the TPP was defunded, public health groups restored funding for tobacco control programming by convincing Florida voters to amend their constitution. Despite the new program’s strong legal structure, Governor Charlie Crist’s Department of Health implemented a low-impact program. Although they secured the program’s strong structure and funding, Florida’s nongovernmental public health organizations did not mobilize to demand a high-impact program. Implementation of Florida’s Amendment 4 demonstrates that a strong programmatic structure and secure funding are insufficient to ensure a successful public health program, without external pressure from nongovernmental groups. PMID:22420813
Kennedy, Allison; Sullivan, Sarah; Hendlin, Yogi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton
Florida's Tobacco Pilot Program (TPP; 1998-2003), with its edgy Truth media campaign, achieved unprecedented youth smoking reductions and became a model for tobacco control programming. In 2006, 3 years after the TPP was defunded, public health groups restored funding for tobacco control programming by convincing Florida voters to amend their constitution. Despite the new program's strong legal structure, Governor Charlie Crist's Department of Health implemented a low-impact program. Although they secured the program's strong structure and funding, Florida's nongovernmental public health organizations did not mobilize to demand a high-impact program. Implementation of Florida's Amendment 4 demonstrates that a strong programmatic structure and secure funding are insufficient to ensure a successful public health program, without external pressure from nongovernmental groups.
Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B
A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them.
Bayer, Ronald; Stuber, Jennifer
The AIDS epidemic has borne witness to the terrible burdens imposed by stigmatization and to the way in which marginalization could subvert the goals of HIV prevention. Out of that experience, and propelled by the linkage of public health and human rights, came the commonplace assertion that stigmatization was a retrograde force. Yet, strikingly, the antitobacco movement has fostered a social transformation that involves the stigmatization of smokers. Does this transformation represent a troubling outcome of efforts to limit tobacco use and its associated morbidity and mortality; an ineffective, counterproductive, and moralizing approach that leads to a dead end; or a signal of public health achievement? If the latter is the case, are there unacknowledged costs? PMID:16317199
Bayer, Ronald; Stuber, Jennifer
The AIDS epidemic has borne witness to the terrible burdens imposed by stigmatization and to the way in which marginalization could subvert the goals of HIV prevention. Out of that experience, and propelled by the linkage of public health and human rights, came the commonplace assertion that stigmatization was a retrograde force.Yet, strikingly, the antitobacco movement has fostered a social transformation that involves the stigmatization of smokers. Does this transformation represent a troubling outcome of efforts to limit tobacco use and its associated morbidity and mortality; an ineffective, counterproductive, and moralizing approach that leads to a dead end; or a signal of public health achievement? If the latter is the case, are there unacknowledged costs?
Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915
The burden of chronic diseases in global health is a surging area of research. The Global Health Initiative at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute brings together investigators from developing countries with those from the developed world to study these diseases. In China, approximately 83 percent of all deaths in 2000 were attributed to chronic illnesses, which are the research focuses of the Chinese center of the Global Health Initiative. Tobacco use as well as passive smoking are modifiable risk factors in a large number of such chronic conditions. The prevalence of smoking in China is extensive and has inseparable ties to the economy, with tobacco taxes making up a large portion of government revenue in poorer provinces. Methods of smoking prevention have been piloted in some Chinese schools, which have mitigated the increase in smoking rate but have not resulted in a primary preventive effect. Efforts by the Yale Global Health Initiative and the Yale-China Association are bringing researchers together to address chronic disease in China as Yale School of Medicine enters its 200th year.
Jenson, Desmond; Lester, Joelle; Berman, Micah L
Among other key objectives, the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act was designed to end an era of constant product manipulation by the tobacco industry that had led to more addictive and attractive products. The law requires new tobacco products to undergo premarket review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be sold. To assess FDA's implementation of its premarket review authorities, we reviewed FDA actions on new product applications, publicly available data on industry applications to market new products, and related FDA guidance documents and public statements. We conclude that FDA has not implemented the premarket review process in a manner that prioritises the protection of public health. In particular, FDA has (1) prioritised the review of premarket applications that allow for the introduction of new tobacco products over the review of potentially non-compliant products that are already on the market; (2) misallocated resources by accommodating the industry's repeated submissions of deficient premarket applications and (3) weakened the premarket review process by allowing the tobacco industry to market new and modified products that have not completed the required review process.
While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.
The General Law for Tobacco Control, signed in February 2008, aims to protect the Mexican population against the negative effects associated with tobacco consumption and to guarantee the non-smoker's rights to live and relate in 100% smoke-free environments. The Law supports the development of smoke-free areas, but it also allows for indoor smoking areas. The present essay examines the Law and its Rule of Procedure, article by article, evaluating its capability to assure the protection of the population against the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. The analysis reveals conceptual and operative important imprecision, but mainly, discusses in detail the reasons why indoor smoking areas represent a health risk for the population. It concludes that the Law must be reformed, eliminating the provision of indoor smoking areas, any kind of roof in outdoor smoking areas and establishing a minimum distance between these areas and the 100% smoke-free environments.
Ballbè, Montse; Gual, Antoni; Nieva, Gemma; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve
Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals -the early adopters- based on Rogers' theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units). Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals' awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings.
Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer
Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621
Livingood, William C.; Woodhouse, Lynn D.; Wludyka, Peter
The objective of this evaluation research was to assess the impact of programs intended to support the enforcement component of a comprehensive youth tobacco control. The research method was a survey of a randomly stratified cluster sample of law enforcement officers. Results of the evaluation showed that the enforcement behaviors of officers were…
Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin
Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…
Swart, Dehran; Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S Priscilla; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein
This paper explores adolescent preferences for the setting, timing, delivery format, provider and key elements of tobacco control programmes. The need for programme sensitivity towards urban/rural, gender and ethnic subgroups is also discussed. Schools were purposively selected from the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Twelve prevention…
Vitali, Stefania; Glattfelder, James B; Battiston, Stefano
The structure of the control network of transnational corporations affects global market competition and financial stability. So far, only small national samples were studied and there was no appropriate methodology to assess control globally. We present the first investigation of the architecture of the international ownership network, along with the computation of the control held by each global player. We find that transnational corporations form a giant bow-tie structure and that a large portion of control flows to a small tightly-knit core of financial institutions. This core can be seen as an economic "super-entity" that raises new important issues both for researchers and policy makers.
Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L
Like tobacco smoking, habitual marijuana smoking causes numerous adverse pulmonary effects. However, the mechanisms of action involved, especially as compared to tobacco smoke, are still unclear. To uncover putative modes of action, this study employed a toxicogenomics approach to compare the toxicological pathways perturbed following exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke condensate in vitro. Condensates of mainstream smoke from hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana cigarettes were similarly prepared using identical smoking conditions. Murine lung epithelial cells were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of the smoke condensates for 6h. RNA was extracted immediately or after a 4h recovery period and hybridized to mouse whole genome microarrays. Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) exposure was associated with changes in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage response. These same pathways were also significantly affected following marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) exposure. Although the effects of the condensates were largely similar, dose-response analysis indicates that the MSC is substantially more potent than TSC. In addition, steroid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways were more significantly affected following MSC exposure, whereas M phase cell cycle pathways were more significantly affected following TSC exposure. MSC exposure also appeared to elicit more severe oxidative stress than TSC exposure, which may account for the greater cytotoxicity of MSC. This study shows that in general MSC impacts many of the same molecular processes as TSC. However, subtle pathway differences can provide insight into the differential toxicities of the two complex mixtures.
Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T
We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.
Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.
Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco
Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758
Been, Jasper V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Sheikh, Aziz
Introduction Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on perinatal and child health. Methods and analysis We will systematically search 19 electronic literature databases (from inception) for published studies, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished studies. Additional work will be identified via handsearching references and citations, and through consulting an international panel of experts. No language restrictions will apply. Following Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidelines, randomised and clinical controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series designs, are eligible. Studies of interest will assess the impact of any of the WHO-advocated tobacco control policies contained in the MPOWER acronym (except ‘Monitoring tobacco use’) on at least one outcome of interest among children aged 0–12 years. The primary outcomes are: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, asthma exacerbations requiring hospital attendance and respiratory infections requiring hospital attendance. Data will be extracted using customised forms and authors will be contacted to obtain missing information. Risk of bias will be assessed using EPOC criteria. Findings will be reported in narrative and tabular form. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed clinically and statistically using I2. If appropriate and possible, random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each unique combination of intervention and outcome. Subgroup analyses will be performed to assess the influence of the comprehensiveness of each policy, and to explore the impact of each policy according to socioeconomic status. Ethics and dissemination No ethical assessment is necessary as we
Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy
Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.
Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan
Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco "wars". Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media.
Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan
Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco “wars”. Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media. PMID:26091553
Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.
Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P
Background Tobacco-related chronic diseases contribute significantly to the increased morbidity and mortality observed in the homeless population. Few homeless service settings address tobacco use among their clients. Method Directors and staff from emergency and transitional shelters in San Diego County completed a questionnaire on no-smoking policies and smoking cessation services and participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews to examine the barriers to and facilitators of implementing smoke-free policies and cessation services in their facilities. Results Facilities differed in outdoor restrictions around smoking: 61.5% reported having an outdoor designated smoking zone, and 25% reported having a campus-wide ban on smoking. About one-third of the facilities offered on-site resources for smoking cessation. Although directors and staff supported smoke-free policies, they reported that the increased resources needed to "police" the policy created barriers to implementation. Almost all directors and staff expressed interest in developing an on-site tobacco control program, but they reported that lack of expertise among staff posed challenges to implementing such a program. Conclusion Our findings suggest that for a tobacco control program to be effective in homeless shelters, it should include training and incentives for staff to implement smoke-free policies and cessation services.
Kim, Sun Seog; Nam, Kyoung A
The purpose of this secondary data analysis is to report Korean male smokers' perceptions of tobacco control policies in the United States. Descriptive data from four focus groups held in New York City in 2003 are presented. Focus group interviews were used to collect data, and the two investigators independently analyzed all four recorded group sessions. Korean male immigrants living in New York City area were recruited, and 22 volunteered to participate. Exclusion criteria included immigration to the United States before age 12, no smoking history, and use of chemical substance other than tobacco. Korean men differed in perceptions of the policies based on smoking status and length of U.S. residency. Among current smokers, recent immigrants had difficulty understanding smoking restrictions, whereas longtime residents complained of price increases. Both groups suggested that policies target the tobacco industry and do not target smokers. In contrast, former smokers supported more regulation of public smoking and suggested use of more aggressive antismoking campaigns. Public policymakers should take into consideration cultural attitudes and beliefs about smoking behavior in the design and implementation of tobacco control policies that affect ethnic groups whose cultural and value orientations may differ from the mainstream.
OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2003 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influences on Tobacco Control Funding...hypertension, diabetes , emphysema, angina, and dental problems (CDC, 2001). Annual death rates from smoking vary by state with a high of 414 per 100,000 in...New Mexico 1.338259 3.8124 0 1 50.78128 3.3 0 32. New York .8958431 2.4494 2 1
Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing. PMID:10994267
Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels. PMID:28117729
Introduction: Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). Methods: A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Results: Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. Conclusion: A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up. PMID:23042986
Stigler, Melissa; Gupta, Vinay; Bassi, Shalini; Dhavan, Poonam; Mathur, Neha; Tripathy, Vikal; Perry, Cheryl; Reddy, K. Srinath
Objective To provide an overview of Project ACTIVITY, a group randomized intervention trial designed to test the efficacy of a community-based, comprehensive approach to tobacco control for youth (10-19 years) living in low-income communities in India. In doing so, details regarding baseline characteristics of the study sample are provided. Methods Fourteen slum communities in Delhi, India were matched and randomized to intervention (n=7) and control (n=7) conditions. The intervention included multiple strategies to promote prevention and cessation of tobacco use among youth. A census was conducted in selected blocks in all study communities (n=78,133), as well as a baseline survey of eligible youth (n=6,023). Main outcomes measures on the survey included ever use, past six months use and current use of multiple forms of tobacco. Mixed effects regression models were used to examine differences between study conditions in (a) demographic characteristics and (b) the prevalence of tobacco consumption. Results Census data revealed that 31.9% of sampled population was in the age group of 10-19 years. No differences between study conditions in demographic characteristics (e.g. age, gender, religion, education, and occupation) among either adults or youth were noted (p>0.05). The baseline survey data revealed the prevalence of ever tobacco use among youth was 7.99%, past six months use was 5.70%, and current use was 4.88%. No differences between study conditions in these prevalence rates were observed, either (p>0.05). Conclusion The two study conditions in Project ACTIVITY are comparable. The evaluation should provide a robust test of this intervention's efficacy. PMID:20593929
Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe
With 30% of the world's smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'. The article discusses the core questions to be addressed and presents an analytical framework for assessing the globalisation strategies of Asian tobacco firms. The article also discusses the selection of the five case studies, namely as independent companies in Asia which have demonstrated concerted ambitions to be a major player in the world market.
Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark
Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs. PMID:27545455
Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark
Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs.
Grundy, Quinn; Malone, Ruth E.
Tobacco use is prevalent among service members, but civilian public health groups have not effectively addressed military tobacco control policy issues. We conducted focus groups in 2010 and 2012 with participants from public health and tobacco control organizations regarding their understanding of the military and of tobacco use in that context. Misperceptions were common. Military personnel were believed to be young, from marginalized populations, and motivated to join by lack of other options. Tobacco use was considered integral to military life; participants were sometimes reluctant to endorse stronger tobacco control policies than those applied to civilians, although some believed the military could be a social policy leader. Engaging public health professionals as effective partners in tobacco-free military efforts may require education about and reframing of military service and tobacco control policy. PMID:25713938
Al-Qadasi, F A; Shah, S A; Ghazi, H F
This study aimed to assess the risk factors for gastric cancer in Yemen. A hospital-based case-control study of 70 cases and 140 controls was carried out in Sana'a city between May and October 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information through direct interview. Living in rural areas, tobacco chewing and drinking untreated water were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Frequent consumption of chicken, cheese, milk, starchy vegetables, cucumber, carrots, leeks, sweet pepper, fruit drinks, legumes and olive oil were associated significantly with decreased risk of gastric cancer. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that chewing tobacco and frequent consumption of white bread were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer, whereas frequent consumption of chicken, cooked potatoes and fruit drinks had an inverse association. Risk of gastric cancer can be prevented by health education and increasing community awareness.
Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze; Quah, Anne C K
This paper describes the methods of sampling design and data collection of Wave 1, 2 and 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, with major focus on longitudinal features of the study. Key measures of quality of the survey data, such as retention rates and final sample sizes, are presented. Sample replenishment procedures are outlined, including the addition of a new city, Kunming, at Wave 3. Methods for constructing the longitudinal and cross-sectional survey weights are briefly described.
Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 with the aim of reducing tobacco-related illnesses and deaths by curbing tobacco's appeal to and use by children and adolescents. Legislators considered provisions of the FSPTCA restricting tobacco advertising and labeling key to realizing the law's intended health benefits. But a lawsuit now before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit challenges the tobacco marketing restrictions as impermissible restraints on tobacco companies' commercial speech rights under the First Amendment. This article analyzes the constitutionality of each FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restriction in light of U.S. Supreme Court decisions defining the extent of First Amendment protection for commercial speech, prior efforts to restrict tobacco marketing, and the outcomes of legal challenges to some of the prior marketing restrictions. Several of the FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restrictions were drafted with insufficient accommodations for tobacco companies' First Amendment right to convey and consumers' First Amendment right to receive truthful information about lawful tobacco products and are therefore unconstitutional as currently written.
Nelson, David E; Reynolds, Jennifer H; Luke, Douglas A; Mueller, Nancy B; Eischen, Monica H; Jordan, Jerelyn; Lancaster, R Brick; Marcus, Stephen E; Vallone, Donna
Despite negative financial conditions in recent years, several states were able to successfully maintain funding for tobacco prevention and control, which provided an opportunity to understand the factors associated with success. One explanation may be the level of long-term program sustainability in some states. According to a model developed by Saint Louis University researchers, the five elements critical to tobacco control sustainability are state political and financial climate; community awareness and capacity; program structure and administration; funding stability and planning; and surveillance and evaluation. Five states (Nebraska, New York, Indiana, Virginia, and Colorado) maintained funding for their tobacco control programs. Four of these states gained additional legislative appropriations or prevented a massive reduction; Colorado used a statewide ballot initiative to increase funding. On the basis of the sustainability framework, case studies, and prior research, the major lessons learned for maintaining funding were the importance of (1) strong and experienced leadership, (2) broad and deep organizational and community ties, (3) coordinated efforts, (4) strategic use of surveillance and evaluation data, (5) active dissemination of information about program successes, and (6) policy maker champions. The sustainability framework and lessons learned may provide valuable insights for other public health programs facing funding threats.
Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen
Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124
Brodie, B B; Good, J M
Root-knot nematode control and tobacco yields in plots infested with Meloidogyne incognita and treated with the nonvolatile nematicides, aldicarb, Mocap (R), or Nemacur (R) were greater than those on similar plots treated with volatile nematicides such as DD, DD + MENCS, SD14647 or tetrachlorothiophene. Root-knot control and tobacco yields in plots treated with carbofuran or Dasanit (R) were eqtual to that obtained with DD + MENCS, but less than that obtained with the other volatile soil nematicides. The most efficient dosage was 3.4 kg/hectare active ingredient for aldicarb and Mocap (R) and 10.0 kg/hectare for Dasanit (R). Carbofuran and Nemacur (R) were equally as effective at 4.2 kg/hectare as they were at higher dosages. The most efficient dosage of DD and SD14647 was 84 liters/hectare. Aldicarb and Dasanit (R) resulted in better nematode control and tobacco yields when incorporated into the top 15-20 cm of soil than when incorporated into the top 5-10 cm of soil. Nemacur (R) and Mocap (R) performed better when incorporated into the top 5-10 cm of soil, and carbofuran performed better when applied in the seed furrow (placed 15-20 cm deep in a 5-cm band and bedded).
Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David
Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601
King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D
Objective Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008–2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Results Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. Conclusions A large proportion of adults living in low-and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes. PMID:23019273
Peelen, Myrthe J.; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Kramer, Boris W.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W.; Reiss, Irwin K.; Mol, Ben W.; Been, Jasper V.
We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000–2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign. PMID:27103591
Negative health, social and economic consequences of smoking tobacco are widely known. Recent years have seen the emergence of many commercially sold appliances for inducing nicotine into the airways, including products such as "e-cigarette", "E-cigar" and "green cigarette". These products are often promoted as potential alternatives to nicotine replacement therapy. It transpires, however, that there is a lack of conclusive evidence concerning the health effects of long-term use of chemical substances applied via those electronic nicotine inhalers. Reliable data on the exact chemical composition of the cartridges used in the inhalers is also missing. The objective was to present the main conclusions and recommendations of the World Health Organization Tobacco Control Research Team regarding electronic nicotine delivery devices, which were formulated against the principles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Based on several analyses, WHO recommends a ban on disseminating information that suggest that electronic nicotine vaporisers are safer than cigarettes, or that they are an effective way of combating nicotine addition, until appropriate evidence can be provided. According to the WHO recommendations, references to efficacy of electronic vaporisers for quitting smoking or to their health effects must be backed by reliable pharmacokinetics studies, safety and efficacy tests and appropriate certification from regulatory bodies.
Gourgou, Sophie; Dedieu, Florence; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène
At the present time, no study has yet clearly established whether tobacco smoking is a risk factor of lower limb venous insufficiency. This case-control study was initiated in France to determine the possible etiologic relation between tobacco smoking and lower limb venous insufficiency. A total of 1,806 cases suffering from lower limb venous insufficiency, recruited by 460 general practitioners between April 1997 and April 1998, were matched by age and gender to 1,806 controls. Data were collected on the physical examination, medical reason for consulting, current treatments, smoking habits, and known risk factors of lower limb venous insufficiency. Conditional logistic regression for the statistical analyses was performed. Known risk factors of lower limb venous insufficiency were confirmed in the overall model: family history of venous insufficiency (odds ratio (OR) = 7.7), frequent (OR = 1.4) or regular (OR = 2.7) prolonged standing at work, heat exposure (OR = 2.0), low physical activity (OR = 1.6), and (for women) more than four pregnancies (OR = 3.4). Multivariate analysis adjusted for other risk factors showed that lower limb venous insufficiency is significantly associated with tobacco smoking (OR = 1.7 for 10-19 cigarettes/day and OR = 2.4 for 20 cigarettes/day or more; p < 0.001). These results suggest that smoking is significantly associated with lower limb venous insufficiency, in accordance with biologic data and physiopathologic mechanisms.
Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia
We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women.
Mackenzie, Ross; Chapman, Simon
The tobacco industry is not obligated to disclose ingredients and additives used in manufactured tobacco production. This paper describes global reaction to a press release highlighting evidence that porcine haemoglobin ("pig's blood") was sometimes used in cigarette manufacturing while never being disclosed to smokers. The case study illustrates the power of press releases to ignite major interest in tobacco control issues.
Introduction: Tobacco use in low- to middle-income countries is a major public health concern for both smokers and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Egypt has made important strides in controlling tobacco use, but smoking and ETS remain highly prevalent. This randomized intervention sought to improve the target population’s knowledge regarding the hazards of smoking and ETS and to change attitudes and smoking behaviors within the community and the household. Methods: In this 2005–2006 study in Egypt’s Qalyubia governorate, trained professionals visited schools, households, mosques, and health care centers in rural villages randomly selected for the intervention to discuss the adverse effects of smoking and ETS exposure and ways to reduce one’s ETS exposure. Data collected in interviewer-facilitated surveys before and after the intervention period were analyzed in pairwise comparisons with data from control villages to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in achieving its aims. Results: The intervention group showed a greater increase in understanding the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes and waterpipes and became more proactive in limiting ETS exposure by asking smokers to stop, avoiding areas with ETS, and enacting smoking bans in the home. However, the intervention had little to no impact on the number of smokers and the amount of tobacco smoked. Conclusions: Results are consistent with previous studies showing that changing smokers’ behavior can be difficult, but community-wide efforts to reduce ETS exposure through smoking bans, education, and empowering people to ask smokers to stop are effective. The method can be generalized to other settings. PMID:23328881
Thyrian, Jochen René; John, Ulrich
Background Objectives of this study are (a) to develop a comprehensive and economic tool to estimate tobacco control (TC) activities in single EU member states, (b) to compare TC activities between member states of the EU. This article provides the questionnaire and gives a benchmark of EU member states according to their perceived TC activities. Methods: An international workshop was specifically initiated to develop the questionnaire "Measuring Activities in Tobacco Control (MATOC)". TC experts from 8 European countries participated and chose 40 items to cover 11 general topics of TC. At the World Conference of Tobacco or Health in Helsinki 2003 participants were asked to fill out the questionnaire. N = 142 participants from EU-member states returned questionnaires. Results Subjects from the tobacco field in Finland gave the highest TC values to their country, followed by Sweden, Ireland, the UK and the Netherlands. The least active countries in TC were Greece and Germany, behind Austria, Spain, Belgium and Portugal. Italy, France and Denmark constituted the middle field. Conclusion The MATOC provides a profile of TC across European countries and delivers results that are plausible and fit into the existing findings. The data presented here fulfils the purpose to illustrate what is possible with the MATOC and underlines the value of such an approach in delivering information for policy makers and TC advocates how TC is perceived in each country. Yet, further validity testing is necessary, the number of experts per country differs and is partly rather small. Further research with the MATOC should encounter these limitations. The procedure though could serve as model of practice for alcohol and legal drug policy as well. PMID:16722613
Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze
This paper describes the design features, data collection methods and analytical strategies of the ITC China Survey, a prospective cohort study of 800 adult smokers and 200 adult non-smokers in each of six cities in China. In addition to features and methods which are common to ITC surveys in other countries, the ITC China Survey possesses unique features in frame construction, a large first phase data enumeration and sampling selection; and it uses special techniques and measures in training, field work organisation and quality control. It also faces technical challenges in sample selection and weight calculation when some selected upper level clusters need to be replaced by new ones owing to massive relocation exercises within the cities.
Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Lando, Harry A.; Relyea, George E.; Peterson, Alan L.; Talcott, G. Wayne
The authors evaluated the effect of a brief tailored smoking control intervention delivered during basic military training on tobacco use in a population of military personnel (N = 33,215). Participants were randomized to either a tobacco use intervention (smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use cessation, or prevention depending on tobacco…
Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath
The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use.
Konfino, Jonatan; Ferrante, Daniel; Goldberg, Lucila; Caixeta, Roberta; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments, a comprehensive advertising ban (prohibiting advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of cigarettes or tobacco products through any media or communications outlets), pictorial health warnings, and a prohibition against the sale of tobacco products through any means to persons aged <18 years. To ascertain trends in tobacco use among youths in Argentina, the Argentina Ministry of Health and CDC analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for 2007 and 2012 (the next year that it was administered in Argentina). The findings indicated that the overall proportion of youths aged approximately 13-15 years who reported ever smoking a cigarette declined from 52.0% in 2007 to 41.9% in 2012 with significant decreases among both males and females. In 2012, 52.5% of youths in Argentina reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in their homes and 47.5% in enclosed public places in the 7 days preceding the survey. Increased public education and tobacco control efforts will be important to discouraging tobacco use and decreasing SHS exposure among youths in Argentina.
Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archana; Oberoi, Avneet
Tobacco use is described as the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with the World Bank predicting over 450 million tobacco-related deaths in the next fifty years. In India, the proportion of all deaths that can be attributed to tobacco use is expected to rise from 1.4% in 1990 to 13.3% in 2020 of which smoking alone will cause about 930,000 adult deaths by 2010. Many studies have shown that counseling from a health professional is an effective method of helping patients quit the tobacco habit. Tobacco cessation needs to be urgently expanded by training health professionals in providing routine clinical interventions, increasing availability and subsidies of pharmacotherapy, developing wide-reaching strategies such as quitlines, and cost- effective strategies, including group interventions. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) emphasizes the vital contribution of participation of health professional bodies, as well as training and healthcare institutions in tobacco control efforts. Dentists can play an important role in helping patients quit using tobacco. One of the key strategies to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality is to encourage the involvement of health professionals in tobacco-use prevention and cessation counselling. The dental office is an ideal setting for tobacco cessation services since preventive treatment services, oral screening, and patient education have always been a large part of the dental practice.
Kaur, Jagdish; Kishore, Jugal; Kumar, Monika
Context: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. Aims: To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Settings and Design: Interventional community-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above), irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site). In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Results: Overall 784 (39.2%) subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%), imitating elders (53.4%) and imitating celebrity (63.5%). Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%). Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people's attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. Conclusions: The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use. PMID:23293436
Ellis, G A; Reed, D F; Scheider, H
A statewide tobacco control campaign in California has been highly successful in reducing public exposure to the health hazards of secondhand smoke. Over 250 cities and counties in California have enacted local ordinances to regulate smoking in public places and workplaces. Although low-income people of color are disproportionately affected by the use of tobacco, the issue of regulating secondhand smoke tends to be a lower priority in communities that are confronted by other, more immediately pressing social justice issues, such as high rates of violence and lack of economic opportunity. This article describes the process undertaken by a county health department to mobilize a low-income African American community in a San Francisco Bay Area city to support a local ordinance mandating 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants. These efforts are more likely to succeed if health advocates (1) reframe issues in a context that acknowledges the political, economic, and social justice realities and strengths of the community; (2) organize within existing local networks and foster the integration of tobacco issues into the group's existing work; and (3) can defer their own agendas during times of community grieving and healing.
Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.
Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Ammerman, Alice S.
Purpose Evidence-based interventions are increasingly called for as a way to improve health behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Numerous organizations are disseminating interventions that target individual-level behavioral change. Fewer are disseminating interventions that target the policy and environmental changes required to support healthier behaviors. This paper aims to describe the distinct features of policy and environmental change and the lessons learned by two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded dissemination projects, the Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) and Counter Tobacco. Methods Both Center TRT and Counter Tobacco have conducted formative research with their target audiences to customize dissemination to address practitioner-reported needs and preferences. The Centers’ have developed the following approach to disseminating policy and environmental change interventions: (1) Identify the best available evidence rather than waiting for the best possible evidence, (2) disseminate menus of broad intervention strategies, (3) provide implementation guidance, (4) incorporate stories from the field, (5) build practitioners’ capacity, and, (6) integrate dissemination into practitioners’ existing professional and social networks. In 2012, over 26,000 unique visitors accessed the Center TRT website and downloaded over 12,400 documents. The Counter Tobacco website has had 10,907 unique visitors since its launch in August 2011, and the number of visitors is increasing rapidly. Conclusions Both Centers have had success reaching their intended audiences. Research is now needed to assess the extent of practitioners’ use of disseminated recommendations, guidance, and tools in practice and the impact of the resulting interventions. PMID:25037977
Hunt, M; Fagan, P; Lederman, R; Stoddard, A; Frazier, L; Girod, K; Sorensen, G
Objective:To present feasibility data on SMART, the first teen worksite behavioural tobacco control intervention. Design:This phase II study was designed to estimate the efficacy and feasibility of a small scale, randomised, controlled intervention. Setting and subjects:This study, addressing youths aged 15–18 years, was implemented in four intervention and five control grocery stores that had an average of 44 eligible teens. Interventions:The tobacco use cessation and prevention interventions were based on social influences and peer leader models. Employee break rooms served as centres both for interactive activities including open houses, teen advisory boards, peer leader interviews, games and contests; and non-interactive interventions including bulletin boards and table tents with health messages and home mailings. Main process measures:Project staff collected process data on the extent of implementation of intervention activities, participation rates in activities, and contacts with peer leaders. On the final survey, teens reported on awareness of, participation in, and motivation for participating in project activities. Results:Indicators of feasibility were identified and discussed, including the number of activities implemented, teen participation, management support, cost, and barriers to and facilitators of implementation. During the 12 month intervention, a mean of 24.1 interactive activities and 55.3 non-interactive activities were implemented, and a mean 14.2% participation rate per activity per site was achieved. Eighty four per cent of teens reported being aware of SMART, and 39% reported participating in interactive and 67% in non-interactive activities. Conclusions:Teen smoking cessation rates in worksite programmes might be improved if they are conducted in companies where there is job stability and if teen programmes are part of worksite-wide tobacco control programmes that include both teens and adults. PMID:14645939
Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.
This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies.
Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; John, Rijo M; Ouma, Ahmed E O
Approximately 90% of adults start smoking during adolescence, with limited studies conducted in low-and-middle-income countries where over 80% of global tobacco users reside. The study aims to estimate prevalence and identify predictors associated with adolescents' tobacco use in Madagascar. We utilized tobacco-related information of 1184 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years, representing a total of 296,111 youth from the 2008 Madagascar Global Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of tobacco use. Gender-wise multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify key predictors. Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females) of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females) currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS) and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females' tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents' tobacco use.
Carter, Owen B J; Donovan, Robert; Jalleh, Geoffrey
The authors' objective was to conduct a trial of viral e-mail marketing as a distribution method for tobacco control advertisements. University students (n = 200) in the state of Western Australia were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 2 e-mails with hyperlinks to tobacco control advertisements ("Toilet" and "Rubbish") emphasizing the disgusting nature of smoking. Recipients followed a hyperlink to a Web page playing Toilet or Rubbish on endless loop. Viewers were encouraged to forward the e-mail to their friends and invited to complete an online survey about the advertisement. Unique downloads for each advertisement were identified by internet provider (IP) location and tallied by date and geographical location to assess subsequent dissemination beyond the initial 200 students. There were 826 unique viewings of the advertisements averaging 26.9 viewings per day for the first fortnight, followed by a lower average of 4.1 hits per day for the next 3.5 months. IP addresses identified hits from 3 other Australian states and 7 other countries. Online surveys were completed by 103 respondents (12.5% of total hits) but included few smokers (n = 9). Significantly more respondents rated Toilet as "funny" compared with Rubbish (40% vs. 11%; p < .05), likely explaining why the former accounted for significantly more viewings than the latter (487 vs. 339; p < .001). There was a greater than fourfold return in dissemination for each initial e-mail sent but daily hits rapidly deteriorated over time. Entertainment appears to facilitate viral e-mails being forwarded onwards but only exceptionally compelling tobacco control materials are ever likely to become self-perpetuating.
Abdullah, Abu S.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Driezen, Pete; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C.K.; Fong, Geoffrey T.
This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home. PMID:21556182
Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie
The Australian approach to tobacco control has been a comprehensive one, encompassing mass media campaigns, consumer information, taxation policy, access for smokers to smoking cessation advice and pharmaceutical treatments, protection from exposure to tobacco smoke and regulation of promotion. World-first legislation to standardise the packaging of tobacco was a logical next step to further reduce misleadingly reassuring promotion of a product known for the past 50 years to kill a high proportion of its long-term users. Similarly, refreshed, larger pack warnings which started appearing on packs at the end of 2012 were a logical progression of efforts to ensure that consumers are better informed about the health risks associated with smoking. Regardless of the immediate effects of legislation, further progress will continue to require a comprehensive approach to maintain momentum and ensure that government efforts on one front are not undermined by more vigorous efforts and greater investment by tobacco companies elsewhere.
Ashe, Marice; Jernigan, David; Kline, Randolph; Galaz, Rhonda
We desired to understand how legal tools protect public health by regulating the location and density of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food retail outlets. We reviewed the literature to determine how land use regulations can function as control tools for public health advocates. We found that land use regulations are a public health advocacy tool that has been successfully used to lessen the negative effects of alcohol retail outlets in neighborhoods. More research is needed to determine whether such regulations are successful in reducing the negative effects of other retail outlets on community health.
Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan
This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control.
Zhou, Jiachen; Michaud, Dominique S.; Langevin, Scott M.; McClean, Michael D.; Eliot, Melissa; Kelsey, Karl T.
Current studies suggesting that smokeless tobacco use increases the risk of head and neck cancer are hampered by small numbers. Consequently, there remains uncertainty in the magnitude and significance of this risk. We examined the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a population-based case-control study with 1,046 cases and 1,239 frequency-matched controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusting for age, gender, race, education level, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. A non-significant elevated association between having ever used smokeless tobacco and HNSCC risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.67, 2.16) was observed. Individuals who reported 10 or more years of smokeless tobacco use had a significantly elevated risk of HNSCC (OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 1.31, 12.64), compared to never users. In an analysis restricted to never cigarette smokers, a statistically significant association was observed between ever use of smokeless tobacco and the risk of HNSCC (OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 1.01, 17.57). These findings suggest that long term use of smokeless tobacco increases the risk of HNSCC. PMID:22987222
Zhou, Jiachen; Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Eliot, Melissa; Kelsey, Karl T
Current studies suggesting that smokeless tobacco use increases the risk of head and neck cancer are hampered by small numbers. Consequently, there remains uncertainty in the magnitude and significance of this risk. We examined the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a population-based case-control study with 1,046 cases and 1,239 frequency-matched controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusting for age, gender, race, education level, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. A nonsignificant elevated association between having ever used smokeless tobacco and HNSCC risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.67-2.16) was observed. Individuals who reported 10 or more years of smokeless tobacco use had a significantly elevated risk of HNSCC (OR = 4.06, 95% CI: 1.31-12.64), compared to never users. In an analysis restricted to never cigarette smokers, a statistically significant association was observed between ever use of smokeless tobacco and the risk of HNSCC (OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 1.01-17.57). These findings suggest that long-term use of smokeless tobacco increases the risk of HNSCC.
Sarkar, Bidyut K; West, Robert; Arora, Monika; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Reddy, K Srinath; Shahab, Lion
Background Tobacco use kills half a million people every month, most in low–middle income countries (LMICs). There is an urgent need to identify potentially low-cost, scalable tobacco cessation interventions for these countries. Objective To evaluate a brief community outreach intervention delivered by health workers to promote tobacco cessation in India. Design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 low-income administrative blocks in Delhi, half government authorised (‘resettlement colony’) and half unauthorised (‘J.J. cluster’) communities. Participants 1213 adult tobacco users. Interventions Administrative blocks were computer randomised in a 1:1 ratio, to the intervention (16 clusters; n=611) or control treatment (16 clusters; n=602), delivered and assessed at individual level between 07/2012 and 11/2013. The intervention was single session quit advice (15 min) plus a single training session in yogic breathing exercises; the control condition comprised very brief quit advice (1 min) alone. Both were delivered via outreach, with contact made though household visits. Measurements The primary outcome was 6-month sustained abstinence from all tobacco, assessed 7 months post intervention delivery, biochemically verified with salivary cotinine. Results The smoking cessation rate was higher in the intervention group (2.6% (16/611)) than in the control group (0.5% (3/602)) (relative risk=5.32, 95% CI 1.43 to 19.74, p=0.013). There was no interaction with type of tobacco use (smoked vs smokeless). Results did not change materially in adjusted analyses, controlling for participant characteristics. Conclusions A single session community outreach intervention can increase tobacco cessation in LMIC. The effect size, while small, could impact public health if scaled up with high coverage. Trial registration number ISRCTCN23362894. PMID:27708113
Barbouni, Anastasia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Antoniadou, Eleni; Kourea, Kallirrhoe; Miloni, Evangelia; Warren, Charles W; Rachiotis, George; Rahiotis, George; Kremastinou, Jenny
We conducted the GHPSS (Global Health Professions Student Survey) to obtain information regarding health profession students' smoking habits and perceptions, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as level of knowledge and training on tobacco use and smoking cessation counseling. GHPSS is a survey for third-year students in the following fields: health visitors, dentistry, medicine, nursing and/or pharmacy. The highest tobacco use prevalence rate and exposure to SHS were recorded among health visitor students with 46.4% and 33.3% respectively. The majority of the respondents believed that their profession serves as a role model for their patients. Formal training on cessation counseling ranged between 10.7% for health visitor students to 22.4% for nursing students. The relatively high percentage of health profession students who currently smoke and the alarmingly high percentage of those exposed to SHS indicate lack of concerted efforts for implementation and effective enforcement of the anti-tobacco policy measures. Despite its significance, formal training on cessation counseling for students is strikingly low. These results indicate the urgent need to train health professional students on tobacco cessation counseling and educate them on the dangers of tobacco use, SHS and the positively influential role they can play to affect their patients' smoking habits.
Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.
Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way
Wakefield, M.; Chaloupka, F.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking. DATA SOURCES—Literature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California, Massachusetts, Arizona, Oregon, and Florida. STUDY SELECTION—All studies, reports, and commentaries that provided information on aspects of programme implementation and evaluation. DATA SYNTHESIS—Statewide comprehensive programmes show high levels of advertising recall and generally positive improvement in smoking related beliefs and attitudes among teenagers. More fully funded programmes lead to increased mass media campaign advertising and community initiatives; a greater capacity to implement school based smoking prevention programmes; and an increase in the passage of local ordinances that create smoke free indoor environments and reduce cigarette sales to youth. The combination of programme activity and increased tobacco tax reduce cigarette consumption more than expected as a result of price increases alone, and these effects seem to apply to adolescents as well as adults. Programmes are associated with a decline in adult smoking prevalence, with these effects observed to date in California, Massachusetts, and Oregon. Arizona and Florida have yet to examine change in adult prevalence associated with programme exposure. California and Massachusetts have demonstrated relative beneficial effects in teenage smoking prevalence, and Florida has reported promising indications of reduced prevalence. Arizona has yet to report follow up data, and Oregon has found no change in teenage smoking, but has only two years of follow up available. One of the most critical factors in programme success is the extent of programme funding, and
Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David
Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.
Roeseler, April; Hagaman, Tonia; Kurtz, Caroline
The California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program uses a social norm-change strategy to reduce the uptake and continued use of tobacco products. The statewide media campaign frames the message, community-level projects implement advocacy campaigns, and statewide-funded projects build the capacity of community-level projects. The California Tobacco Control Program's technical assistance (TA) system has evolved over time because of changing needs, evaluation findings, and budget considerations. However, TA services continue to strategically align with four statewide policy priorities: to eliminate secondhand smoke exposure, to counter protobacco influences, to reduce the availability of tobacco, and to promote cessation services. TA is the engine powering social change across California by playing a key role in the uptake of a single policy to facilitating the adoption of hundreds of tobacco control policies statewide. The inclusion of expert and peer-to-peer TA models broadly disseminates both evidence-based and tacit community-based knowledge. Comprehensive TA also levels the playing field for organizations and communities to effectively implement policy interventions. Together these approaches accelerate change throughout California communities.
Hoffman, Kevin M; Poston, Walker S C; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Jahnke, Sara A; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Williams, Larry N; Haddock, Keith
We conducted a content analysis of the US military tobacco policies at the Department of Defense, each respective military service (Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps), and their Major Commands (MAJCOM). Ninety-seven policies were evaluated using the Military Tobacco Policy Rating Form (MTPRF). More than three quarters addressed the following domains: (1) deleterious health effects of tobacco use; (2) environmental tobacco smoke; (3) designation of smoking areas; (4) tobacco prevention/cessation programs; and (5) smokeless tobacco. Few policies (2.1 per cent) mentioned relevant Department of Defense and respective service tobacco use prevalence statistics. Smoking as non-normative or incompatible with military service, the impact of tobacco use on military readiness, and the tobacco industry were addressed infrequently (6.2 per cent, 33.0 per cent, and 8.2 per cent, respectively). Future military tobacco policies should address important omissions of critical information such as the current service tobacco use prevalence, effects on readiness, and smoking as non-normative.
Rodríguez-Buño, Ricardo L; Hu, Teh-Wei; Moran, Andrew E
Objective To use a computer simulation model to project the potential impact in China of tobacco control measures on smoking, as recommended by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), being fully implemented. Design Modelling study. Setting China. Population Males and females aged 15-74 years. Intervention Incremental impact of more complete implementation of WHO FCTC policies simulated using SimSmoke, a Markov computer simulation model of tobacco smoking prevalence, smoking attributable deaths, and the impact of tobacco control policies. Data on China’s adult population, current and former smoking prevalence, initiation and cessation rates, and past policy levels were entered into SimSmoke in order to predict past smoking rates and to project future status quo rates. The model was validated by comparing predicted smoking prevalence with smoking prevalence measured in tobacco surveys from 1996-2010. Main outcome measures Projected future smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths from 2013-50. Results Status quo tobacco policy simulations projected a decline in smoking prevalence from 51.3% in 2015 to 46.5% by 2050 in males and from 2.1% to 1.3% in females. Of the individual FCTC recommended tobacco control policies, increasing the tobacco excise tax to 75% of the retail price was projected to be the most effective, incrementally reducing current smoking compared with the status quo by 12.9% by 2050. Complete and simultaneous implementation of all FCTC policies was projected to incrementally reduce smoking by about 40% relative to the 2050 status quo levels and to prevent approximately 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths and 154 million life years lost by 2050. Conclusions Complete implementation of WHO FCTC recommended policies would prevent more than 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths in China by 2050. Implementation of FCTC policies would alleviate a substantial portion of the tobacco related health
Maziak, W; Ward, K; Afifi, S; Eissenberg, T
Objective: To conduct a comprehensive review regarding global waterpipe use, in order to identify current knowledge, guide scientific research, and promote public policy. Data sources: A Medline search using as keywords "waterpipe", "narghile", "arghile", "shisha", "hookah", "goza", "hubble bubble" and variant spellings (for example, "hooka"; "hukka") was conducted. Resources compiled recently by members of GLOBALink were used. Study selection: Every identified published study related to waterpipe use was included. Data synthesis: Research regarding waterpipe epidemiology and health effects is limited; no published studies address treatment efforts. Waterpipe use is increasing globally, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, where perceptions regarding health effects and traditional values may facilitate use among women and children. Waterpipe smoke contains harmful constituents and there is preliminary evidence linking waterpipe smoking to a variety of life threatening conditions, including pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, and pregnancy related complications. Conclusions: More scientific documentation and careful analysis is required before the spread of waterpipe use and its health effects can be understood, and empirically guided treatment and public policy strategies can be implemented. PMID:15564614
Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David
Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people use tobacco, resulting in about 6 million deaths per year. The tobacco industry's documented history of subverting control efforts required innovative approaches by WHO--led by Gro Harlem Brundtland--including invocation of its constitutional authority to develop treaties. In 2003, WHO member states adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). In the decade since, 177 countries have ratified and started to implement its full provisions. Success has been tempered by new challenges. Tobacco use has fallen in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development but increased in low-income and middle-income countries, a result in no small part of illicit trade and cheap products from China and other unregulated state monopolies. This review of 50 years of policy development aimed at reducing the burden of disease attributable to tobacco reviews the origins and strategies used in forging the WHO FCTC, from the perspective of one who was there.
Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon
Background Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Methods Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Results Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by ‘advertisement’ and ‘tobacco culture’ (both at 12%), ‘traditional culture’ and ‘public relations’ (both at 11%), and finally ‘social and business affairs’ (5%). 33% of posts included the words ‘cigarette’ or ‘smoking’ and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Conclusions Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban. PMID:24914739
Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C; Anthony, James C; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J. Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, José; Stein, Dan J; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J. Elisabeth
Background Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Methods and Findings Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa), Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China), and Oceania (New Zealand). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42%) was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%). Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex–cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male–female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use. Conclusions Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent
Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai
Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar™) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan™) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219
The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999-2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically significant difference between the proportion of those reporting cigarette smoking (8.9%) and other tobacco use (11.2%). Use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health problem in all six WHO regions. Worldwide, more countries need to develop, implement, and evaluate their tobacco-control programs to address the use of all types of tobacco products, especially among girls.
Persai, Divya; Panda, Rajmohan; Gupta, Adyya
Introduction. While extensive scientific evidence exists on the tobacco epidemic, a lack of understanding of both policies and their appropriate way of implementation continues to hinder effective tobacco control. This is especially so in the developing countries such as India. The present study aims to understand current implementation practices and the challenges faced in mainstreaming tobacco control policy and program. Methods. We chose a qualitative study design to conduct the case analysis. A total of 42 in-depth interviews were undertaken with seven district officials in six districts of Andhra Pradesh. A conceptual framework was developed by applying grounded theory for analysis. Analysis was undertaken using case analysis approach. Results and Discussion. Our study revealed that most program managers were unfamiliar with the comprehensive tobacco control policy. Respondents have an ambiguous opinion regarding integration of tobacco control program into existing health and development programs. Respondents perceive lack of resources, low prioritization of tobacco control, and lack of monitoring and evaluation of smoke-free laws as limiting factors affecting implementation of tobacco control policy. Conclusion. The findings of this study highlighted the need for a systematic, organized action plan for effective implementation of tobacco control policy and program. PMID:26933512
Emery, Sherry L.; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C.; Ribisl, Kurt M.
Objectives. We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Methods. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Results. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors’ access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Conclusions. Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment. PMID:26270303
Dinno, Alexis; Glantz, Stanton
This study models independent associations of state or local strong clean indoor air laws and cigarette prices with current smoker status and consumption in a multilevel framework, including interactions with educational attainment, household income and race/ethnicity and the relationships of these policies to vulnerabilities in smoking behavior. Cross sectional survey data are employed from the February 2002 panel of the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (54,024 individuals representing the US population aged 15-80). Non-linear relationships between both outcome variables and the predictors were modeled. Independent associations of strong clean indoor air laws were found for current smoker status (OR 0.66), and consumption among current smokers (-2.36 cigarettes/day). Cigarette price was found to have independent associations with both outcomes, an effect that saturated at higher prices. The odds ratio for smoking for the highest versus lowest price over the range where there was a price effect was 0.83. Average consumption declined (-1.16 cigarettes/day) over the range of effect of price on consumption. Neither policy varied in its effect by educational attainment, or household income. The association of cigarette price with reduced smoking participation and consumption was not found to vary with race/ethnicity. Population vulnerability in consumption appears to be structured by non-white race categories, but not at the state and county levels at which the policies we studied were enacted. Clean indoor air laws and price increases appear to benefit all socio-economic and race/ethnic groups in our study equally in terms of reducing smoking participation and consumption.
... stillbirth when used during pregnancy Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine poisoning and even death in children who mistake it for candy. Smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction. This can lead to smoking and using other forms of tobacco. ...
Civljak, Marta; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Skara, Silvana; Oresković, Stipe
Despite the availability of numerous evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programs, many countries are still not implementing these research-proven programs. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the extent to which evidence-based smoking control programs have been implemented in Croatia over the last two decades. Data from the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group, which are readily available worldwide, were used as criteria to evaluate whether effective, evidence-based programs have been implemented in Croatia. According to our findings, the most effective behavioral and pharmacological smoking cessation interventions have thus far been underutilized in Croatia. In addition, some interventions that have been continuously implemented in Croatia--such as using self-help materials, school-based programs and the celebration of World No Tobacco Day--have only small, short-term beneficial effects according to the Cochrane reviews. However, Croatia is a party to the World health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and therefore has effective national legislation on tobacco control. Croatia should develop and implement programs that integrate the existing high-quality empirical evidence on the effectiveness of various behavioral, pharmacological, and social interventions for smoking prevention and cessation. This programming should become a part of a continuous national strategy, and should be implemented throughout all of Croatia.
Lin, Feng; Chen, Xinguang
In order to find better strategies for tobacco control, it is often critical to know the transitional probabilities among various stages of tobacco use. Traditionally, such probabilities are estimated by analyzing data from longitudinal surveys that are often time-consuming and expensive to conduct. Since cross-sectional surveys are much easier to conduct, it will be much more practical and useful to estimate transitional probabilities from cross-sectional survey data if possible. However, no previous research has attempted to do this. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate transitional probabilities from cross-sectional survey data. The method is novel and is based on a discrete event system framework. In particular, we introduce state probabilities and transitional probabilities to conventional discrete event system models. We derive various equations that can be used to estimate the transitional probabilities. We test the method using cross-sectional data of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The estimated transitional probabilities can be used in predicting the future smoking behavior for decision-making, planning and evaluation of various tobacco control programs. The method also allows a sensitivity analysis that can be used to find the most effective way of tobacco control. Since there are much more cross-sectional survey data in existence than longitudinal ones, the impact of this new method is expected to be significant. PMID:20161437
Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco
Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.
Iida, Kaori; Proctor, Robert N
Japan is in the midst of a rapid increase in tobacco-related disease mortality, following the rapid growth of smoking after WWII. Stomach cancer was the country's leading cause of cancer death for most of the 20th century, until lung cancer took over this position in 1993. Cigarettes are the major cause of lung cancer in Japan, but the country's leading manufacturer, Japan Tobacco, two thirds of which is owned by the Japanese government, continues to question whether tobacco is a major cause of disease and death. Japanese courts do not have the power to subpoena a company's internal records, which has made it difficult to document Japan Tobacco's strategies concerning tobacco and health. Our interpretation of online archives of internal documents from American tobacco companies, however, is that Japan Tobacco has long known about the potential health risks involved in smoking and has sought to obstruct effective tobacco control. Beginning in the mid-1980s, these efforts were often co-ordinated with American tobacco manufacturers. The documentary evidence shows that cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris in particular assisted with and sometimes also supervised Japan Tobacco's actions and statements on smoking and health. In one instance, data gathered for an article published by the Japan Public Monopoly Corporation (Japan Tobacco's predecessor) were deliberately altered to lower the reported value of a hazard indicator (nicotine concentration in the air). International collaboration has made it easier for companies such as Japan Tobacco to develop effective anti-antismoking strategies. Evidence of such global industry collaborations might grow as lawsuits begin to be filed in other nations.
Klein, Elizabeth G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Berman, Micah
Very little is known about how smoking and other tobacco use is regulated in outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces across transit systems. The purpose of this study was to understand how American transit systems are regulating cigarettes and other tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes, in outdoor or quasi-outdoor spaces. Within four regions of the United States, a purposive convenience sample was taken of the top five volume American transit systems (n = 20) based on annual ridership. Each transit authority website was systematically reviewed to produce a cross-sectional study of the published policies regarding tobacco product use for indoor, outdoor, and quasi-outdoor spaces of transit property; rules regarding cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes were identified. Policies regulating tobacco use were enacted by transit systems and/or the cities and states in which transit systems are located. The majority (80%) of transit systems banned smoking in outdoor areas; few prohibited smokeless tobacco use (15%, n = 3) and some disallowed e-cigarettes (30%, n = 6). Violation consequences ranged widely from none to verbal warnings, ejection from transit property, fines, and imprisonment. Regulating smoking in outdoor or quasi-outdoor environments is common in American transit environments. These policies can help protect vulnerable populations from exposure to secondhand smoke and communicate a tobacco-free norm.
Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Lew, Rod; Kuratani, Darrah G; Wong, Michelle; Fu, Lisa
Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities face enormous health disparities, with tobacco use contributing to high rates of cancer and heart disease. There is growing interest nationwide on the influence of environmental factors on tobacco use. AAPI communities have been found to have higher exposures to tobacco company marketing compared to the general population. The authors describe the use of Photovoice (a qualitative needs assessment technique) to empower AAPI youth to identify and understand environmental characteristics associated with tobacco use in four AAPI communities in California and Washington. Of the six major environmental themes identified from the photos, three themes were found across all four communities. Debrief sessions with youth and community leaders underscore the relevance of Photovoice for identifying community needs and motivating community organization for change. Despite some logistical challenges, Photovoice exemplifies the power and potential of this community-based methodology to capture how the environment influences youth on tobacco use.
Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Lew, Rod; Kuratani, Darrah G.; Wong, Michelle; Fu, Lisa
Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities face enormous health disparities, with tobacco use contributing to high rates of cancer and heart disease. There is growing interest nationwide on the influence of environmental factors on tobacco use. AAPI communities have been found to have higher exposures to tobacco company marketing compared to the general population. The authors describe the use of Photovoice (a qualitative needs assessment technique) to empower AAPI youth to identify and understand environmental characteristics associated with tobacco use in four AAPI communities in California and Washington. Of the six major environmental themes identified from the photos, three themes were found across all four communities. Debrief sessions with youth and community leaders underscore the relevance of Photovoice for identifying community needs and motivating community organization for change. Despite some logistical challenges, Photovoice exemplifies the power and potential of this community-based methodology to capture how the environment influences youth on tobacco use. PMID:21955822
Hogarth, Lee; Maynard, Olivia M; Munafò, Marcus R
Aims To gain insight into the potential impact of plain tobacco packaging policy, two experiments were undertaken to test whether ‘prototype’ plain compared with branded UK cigarette pack stimuli would differentially elicit instrumental tobacco-seeking in a nominal Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure. Design, Setting and Participants Two experiments were undertaken at the University of Bristol UK, with a convenience sample of adult smokers (experiment 1, n = 23, experiment 2, n = 121). Measurement In both experiments, smokers were trained on a concurrent choice procedure in which two responses earned points for cigarettes and chocolate, respectively, before images of branded and plain packs were tested for capacity to elicit the tobacco-seeking response in extinction. The primary outcome was percentage choice of the tobacco- over the chocolate-seeking response in plain pack, branded pack and no-stimulus conditions. Findings Both experiments found that branded packs primed a greater percentage of tobacco-seeking (overall mean = 62%) than plain packs (overall mean = 53%) and the no-stimulus condition (overall mean = 52%; Ps ≤ 0.01, ŋp2s ≥ 0.16), and that there was no difference in percentage tobacco-seeking between plain packs and the no-stimulus condition (Ps ≥ 0.17, ŋp2s ≤ 0.04). Plain tobacco packs showed an overall 9% reduction in the priming of a tobacco choice response compared to branded tobacco packs. Conclusions Plain packaging may reduce smoking in current smokers by degrading cue-elicited tobacco-seeking. PMID:25292280
Sorensen, Glorian; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Nagler, Eve; Aghi, Mira B.; Lando, Harry A.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Pawar, Pratibha; Gupta, Prakash C.
Objectives. We assessed a school-based intervention designed to promote tobacco control among teachers in the Indian state of Bihar. Methods. We used a cluster-randomized design to test the intervention, which comprised educational efforts, tobacco control policies, and cessation support and was tailored to the local social context. In 2009 to 2011, we randomly selected 72 schools from participating school districts and randomly assigned them in blocks (rural or urban) to intervention or delayed-intervention control conditions. Results. Immediately after the intervention, the 30-day quit rate was 50% in the intervention and 15% in the control group (P = .001). At the 9-month postintervention survey, the adjusted 6-month quit rate was 19% in the intervention and 7% in the control group (P = .06). Among teachers employed for the entire academic year of the intervention, the adjusted 6-month abstinence rates were 20% and 5%, respectively, for the intervention and control groups (P = .04). Conclusions. These findings demonstrate the potent impact of an intervention that took advantage of social resources among teachers, who can serve as role models for tobacco control in their communities. PMID:24028234
Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia
Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682
Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam
Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).
Enrique Armendares, Pedro; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam
The international tobacco industry, in its constant quest for new markets, has expanded aggressively to middle- and low-income nations. At the same time there has been a marked increase in tobacco smuggling, especially of cigarettes. Smuggling produces serious fiscal losses to governments the world over, erodes tobacco control policies and is an incentive to international organized crime. In addition, smuggling results in increased demand for and consumption of tobacco, which in turn benefits the tobacco companies. Moreover, there is evidence indicating that the international tobacco industry has instigated cigarette smuggling and has participated directly in these activities, while at the same time carrying out costly lobbying campaigns to pressure governments against tax increases and to promote their own interests. Academic studies and empirical evidence show that tobacco control can be promoted through high tax rates without causing significant increases in smuggling. To achieve this tobacco smuggling must be attacked through the use of strategies including multilateral controls and actions such as those included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which establishes the basis for combating smuggling through an international, global approach. It is also necessary to increase the penalties for smuggling and to make the tobacco industry, including producers and distributors, responsible for the final destination of their exports.
Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T
Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084
Trade and investment liberalisation in the post-1980 period allowed the penetration of transnational tobacco companies into the Turkish market. State control over the market was gradually removed and tobacco farming, manufacturing, trade and consumption were reshaped in line with the needs of transnational tobacco companies. The resultant increase in product proliferation and aggressive marketing strategies led to a dramatic rise in cigarette consumption in the 1990s, making Turkey a market with one of the sharpest consumption increases in the world. While Turkey implemented demand-side tobacco control policies to reduce consumption after 1996, it continued to stimulate manufacturing and trade in a conflicting way. The Turkish case verifies that the liberalisation process facilitated by the state under the auspices of international institutions conflicts with tobacco control. Liberalisation paves the way for market expansions of transnational tobacco companies that resist tobacco control in their drive for profit. Current global tobacco control policies, with no interest in controlling manufacturing, have limited effect on consumption. The Turkish case indicates the necessity of establishing public control over tobacco manufacturing and trade from a public health perspective.
Cain, W. S.; Isseroff, R.; Leaderere, B. P.; Lipsitt, E. D.; Huey, R. J.; Perlman, D.; Bergland, L. G.; Dunn, J. D.
A sensitive chemical analysis of the air in a building will characteristically reveal a large number of organic substances, many at concentrations too low to have discernible biological impact. If the concentrations of the chemicals increase, the first sign of their presence may occur via the sense of smell. The air may become odorous. In the general absence of any better or faster indicator, smell will serve as the principal means to decide whether the air in a room is acceptable. Accordingly, this modality has long figured directly or indirectly in the choice of ventilation rates. The cost of ventilation, on the average more than 25% of the operating cost of a building, increases proportionally with the cost of energy and therefore provides a strong incentive to search for energy efficiency. A previous report reviewed the literature relevant to odor perception, odor control, and ventilation (1). The report highlighted prospects for research that might point to ways to achieve both acceptable air quality and energy efficiency in ventilation. The present report provides an account of laboratory research stimulated by that review. The report focuses on ventilation requirements for occupancy odor (Part l) and tobacco smoke odor (Part 2), and offers some preliminary observations on how filtration may aid ventilation (Part 3).
Stafford, H. A.; Galston, A. W.
Isozymes of tobacco pith polyphenoloxidases (o-diphenol oxidase, EC 126.96.36.199) were separated electrophoretically from fresh pith of intact plants and from cultured pith sections. Extracts of fresh pith contained a poorly resolved complex of two to three anodic bands after starch gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. This anodic complex was more active with chlorogenic acid than with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and was found in greater activity per gram fresh weight of tissue in younger internodes than in older ones. The longitudinal gradient of activity was thus the opposite of that found for the constitutive isozymes of peroxidase. A well defined cathodic band of polyphenoloxidase activity appeared after culture of pith in modified White's medium with shaking. This band, which was more active with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine than with chlorogenic acid, could be detected after 1 to 2 days of incubation. Its appearance was enhanced by the addition of 10 μm indoleacetic acid; kinetin (1 μm tended to prevent this indoleacetic acid effect). Such hormonal control is opposite to that previously reported for the rapidly appearing new isozymes of peroxidase. The pattern of the major isozymes associated with polyphenoloxidase activities differs from that of peroxidase. PMID:4993442
Cooper, Theodore V; Cabriales, José Alonso; Taylor, Thom; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon; Kelly, Michael
Tobacco control (TC) networks (in which multiple agencies collaborate) are essential components within comprehensive TC efforts. The aim of this study was to assess the internal coalition outcomes hierarchy model (via the Internal Coalition Effectiveness [ICE] scale) in the present sample. Participants (members of a TC Network on the U.S.-México border; independent Waves 1 [N = 30] and 2 [N = 33; at a 1-year subsequent assessment]) completed a background questionnaire and an adapted version of the ICE scale. Mean values for ICE subscales suggested a strong enthusiasm of Network members and recognition of the importance of a cohesive social vision, employment of efficient practices, a need for improved and maintained knowledge/training, and stable social relationships among members. However, no significant differences were observed between data waves in the ICE subscales, multivariate analysis of variance: λ = .97, F(4, 43) = 0.31, p > .86. Considering a multifaceted assessment may enhance the understanding of the dynamics and strengths of the Network. Finally, including an assessment of the leadership's perspective regarding internal coalition outcome hierarchy model constructs to compare them with members' perspective is warranted.
Swart, Dehran; Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S Priscilla; Bergström, Erik; de Vries, Hein
This paper explores adolescent preferences for the setting, timing, delivery format, provider and key elements of tobacco control programmes. The need for programme sensitivity towards urban/rural, gender and ethnic subgroups is also discussed. Schools were purposively selected from the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Twelve prevention and nine cessation focus group discussions were conducted with Grade 6-8 students and Grade 8-9 smokers and ex-smokers, respectively. Adolescents reported similar preferences for prevention and cessation programmes. Although they were unaware of smoking prevention or cessation programmes, they reported a willingness to participate in such programmes. Programmes should include school-based activities that are supported by out-of-school activities held over weekends and holidays. Non-judgemental and empathetic teachers and peers, as well as ex-smokers were preferred as programme providers. School-based participatory delivery formats should be supported by community-based mass media approaches. Programmes can be jointly presented to boys and girls of diverse ethnic backgrounds with some gender-sensitive sessions. Programme participation and sustainability would be enhanced if it were exciting, fun filled and integrated into their daily lives. School-based programmes must be embedded within comprehensive approaches that involve community- and policy-level interventions.
Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T
The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our s