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Sample records for glovebox experiment enclosed

  1. USML-1 Glovebox experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

  2. Marshall Tests Experiment Hardware in New Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This excellent shot of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Mark Whorton, testing experiment hardware in the Microgravity Science Glovebox Ground Unit delivered to MSFC on August 30, 2002, reveals a close look at the components inside of the Glovebox. The unit is being used at Marshall's Microgravity Development Laboratory to test experiment hardware before it is installed in the flight Glovebox aboard the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. The glovebox is a sealed container with built in gloves on its sides and fronts that enables astronauts to work safely with experiments that involve fluids, flames, particles, and fumes that need to be safely contained.

  3. Marshall Tests Experiment Hardware in New Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox Ground Unit, delivered to the Marshall Space Flight Center on August 30, 2002, will be used at Marshall's Microgravity Development Laboratory to test experiment hardware before it is installed in the flight glovebox aboard the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. The glovebox is a sealed container with built in gloves on its sides and fronts that enables astronauts to work safely with experiments that involve fluids, flames, particles, and fumes that need to be safely contained.

  4. Concepts for microgravity experiments utilizing gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Facemire, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The need for glovebox facilities on spacecraft in which microgravity materials processing experiments are performed is discussed. At present such facilities are being designed, and some of their capabilities are briefly described. A list of experiment concepts which would require or benefit from such facilities is presented.

  5. Experiments with large enclosed ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Gamble, J C

    1979-08-08

    Three of the major advantages of enclosure experiments are that they ensure (1) that the same populations are sampled over a long period; (2) that populations of at least three trophic levels are initially enclosed in naturally occurring proportions and that they are self sustaining over a long experimental period; and (3) that replicate enclosed populations can be experimentally manipulated. There are two disadvantages which must be mentioned. These are (1) that vertical mixing, which may be reduced by as much as an order of magnitude compared to the open sea, will undoubtedly affect the sinking rates of phytoplankton and may influence the structure of the population; and (2) that as a general rule the larger and therefore more expensive the enclosures become, the more difficult it is to run sufficient replicates. An experiment is described in which 1 microgram Hg/l was added to two 95 m3 bags (3 mdiameter by 17 m deep) and the response of the pelagic population monitored over the following 20 days. A further 10 micrograms Hg/l was then added to each enclosure and the response measured for a further 20 days. The results indicated that: (i) inorganic mercury added to the water column is very rapidly transformed into 'bound' or 'non-reactive' mercury and that about 25% of the mercury added was recovered associated with the organic material settling to the bottom of the bags; (ii) the response of the biological population to 1 microgram Hg/l was very limited and in fact a transient reduction in photosynthetic carbon uptake per unit chlorophyll was the only noticeable effect and there were no changes in population size or structure that could be attributed to mercury; (iii) at 10 micrograms Hg/l the zooplankton population was reduced markedly and this did produce changes in the structure of both the zooplankton and phytoplankton populations. These results are similar to the results of a comparable experiment carried out in Vancouver Island (Cepex) and point to the

  6. Glovebox Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The USML-1 Glovebox (GBX) is a multi-user facility supporting 16 experiments in fluid dynamics, combustion sciences, crystal growth, and technology demonstration. The GBX has an enclosed working space which minimizes the contamination risks to both Spacelab and experiment samples. The GBX supports four charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras (two of which may be operated simultaneously) with three black-and-white and three color camera CCD heads available. The GBX also has a backlight panel, a 35 mm camera, and a stereomicroscope that offers high-magnification viewing of experiment samples. Video data can also be downlinked in real-time. The GBX also provides electrical power for experiment hardware, a time-temperature display, and cleaning supplies.

  7. The USML-1 wire insulation flammability glovebox experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Flame spreading tests have been conducted using thin fuels in microgravity where buoyant convection is suppressed. In spacecraft experiments flames were ignited in quiescent atmospheres with an elevated oxygen content, demonstrating that diffusional mechanisms can be sufficient alone to sustain flame spreading. In ground-based facilities (i.e. drop towers and parabolic aircraft) low-speed convection sustains flames at much lower concentrations of atmospheric oxygen than in quiescent microgravity. Ground-based experiments are limited to very thin fuels (e.g., tissue paper); practical fuels, which are thicker, require more test time than is available. The Glovebox Facility provided for the USML 1 mission provided an opportunity to obtain flame spreading data for thicker fuel Herein we report the results from the Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) Experiment performed in the Glovebox Facility. This experiment explored the heating, ignition and burning of 0.65 mm thick polyethylene wire insulation in low-speed flows in a reduced gravity environment. Four tests were conducted, two each in concurrent flow (WIF A and C) and opposed flow (WIF B and D), providing the first demonstration of flame spreading in controlled forced convection conducted in space.

  8. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX): An Immersive Simulation System for Training Astronauts to Perform Glovebox Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station (ISS) has finally arrived, providing researchers on Earth a unique opportunity to study long-term effects of weightlessness and the space environment on structures, materials and living systems. Many of the physical, biological and material science experiments planned for ISS will require significant input and expertise from astronauts who must conduct the research, follow complicated assay procedures and collect data and samples in space. Containment is essential for Much of this work, both to protect astronauts from potentially harmful biological, chemical or material elements in the experiments as well as to protect the experiments from contamination by air-born particles In the Space Station environment. When astronauts must open the hardware containing such experiments, glovebox facilities provide the necessary barrier between astronaut and experiment. On Earth, astronauts are laced with the demanding task of preparing for the many glovebox experiments they will perform in space. Only a short time can be devoted to training for each experimental task and gl ovebox research only accounts for a small portion of overall training and mission objectives on any particular ISS mission. The quality of the research also must remain very high, requiring very detailed experience and knowledge of instrumentation, anatomy and specific scientific objectives for those who will conduct the research. This unique set of needs faced by NASA has stemmed the development of a new computer simulation tool, the Virtual Glovebox (VGB), which is designed to provide astronaut crews and support personnel with a means to quickly and accurately prepare and train for glovebox experiments in space.

  9. Design/build/mockup of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Benjamin, W.W.; Knight, C.J.; Michelbacher, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    A glovebox was designed, fabricated, and mocked-up for the WIPP Gas Generation Experiments (GGE) being conducted at ANL-W. GGE will determine the gas generation rates from materials in contact handled transuranic waste at likely long term repository temperature and pressure conditions. Since the customer`s schedule did not permit time for performing R&D of the support systems, designing the glovebox, and fabricating the glovebox in a serial fashion, a parallel approach was undertaken. As R&D of the sampling system and other support systems was initiated, a specification was written concurrently for contracting a manufacturer to design and build the glovebox and support equipment. The contractor understood that the R&D being performed at ANL-W would add additional functional requirements to the glovebox design. Initially, the contractor had sufficient information to design the glovebox shell. Once the shell design was approved, ANL-W built a full scale mockup of the shell out of plywood and metal framing; support systems were mocked up and resultant information was forwarded to the glovebox contractor to incorporate into the design. This approach resulted in a glovebox being delivered to ANL-W on schedule and within budget.

  10. Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) with Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) in European Lab Columbus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-31

    ISS017-E-012288 (31 July 2008) --- NASA astronaut Greg Chamitoff, Expedition 17 flight engineer, works with the Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) rheometer inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) with Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) in European Lab Columbus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-31

    ISS017-E-012283 (31 July 2008) --- NASA astronaut Greg Chamitoff, Expedition 17 flight engineer, works with the Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) rheometer inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  12. USMP-4 MGBX ELF, Doi and Lindsey with glovebox experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-29

    STS087-330-009 (19 November – 5 December 1997) --- Astronauts Takao Doi (left) and Steven W. Lindsey check out the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) experiment on the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. ELF has been designed to examine the effect of different air flow velocities on the stability of laminar (non-turbulent) flames. Enclosed laminar flames are commonly found in combustion systems such as power plant and gas turbine combustors, and jet engine afterburners. It is hoped that results of this investigation may help to optimize the performance of industrial combustors, including pollutant emissions and heat transfer. The microgravity environment of space makes a perfect setting for a laboratory involving combustion, an activity that creates convection in normal gravity. In microgravity, scientists can study subtle processes ordinarily masked by the effects of gravity. Doi is an international mission specialist representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Lindsey is the pilot. Both are alumni of NASA's 1995 class of Astronaut Candidates (ASCAN).

  13. USML-1 Glovebox Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The USML-1 Glovebox (GBX) is a multi-user facility supporting 16 experiments in fluid dynamics, combustion sciences, crystal growth, and technology demonstration. The GBX has an enclosed working space which minimizes the contamination risks to both Spacelab and experiment samples. The GBX supports four charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras (two of which may be operated simultaneously) with three black-and-white and three color camera CCD heads available. The GBX also has a backlight panel, a 35 mm camera, and a stereomicroscope that offers high-magnification viewing of experiment samples. Video data can also be downlinked in real-time. The GBX also provides electrical power for experiment hardware, a time-temperature display, and cleaning supplies.

  14. USML-1 Glovebox Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The USML-1 Glovebox (GBX) is a multi-user facility supporting 16 experiments in fluid dynamics, combustion sciences, crystal growth, and technology demonstration. The GBX has an enclosed working space which minimizes the contamination risks to both Spacelab and experiment samples. The GBX supports four charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras (two of which may be operated simultaneously) with three black-and-white and three color camera CCD heads available. The GBX also has a backlight panel, a 35 mm camera, and a stereomicroscope that offers high-magnification viewing of experiment samples. Video data can also be downlinked in real-time. The GBX also provides electrical power for experiment hardware, a time-temperature display, and cleaning supplies.

  15. NASA Virtual Glovebox: An Immersive Virtual Desktop Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twombly, I. Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey; Bruyns, Cynthia; Montgomery, Kevin; Boyle, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX) integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real- time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  16. MSG: Microgravity Science Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Baugher, C.R.; Ramachandran, N.; Roark, W.

    1996-12-31

    The capabilities of the Space Station glovebox facility is described. Tentatively scheduled to be launched in 1999, this facility called the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG), will provide a robust and sophisticated platform for doing microgravity experiments on the Space Station. It will provide an environment not only for testing and evaluating experiment concepts, but also serve as a platform for doing fairly comprehensive science investigations. Its design has evolved substantially from the middeck glovebox, now flown on Space Shuttle missions, not only in increased experiment volume but also in significant capability enhancements. The system concept, functionality and architecture are discussed along with technical information that will benefit potential science investigators.

  17. Top View of Glovebox Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The USML-1 Glovebox (GBX) is a multi-user facility supporting 16 experiments in fluid dynamics, combustion sciences, crystal growth, and technology demonstration. The GBX has an enclosed working space which minimizes the contamination risks to both Spacelab and experiment samples. The GBX supports four charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras (two of which may be operated simultaneously) with three black-and-white and three color camera CCD heads available. The GBX also has a backlight panel, a 35 mm camera, and a stereomicroscope that offers high-magnification viewing of experiment samples. Video data can also be downlinked in real-time. The GBX also provides electrical power for experiment hardware, a time-temperature display, and cleaning supplies.

  18. The Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Chao, David; Vergilii, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Boiling is an effective means of cooling by removing heat from surfaces through vaporization of a working fluid. It is also affected by both the magnitude and direction of gravity. By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy n the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. The Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) is being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox. This facility will conduct two pool boiling studies. The first study the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment (MABE) uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 mm and 7.0 mm in size, to measure localized hear fluxes while operating at a constant temperature. The other experiment, the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment (NPBX) uses a 85 mm diameter heater wafer that has been "seeded" with five individually-controlled nucleation sites to study bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and departure. The BXF uses normal-perfluorohexane as the test fluid and will operate between pressures of 60 to 244 Pa. and temperatures of 35 to 60 C. Both sets of experimental heaters are highly instrumented. Pressure and bulk fluid temperature measurements will be made with standard rate video. A high speed video system will be used to visualize the boiling process through the bottom of the MABE heater arrays. The BXF is currently scheduled to fly on Utilization Flight-13A.1 to the ISS with facility integration into the MSG and operation during Increment 15

  19. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox is a facility for performing microgravity research in the areas of materials, combustion, fluids and biotechnology science. The facility occupies a full ISPR, consisting of: the ISPR rack and infrastructure for the rack, the glovebox core facility, data handling, rack stowage, outfitting equipment, and a video subsystem. MSG core facility provides the experiment developers a chamber with air filtering and recycling, up to two levels of containment, an airlock for transfer of payload equipment to/from the main volume, interface resources for the payload inside the core facility, resources inside the airlock, and storage drawers for MSG support equipment and consumables.

  20. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  1. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  2. Reproducible Crystal Growth Experiments in Microgravity Science Glovebox at the International Space Station (SUBSA Investigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Bonner, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) is the first investigation conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility at the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. 8 single crystals of InSb, doped with Te and Zn, were directionally solidified in microgravity. The experiments were conducted in a furnace with a transparent gradient section, and a video camera, sending images to the earth. The real time images (i) helped seeding, (ii) allowed a direct measurement of the solidification rate. The post-flight characterization of the crystals includes: computed x-ray tomography, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Hall measurements, Atomic Absorption (AA), and 4 point probe analysis. For the first time in microgravity, several crystals having nearly identical initial transients were grown. Reproducible initial transients were obtained with Te-doped InSb. Furthermore, the diffusion controlled end-transient was demonstrated experimentally (SUBSA 02). From the initial transients, the diffusivity of Te and Zn in InSb was determined.

  3. Reproducible Crystal Growth Experiments in Microgravity Science Glovebox at the International Space Station (SUBSA Investigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Bonner, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) is the first investigation conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility at the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. 8 single crystals of InSb, doped with Te and Zn, were directionally solidified in microgravity. The experiments were conducted in a furnace with a transparent gradient section, and a video camera, sending images to the earth. The real time images (i) helped seeding, (ii) allowed a direct measurement of the solidification rate. The post-flight characterization of the crystals includes: computed x-ray tomography, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Hall measurements, Atomic Absorption (AA), and 4 point probe analysis. For the first time in microgravity, several crystals having nearly identical initial transients were grown. Reproducible initial transients were obtained with Te-doped InSb. Furthermore, the diffusion controlled end-transient was demonstrated experimentally (SUBSA 02). From the initial transients, the diffusivity of Te and Zn in InSb was determined.

  4. The materials processing sciences glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traweek, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Processing Sciences Glovebox is a rack mounted workstation which allows on orbit sample preparation and characterization of specimens from various experiment facilities. It provides an isolated safe, clean, and sterile environment for the crew member to work with potentially hazardous materials. It has to handle a range of chemicals broader than even PMMS. The theme is that the Space Station Laboratory experiment preparation and characterization operations provide the fundamental glovebox design characteristics. Glovebox subsystem concepts and how internal material handling operations affect the design are discussed.

  5. NASA Virtual Glovebox (VBX): Emerging Simulation Technology for Space Station Experiment Design, Development, Training and Troubleshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Maese, A. Christopher; Cagle, Yvonne; Boyle, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station demonstrates the greatest capabilities of human ingenuity, international cooperation and technology development. The complexity of this space structure is unprecedented; and training astronaut crews to maintain all its systems, as well as perform a multitude of research experiments, requires the most advanced training tools and techniques. Computer simulation and virtual environments are currently used by astronauts to train for robotic arm manipulations and extravehicular activities; but now, with the latest computer technologies and recent successes in areas of medical simulation, the capability exists to train astronauts for more hands-on research tasks using immersive virtual environments. We have developed a new technology, the Virtual Glovebox (VGX), for simulation of experimental tasks that astronauts will perform aboard the Space Station. The VGX may also be used by crew support teams for design of experiments, testing equipment integration capability and optimizing the procedures astronauts will use. This is done through the 3D, desk-top sized, reach-in virtual environment that can simulate the microgravity environment in space. Additional features of the VGX allow for networking multiple users over the internet and operation of tele-robotic devices through an intuitive user interface. Although the system was developed for astronaut training and assisting support crews, Earth-bound applications, many emphasizing homeland security, have also been identified. Examples include training experts to handle hazardous biological and/or chemical agents in a safe simulation, operation of tele-robotic systems for assessing and diffusing threats such as bombs, and providing remote medical assistance to field personnel through a collaborative virtual environment. Thus, the emerging VGX simulation technology, while developed for space- based applications, can serve a dual use facilitating homeland security here on Earth.

  6. Catastrophic Collapse of Particulate Clouds: Implications From Aggregation Experiments in the USML-1 and USML-2 Glovebox. Experiment 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John; Freund, Friedemann; Sauke, Todd; Freund, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with electrostatic aggregation of well-dispersed (nominally, mono-dispersed), freely suspended particles in the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) Glovebox have determined that filamentary aggregates are a universal product of grain interactions in relatively dense particulate clouds. Aggregate growth from the experimental particle clouds primarily involves dipole-dipole interactions for nonconducting materials; dipole interactions account for both attraction between grains as well as the cohesive force that maintains the integrity of the filamentary structures. When a cloud undergoes a turbulent-to-quiescent transition after damping of fluid and ballistic grain motions, aggregation occurs almost instantaneously and the cloud is transformed into a population of "heavier" clusters of material with organized electrical structures. This abrupt transformation could initiate catastrophic gravitational collapse of certain regions of particulate clouds, thus controlling the longevity and fate of cloud systems as diverse as protoplanetary dust disks and volcanic eruption plumes.

  7. Catastrophic Collapse of Particulate Clouds: Implications From Aggregation Experiments in the USML-1 and USML-2 Glovebox. Experiment 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John; Freund, Friedemann; Sauke, Todd; Freund, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with electrostatic aggregation of well-dispersed (nominally, mono-dispersed), freely suspended particles in the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) Glovebox have determined that filamentary aggregates are a universal product of grain interactions in relatively dense particulate clouds. Aggregate growth from the experimental particle clouds primarily involves dipole-dipole interactions for nonconducting materials; dipole interactions account for both attraction between grains as well as the cohesive force that maintains the integrity of the filamentary structures. When a cloud undergoes a turbulent-to-quiescent transition after damping of fluid and ballistic grain motions, aggregation occurs almost instantaneously and the cloud is transformed into a population of "heavier" clusters of material with organized electrical structures. This abrupt transformation could initiate catastrophic gravitational collapse of certain regions of particulate clouds, thus controlling the longevity and fate of cloud systems as diverse as protoplanetary dust disks and volcanic eruption plumes.

  8. Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computer-generated drawing shows the relative scale and working space for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by NASA and the European Space Agency for science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The person at the glovebox repesents a 95th percentile American male. The MSG will be deployed first to the Destiny laboratory module and later will be moved to ESA's Columbus Attached Payload Module. Each module will be filled with International Standard Payload Racks (green) attached to standoff fittings (yellow) that hold the racks in position. Destiny is six racks in length. The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency and NASA to provide a large working volume for hands-on experiments aboard the International Space Station. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall)

  9. NASA's Student Glovebox: An Inquiry-Based Technology Educator's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    2000-01-01

    A glovebox is a sealed container with built-in gloves. Astronauts perform small experiments and test hardware inside of them. Gloveboxes have flown on NASA's space shuttles and on the Russian space station Mir. The International Space Station (ISS) will have a permanent glovebox on the U.S. laboratory, Destiny. This document contains cursory technical information on gloveboxes and glovebox experiments and is intended for use by middle school educators and students. Information is provided on constructing a model glovebox as well as realistic cut-outs to be pasted on the model.

  10. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Once the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is sealed, additional experiment items can be inserted through a small airlock at the bottom right of the work volume. It is shown here with the door open. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  11. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Once the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is sealed, additional experiment items can be inserted through a small airlock at the bottom right of the work volume. It is shown here with the door removed. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  12. Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Mary Etta

    1999-01-01

    MSG is a third generation glovebox for Microgravity Science investigations: SpaceLab Glovebox (GBX); Middeck/MIR Gloveboxes (M/MGBX); and GBX and M/MGBX developed by Bradford Engineering (NL). Previous flights have demonstrated utility of glovebox facilities: Contained environment enables broader range of science experiments; Affords better control of video and photographic imaging (a prime data source); Provides better environmental control than cabin atmosphere; and Useful for contingency operations. MSG developed in response to demands for increased work volume, increased capabilities and additional resources. MSG is multi-user facility to support a wide range of small science and technology investigations: Fluid physics; Combustion science; Material science; Biotechnology (cell culturing and protein crystal growth); Space processing; Fundamental physics; and Technology demonstrations. Topics included in this viewgraph are: MSG capabilities; MSG hardware items; MSG, GSE, and OSE items; MSG development approach; and Science utilization.

  13. Cooperation between NASA and ESA for the first microgravity materials science glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    Two major space organizations have collaborated to develop the first microgravity materials science glovebox and 16 materials science experiments. The glovebox and its experiments will fly initially on USML-1, currently scheduled for launch in mid-1992.

  14. Article removal device for glovebox

    DOEpatents

    Guyer, R.H.; Leebl, R.G.

    1973-12-01

    An article removal device for a glovebox is described comprising a conduit extending through a glovebox wall which may be closed by a plug within the glovebox, and a fire-resistant container closing the outer end of the conduit and housing a removable container for receiving pyrophoric or otherwise hazardous material without disturbing the interior environment of the glovebox or adversely affecting the environment outside of the glovebox. (Official Gazette)

  15. Low Stretch PMMA Burning in Microgravity: Status of the Ground-Based Program and New ISS Glovebox Experiment SALSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; T'ien, J. S.; Armstrong, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this ground-based program is to study low stretch diffusion flames burning PMMA as the solid fuel to determine the relationship between buoyant low stretch burning in normal gravity and forced flow low stretch burning in microgravity. The low stretch is generated in normal gravity by using the buoyant convection induced by burning the bottom of a large radius of curvature sample. Low stretch is also generated using the Combustion Tunnel drop tower rig (2.2 and 5.2 second facilities), which provides a forced convective low velocity flow past smaller radius of curvature samples. Lastly, an ISS glovebox investigation is being developed to study low stretch burning of PMMA spheres to obtain long duration testing needed to accurately assess the flammability and burning characteristics of the material in microgravity. A comparison of microgravity experiment results with normal gravity test results allows us to establish a direct link between a material's burning characteristics in normal gravity (easily measured) with its burning characteristics in extraterrestrial environments, including microgravity forced convective environments. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results indicate that it should be possible to understand a material's burning characteristics in the low stretch environment of spacecraft (non-buoyant air movement induced by fans and crew disturbances) by understanding its burning characteristics in an equivalent Earth-based low stretch environment (induced by normal gravity buoyancy). Similarly, Earth-based stretch environments can be made equivalent to those in Lunar- and Martian-surface stretch environments (which would induce partial-gravity buoyancy).

  16. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Interior Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An array of miniature lamps will provide illumination to help scientists as they conduct experiments inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  17. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  18. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the access through the internal airlock on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The airlock will allow the insertion or removal of equipment and samples without opening the working volume of the glovebox. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  19. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the access through the internal airlock (bottom right) on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The airlock will allow the insertion or removal of equipment and samples without opening the working volume of the glovebox. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  20. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Working Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Access ports, one on each side of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), will allow scientists to place large experiment items inside the MSG. The ports also provide additional glove ports (silver disk) for greater access to the interior. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  1. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Working Volumn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Access ports, one on each side of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), will allow scientists to place large experiment items inside the MSG. The ports also provide additional glove ports (dark circle) for greater access to the interior. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  2. Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  3. Microgravity Sciences Glovebox Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Tim Broach (center) of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the working volume inside the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for use aboard the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup is the same size as the flight hardware. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  4. The Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Goulart, Carla V.

    1992-01-01

    Crew operations associated with nonhuman life sciences research on Space Station Freedom will be conducted in the Life Sciences Glovebox, whose enclosed work volume must accommodate numerous life science procedures. Two candidate Glovebox work volume concepts have been developed: one in which two operators work side-by-side, and another that conforms to the reach envelope of a single operator. Six test volunteers tested the concepts according to preestablished operational criteria. The wrap-around, single-operator concept has been judged the superior system.

  5. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the access through the internal airlock (bottom right) on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  6. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Labels are overlaid on a photo (0003837) of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  7. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows a rubber glove and its attachment ring for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  8. Glovebox oxygen monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.

    1993-08-01

    This system is located in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site of the US Department of Energy. The basic system consists of an oxygen sensor module located inside the glovebox and a wall mounted panel located outside the glovebox that contains an electronics package that displays the oxygen level, displays alarms, and sends signals to a facility Distributed Control System (DCS). RTF is a new facility that will be used primarily to load and unload tritium reservoirs, and recycle the tritium for use in existing or new reservoirs. Tritium, an oderless, colorless, gas is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that is used in modern thermonuclear weapons. Once on-line, RTF will replace other tritium facilities that have been in existence since the 1950`s. Since the entire process at RTF is contained in nitrogen blanketed gloveboxes and features have been provided to recapture fugitive tritium, environmental releases and worker exposure to tritium will be reduced compared to the old facilities.

  9. Microgravity Sciences Glovebox Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Tim Broach (seen through window) of NASA/Marshall Spce Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the working volume inside the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for use aboard the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup is the same size as the flight hardware. Observing are Tommy Holloway and Brewster Shaw of The Boeing Co. (center) and John-David Bartoe, ISS research manager at NASA/John Space Center and a payload specialist on Spacelab-2 mission (1985). Photo crdit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  10. Duque with microgravity glovebox in Destiny laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-20

    ISS007-E-17880 (20 October 2003) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain prepares to set up the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments) by starting with the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSB) in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). Duque is working on the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions.

  11. Design considerations for heated wells in gloveboxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, A. A.; Preuss, D. E.

    1999-07-14

    Heated wells in gloveboxes have been used for many years by the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division for nuclear-technology, waste-management, chemical-technology, and analytical-chemistry research. These wells allow experiments to be isolated from the main working volume of the glovebox. In addition, wells, when sealed, allow experiments to be conducted under pressurized or vacuum conditions. Until recently, typical maximum operational temperatures were about 500 C. However, more recent research is requiring operational temperatures approaching 900 C. These new requirements pose interesting design challenges that must be resolved. Some problem areas include temperature effects on material properties, maintaining a seal, cooling selected areas, and minimizing stresses. This paper discusses issues related to these design challenges and the ways in which these issues have been resolved.

  12. RTF glovebox stripper regeneration development

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall, A.K.

    1992-10-31

    Currently, the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) glovebox stripper system consists of a catalytic oxidation front end where trace tritium which may escape from the primary tritium process into the glovebox nitrogen system is oxidized to tritiated water. The tritiated water, along with normal water which may leak into the glovebox from the surrounding atmosphere, is then captured on a zeolite bed. Eventually, the zeolite bed becomes saturated with water and must be regenerated to remain effective as a stripper. This is accomplished by heating the zeolite and evolving the trapped water which is then passed over an elevated temperature uranium bed. A waste minimization program was instituted to address this issue. The program has two parallel paths. One path investigates replacing the entire glovebox stripper system with a system of getters to scavenge trace tritium. This report concentrates on the second path, retaining the catalytic oxidation front end but replacing the uranium bed water cracking with alternative technologies.

  13. Barrier isolator/glovebox glove dexterity study.

    PubMed

    Park, Young H; Pines, E; Cournoyer, M E

    2010-01-01

    In response to new, stricter safety requirements set out by the federal government, compounding pharmacists are investigating applications and processes appropriate for their facilities. One application, currently used by many industries, was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratories in the early days of defense work. A barrier isolator or "glovebox" is a containment device that allows work within a sealed space while providing protection for people and the environment. The operations at Plutonium Facility (TA-55) in Los Alamos National Laboratories involve various amounts of plutonium. Gloveboxes are used to handle plutonium, and glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. Currently a lead-loaded glove made from Hypalon is used. The lead-loaded gloves are compared to unleaded gloves with respect to dexterity and its effect on the outcome of any task performance. Experiments have been conducted on two models of unleaded gloves (15-mil thick Hypalon gloves and 30-mil thick Hypalon gloves), as well as 30-mil thick lead-loaded gloves. The objective of this research is to study the effect of lead-loaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance. We use inferential statistical analysis of this data to support scientific judgment of the probability that the observed difference between tested gloves is dependable or that any difference noted might have happened by chance.

  14. Students build glovebox at Space Science Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Students in the Young Astronaut Program at the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, GA, constructed gloveboxes using the new NASA Student Glovebox Education Guide. The young astronauts used cardboard copier paper boxes as the heart of the glovebox. The paper boxes transformed into gloveboxes when the students pasted poster-pictures of an actual NASA microgravity science glovebox inside and outside of the paper boxes. The young astronauts then added holes for gloves and removable transparent top covers, which completed the construction of the gloveboxes. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  15. Students build glovebox at Space Science Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Students in the Young Astronaut Program at the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, GA, constructed gloveboxes using the new NASA Student Glovebox Education Guide. The young astronauts used cardboard copier paper boxes as the heart of the glovebox. The paper boxes transformed into gloveboxes when the students pasted poster-pictures of an actual NASA microgravity science glovebox inside and outside of the paper boxes. The young astronauts then added holes for gloves and removable transparent top covers, which completed the construction of the gloveboxes. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  16. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  17. Operational considerations for the Space Station Life Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Bosley, John J.; Vogelsong, Kristofer; Schnepp, Tery A.; Phillips, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory (USL) module on Space Station will house a biological research facility for multidisciplinary research using living plant and animal specimens. Environmentally closed chambers isolate the specimen habitats, but specimens must be removed from these chambers during research procedures as well as while the chambers are being cleaned. An enclosed, sealed Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is the only locale in the USL where specimens can be accessed by crew members. This paper discusses the key science, engineering and operational considerations and constraints involving the LSG, such as bioisolation, accessibility, and functional versatility.

  18. Glovebox plug for glove changing

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David O.; Shalkowski, Jr., Edward

    1992-01-01

    A plug for use in plugging a glove opening of a glovebox when the glove is eplaced. An inflated inner tube which is retained between flat plates mounted on a threaded rod is compressed in order to expand its diameter to equal that of the inside of the glove opening.

  19. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Interior Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the interior reach in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  20. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Working Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  1. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-12-31

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ``Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards``. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life.

  2. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Working Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Interior lights give the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) the appearance of a high-tech juke box. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  3. Migrogravity Science Glovebox - Working Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Interior lights give the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) the appearance of a high-tech juke box. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  4. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Air Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of three arrays of air filters inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  5. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J.; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D.; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  6. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R; Jonas, David M

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  7. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glovebox using SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1994-08-31

    SAES metal getter material St 198 was chosen for glovebox stripper tests to evaluate its effectiveness of removing tritium from a nitrogen atmosphere. The St 198 material is unique from a number of other metal hydride-based getter materials in that it is relatively inert to nitrogen and can thus be used in nitrogen glovebox atmospheres. Six tritium stripper experiments which mock-up the use of a SAES St 198 stripper bed for a full-scale (10,500 liter) nitrogen glovebox have been completed. Experiments consisted of a release of small quantity of protium/deuterium spiked with tritium which were scaled to simulate tritium releases of 0.1 g., 1.0 g., and 10 g. into the glovebox. The tritium spike allows detection using tritium ion chambers. The St 198 stripper system produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two orders of magnitude in 24 hours (6--8 atmosphere turn-overs) of stripper operation.

  8. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  9. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  10. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    An experimental project was initiated to characterize mass loss when heating different polymer glovebox glove material samples to three elevated temperatures, 90, 120, and 150 C. Samples from ten different polymeric gloves that are being considered for use in the tritium gloveboxes were tested. The intent of the study was to determine the amount of material lost. These data will be used in a subsequent study to characterize the composition of the material lost. One goal of the study was to determine which glove composition would least affect the glovebox atmosphere stripper system. Samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The most mass loss was experienced by Jung butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} at 146 C with 12.9% mass loss followed by Piercan Hypalon{reg_sign} at 144 C with 11.4 % mass loss and Jung butyl-Viton{reg_sign} at 140 C with 5.2% mass loss. The least mass loss was experienced by the Jung Viton{reg_sign} and the Piercan polyurethane. Unlike the permeation testing (1) the vendor and fabrication route influences the amount of gaseous species that is evolved. Additional testing to characterize these products is recommended. Savannah River Site (SRS) has many gloveboxes deployed in the Tritium Facility. These gloveboxes are used to protect the workers and to ensure a suitable environment in which to handle tritium gas products. The gas atmosphere in the gloveboxes is purified using a stripper system. The process gas strippers collect molecules that may have hydrogen or its isotopes attached, e.g., waters of hydration, acids, etc. Recently, sulfur containing compounds were detected in the stripper system and the presence of these compounds accelerates the stripper system's aging process. This accelerated aging requires the strippers to be replaced more often which can impact the facility's schedule and

  11. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  12. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  13. Expedition 17 Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-23

    ISS017-E-014001 (23 Aug. 2008) --- Astronaut Greg Chamitoff, Expedition 17 flight engineer, works with the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox and the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus in the Columbus laboratory on the International Space Station.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  15. Kuipers during Glovebox Health Check in Columbus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    ISS031-E-140316 (18 May 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, supports a ground-conducted health check on ESA’s Biolab Glovebox in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  16. Kuipers during Glovebox Health Check in Columbus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    ISS031-E-140311 (18 May 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, supports a ground-conducted health check on ESA’s Biolab Glovebox in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  17. Kuipers during Glovebox Health Check in Columbus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    ISS031-E-140314 (18 May 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, supports a ground-conducted health check on ESA’s Biolab Glovebox in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  18. Mechanistic Analysis of Glovebox Fire Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.T.; McClure, P.R.

    1999-06-13

    Propagation of a fire that originates in a single glovebox to other locations in the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is conceivable only if transport of hot combustion gases to other locations causes ignition of combustible materials elsewhere in the system (i.e., flashover). This paper describes a model developed, using the MELCOR computer code, to calculate the generation and transport of combustion gas mass and energy during postulated glovebox fire accident scenarios. The accident scenarios involved a wide spectrum of glovebox operating and potential fire conditions to determine whether flashover conditions could occur at locations outside the burning glovebox: o A variety of combustible material characteristics was considered (e.g., type, quantity, and combustion properties of combustible material). o A spectrum of safety system operating conditions was considered (e.g., glovebox ventilation system operating normally vs an inoperative exhaust fan; drop-box fir e damper closure vs failure to close). o A range of analytical modeling assumptions was considered (e.g., the extent to which heat transfer between hot combustion gases and the glovebox walls is represented in the model). Example results of these calculations are presented to illustrate the benefits obtained and lessons learned by using a computational tool like MELCOR for this analysis.

  19. Automation of the LANL ARIES lathe glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P. C.; Staab, T. A.; Nelson, D. C.; Santistevan, W. W.; Brown, W. G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an automation system required for material handling within a glovebox. The Advanced Recovery and Integration Extraction System (ARIES) located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) enables workers to dismantle nuclear weapons, separating the plutonium from other weapon components. The ARIES line consists of several gloveboxes that allow the 'pit' or trigger of a nuclear weapon to be dismantled and the plutonium stored in a safe form. The Lathe glovebox is the first step in the ARIES line and is used to cut the pit open to be dismantled. There are several methods for doing this, however there are advantages to using the lathe over other methods for this process. In general, this system will give the ARIES line the capability to handle a wider range of pit types. The system consists of a lathe, a 4 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robot, a glovebox that houses them, and a universal controller that resides outside the glovebox and controls all equipment. This paper will present the design and possible implementation of this lathe automation system. It will cover the system requirements, the mechanical hardware used within the glovebox, the control system and software, and operation procedures for various tasks.

  20. Institutional glovebox safety committee (IGSC) annual report FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Roybal, Richard F; Lee, Roy J

    2011-01-04

    The Institutional Glovebox Safety Committee (IGSC) was chartered to minimize and/or prevent glovebox operational events. Highlights of the IGSC's third year are discussed. The focus of this working committee is to address glovebox operational and safety issues and to share Lessons Learned, best practices, training improvements, and glovebox glove breach and failure data. Highlights of the IGSC's third year are discussed. The results presented in this annual report are pivotal to the ultimate focus of the glovebox safety program, which is to minimize work-related injuries and illnesses. This effort contributes to the LANL Continuous Improvement Program by providing information that can be used to improve glovebox operational safety.

  1. Microgravity Science Glovebox Investigations SUBSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A.; Marin, C.; Vogel, M.; Volz, M. P.; Luz, P.; Jeter, L.; Spivey, Reggie; Duffar, Thierry; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) is a Microgravity Science Glovebox Investigation manifested for the UF2 flight, on the U.S. Orbiter 111, to the International Space Station (ISS). SUBSA complements the "parent" flight investigation CG13 (Space-and Groundbased Crystal Growth Using a Baffle). During directional solidification, the disk-shaped baffle acts as a partition, creating a small melt zone at the solid-liquid interface. As a result, the level of buoyancy-driven convection at the interface is significantly reduced. In space, the baffle will reduce convection driven by residual micro acceleration. The baffle reduces the Rayleigh number (Ra) of the melt by a factor of 103. The combined effect of the baffle and microgravity will yield a reduction in Ra by a factor of 107 to 109 approaching effectively the acceleration conditions in "nanogravity". The results of ground based tests and numerical modeling will be presented. The furnace for directional solidification (flight hardware and the ground unit) was developed by Tec-Masters Inc. The flight ampoules were produced jointly at Rensselaer, Tec-Masters Inc. and Crystallod Inc.

  2. Workstations and gloveboxes for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, Maria

    1990-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company is responsible for designing, developing, and building the Life Sciences Glovebox, the Laboratory Sciences Workbench, and the Maintenance Workstation plus 16 other pieces of equipment for the U.S. Laboratory Module of the Space Station Freedom. The Laboratory Sciences Workbench and the Maintenance Workstation were functionally combined into a double structure to save weight and volume which are important commodities on the Space Station Freedom. The total volume of these items is approximately 180 cubic feet. These workstations and the glovebox will be delivered to NASA in 1994 and will be launched in 1995. The very long lifetime of 30 years presents numerous technical challenges in the areas of design and reliability. The equipment must be easy to use by international crew members and also easy to maintain on-orbit. For example, seals must be capable of on-orbit changeout and reverification. The stringent contamination requirements established for Space Station Freedom equipment also complicate the zero gravity glovebox design. The current contamination control system for the Life Sciences Glovebox and the Maintenance Workstation is presented. The requirement for the Life Sciences Glovebox to safely contain toxic, reactive, and radioactive materials presents challenges. Trade studies, CAD simulation techniques and design challenges are discussed to illustrate the current baseline conceptual designs. Areas which need input from the user community are identified.

  3. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant.

  4. Synthesis and Migratory-Insertion Reactivity of CpMo(CO)[subscript3](CH[subscript3]): Small-Scale Organometallic Preparations Utilizing Modern Glovebox Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whited, Matthew T.; Hofmeister, Gretchen E.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments are described for the reliable small-scale glovebox preparation of CpMo(CO)[subscript 3](CH[subscript 3]) and acetyl derivatives thereof through phosphine-induced migratory insertion. The robust syntheses introduce students to a variety of organometallic reaction mechanisms and glovebox techniques, and they are easily carried out…

  5. Synthesis and Migratory-Insertion Reactivity of CpMo(CO)[subscript3](CH[subscript3]): Small-Scale Organometallic Preparations Utilizing Modern Glovebox Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whited, Matthew T.; Hofmeister, Gretchen E.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments are described for the reliable small-scale glovebox preparation of CpMo(CO)[subscript 3](CH[subscript 3]) and acetyl derivatives thereof through phosphine-induced migratory insertion. The robust syntheses introduce students to a variety of organometallic reaction mechanisms and glovebox techniques, and they are easily carried out…

  6. 2014 AFCI Glovebox Event Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Joseph Lenard

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary INL missions is to support development of advanced fuels with the goal of creating reactor fuels that produce less waste and are easier to store. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Glovebox in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) is used for several fuel fabrication steps that involve transuranic elements, including americium. The AFCI glove box contains equipment used for fuel fabrication, including an arc melter – a small, laboratory-scale version of an electric arc furnace used to make new metal alloys for research – and an americium distillation apparatus. This overview summarizes key findings related to the investigation into the releases of airborne radioactivity that occurred in the AFCI glovebox room in late August and early September 2014. The full report (AFCI Glovebox Radiological Release – Evaluation, Corrective Actions and Testing, INL/INL-15-36996) provides details of the identified issues, corrective actions taken as well as lessons learned

  7. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Sciences's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jordan, Lee P.

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas.

  8. SpeedyTime-4_Microgravity_Science_Glovebox

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-03

    Doing groundbreaking science can mean working with dangerous materials; how do the astronauts on the International Space Station protect themselves and their ship in those cases? They use the Microgravity Science Glovebox: in this “SpeedyTime” segment Expedition 52 flight engineer Peggy Whitson pulls a rack out of the wall of the Destiny Laboratory to show us how astronauts access a sealed environment for science and technology experiments that involve potentially hazardous materials. _______________________________________ FOLLOW THE SPACE STATION! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Space_Station Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ISS Instagram: https://instagram.com/iss/

  9. Robotic system for glovebox size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    KWOK,KWAN S.; MCDONALD,MICHAEL J.

    2000-03-02

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing technologies for glovebox size reduction in the DOE nuclear complex. A study was performed for Kaiser-Hill (KH) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) on the available technologies for size reducing the glovebox lines that require size reduction in place. Currently, the baseline approach to these glovebox lines is manual operations using conventional mechanical cutting methods. The study has been completed and resulted in a concept of the robotic system for in-situ size reduction. The concept makes use of commercially available robots that are used in the automotive industry. The commercially available industrial robots provide high reliability and availability that are required for environmental remediation in the DOE complex. Additionally, the costs of commercial robots are about one-fourth that of the custom made robots for environmental remediation. The reason for the lower costs and the higher reliability is that there are thousands of commercial robots made annually, whereas there are only a few custom robots made for environmental remediation every year. This paper will describe the engineering analysis approach used in the design of the robotic system for glovebox size reduction.

  10. STS-42 Payload Specialist Bondar works with oak seedlings in IML-1 glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar works with oak seedlings using the glovebox located in International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) Rack 5. The five young plants are part of the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) experiment. IML-1 is located in Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB) and is connected to the crew compartment with a tunnel.

  11. STS-42 Payload Specialist Bondar works with oak seedlings in IML-1 glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar works with oak seedlings using the glovebox located in International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) Rack 5. The five young plants are part of the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) experiment. IML-1 is located in Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB) and is connected to the crew compartment with a tunnel.

  12. The g-LIMIT Microgravity Vibration Isolation System for the Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Ryan, Stephen G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For many microgravity science experiments in the International Space Station, the ambient acceleration environment will be exceed desirable levels. To provide a more quiescent acceleration environment to the microgravity payloads, a vibration isolation system named g-LIMIT (GLovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology) is being designed. g-LIMIT is a sub-rack level isolation system for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that can be tailored to a variety of applications. Scheduled for launch on the UF-1 mission, the initial implementation of g-LIMIT will be a Characterization Test in the Microgravity Science Glovebox. g-LIMIT will be available to glovebox investigators immediately after characterization testing. Standard MSG structural and umbilical interfaces will be used so that the interface requirements are minimized. g-LIMIT consists of three integrated isolator modules, each of which is comprised of a dual axis actuator, two axes of acceleration sensing, two axes of position sensing, control electronics, and data transmission capabilities in a small-volume package. In addition, this system provides the unique capability for measuring quasi-steady acceleration of the experiment independent of accelerometers as a by-product of the control system and will have the capability of generating user-specified pristine accelerations to enhance experiment operations.

  13. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-03

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment.

  14. Student Interacts with a Classroom Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Virginia student works with a bottle and its cap in a mockup of the Middeck Glovebox used by astronauts on a number of space shuttle research missions. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  15. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    DOE PAGES

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; ...

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forcesmore » produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  16. Rotator cuff strength balance in glovebox workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Cindy M.; Weaver, Amelia M.; Chan, Martha Kwan Yi; Cournoyer, Michael Edward

    2016-11-23

    Gloveboxes are essential to the pharmaceutical, semi-conductor, nuclear, and biochemical industries. While gloveboxes serve as effective containment systems, they are often difficult to work in and present a number of ergonomic hazards. One such hazard is injury to the rotator cuff, a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm to the shoulder blade. Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. This study compared the rotator cuff muscle strength ratios of glovebox workers to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced for shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios significantly different from the healthy norm. Strength ratios were found to be a sound predictor of symptom incidence. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development. As a result, this increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  17. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line.

  18. Heat-shield design for glovebox applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, A. A.

    1998-07-10

    Heat shields can often be used in place of insulation materials as an effective means of insulating glovebox furnace vessels. If used properly, shields can accomplish two important objectives: thermal insulation of the vessel to maintain a desired process temperature and protection of the glovebox, equipment, and user. A heat-shield assembly can be described as an arrangement of thin, properly-spaced, metal sheets that reduce radiation heat transfer. The main problem encountered in the design of a heat shield assembly is choosing the number of shields. In determining the heat transfer characteristics of a heat-shield assembly, a number of factors must be taken into consideration. The glovebox or outside environment, material properties, geometry, and operating temperature all have varying effects on the expected results. A simple method, for planar-horizontal and cylindrical-vertical shields, allowing the approximation of the outermost shield temperature, the practical number of shields, and the net heat-transfer rate will be presented. Methods used in the fabrication of heat-shield assemblies will also be discussed.

  19. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the electrapette for possible use in the glovebox for pipetting plutonium solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hansbury, E.; Ortiz, B.; Roybal, C.

    1990-12-01

    At the Los Alamos Laboratory Plutonium Facility, Solution Assay Instruments (SAIs) are used to provide real-time information on the plutonium (Pu) content of the process stream at various stages in the process. Much of the solution analysis must be carried and as a glovebox to protect the operator from radiation. In order to overcome some of the difficulties usually encountered when working in a glovebox, an electronic solution-volume measuring device called an Electrapette was ordered from Matrix Technologies Corporation. It is said to be highly accurate, simple to use, and can handle the 25 ml of solution required for SAI analyses. It is microprocessor-controlled and comes in two components connected by a detachable cable so that the electronic part can be installed outside the box, while the nosepiece is inside. The two pieces are connected through a plug-in on the glovebox wall. The Electrapette was tested in three sets of experiments: a cold'' lab set, a set run is a hood in a production building, and a third set run in a glovebox using a process solution whose density had been predetermined. The accuracy of the determination could not be determined because the samples had been mixed with other feed before being sent for analysis by the Electrapette. 2 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. NASA's Student Glovebox: An Inquiry-Based Technology Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This inquiry-based activity discusses the development of a glovebox like those used on the International Space Station and Space Shuttle. A glovebox is a box used for experimentation in which the user inserts hands into gloved access holes in order to work in the box. Activities concerning the study of liquid droplets are included to give students…

  2. Note: Efficient, low-cost cooling system for gloveboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.; Marioneck, T.; Dronskowski, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cooling within gloveboxes is often restricted to expensive refrigerated bath circulators or small temperature differences. Here, we present a sturdy, inexpensive cooling system which matches various glovebox types and can be readily fabricated by a mechanical workshop in a few days. The system is suitable for cold plates of areas up to 150 cm2 and temperatures as low as -100 °C.

  3. Compatibility of selected elastomers with plutonium glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.

    1994-06-01

    This illustrative test was undertaken as a result of on-going failure of elastomer components in plutonium gloveboxes. These failures represent one of the major sources of required maintenance to keep gloveboxes operational. In particular, it was observed that the introduction of high specific activity Pu-238 into a glovebox, otherwise contaminated with Pu-239, resulted in an inordinate failure of elastomer components. Desiring to keep replacement of elastomer components to a minimum, a decision to explore a few possible alternative elastomer candidates was undertaken and reported upon herewith. Sample specimens of Neoprene, Urethane, Viton, and Hypalon elastomeric formulations were obtained from the Bacter Rubber Company. Strips of the elastomer specimens were placed in a plutonium glovebox and outside of a glovebox, and were observed for a period of three years. Of the four types of elastomers, only Hypalon remained completely viable.

  4. Institutional Glovebox Safety Committee (IGSC) Annual Report FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Peabody, Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium, beryllium, and other materials in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons program account for most activities performed in gloveboxes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the month of January 2007, two workers were injured in separate glovebox operations in which a break in a glovebox glove resulted in plutonium penetration into the skin. As a corrective action, the Institutional Glovebox Safety Committee (IGSC) was created under the authority of the Institutional Worker Safety and Security Team (IWSST) with membership made up of those workers and/or managers representing glovebox operations across the Lab. Since then, the IGSC has made numerous inroads in the areas of glovebox operational issues, 'Lessons Learned', 'best practice', training, and unplanned glove openings. Communication of these topics improves the safety configuration of the glovebox system and contributes to the Lab's scientific and technological excellence by increasing its operational safety. In this report, highlights of the IGSC's first year, and assessment of its effectiveness, and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  5. Minimizing glovebox glove breaches, Part 4: control charts

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Lee, M.B.; Schreiber, S.

    2007-07-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebox gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, e.g., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation determine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. (authors)

  6. Glovebox for GeoLab Subsystem in HDU1-PEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia; Calaway, Michael J.; Bell, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The GeoLab glovebox was designed to enable the preliminary examination, by astronauts, of geological samples collected from the surface of another planetary body. The collected information would then aid scientists in making decisions about sample curation and prioritization for return to Earth for study. This innovation was designed around a positive- pressure-enriched nitrogen environment glovebox to reduce sample handling contamination. The structure was custom-designed to fit in section H of NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit 1 Pressurized Excursion Module (HDU1- PEM). In addition, the glovebox was designed to host analytical instruments in a way that prevents sample contamination.

  7. DPM and Glovebox, Payload Commander Kathy Thornton and Payload Specialist Albert Sacco in Spacelab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-21

    STS073-E-5003 (23 Oct. 1995) --- Astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, STS-73 payload commander, works at the Drop Physics Module (DPM) on the portside of the science module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in Earth orbit. Payload specialist Albert Sacco Jr. conducts an experiment at the Glovebox. This frame was exposed with the color Electronic Still Camera (ESC) assigned to the 16-day United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission.

  8. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  9. g-LIMIT: A Vibration Isolation System for the Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    For many microgravity science experiments using the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), the ambient acceleration environment will exceed desirable levels. To provide a more quiescent acceleration environment, a vibration isolation system named g-LIMIT (GLovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology) is being designed. g-LIMIT is the next generation of technology developed for and demonstrated by STABLE on the USML-2 mission in October 1995. Although g-LIMIT is a sub-rack level isolation system that can be used in a variety of applications, g-LIMIT is uniquely optimized for MSG implementation. Standard MSG structural and umbilical interfaces will be used so that the isolation mount is transparent to the user with no additional accommodation requirements. g-LIMIT consists of three integrated isolator modules, each of which is comprised of a dual axis actuator, two axes of acceleration sensing, two axes of position sensing, control electronics, and data transmission capabilities in a minimum-volume package. In addition, this system provides the unique capability for measuring absolute acceleration of the experiment independent of accelerometers as a by-product of the control system and will have the capability of generating pristine accelerations to enhance experiment operations. g-LIMIT is scheduled for flight during the UF-2 mission and will be available to glovebox investigators immediately after characterization testing.

  10. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  11. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-03-11

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  12. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  13. MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS

    SciTech Connect

    COURNOYER, MICHAEL E.; LEE, MICHELLE B.; SCHREIBER, STEPHEN B.

    2007-02-05

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGIP) was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, i.e., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation detennine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

  14. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  15. Flux projection beamforming for monochromatic source localization in enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Yu, Gaokun; Wang, Ning; Gao, Dazhi; Wang, Haozhong

    2017-01-01

    Monochromatic sound source localization becomes difficult in enclosed space. According to the reciprocity theorem, a self-consistent method of source localization in enclosed space, referred to as the flux projection beamforming, is proposed, only using the measurement of the sound pressure and normal velocity on the closed boundary at a single frequency. Its validity is examined both by experiment and simulation.

  16. Decrease the Number of Glovebox Glove Breaches and Failures

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtle, Jackie C.

    2013-12-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is committed to the protection of the workers, public, and environment while performing work and uses gloveboxes as engineered controls to protect workers from exposure to hazardous materials while performing plutonium operations. Glovebox gloves are a weak link in the engineered controls and are a major cause of radiation contamination events which can result in potential worker exposure and localized contamination making operational areas off-limits and putting programmatic work on hold. Each day of lost opportunity at Technical Area (TA) 55, Plutonium Facility (PF) 4 is estimated at $1.36 million. Between July 2011 and June 2013, TA-55-PF-4 had 65 glovebox glove breaches and failures with an average of 2.7 per month. The glovebox work follows the five step safety process promoted at LANL with a decision diamond interjected for whether or not a glove breach or failure event occurred in the course of performing glovebox work. In the event that no glove breach or failure is detected, there is an additional decision for whether or not contamination is detected. In the event that contamination is detected, the possibility for a glove breach or failure event is revisited.

  17. Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Amelia M.

    2014-01-30

    Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.

  18. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  19. 30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS WERE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE AT THE PLANT, BECAUSE OF THE RADIOACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS USED. PLUTONIUM GIVES OFF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES, GAMMA PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND IS ALSO PYROPHORIC. AS A RESULT, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS THAT INCLUDE CONTAINMENT, FILTERING, SHIELDING, AND CREATING AN INERT ATMOSPHERE. PLUTONIUM WAS HANDLED WITHIN GLOVEBOXES THAT WERE INTERCONNECTED AND RAN SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET IN LENGTH (5/5/70). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Applications of LabVIEW programming in a glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.E.; Peralta, G.; Gray, D.

    1995-09-01

    When dealing with neutron radiation one of the keys to reducing worker exposure is to have as much distance and shielding between the radiation and the radiation worker as possible. Using a PC to control a process from a remote location allows the distance between the radiation worker and the radiation source to be increase. Increasing the distance at which radiation worker can control a process allows more shielding to be placed around the glovebox. There are many commercial packages that allow controlling remote processes with a PC. This paper shows how flexible the LabVIEW Graphical Programming Language can be in implementing the remote control of glovebox process.

  1. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  2. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...POM for predicting the dynamics and thermodynamics of both shallow and deep marginal seas. This project has also shown the need for sufficient detail

  3. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  4. Glovebox characterization and barrier integrity testing using fluorescent powder

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing the spread of contamination and testing the barrier integrity of a new glovebox during material transfer operations and glove change-outs using fluorescent powder. Argonne National Laboratory-West has performed this test on several new gloveboxes prior to putting them into service. The test is performed after the glovebox has been leak tested and all systems have been verified to be operational. The purpose of the test is to show that bag-in/bag-out operations and glove change-outs can be accomplished without spreading the actual contaminated material to non-contaminated areas. The characterization test also provides information as to where contamination might be expected to build-up during actual operations. The fluorescent powder is used because it is easily detectable using an ultra-violet light and disperses in a similar fashion to radioactive material. The characterization and barrier integrity test of a glovebox using fluorescent powder provides a visual method of determining areas of potential contamination accumulation and helps evaluate the ability to perform clean transfer operations and glove change-outs.

  5. Constant depression fan system a novel glovebox ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Milliner, W.V.

    1995-02-01

    In a conventional glovebox ventilation system the depression within the glovebox under normal operation is controlled by instrumentation. In the event of a breach the pressure within the box rises to atmospheric pressure, this pressure rise is detected by instrumentation which in turn operates a quick opening damper in a high depression extract to achieve a 1 metre/sec (200 fpm) inflow through the breach, which can take up to 2 seconds to establish. This system, although widely used, suffers from two distinct drawbacks: It takes a finite time to achieve the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec. It relies upon instrumentation to achieve its objectives. A new glovebox ventilation system has been developed by AWE to overcome these drawbacks. This is the Constant Depression Fan System (CDFS) which is based on an extract fan with a flat characteristic. This achieves all the requirements for the ventilation of gloveboxes and has the advantages that: It has only one moving part - the extract fan. It requires NO INSTRUMENTATION to achieve its objectives. It achieves the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec in the shortest possible time - approximately 0.2 seconds - and tests have shown that containment is maintained under breach conditions. Thus the CDFS is SAFER, SIMPLER and MORE RELIABLE.

  6. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, Marissa St; Land, Whitney Morgan

    2016-11-30

    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  7. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Apel, D M; Neal, G E; Castro, J M; Michelotti, R A

    2010-01-21

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.

  8. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  9. Overview of the Life Science Glovebox (LSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the LSG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. Michael; Young, Yancy

    2016-01-01

    The Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is a rack facility currently under development with a projected availability for International Space Station (ISS) utilization in the FY2018 timeframe. Development of the LSG is being managed by the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) with support from Ames Research Center (ARC) and Johnson Space Center (JSC). The MSFC will continue management of LSG operations, payload integration, and sustaining following delivery to the ISS. The LSG will accommodate life science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. The facility has a.Ii enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for handling Biohazard Level II and lower biological materials. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the LSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the LSG are provided approximately 15 cubic feet of enclosed work space, 350 watts of28Vdc and l IOVac power (combined), video and data recording, and real time downlink. These capabilities will make the LSG a highly utilized facility on ISS. The LSG will be used for biological studies including rodent research and cell biology. The LSG facility is operated by the Payloads Operations Integration Center at MSFC. Payloads may also operate remotely from different telescience centers located in the United States and different countries. The Investigative Payload Integration Manager (IPIM) is the focal to assist organizations that have payloads operating in the LSG facility. NASA provides an LSG qualification unit for payload developers to verify that their hardware is operating properly before actual operation on the ISS. This poster will provide an overview of the LSG facility and a synopsis of the research that will be accomplished in the LSG. The authors would like to acknowledge Ames Research Center, Johnson

  10. Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT): A Linearized State-Space Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Calhoun, Philip C.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Vibration acceleration levels on large space platforms exceed the requirements of many space experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate these disturbances to acceptable levels. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to levitate and isolate payloads at the individual experiment/sub-experiment (versus rack) level. Payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements are fed to a state-space controller. The controller, in turn, determines the actuator Currents needed for effective experiment isolation. This paper presents the development of an algebraic, state-space model of g-LIMIT, in a form suitable for optimal controller design. The equations are first derived using Newton's Second Law directly, then simplified to a linear form for the purpose of controller design.

  11. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence...

  12. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence...

  13. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence...

  14. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  15. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  16. Equipping a glovebox for waste form testing and characterization of plutonium bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, M.; Johnson, S.G.; Musick, C.A.; Moschetti, T.L.

    1997-09-01

    The recent decision by the Department of Energy to pursue a hybrid option for the disposition of weapons plutonium has created the need for additional facilities that can examine and characterize waste forms that contain Pu. This hybrid option consists of the placement of plutonium into stable waste forms and also into mixed oxide fuel for commercial reactors. Glass and glass-ceramic waste forms have a long history of being effective hosts for containing radionuclides, including plutonium. The types of tests necessary to characterize the performance of candidate waste forms include: static leaching experiments on both monolithic and crushed waste forms, microscopic examination, and density determination. Frequently, the respective candidate waste forms must first be produced using elevated temperatures and/or high pressures. The desired operations in the glovebox include, but are not limited to the following: (1) production of vitrified/sintered samples, (2) sampling of glass from crucibles or other vessels, (3) preparing samples for microscopic inspection and monolithic and crushed static leach tests, and (4) performing and analyzing leach tests in situ. This paper will describe the essential equipment and modifications that are necessary to successfully accomplish the goal of outfitting a glovebox for these functions.

  17. FLEXIBLE NEUTRON SHIELDING FOR A GLOVEBOX WITHIN THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Walsh

    2007-07-01

    Neutron shielding was desired to reduce worker exposure during handling of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) in a glovebox at the Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the unusual shape of the glovebox, standard methods of neutron shielding were impractical and would have interfered with glovebox operations. A silicon-based, boron-impregnated material was chosen due to its flexibility. This paper discusses the material, the installation, and the results from neutron source testing.

  18. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  19. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  20. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  1. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed... manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must be capable of...

  2. Mobility of heavy metals from polluted sediments of a semi-enclosed basin: in situ benthic chamber experiments in Taranto's Mar Piccolo (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Spada, Lucia; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Cardellicchio, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    In situ benthic flux experiments were conducted at two stations in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Italy), one of the most industrialised and contaminated coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Sediments of the two stations are notably different in their trace metal content, with a station closer to a Navy harbour showing higher mean concentrations of almost all investigated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn). Conversely, both stations are characterised by significant Hg contamination, compared to the local baseline. Results of a sequential extraction scheme on surface sediments suggest a relatively scarce mobility of the examined metals (Zn > Ni > Cr > As > Cu > Pb). A Hg-specific extraction procedure showed that most of the element (93.1 %) occurs in a fraction comprising Hg bound to Fe/Mn oxi-hydroxides. Reduction of these oxides may affect Hg remobilisation and redistribution. Porewater profiles of dissolved trace metals were quite similar in the two sites, although significant differences could be observed for Al, Cu, Fe and Hg. The highest diffusive fluxes were observed for As, Fe and Mn. Mobility rates of several trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were directly measured at the sediment-water interface. Results from benthic in situ incubation experiments showed increasing dissolved metal concentrations with time, resulting in higher fluxes for Cu, Fe, Hg, V and Zn in the most contaminated site. Conversely, fluxes of Mn, Ni and Pb were comparable between the two stations. The estimated flux of Hg (97 μg m(-2) day(-1)) was the highest observed among similar experiments conducted in other highly contaminated Mediterranean coastal environments. Benthic fluxes could be partially explained by considering rates of organic matter remineralisation, dissolution of Fe/Mn oxy-hydroxides and metal speciation in sediments. Seasonal and spatial variation of biogeochemical parameters can influence metal remobilisation in

  3. Effects of glovebox gloves on grip and key pinch strength and contact forces for simulated manual operations with three commonly used hand tools.

    PubMed

    Sung, Peng-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of glovebox gloves for 11 females on maximum grip and key pinch strength and on contact forces generated from simulated tasks of a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench. The independent variables were gloves fabricated of butyl, CSM/hypalon and neoprene materials; two glove thicknesses; and layers of gloves worn including single, double and triple gloving. CSM/hypalon and butyl gloves produced greater grip strength than the neoprene gloves. CSM/hypalon gloves also lowered contact forces for roller and wrench tasks. Single gloving and thin gloves improved hand strength performances. However, triple layers lowered contact forces for all tasks. Based on the evaluating results, selection and design recommendations of gloves for three hand tools were provided to minimise the effects on hand strength and optimise protection of the palmar hand in glovebox environments. To improve safety and health in the glovebox environments where gloves usage is a necessity, this study provides recommendations for selection and design of glovebox gloves for three hand tools including a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench based on the results discovered in the experiments.

  4. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  5. Controlling particulates, temperature, and tritium in an inert glovebox for a weapons program

    SciTech Connect

    Purson, J.D.; Powers, D.; Walthers, C.; Navarro, C.; Newman, E.; Romero, J.; Jenkins, R.

    1996-07-01

    A glovebox is described in which several environmental parameters are controlled and monitored. Included in these are particulate, tritium, water vapor, oxygen and temperature. The paper details the design rationale and process and describes the glovebox, presently in use for neutron generator production.

  6. Virtual Glovebox (VGX) Aids Astronauts in Pre-Flight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Virtual Glovebox (VGX) was developed to allow astronauts on Earth to train for complex biology research tasks in space. The astronauts may reach into the virtual environment, naturally manipulating specimens, tools, equipment, and accessories in a simulated microgravity environment as they would do in space. Such virtual reality technology also provides engineers and space operations staff with rapid prototyping, planning, and human performance modeling capabilities. Other Earth based applications being explored for this technology include biomedical procedural training and training for disarming bio-terrorism weapons.

  7. Virtual Glovebox (VGX) Aids Astronauts in Pre-Flight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Virtual Glovebox (VGX) was developed to allow astronauts on Earth to train for complex biology research tasks in space. The astronauts may reach into the virtual environment, naturally manipulating specimens, tools, equipment, and accessories in a simulated microgravity environment as they would do in space. Such virtual reality technology also provides engineers and space operations staff with rapid prototyping, planning, and human performance modeling capabilities. Other Earth based applications being explored for this technology include biomedical procedural training and training for disarming bio-terrorism weapons.

  8. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  9. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  10. Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Dodge, Robert L

    2011-01-11

    Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

  11. TRANSIENT ACCIDENT ANALYSIS OF THE GLOVEBOX SYSTEM IN A LARGE PROCESS ROOM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-01-11

    Local transient hydrogen concentrations were evaluated inside a large process room when the hydrogen gas was released by three postulated accident scenarios associated with the process tank leakage and fire leading to a loss of gas confinement. The three cases considered in this work were fire in a room, loss of confinement from a process tank, and loss of confinement coupled with fire event. Based on these accident scenarios in a large and unventilated process room, the modeling calculations of the hydrogen migration were performed to estimate local transient concentrations of hydrogen due to the sudden leakage and release from a glovebox system associated with the process tank. The modeling domain represented the major features of the process room including the principal release or leakage source of gas storage system. The model was benchmarked against the literature results for key phenomena such as natural convection, turbulent behavior, gas mixing due to jet entrainment, and radiation cooling because these phenomena are closely related to the gas driving mechanisms within a large air space of the process room. The modeling results showed that at the corner of the process room, the gas concentrations migrated by the Case 2 and Case 3 scenarios reached the set-point value of high activity alarm in about 13 seconds, while the Case 1 scenario takes about 90 seconds to reach the concentration. The modeling results were used to estimate transient radioactive gas migrations in an enclosed process room installed with high activity alarm monitor when the postulated leakage scenarios are initiated without room ventilation.

  12. Light transmission and air used for inspection of glovebox gloves.

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J. M.; Steckle, W. P. , Jr.; Macdonald, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Various materials used for manufacturing the glovebox gloves are translucent material such as hypalon, rubbers, and neoprene. This means that visible light can be transmitted through the inside of the material. Performing this test can help to increase visualization of the integrity of the glove. Certain flaws such as pockmarks, foreign material, pinholes, and scratches could be detected with increased accuracy. An analysis was conducted of the glovebox gloves obscure polymer material using a inspection light table. The fixture is equipped with a central light supply and small air pump to inflate the glove and test for leak and stability. A glove is affixed to the fixture for 360-degree inspection. Certain inspection processes can be performed: (1) Inspection for pockmarks and thin areas within the gloves; (2) Observation of foreign material within the polymer matrix; and (3) Measurements could be taken for gloves thickness using light measurements. This process could help reduce eyestrain when examining gloves and making a judgment call on the size of material thickness in some critical areas. Critical areas are fingertips and crotch of fingers.

  13. Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the MSG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for investigation handling. The MSG was built by the European Space Agency (ESA) which also provides sustaining engineering support for the facility. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of direct current power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, plus or minus 12, and 5 volts direct current), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. The MSG has been used for over 27,000 hours of scientific payload operations. MSG investigations involve research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, plant growth, biological studies and life support technology. The MSG facility is operated by the Payloads Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center. Payloads may also operate remotely from different telescience centers located in the United States and Europe. The Investigative Payload Integration Manager (IPIM) is the focal to assist organizations that have payloads operating in the MSG facility

  14. Dexterity tests data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M

    2008-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alphaemitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces and airborne contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Through an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGJP). A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management owning glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (the weakest component of this safety significant system) would perform in these aggressive environments. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) glovebox gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) had been the workhorse of programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduced the amount of mixed TRU waste. This effort contributes to Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In the following report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded glovebox gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

  15. GLOVEBOX WINDOWS, FIRE PROTECTION AND VOICES FROM THE PAST

    SciTech Connect

    Till, W

    2009-04-15

    'Study the past--what is past is prologue'. These words appear as the motto on a pair of statues at the National Archives Building in Washington DC. They are also the opening sentence in the preface of a document written in August of 1956 entitled 'A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities--June 1945 thru December 1955'. This document, one of several written by D.F. Hayes of the Safety and Fire Protection Branch, Division of Organization and Personnel, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Washington DC, and many others are often forgotten even though they contain valuable glovebox fire protection lessons for us today.

  16. MSG SAME Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-15

    ISS024-E-008351 (15 July 2010) --- NASA astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) in the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) located in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  17. MSG SAME Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-14

    ISS024-E-008364 (14 July 2010)--- Astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works on the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the European laboratory Columbus on the International Space Station.

  18. MSG SAME Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-14

    ISS024-E-008369 (14 July 2010)--- Astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works on the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the European laboratory Columbus on the International Space Station.

  19. Object-oriented process dose modeling for glovebox operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1999-06-01

    The Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory supports several defense and nondefense-related missions for the country by performing fabrication, surveillance, and research and development for materials and components that contain plutonium. Most operations occur in rooms with one or more arrays of gloveboxes connected to each other via trolley gloveboxes. Minimizing the effective dose equivalent (EDE) is a growing concern as a result of steadily declining allowable dose limits being imposed and a growing general awareness of safety in the workplace. In general, the authors discriminate three components of a worker`s total EDE: the primary EDE, the secondary EDE, and background EDE. A particular background source of interest is the nuclear materials vault. The distinction between sources inside and outside of a particular room is arbitrary with the underlying assumption that building walls and floors provide significant shielding to justify including sources in other rooms in the background category. Los Alamos has developed the Process Modeling System (ProMoS) primarily for performing process analyses of nuclear operations. ProMoS is an object-oriented, discrete-event simulation package that has been used to analyze operations at Los Alamos and proposed facilities such as the new fabrication facilities for the Complex-21 effort. In the past, crude estimates of the process dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred), room dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred in a given room), and facility dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred in the facility) were used to obtain an integrated EDE for a given process. Modifications to the ProMoS package were made to utilize secondary dose information to use dose modeling to enhance the process modeling efforts.

  20. Device removes hydrogen gas from enclosed spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, W. N.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxidant galvanic cell removes small amounts of hydrogen gas continually released from equipment, such as vented silver-zinc batteries, in enclosed compartments where air venting is not feasible. These cells are used in satellite compartments.

  1. Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument Experiment Diffusion Coefficient Mixture-3 (SODI) DCMix-3 Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-13

    NASA astronaut Kate Rubins works on Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument Experiment Diffusion Coefficient Mixture-3 (SODI) DCMix-3 Installation inside the station’s Microgravity Science Glovebox. The glovebox is one of the major dedicated science facilities inside the Destiny laboratory and provides a sealed environment for conducting science and technology experiments. The glovebox is particularly suited for handling hazardous materials when the crew is present.

  2. Enhancements in Glovebox Design Resulting from Laboratory-Conducted FIre Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Wunderlich, Gregory M.; Mcentire, James R.; Richmond, William G.

    2013-06-14

    The primary mission of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project was to disassemble nuclear weapons pits and convert the resulting special nuclear materials to a form suitable for further disposition. Because of the nature of materials involved, the fundamental system which allowed PDCF to perform its mission was a series of integrated and interconnected gloveboxes which provided confinement and containment of the radioactive materials being processed. The high throughput planned for PDCF and the relatively high neutron and gamma radiation levels of the pits required that gloveboxes be shielded to meet worker dose limits. The glovebox shielding material was required to contain high hydrogen concentrations which typically result in these materials being combustible. High combustible loadings created design challenges for the facility fire suppression and ventilation system design. Combustible loading estimates for the PDCF Plutonium (Pu) Processing Building increased significantly due to these shielding requirements. As a result, the estimates of combustible loading substantially exceeded values used to support fire and facility safety analyses. To ensure a valid basis for combustible loading contributed by the glovebox system, the PDCF Project funded a series of fire tests conducted by the Southwest Research Institute on door panels and a representative glovebox containing Water Extended Polyester (WEP) radiological shielding to observe their behavior during a fire event. Improvements to PDCF glovebox designs were implemented based on lessons learned during the fire test. In particular, methods were developed to provide high levels of neutron shielding while maintaining combustible loading in the glovebox shells at low levels. Additionally, the fire test results led to design modifications to mitigate pressure increases observed during the fire test in order to maintain the integrity of the WEP cladding. These changes resulted in significantly

  3. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, plus or minus 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust' and Vacuum Resource 'Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to-the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  4. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, plus or minus 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust' and Vacuum Resource 'Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to-the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  5. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG s unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  6. Frequency Weighted H2 Control Design for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Hampton, R. David

    2004-01-01

    The acceleration environment on the International Space Station (ISS) exceeds the requirements of many microgravity experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) has been built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate the nominal acceleration environment and provide some isolation for microgravity science experiments. The g-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to isolate a platform, for mounting science payloads, from the nominal acceleration environment. The system utilizes payload-acceleration, relative-position, and relative-orientation measurements in a feedback controller to accomplish the vibration isolation task. The controller provides current commands to six magnetic actuators, producing the required experiment isolation from the ISS acceleration environment. The present work documents the development of a candidate control law to meet the acceleration attenuation requirements for the g-LIMIT experiment platform. The controller design is developed using linear optimal control techniques for frequency-weighted H2 norms. Comparison of performance and robustness to plant uncertainty for this control design approach is included in the discussion. System performance is demonstrated in the presence of plant modeling error.

  7. Ultra Pure Water Cleaning Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Burkett, P. J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sample return missions will require strict protocols and procedures for reducing inorganic and organic contamination in isolation containment systems. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs [1, 2]. As part of this in-depth organic study, the current curatorial technical support procedure (TSP) 23 was used for cleaning the gloveboxes with ultra pure water (UPW) [3-5]. Particle counts and identification were obtained that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs that require glovebox decontamination. The UPW baseline study demonstrates that TSP 23 works well for gloveboxes that have been thoroughly degreased. However, TSP 23 could be augmented to provide even better glovebox decontamination. JSC 03243 could be used as a starting point for further investigating optimal cleaning techniques and procedures. DuPont Vertrel XF or other chemical substitutes to replace Freon- 113, mechanical scrubbing, and newer technology could be used to enhance glovebox cleanliness in addition to high purity UPW final rinsing. Future sample return missions will significantly benefit from further cleaning studies to reduce inorganic and organic contamination.

  8. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. 116.600 Section 116.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation ...

  9. Annual hypoxia dynamics in an enclosed gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountoura, K.; Zacharias, I.

    2012-04-01

    Hypoxia in coastal environments is a worldwide problem and is expected to worsen in future. Due to the stratification of the water column in many enclosed or semi-enclosed gulfs, deep waters are isolated and hypoxic or anoxic conditions frequently become dominant. The most common method for the oxygenation of these isolated anoxic water masses is vertical mixing. However, there are enclosed gulfs which rarely have the appropriate energy to ensure the mixing of the entire water column. The main purpose of this paper is to find if there are any other hydrodynamic processes which can cause oxygenation of deep waters, apart from vertical mixing. In order to achieve this aim, an enclosed gulf, Amvrakikos in Western Greece, was chosen to be the case study area and bimonthly physicochemical data were collected for one year and used in combination with a three-dimensional model in order to simulate the hydrodynamic circulation of the system. According to our results, another hydrodynamic process can lead to the oxygenation of the deepest water in an enclosed gulf. This process is the horizontal intrusion of well oxygenated water from the open sea. The key factor in determining the success of this horizontal intrusion is the density difference between the deepest area of the enclosed gulf and the open sea outside the gulf. From autumn to winter, when the open sea water is denser than that inside the gulf, the well oxygenated open sea water inflows into the gulf near the bottom sea floor and re-oxygenates the isolated deep waters through mixing. However, from spring to summer, when the deep water of the gulf is characterized by higher density in comparison with the open sea water, the inflow of well oxygenated water stops, causing the development of hypoxic/anoxic conditions during the summer months.

  10. Dexterity test data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Schreiber, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (T A-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Using an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management who own glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves), the weakest component of this safety-significant system, would perform best in these aggressive environments. As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) were the primary glove for programmatic operations at TA55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduce the amount of mixed transuranic waste. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and the pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

  11. Statistical analysis of barrier isolator/glovebox glove failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Young H; Pines, E; Ofouku, M; Cournoyer, M E

    2007-01-01

    In response to new, stricter safety requirements set out by the federal government, compounding pharmacists are investigating applications and processes appropriate for their facilities. One application, cutrrently used by many industries, was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratories for defense work. A barrier isolator or "glovebox" is a containment device that allows work within a sealed space while providing protection for people and the environment. Though knowledge of glove box use and maintenance has grown, unplanned breaches (e.g., glove failures) remain a concern. Recognizing that effective maintenance procedures can minimize breaches, we analyzed data drawn from glove failure records of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nuclear Materials Technology Division to evaluate current inventory strategy in light of actual performance of the various types of gloves. This report includes a description of the statistical methods employed. The results of our analysis pinpointed the most frequently occurring causes of glove failure and revealed a significant imbalance between the current glove replacement schedule and the rate of glove failures in a much shorter period. We concluded that, to minimize unplanned breaches, either the replacement period needs to be adjusted or causes of failure eliminated or reduced.

  12. Device Assembly Facility (DAF) Glovebox Radioactive Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L

    2001-12-18

    The Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) provides programmatic support to the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility in the form of target assembly. The target assembly activities are performed in a glovebox at DAF and include Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Currently, only activities with transuranic SNM are anticipated. Preliminary discussions with facility personnel indicate that primarily two distributions of SNM will be used: Weapons Grade Plutonium (WG-Pu), and Pu-238 enhanced WG-Pu. Nominal radionuclide distributions for the two material types are included in attachment 1. Wastes generated inside glove boxes is expected to be Transuranic (TRU) Waste which will eventually be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Wastes generated in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA), outside of the glove box is presumed to be low level waste (LLW) which is destined for disposal at the NTS. The process knowledge quantification methods identified herein may be applied to waste generated anywhere within or around the DAF and possibly JASPER as long as the fundamental waste stream boundaries are adhered to as outlined below. The method is suitable for quantification of waste which can be directly surveyed with the Blue Alpha meter or swiped. An additional quantification methodology which requires the use of a high resolution gamma spectroscopy unit is also included and relies on the predetermined radionuclide distribution and utilizes scaling to measured nuclides for quantification.

  13. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.; Meirans, L.; Watterberg, P.; Drotning, W.

    1997-04-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments that have phased out the use of ozone depleting solvents (ODS) have given the precision cleaning industry a challenge that they must respond to if they are to continuously and economically improve quality of service. The phase out of the ozone depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as their ODS counterparts in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. The prototype workcell under development uses a robot that sprays Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and terpene at pressures ranging to 600 psi in a glovebox environment. Key to the projects success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned. Also key to the success of this prototype development is FM approval of the process and associated hardware which translates directly into operator and facilities safety.

  14. Neutron tube disassembly glovebox operational readiness check. Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The neutron tube disassembly glove box was designed and constructed at Martin Marietta Specialty Components, Inc. It is intended to replace the non-enclosed tube disassembly operation. A primary concern is the containment of tritium-laden particulate matter generated during the disassembly of neutron tubes and preparation of other tritium loaded samples. The goal of this project is to minimize the spread of tritium-laden contamination to the tube disassembly worker and the environment.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured

  16. WRAP low level waste restricted waste management (LLW RWM) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1997-11-24

    On April 22, 1997, the Low Level Waste Restricted Waste Management (LLW RWM) glovebox was tested using acceptance test procedure 13027A-87. Mr. Robert L. Warmenhoven served as test director, Mr. Kendrick Leist acted as test operator and test witness, and Michael Lane provided miscellaneous software support. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine glovebox control system interlocks, operator Interface Unit (OIU) menus, alarms, and messages. Basic drum port and lift table control sequences were demonstrated. OIU menus, messages, and alarm sequences were examined, with few exceptions noted. Barcode testing was bypassed, due to the lack of installed equipment as well as the switch from basic reliance on fixed bar code readers to the enhanced use of portable bar code readers. Bar code testing was completed during performance of the LLW RWM OTP. Mechanical and control deficiencies were documented as Test Exceptions during performance of this Acceptance Test. These items are attached as Appendix A to this report.

  17. RERTR fuel fabrication glovebox and facility development at ANL-W

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Lawrence, J.D.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    In order to support fuel plate production and physical metallurgy studies at ANL-W for the RERTR program, extensive facility modifications and equipment installation are underway. The particulate nature of the uranium alloys used in the fuel plate production requires glovebox isolation for several of the processing steps. A small glovebox was installed to meet the short-term powder processing needs of the project. A larger glovebox has been designed to handle the expanding needs of the project. In addition, a rolling mill and furnace were installed to allow hot rolling of the fuel plates. An arc-melting furnace will provide feedstock for powder production and metallurgy studies on uranium alloys. Future plans include the potential installation of a gas atomizer to aid in powder production.

  18. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Mark S; Tsiagkouris, James A

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  19. Lunar Processing Cabinet 2.0: Retrofitting Gloveboxes into the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Apollo 16 Lunar Processing Glovebox (cabinet 38) in the Lunar Curation Laboratory at NASA JSC received an upgrade including new technology interfaces. A Jacobs - Technology Innovation Project provided the primary resources to retrofit this glovebox into the 21st century. NASA Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office continues the over 40 year heritage of preserving lunar materials for future scientific studies in state-of-the-art facilities. This enhancement has not only modernized the contamination controls, but provides new innovative tools for processing and characterizing lunar samples as well as supports real-time exchange of sample images and information with the scientific community throughout the world.

  20. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for closing...

  1. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for closing...

  2. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent or...

  3. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent or...

  4. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for closing...

  5. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent or...

  6. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  7. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  8. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations....

  9. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  10. 46 CFR 127.250 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 127.250 Section 127.250... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.250 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Means must be provided for...

  11. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  12. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  13. Proposal for secondary enclosure setup for experiments to expose plasma facing materials to tritiated plasma in VISIONI

    SciTech Connect

    Broeckx, W.E.K.; Dylst, K.; Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.

    2015-03-15

    VISIONI is an equipment at SCK-CEN that allows the exposure of candidate plasma facing materials to tritium - deuterium plasmas at ITER first wall conditions. VISIONI itself, being a vacuum setup, acts as primary confinement. To protect operators against exposure to a tritiated atmosphere VISIONI must be placed in a secondary confinement. The current Tritium lab at SCK-CEN has a walk-in process cell which can be used to enclose the plasma chamber and diagnostics of the VISIONI setup, which have a limited tritium inventory. This allows easy accessibility to the setup in a well-ventilated environment. Routine operations should be conducted from outside the process cell and maintenance operations can be conducted from within the process cell with proper protections. The tritium storage and supply can be enclosed in a glove box with a dedicated air detritiation system which is activated during an experiment or in case of an incident. The detritiation system will oxidize tritium and capture it on molecular sieves. By using this confinement approach it is possible to expose materials to a tritiated plasma while maintaining good accessibility of the VISIONI setup. This paper describes the proposed confinement system and compares it to the most common approach where the entire system is enclosed into one large glovebox.

  14. Vapor containment tests of the rapid response system glovebox. Final report, December 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arca, V.J.; Blewett, W.K.; Kinne, W.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rapid Response System (RRS) is a trailer-mounted facility for demilitarizing Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS), obsolete training kits containing ampules and/or bottles of chemical warfare agents (mustard and lewisite), or other industrial chemical compounds. The main component of the RRS is a glovebox divided into three areas - an airlock station, unpack station, and neutralization station, and the CAIS items are processed through each station by use of 11 glove ports. The glovebox is maintained at negative pressure differential by a gas-particulate filter-blower unit. To measure the performance of the glovebox in containing chemical vapors/gases, a series of tests was conducted on 811 April 1996 at Tooele Army Depot, UT, with methyl salicylate, a simulant for mustard. This testing addressed performance in steady state operation, airlock cycling, waste barrel changeout, and glove changeout. Two trials were also conducted in a simulated power-failure condition to determine the rate of leakage if system airflow is interrupted. The glovebox and its engineering controls provided a very high level of protection. Some procedural changes were recommended to increase the protection factor in glove and barrel changeout operations.

  15. W-026, transuranic waste restricted waste management (TRU RWM) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-18

    The TRU Waste/Restricted Waste Management (LLW/PWNP) Glovebox 401 is designed to accept and process waste from the Transuranic Process Glovebox 302. Waste is transferred to the glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagless Transfer Port (DO-07401) on a transfer stand. The stand is removed with a hoist and the operator inspects the waste (with the aid of the Sampling and Treatment Director) to determine a course of action for each item. The waste is separated into compliant and non compliant. One Trip Port DO-07402A is designated as ``Compliant``and One Trip Port DO-07402B is designated as ``Non Compliant``. As the processing (inspection, bar coding, sampling and treatment) of the transferred items takes place, residue is placed in the appropriate One Trip port. The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved for sampling or storage or it`s state altered by treatment, the Operator will track an items location using a portable barcode reader and entry any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolutions (described here) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  16. HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS FOR VISUAL EXAMINATION GLOVEBOXES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R

    2006-05-03

    Visual Examination (VE) gloveboxes are used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remediate transuranic waste (TRU) drums. Noncompliant items are removed before the drums undergo further characterization in preparation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Maintaining the flow of drums through the remediation process is critical to the program's seven-days-per-week operation. Conservative assumptions are used to ensure that glovebox contamination from this continual operation is below acceptable limits. Holdup measurements are performed in order to confirm that these assumptions are conservative. High Cs-137 backgrounds in the VE glovebox areas preclude the use of a sodium iodide spectrometer, so a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, having superior resolution, is used. Plutonium-239 is usually the nuclide of interest; however, Pu-241, Np-237 (including its daughter Pa-233) and Pu-238 (if detected) are typically assayed. Cs-137 and Co-60 may also be detected but are not reported since they do not contribute to the Pu-239 Fissile Gram Equivalent or Pu-239 Equivalent Curies. HEPA filters, drums and waste boxes are also assayed by the same methodology. If--for example--the HEPA is contained in a stainless steel housing, attenuation corrections must be applied for both the filter and the housing. Dimensions, detector locations, materials and densities are provided as inputs to Ortec's ISOTOPIC software to estimate attenuation and geometry corrections for the measurement positions. This paper discusses the methodology, results and limitations of these measurements for different VE glovebox configurations.

  17. Numerical Simulation of an Enclosed Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity Environment: Comparison with ELF Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Kezhong; Venuturumilli, Rajasekhar; Ryan, Brandon J.; Chen, Lea-Der

    2001-01-01

    been some research on the stability of laminar flames, but most studies have focused on turbulent flames. It is also well known that the airflow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. Buoyant convection is sufficiently strong in 1-g flames that it can dominate the flow-field, even at the burner rim. In normal-gravity testing, it is very difficult to delineate the effects of the forced airflow from those of the buoyancy-induced flow. Comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames provides clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) investigation (STS-87/USMP-4 Space Shuttle mission, November to December 1997) is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flame, e.g., see http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm. The ELF hardware meets the experiment hardware limit of the 35-liter interior volume of the glovebox working area, and the 180x220-mm dimensions of the main door. The ELF experiment module is a miniature, fan-driven wind tunnel, equipped with a gas supply system. A 1.5-mm diameter nozzle is located on the duct's flow axis. The cross section of the duct is nominally a 76-mm square with rounded corners. The forced air velocity can be varied from about 0.2 to 0.9 m/s. The fuel flow can be set as high as 3 std. cubic centimeter (cc) per second, which corresponds to a nozzle exit velocity of up to 1.70 m/s. The ELF hardware and experimental procedure are discussed in detail in Brooker et al. The 1-g test results are repeated in several experiments following the STS-87 Mission. The ELF study is also relevant to practical systems because the momentum-dominated behavior of turbulent flames can be achieved in laminar flames in microgravity. The specific objectives of this paper are to evaluate the use reduced model for

  18. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  19. Microinjection of Follicle-Enclosed Mouse Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Laurinda A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Freudzon, Marina; Ratzan, William J.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    The mammalian oocyte develops within a complex of somatic cells known as a follicle, within which signals from the somatic cells regulate the oocyte, and signals from the oocyte regulate the somatic cells. Because isolation of the oocyte from the follicle disrupts these communication pathways, oocyte physiology is best studied within an intact follicle. Here we describe methods for quantitative microinjection of follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes, thus allowing the introduction of signaling molecules as well as optical probes into the oocyte within its physiological environment.

  20. Carbon fiber behavior in an enclosed volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of single carbon fibers existing in an enclosed space such as a room of a building. Three general phenomena were explored: the concentration decay rate of a fiber-charged room, the degree of uniform mixing of fibers within a room, and the effects of fibers being redisseminated off deposition surfaces within a room. The results were required in understanding the ratio of total indoor fiber exposure to total outdoor fiber exposure, a quantity essential to risk analysis. Results indicate that decay rate is predictable within acceptable limits and that homogeneous mixing can always be assumed. Some factors of redissemination are identified and effects discussed.

  1. Author Contribution to the Pu Handbook II: Chapter 37 LLNL Integrated Sample Preparation Glovebox (TEM) Section

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Mark A.

    2016-10-25

    The development of our Integrated Actinide Sample Preparation Laboratory (IASPL) commenced in 1998 driven by the need to perform transmission electron microscopy studies on naturally aged plutonium and its alloys looking for the microstructural effects of the radiological decay process (1). Remodeling and construction of a laboratory within the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate facilities at LLNL was required to turn a standard radiological laboratory into a Radiological Materials Area (RMA) and Radiological Buffer Area (RBA) containing type I, II and III workplaces. Two inert atmosphere dry-train glove boxes with antechambers and entry/exit fumehoods (Figure 1), having a baseline atmosphere of 1 ppm oxygen and 1 ppm water vapor, a utility fumehood and a portable, and a third double-walled enclosure have been installed and commissioned. These capabilities, along with highly trained technical staff, facilitate the safe operation of sample preparation processes and instrumentation, and sample handling while minimizing oxidation or corrosion of the plutonium. In addition, we are currently developing the capability to safely transfer small metallographically prepared samples to a mini-SEM for microstructural imaging and chemical analysis. The gloveboxes continue to be the most crucial element of the laboratory allowing nearly oxide-free sample preparation for a wide variety of LLNL-based characterization experiments, which includes transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, optical microscopy, electrical resistivity, ion implantation, X-ray diffraction and absorption, magnetometry, metrological surface measurements, high-pressure diamond anvil cell equation-of-state, phonon dispersion measurements, X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The sample preparation and materials processing capabilities in the IASPL have also facilitated experimentation at world-class facilities such as the

  2. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  3. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  4. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  5. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be capable of being shut down from the pilot house. (c) An enclosed passenger or crew accommodation... electrical wiring installed in a metal protective enclosure may be installed within ventilation ducts, provided that the piping or the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers....

  6. Extinguishment of enclosed gas fires with water sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wighus, R.

    1993-02-01

    Water sprays are widely used for fire fighting in industrial areas, and they are used for fire protection in the process industry and at offshore oil- and gas-production platforms. No real quantification of the effect of water sprays as a fire fighting medium exists. The water delivery is specified through standards and regulations which are based on industrial experience. In process areas, water spray is often used in deluge systems, intended to control the fire until the leakage of fuel has been shut down. For this purpose, there is a need for quantification of the ability a certain spray system has to remove heat from the fire and to reduce the fire load to the construction and process equipment. SINTEF NBL has studied extinguishment and control of enclosed hydrocarbon fires by means of water sprays. A scale model of a module of an offshore platform is used in studies of enclosed liquid hydrocarbon fire development. The model is instrumented to measure heat transfer, fire development, and production of soot and gases from combustion.

  7. Requalification of the 235-F Metallograph Facility gloveboxes for use in the 773-A Pre-Processing/Re-Processing Laboratory and plutonium ``Can in Can`` demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, S.; Hidlay, J.

    1997-04-16

    The proposed use for these gloveboxes are: (1) to utilize the Pu metal glovebox system for the primary containment associated with the Pre-Processing/Re-Processing Laboratory for obtaining radioactive glass compound viscometer analysis, and (2) to utilize the Pu oxide glovebox system for primary containment associated with the Pu Can in Can Demonstration for proof of principle testing specific to long term Pu immobilization and storage technology. This report presents objective evidence that supports the engineering judgment indicating the existing gloveboxes can be requalified for the proposed uses indicated above. SRS has the ability to duplicate the test parameters, with site forces, that will meet or exceed the identical acceptance criteria established to qualify the existing gloveboxes. The qualification effort will be a documented procedure using the leak test criteria characteristic of the original glovebox purchase. Two equivalent tests will be performed, one for post modification leak test acceptance and one for post installation leak test acceptance. Assurance of this approach is substantiated by thorough reviews of glovebox, leak test and weld standard guidance documents, as well as review of historical Project 3253 design and vendor information specific to the existing gloveboxes. Reuse of these gloveboxes will eliminate the need for competitive procurement of new gloveboxes.

  8. CSER 96-023: CSER for PFP glovebox HC-21A with 4.4 kilogram plutonium cans

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-17

    This criticality safety evaluation report addresses the criticality impact of increasing plutonium oxide content from 2.5 kg oxide storage cans to 5.0 kg oxide Pu storage cans. Glovebox HC-21A is used to move plutonium metal buttons from cans into furnace boats prior to transferring them to the muffle furnace gloveboxes. Glovebox HC-21A supports muffle furnace operations where plutonium buttons are burned to form paw, (H/Pu < 2). The paw, is returned to glovebox HC-21A and sieved and packed into the 4.,f kg Pu cans. The plutonium mass limit is set at 7.5 kg plutonium when plutonium metal is present. The plutonium mass limit is set at 15. kg plutonium when no plutonium metal is present. Additionally, there are other requirements to assure criticality safety during this operation.

  9. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Flores, Ginger N.

    2009-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for investigation handling. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the Columbus Laboratory Module. The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a workbench type environment. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/- 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 5000 hours of scientific payload operations. MSG investigations involve research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, plant growth, and life support technologies. MSG is an ideal platform for science investigations and research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRLs) applicable to the Constellation Program. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of future investigations currently planned for operation in the MSG, and potential applications of MSG investigations that can provide useful data to the Constellation Program. In addition, this paper will address

  10. Enclosed, off-axis solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Pablo; Grip, Robert E; Minano, Juan C; Narayanan, Authi A; Plesniak, Adam; Schwartz, Joel A

    2013-11-26

    A solar concentrator including a housing having receiving wall, a reflecting wall and at least two end walls, the receiving, reflecting and end walls defining a three-dimensional volume having an inlet, wherein a vertical axis of the housing is generally perpendicular to the inlet, a receiver mounted on the receiving wall of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell, wherein a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, at least one clip disposed on the reflecting wall an optical element received within the three-dimensional volume, the optical element including at least one tab, the tab being engaged by the clip to align the optical element with the receiver, and a window received over the inlet to enclose the housing.

  11. CSER 98-003: Criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    SciTech Connect

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-23

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into GloveboxHC-21 A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95. Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  12. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility, and the Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Sheredy, William A.; Flores, Ginger

    2008-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation, The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, reaction control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG and an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG. In addition, this paper will address possible changes to the MSG utilization process that will be brought about by the transition to ISS as a National Laboratory.

  13. Optimal Control Design Using an H2 Method for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Phillip C.; Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    The acceleration environment on the International Space Station (ISS) will likely exceed the requirements of many micro-gravity experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate the nominal acceleration environment and provide some isolation for micro-gravity science experiments. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to isolate a platform for mounting science payloads from the nominal acceleration environment. The system utilizes payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements in a feedback controller to accomplish the vibration isolation task. The controller provides current command to six magnetic actuators, producing the required experiment isolation from the ISS acceleration environment. This paper presents the development of a candidate control law to meet the acceleration attenuation requirements for the g-LIMIT experiment platform. The controller design is developed using linear optimal control techniques for both frequency-weighted H(sub 2) and H(sub infinity) norms. Comparison of the performance and robustness to plant uncertainty for these two optimal control design approaches are included in the discussion.

  14. Optimal Control Design using an H(sub 2) Method for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (G-Limit)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Hampton, R. David

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration environment on the International Space Station (ISS) will likely exceed the requirements of many micro-gravity experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate the nominal acceleration environment and provide some isolation for microgravity science experiments. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to isolate a platform for mounting science payloads from the nominal acceleration environment. The system utilizes payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements in a feedback controller to accomplish the vibration isolation task. The controller provides current commands to six magnetic actuators, producing the required experiment isolation from the ISS acceleration environment. This paper presents the development of a candidate control law to meet the acceleration attenuation requirements for the g-LIMIT experiment platform. The controller design is developed using linear optimal control techniques for frequency-weighted H(sub 2) norms. Comparison of the performance and robustness to plant uncertainty for this control design approach is included in the discussion.

  15. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE AND TIN SHEETING. - Sig Sautelle Circus Training House, South Main Street (State Route 11), Homer, Cortland County, NY

  17. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Chang, Y.; Merrill, J.T.; Souers, P.C.; Wiggins, R.K.

    1988-05-26

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as ''burpler'' passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate sections with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Replacement of lead-loaded glovebox glove with attenuation medium that are not RCRA-hazardous metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; George, Gerald L; Dodge, Robert L; Chunglo, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. In these environments, low-energy photons, i.e., those less than 250 keY, are encountered. Shielding glove box gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, but these are now considered hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, nonhazardous- shielding gJovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the effectiveness of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and nonhazardous- shielding glovebox gloves and compared their attenuation effectiveness over the energy range of interest at TA-55. All measurements are referenced to lead sheets, allowing direct comparisons to the common industry standard of 0.1 mm lead equivalent material. The attenuation properties of both types of glovebox gloves vary with energy, making it difficult for manufacturers to claim lead equivalency across the entire energy range used at TA-55. The positions of materials' photon energy absorption edges, which are particularly important to improved attenuation performance, depending upon the choice of radiation energy range, are discussed. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

  19. Human Exploration of Enclosed Spaces through Echolocation.

    PubMed

    Flanagin, Virginia L; Schörnich, Sven; Schranner, Michael; Hummel, Nadine; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Wahlberg, Magnus; Stephan, Thomas; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2017-02-08

    Some blind humans have developed echolocation, as a method of navigation in space. Echolocation is a truly active sense because subjects analyze echoes of dedicated, self-generated sounds to assess space around them. Using a special virtual space technique, we assess how humans perceive enclosed spaces through echolocation, thereby revealing the interplay between sensory and vocal-motor neural activity while humans perform this task. Sighted subjects were trained to detect small changes in virtual-room size analyzing real-time generated echoes of their vocalizations. Individual differences in performance were related to the type and number of vocalizations produced. We then asked subjects to estimate virtual-room size with either active or passive sounds while measuring their brain activity with fMRI. Subjects were better at estimating room size when actively vocalizing. This was reflected in the hemodynamic activity of vocal-motor cortices, even after individual motor and sensory components were removed. Activity in these areas also varied with perceived room size, although the vocal-motor output was unchanged. In addition, thalamic and auditory-midbrain activity was correlated with perceived room size; a likely result of top-down auditory pathways for human echolocation, comparable with those described in echolocating bats. Our data provide evidence that human echolocation is supported by active sensing, both behaviorally and in terms of brain activity. The neural sensory-motor coupling complements the fundamental acoustic motor-sensory coupling via the environment in echolocation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Passive listening is the predominant method for examining brain activity during echolocation, the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds. We show that sighted humans perform better when they actively vocalize than during passive listening. Correspondingly, vocal motor and cerebellar activity is greater during active echolocation than vocalization alone. Motor

  20. CSER 00-003 Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    SciTech Connect

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-07-13

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material.

  1. In-Situ Leak Testing And Replacement Of Glovebox Isolator, Or Containment Unit Gloves

    DOEpatents

    Castro, Julio M.; Macdonald, John M.; Steckle, Jr., Warren P.

    2004-11-02

    A test plug for in-situ testing a glove installed in a glovebox is provided that uses a top plate and a base plate, and a diametrically expandable sealing mechanism fitting between the two plates. The sealing mechanism engages the base plate to diametrically expand when the variable distance between the top plate and the bottom plate is reduced. An inlet valve included on the top plate is used to introducing a pressurized gas to the interior of the glove, and a pressure gauge located on the top plate is used to monitor the interior glove pressure.

  2. HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS FOR THREE VISUAL EXAMINATION AND TRU REMEDIATION GLOVEBOX FACILITIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-04

    Visual Examination (VE) gloveboxes are used to remediate transuranic waste (TRU) drums at three separate facilities at the Savannah River Site. Noncompliant items are removed before the drums undergo further characterization in preparation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Maintaining the flow of drums through the remediation process is critical to the program's seven-days-per-week operation. Conservative assumptions are used to ensure that glovebox contamination from this continual operation is below acceptable limits. Holdup measurements using cooled HPGe spectrometers are performed in order to confirm that these assumptions are conservative. {sup 239}Pu is the main nuclide of interest; however, {sup 241}Pu, equilibrium {sup 237}Np/{sup 233}Pa and {sup 238}Pu (if detected) are typically assayed. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) facility {sup 243,244,245}Cm are also generally observed and are always reported at either finite levels or at limits of detection. A complete assay at each of the three facilities includes a measure of TRU content in the gloveboxes and HEPA filters in the glovebox exhaust. This paper includes a description of the {gamma}-PHA acquisitions, of the modeling, and of the calculations of nuclide content. Because each of the remediation facilities is unique and ergonomically unfavorable to {gamma}-ray acquisitions, we have constructed custom detector support devices specific to each set of acquisitions. This paper includes a description and photographs of these custom devices. The description of modeling and calculations include determination and application of container and matrix photon energy dependent absorption factors and also determination and application of geometry factors relative to our detector calibration geometry. The paper also includes a discussion of our measurements accuracy using off-line assays of two SRNL HEPA filters. The comparison includes assay of the filters inside of 55-gallon

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS MOUNTED BELOW WINDOWS AND HEATING SYSTEM PIPES ABOVE - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-10600, 4 Quadrants, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  4. 18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM 50-FOOT LOCK TO ELEVATOR, LOOKING WEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  5. 17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO 18-FOOT LOCK, LOOKING EAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  6. Kitchen, view to northnortheast. Window looks out on enclosed east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen, view to north-northeast. Window looks out on enclosed east porch. Door at left leads to mud room, with laundry beyond that. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 4. Upper level of marine museum looking southwest at enclosed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Upper level of marine museum looking southwest at enclosed exterior wall of area office building - Duluth Ship Canal, Marine Museum-Area Office, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  9. 5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. 3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH ON PHOTO RIGHT AND DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. 7. Mispillion Lighthouse, First Floor, Enclosed Stairway Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Mispillion Lighthouse, First Floor, Enclosed Stairway - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  12. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  13. 12. ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH INTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING PULLDOWN STAIRCASE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH INTERIOR DETAIL SHOWING PULL-DOWN STAIRCASE TO ATTIC. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  14. Facility No. 201, view of enclosed loggia (now a study) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 201, view of enclosed loggia (now a study) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Quarters, Russell Avenue, between Central Avenue and Salvor Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 5. SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS, SOUTH PORTAL, SHOWING BOX ENCLOSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS, SOUTH PORTAL, SHOWING BOX ENCLOSING VALVES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  16. 7. Interior view of enclosed garage space; showing wall hung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of enclosed garage space; showing wall hung space heater, exterior windows, and garage door tracks; east end of building; view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, PX Service Station, 860 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  17. 12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS LEAD TO BEDROOM #3. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  18. Interior of exercise room created by enclosing former dance floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of exercise room created by enclosing former dance floor. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. InSPACE experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-01

    ISS020-E-026859 (1 Aug. 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, works with the Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions (InSPACE) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  20. InSPACE Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    View of Command and Monitoring Panel (CMP),and Power Distribution and Conversion Box (PDC),on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) rack during Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions 3 (InSPACE-3) Experiment,in the U.S. Laboratory. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  1. Strategy for decommissioning of the glove-boxes in the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergheynst, Alain; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80's at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors. In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP plant (UK). As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of {+-}-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process, {alpha}-containment, mechanization and radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed. The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques and manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and packaging {alpha}-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning and intermediate disposal. (authors)

  2. Seismic structural analysis of a glovebox by the equivalent static method

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.J.

    1994-06-01

    Seismic strength evaluation of equipment requires efficient and accurate methods. Such an evaluation generally calls for dynamic analysis requiring detailed accelerations and advanced mathematical modeling. The analysis may be tedious, but in theory works for any structure with any boundary conditions. Many equipment do not justify such expansive and expensive evaluation; hence, efficient and inexpensive, but may be more conservative, methods of analysis are used instead. The equivalent static method (ESM) is such a method. Being a static method, the ESM can not be directly applied to equipment that are not simply anchored to or only rest on the ground. In this paper, we show how a glovebox with ambiguous anchorage conditions is analyzed by the ESM when subjected to the seismic load. Also outlined are the retrofits to increase its seismic resistance. The recommendations include fixing the legs to the floor and using inclined braces. The use of braces is effective in resisting the lateral seismic. It redistributes the seismic-generated moment and force in a more benign way. It also significantly stiffens the glovobox`s supporting table structure, thus raising the vibration frequency of the table away from the high-energy range of the seismic load and drastically reduces the displacement of the glovebox.

  3. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W J; Lee, M B

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of +/-5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 microm, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within +/-30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  4. Robotic Sample Manipulator for Handling Astromaterials Inside the Geolab Microgravity Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Li,Z.; Tong, S.; Zhong, Y.; Dahiwala, R.; Wang, L.; Porter, F.

    2013-01-01

    Future human and robotic sample return missions will require isolation containment systems with strict protocols and procedures for reducing inorganic and organic contamination. Robotic handling and manipulation of astromaterials may be required for preliminary examination inside such an isolation containment system. In addition, examination of astromaterials in microgravity will require constant contact to secure samples during manipulation. The National Space Grant Foundation exploration habitat (XHab) academic innovative challenge 2012 administered through the NASA advanced exploration systems (AES) deep space habitat (DSH) project awarded funding to the University of Bridgeport team to develop an engineering design for tools to facilitate holding and handling geological samples for analysis in a microgravity glovebox environment. The Bridgeport XHab team developed a robotic arm system with a three-finger gripper that could manipulate geologic samples within the existing GeoLab glovebox integrated into NASA's DSH called the GeoLab Robotic Sample Manipulator (see fig. 1 and 2). This hardware was deployed and tested during the 2012 DSH mission operations tests [1].

  5. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Lee P.

    2013-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for investigation handling. The MSG was built by the European Space Agency (ESA) which also provides sustaining engineering support for the facility. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/- 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. The MSG has been used for over 14500 hours of scientific payload operations. MSG investigations involve research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, plant growth, and life support technology. The MSG facility is operated by the Payloads Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space flight Center. Payloads may also operate remotely from different telescience centers located in the United States and Europe. The investigative Payload Integration Manager (iPIM) is the focal to assist organizations that have payloads operating in the MSG facility. NASA provides an MSG engineering unit for payload developers

  6. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  7. Hygrometer for Detecting Water in Partially Enclosed Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Surma, Jan; Parks, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A portable hygrometer has been devised to implement a pre-existing technique for detecting water trapped in partially enclosed volumes that may be difficult to reach and cannot be examined directly. The technique is based on the fact that eventually the air in such a volume becomes saturated or nearly so. The technique is straightforward: One measures the relative humidity and temperature of both the ambient air and a sample of air from the enclosed volume. If the relative humidity of the sample is significantly greater than that of the ambient air and/or if the sample is at or close to the dew point, then it can be concluded that water is trapped in the volume. Of course, the success of this technique depends on the existence of an access hole through which one can withdraw some air from the enclosed volume.

  8. Deposition of heterogeneous radiocolloid from groundwater on enclosing rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'Kovskii, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    A model of precipitation of radiocolloid particles on enclosing rocks at colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides by groundwater is considered. The model proposed is based on probabilistic analysis of deposition of heterogeneous colloidal particles on fixed sites of groundwater filtration channels, which are formed by connected systems of pore_ and fracture voids in enclosing rocks. The model takes into account heterogeneity of the system of colloidal particles and competition of different particles for the same potential deposition sites. Theoretical analysis is based on the solution of the system of Kolmogorov-Feller equations. The limit values of the obtained solutions correspond to the equilibrium distribution of radiocolloid particles of different sizes between the groundwater and the enclosing rocks. In the case of a homogeneous system of particles, the obtained distribution is reduced to the Langmuir isotherm.

  9. Diode laser spectroscopy of complex molecules with enclosive flow cooling for spectral simplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taucher, F.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.; Cammenga, H. K.; Bauerecker, S.

    1996-02-01

    The enclosive flow cooling technique proved to be an efficient tool for simplifying molecular spectra. Compared to supersonic jet cooling, it provides high optical absorption efficiency. In this work, the prototype enclosive flow cooling cell was combined with tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS). The cell is easy to handle and use. With liquid nitrogen a gas temperature of 115 K was achieved. The fundamental spectral cooling effects, namely the reduction of line width and the decrease of spectral line number density, were investigated on CH 4 and CHF 3 and compared with theoretical expectations. Single-line resolution was improved by a factor of 5. Maximum absorption was enhanced by a factor of 2.5. Using the new cooling technique the number of molecules detectable in trace concentrations by TDLAS may be extended considerably, especially at temperatures lower than those attainable with liquid nitrogen. Experiments in this direction are planned for the future.

  10. A human factors approach towards the design of a new glovebox glove for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Jude M.

    2012-08-06

    Present day glovebox gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are underdeveloped and ergonomically inaccurate. This problem results in numerous sprain and strain injuries every year for employees who perform glovebox work. In addition to injuries, using the current glovebox glove design also contributes to breaches and contamination. The current glove used today at LANL has several problems: (1) The length of the fingers is incorrect, (2) the web spacing between the fingers is nonexistent, (3) the angles between each digit on the finger are incorrect, (4) the thumb is placed inaccurately, and (5) the length of the hand is incorrect. These problems present a need to correct the current glove design to decrease the risk of injuries, breaches, and contamination. Anthropometrics were researched to help find the best range of hand measurements to fix the current glove design. Anthropometrics is the measure of the human physical variation. Anthropometrics for this study were gathered from the American National Survey (ANSUR) data that was conducted by the U.S Army in 1988. The current glovebox glove uses anthropometrics from the 95th to 105th percentile range which is too large so the new gloves are going to implement data from a smaller range of percentile groups. The 105th percentile range represents measurements that exceed the human population but are needed to fit certain circumstance such as wearing several under gloves within the glovebox gloves. Anthropometrics used in this study include: 105th percentile measurements for joint circumference which was unchanged because the room for under gloves plus ease of hand insertion and extraction is needed, 80th percentile measurements for crotch length to allow workers to reach the web spacing in the glove, 20th percentile measurements for finger length to allow workers to reach the end of the glove, standard 10.5cm hand breadth to allow more room to accommodate under gloves, 45 degrees abduction angle for the

  11. CSER 96-013: Cementation Process, glovebox HA-20MB at PFP

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, A.L.

    1996-09-01

    This evaluation provides criticality safety controls for the cementation processing in Glovebox HA-2OMB at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Slag and crucible residues from Pu button making will be blended with Portland cement in 5k-in. diam. x 7-in. tall cans, for eventual disposition in special DOT 17C drums. A maximum of 180 g Pu is allowed per liquid-bearing container (mixing bowl, filter funnel, or cement can). In this SD revision, three separate areas with 500 g Pu limits each are established; the airlock cell for input S&C cans, the reaction- and mixing-process area, and a cemented-can storage area. Number and spacing of containers within an area is not restricted, for areas spaced 6 inches apart. Acid addition in the reaction stage is allowed to the extent that plutonium dissolution will not occur.

  12. Applying commercial robotics to processing in a hazardous-environment glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R. ); Sievers, R.H. )

    1991-08-01

    Problems and their resolutions are described for a project to automate nuclear material processing operations through adaptation of commercial robotics. The project is adapting a gantry robot to a hazardous-material glovebox, developing unique peripheral equipment, and exploring advanced teleoperation techniques. The following problems and alternatives were addressed: suitable robot configuration; tradeoffs in controls, peripherals, flexibility, maintainability, and hardening for radiation, grit, and non-air environment; manually completing any operation; assured positive control over special materials; personnel safety in attended continuous operation modes. These are being successfully resolved in the staged program: from the feasibility demonstration to the current test-bed operating an actual processing cycle in the special atmosphere, to the projected production prototype system. 16 refs.

  13. Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

  14. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  15. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  16. 3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE BOXES WITHIN AND BETWEEN MODULAR WORK AREAS. LEADED GLOVES WERE AFFIXED TO PORTS ALONG THE CHAINVEYOR PATHWAY TO ALLOW OPERATOR ACCESS. (1/25/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Kitchen, view to south. Door at left enters from enclosed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen, view to south. Door at left enters from enclosed east porch. Dining room visible through open door at center, with door to living room visible in background. Kitchen is highly altered. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRYWAY SHOWING STAIR LANDING AND OPEN FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  19. DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE LAUNDRY AREA IN THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 126. AERIAL FORWARD VIEW OF ENCLOSED HURRICANE BOW WITH FLIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. AERIAL FORWARD VIEW OF ENCLOSED HURRICANE BOW WITH FLIGHT DECK GUN MOUNTS REMOVED AND ANGLED FLIGHT DECK. 1 OCTOBER 1956. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 80-G-1001445) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. ENCLOSING WALL NORTH OF MAIN GATE, WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENCLOSING WALL NORTH OF MAIN GATE, WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD PLAQUE, FLORAL REGULATIONS SIGN, GENERAL ORDER 80 PLAQUE AND CEMETERY ACT PLAQUE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Culpeper National Cemetery, 305 U.S. Avenue, Culpeper, Culpeper County, VA

  2. Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office area taken from the main warehouse area showing the metal sash windows, view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Interior view of the enclosed area, note the twolightover singlepanel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the enclosed area, note the two-light-over single-panel door to the main warehouse area, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  4. PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE, SHOWING ENCLOSED CONVEYOR AND ABANDONED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO THE FORMER THIRD FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 11. HISTORICAL VIEW OF CHURCH WITH ENCLOSED STAIRWAY ADDITION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. HISTORICAL VIEW OF CHURCH WITH ENCLOSED STAIRWAY ADDITION, LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1850s. Photocopied from Henry Pleasants's book, History of Old St. David's Church, published in 1915 by John C. Winston Co. It is perhaps the earliest photograph of the church. - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

  6. 7. HOUSE SOUTH SIDE EXTERIOR SHOWING ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. HOUSE SOUTH SIDE EXTERIOR SHOWING ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH AND CASEMENT WINDOW INTO ATTIC AT PEAK OF GABLE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  7. 15. VIEW NORTHNORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW NORTH-NORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED AREAS AT BACK OF TUNNEL IS A HOUSING FOR CONDUCTING PERFORMANCE TESTING ON AIRCRAFT MODELS IN A VORTEX. - NASA Langley Research Center, Seaplane Towing Channel, 108 Andrews Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  8. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ENCLOSED CONVEYOR TO CARRY FINE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ENCLOSED CONVEYOR TO CARRY FINE ORE UP TO BIN IN THE TALLEST BUILDING. THE MULTI-WINDOWED PORTION OF BUILDING WITH "MILL TOUR" SIGN HOUSES THE MAINTENANCE SHOP. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  9. 11. INTERIOR OF WEST SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH IN OPPOSITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF WEST SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH IN OPPOSITE VIEW FROM CA-167-A-8. DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS LEAD TO BEDROOM #2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  10. VIEW OF ENCLOSED CARPORT AREA. ON RIGHT HAND SIDE IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ENCLOSED CARPORT AREA. ON RIGHT HAND SIDE IS THE ORIGINAL UTILITY ROOM ENTRY DOOR WITH JALOUSIES. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Four-Bedroom, Single-Family Type 10, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. How the ovules get enclosed in magnoliaceous carpels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wenzhe; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms distinguish themselves from gymnosperms by their ovules that are enclosed before pollination. However, how the ovules get enclosed in angiosperms remains a mystery, especially for Magnoliaceae. The only key to this mystery is finding a series of carpels transitional from fully closed with enclosed ovules to open with naked ovules. We use routine paraffin section technology, LM, SEM to document the morphology and anatomy of carpel variation in Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae). A series of carpel variations within a single flower of Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae) are documented, in which the ovules are exposed in atypical carpels. These atypical and typical carpels for the first time demonstrate clearly how the naked ovule get enclosed. Each atypical carpel, with naked ovules, clearly comprises two parts, namely, subtending foliar part and branches bearing ovules, suggesting that a typical carpel is actually an end-product of the fusion between the ovuliferous branches and subtending foliar parts. The only difference among these carpels is the extent of fusion between these two parts. This generalization is in full agreement with the molecular genetic studies on angiosperm flowers.

  12. 8. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRANCE. SIDE HUNG CASEMENT WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT OPEN TO FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT KITCHEN AND PANTRY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  13. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 108.185 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for... designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  14. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 108.185 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.185 Ventilation for... designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  15. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  16. Case histories of building material problems caused by condensation at an enclosed swimming pool and an enclosed ice rink

    SciTech Connect

    VanGeem, M.G.; Farahmandpour, K.; Gajda, J.

    1999-07-01

    Enclosed swimming pools and ice rinks in winter climates have the potential for high indoor relative humidities and cold building materials. These elements can contribute to condensation and premature deterioration of building materials. Case histories are provided for an enclosed swimming pool and an enclosed ice rink with condensation problems. An evaluation was performed after roof leaks were reported at a recently constructed indoor swimming pool in a Chicago suburb. After a preliminary inspection, it was evident that the reported leaks were related to building moisture problems rather than a roof leak. Exterior brick masonry exhibited heavy efflorescence in the area of the swimming pools, and water streaks were visible on the exterior walls below the eaves. The evaluation included laboratory testing, a visual inspection, field tests and measurements, and analyses for condensation potential. Results of the evaluation indicated the presence of condensed moisture as a direct cause of the observed water stains, and masonry efflorescence. Recommended corrective actions developed. A 54-year-old enclosed ice rink in New England was under investigation to determine the cause of a deteriorated wood deck roof. The building did not have dehumidification or air handling systems, and was heated only when occupied. The evaluation included visual inspection and analyses for condensation potential. Results of the evaluation indicated condensation within the wood decking and insulation during winter months, and high relative humidities that prohibited drying during the spring, summer, and fall. These conditions, over an extended number of years, resulted in decay of the wood decking.

  17. Implementation of a spark plasma sintering facility in a hermetic glovebox for compaction of toxic, radiotoxic, and air sensitive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tyrpekl, V. E-mail: vaclav.tyrpekl@gmail.com; Berkmann, C.; Holzhäuser, M.; Köpp, F.; Cologna, M.; Somers, J.; Wangle, T.

    2015-02-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a rapidly developing method for densification of powders into compacts. It belongs to the so-called “field assisted sintering techniques” that enable rapid sintering at much lower temperatures than the classical approaches of pressureless sintering of green pellets or hot isostatic pressing. In this paper, we report the successful integration of a SPS device into a hermetic glovebox for the handling of highly radioactive material containing radioisotopes of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am. The glovebox implantation has been facilitated by the replacement of the hydraulic system to apply pressure with a compact electromechanical unit. The facility has been successfully tested using UO{sub 2} powder. Pellets with 97% of the theoretical density were obtained at 1000 °C for 5 min, significantly lower than the ∼1600 °C for 5-10 h used in conventional pellet sintering.

  18. Implementation of a spark plasma sintering facility in a hermetic glovebox for compaction of toxic, radiotoxic, and air sensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Tyrpekl, V; Berkmann, C; Holzhäuser, M; Köpp, F; Cologna, M; Wangle, T; Somers, J

    2015-02-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a rapidly developing method for densification of powders into compacts. It belongs to the so-called "field assisted sintering techniques" that enable rapid sintering at much lower temperatures than the classical approaches of pressureless sintering of green pellets or hot isostatic pressing. In this paper, we report the successful integration of a SPS device into a hermetic glovebox for the handling of highly radioactive material containing radioisotopes of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am. The glovebox implantation has been facilitated by the replacement of the hydraulic system to apply pressure with a compact electromechanical unit. The facility has been successfully tested using UO2 powder. Pellets with 97% of the theoretical density were obtained at 1000 °C for 5 min, significantly lower than the ∼1600 °C for 5-10 h used in conventional pellet sintering.

  19. Implementation of a spark plasma sintering facility in a hermetic glovebox for compaction of toxic, radiotoxic, and air sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrpekl, V.; Berkmann, C.; Holzhäuser, M.; Köpp, F.; Cologna, M.; Wangle, T.; Somers, J.

    2015-02-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a rapidly developing method for densification of powders into compacts. It belongs to the so-called "field assisted sintering techniques" that enable rapid sintering at much lower temperatures than the classical approaches of pressureless sintering of green pellets or hot isostatic pressing. In this paper, we report the successful integration of a SPS device into a hermetic glovebox for the handling of highly radioactive material containing radioisotopes of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am. The glovebox implantation has been facilitated by the replacement of the hydraulic system to apply pressure with a compact electromechanical unit. The facility has been successfully tested using UO2 powder. Pellets with 97% of the theoretical density were obtained at 1000 °C for 5 min, significantly lower than the ˜1600 °C for 5-10 h used in conventional pellet sintering.

  20. Automation of Command and Data Entry in a Glovebox Work Volume: An Evaluation of Data Entry Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Marianne K.; Nakamura, Gail; Havens, Cindy; LeMay, Moira

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the human-computer interface for data entry while performing experimental procedures within a glovebox work volume in order to make a recommendation to the Space Station Biological Research Project for a data entry system to be used within the Life Sciences Glovebox. Test subjects entered data using either a manual keypad, similar to a standard computer numerical keypad located within the glovebox work volume, or a voice input system using a speech recognition program with a microphone headset. Numerical input and commands were programmed in an identical manner between the two systems. With both electronic systems, a small trackball was available within the work volume for cursor control. Data, such as sample vial identification numbers, sample tissue weights, and health check parameters of the specimen, were entered directly into procedures that were electronically displayed on a video monitor within the glovebox. A pen and paper system with a 'flip-chart' format for procedure display, similar to that currently in use on the Space Shuttle, was used as a baseline data entry condition. Procedures were performed by a single operator; eight test subjects were used in the study. The electronic systems were tested under both a 'nominal' or 'anomalous' condition. The anomalous condition was introduced into the experimental procedure to increase the probability of finding limitations or problems with human interactions with the electronic systems. Each subject performed five test runs during a test day: two procedures each with voice and keypad, one with and one without anomalies, and one pen and paper procedure. The data collected were both quantitative (times, errors) and qualitative (subjective ratings of the subjects).

  1. Combustion Research aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutliff, T. J.; Otero, A. M.; Urban, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA has chartered a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating both fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. Fundamental research provides insights to develop accurate simulations of complex combustion processes and allows developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion (fires, explosions). The applied research benefit humans living and working in space through its fire safety program. The Combustion Science Discipline is implementing a structured flight research program utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) and two of its premier facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility and the Microgravity Science Glovebox to conduct this space-based research. This paper reviews the current vision of Combustion Science research planned for International Space Station implementation from 2003 through 2012. A variety of research efforts in droplets and sprays, solid-fuels combustion, and gaseous combustion have been independently selected and critiqued through a series of peer-review processes. During this period, while both the ISS carrier and its research facilities are under development, the Combustion Science Discipline has synergistically combined research efforts into sub-topical areas. To conduct this research aboard ISS in the most cost effective and resource efficient manner, the sub-topic research areas are implemented via a multi-user hardware approach. This paper also summarizes the multi-user hardware approach and recaps the progress made in developing these research hardware systems. A balanced program content has been developed to maximize the production of fundamental and applied combustion research results within the current budgetary and ISS operational resource constraints. Decisions on utilizing the

  2. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  3. Wiseman during BASS experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    ISS040-E-031397 (2 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, works with a combustion experiment known as the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The experiment seeks to provide insight on how flames burn in space compared to Earth which may provide fire safety benefits aboard future spacecraft.

  4. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. Acoustic firearm discharge detection and classification in an enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Luzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Eric; Bruillard, Paul; Prowant, Matthew; Skorpik, James; Hughes, Michael; Child, Scott; Kist, Duane; McCarthy, John E.

    2016-05-01

    Two different signal processing algorithms are described for detection and classification of acoustic signals generated by firearm discharges in small enclosed spaces. The first is based on the logarithm of the signal energy. The second is a joint entropy. The current study indicates that a system using both signal energy and joint entropy would be able to both detect weapon discharges and classify weapon type, in small spaces, with high statistical certainty.

  6. Onboard photo: middeck with crewman, view of MGBX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Onboard photo of space shuttle Columbia (STS-75) Swiss crewmember Claude Nicollier with a view of Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) which provides a general-purpose enclosed workspace to carry out small-scale microgravity science experiments.

  7. System of calculating the amount of coal in bunkers of metering sections and enclosed warehouses

    SciTech Connect

    Kostenko, M.I.; Levchenko, I.I.; Kalmykov, B.I.; Vitrenko, V.U.; Kotovich, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    An electronic device which determines the amount of material in terms of volume has been deemed the most promising way to determine the amount of coal in bunkers or enclosed in warehouses. Two numerical signals, one of which is proportional to the amount of coal being delivered to a bunker and the other based on the amount of coal being taken out of it, are integrated to provide the basis for the electronic device. Results of experiments with the device were such that it is recommended for use in systems for calculating the amount of coal in the bunkers of coking plants.

  8. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  9. Assessment of Organ Doses for a Glovebox Worker Using Realistic Postures with PIMAL and VOXMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Bekar, Kursat; Eckerman, Keith F

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier effort, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) mathematical phantom has been revised to enable assessment of radiation dose for different postures in occupational exposures by enabling freely positioning arms and legs. The revised phantom is called PIMAL: Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs. Further, to assist the analyst with input preparation and output manipulation for different postures, a graphical user interface has been developed. Also, at ORNL a hybrid computational phantom, which uses a combination of voxelized and stylized geometry, for radiation dose assessment was recently developed. This phantom is based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP's) male phantom model and is called VOXMAT. For VOXMAT, the head and torso, which contain significant anatomical details, were described using voxel geometry. The arms and legs, which contain less-detailed anatomical structures, were modeled using the mathematical equations (stylized approach). With this approach the number of voxels was reduced from 7 million to 2.3 million, which translated into a proportional reduction in computational time and memory requirements. More importantly, VOXMAT allows easy the movement of arms and legs for radiation dose assessment for realistic postures. To determine/demonstrate the importance of the realistic posture for a case study, PIMAL and VOXMAT are applied to assess the dose to a glovebox worker. In this paper, the comparative computational results for the estimated dose are presented.

  10. Altimetry in Marginal, Semi-Enclosed and Coastal Seas. Part 1; Marginal and Semi-Enclosed Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantha, Lakshmi H.; Beitzell, Diane M.; Harper, Scott L.; Leben, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to deduce subtidal sea level anomalies in marginal, semi enclosed and coastal seas around the world from altimetric observations so that this data resource can be used both by itself and in conjunction with numerical circulation models to better understand and predict the circulation in these seas. The regions of interest include bodies of water that form the periphery of the principal ocean basins, both here and abroad as shown in the world bathymetry map.

  11. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  12. Design, fabrication, and testing of a getter-based atmosphere purification and waste treatment system for a nitrogen-hydrogen-helium glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, M. L.; Paglieri, S. N.; Tuggle, D. G.; Wermer, J. R.; Nobile Jr, A.

    2008-07-15

    A system containing a combination of getters (Zr-Mn-Fe, SAES St909; and Zr{sub 2}Fe, SAES St198) was used to process the nitrogen-hydrogen-helium atmosphere in a glovebox used for handling metal tritide samples. During routine operations, the glovebox atmosphere is recirculated and hydrogenous impurities (i.e. CQ{sub 4}, Q{sub 2}O, and NQ{sub 3}, where Q =H, D, T) are decomposed (cracked) and removed by Zr-Mn-Fe without absorbing elemental hydrogen isotopes. If the tritium content of the glovebox atmosphere becomes unacceptably high, the getter system can rapidly strip the glovebox atmosphere of all hydrogen isotopes by absorption on the Zr{sub 2}Fe, thus lessening the burden on the facility waste gas treatment system. The getter system was designed for high flowrate ( > 100 1/min), which is achieved by using a honeycomb support for the getter pellets and 1.27-cm diameter tubing throughout the system for reduced pressure drop. The novel getter bed design also includes an integral preheater and copper liner to accommodate swelling of the getter pellets, which occurs during loading with oxygen and carbon impurities. Non-tritium functional tests were conducted to determine the gettering efficiencies at different getter bed temperatures and flowrates by recirculating gas through the system from, a 6-m{sup 3} glovebox containing known concentrations of impurities. (authors)

  13. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-15

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.

  14. Saturated porous layers squeezed between parallel disks in enclosed cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melciu, I. C.; Cicone, T.; Pascovici, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidences show that high lift forces can be generated when a porous layer imbibed with a fluid is subjected to compression by a rigid and impermeable component in normal (approaching) relative motion. If the porous layer is soft enough to neglect its solid structure reaction to compression then the pressure increase can be entirely attributed to the flow resistance of the porous structure when the fluid is squeezed out. The mechanism is highly dependent on the variation of permeability with porosity at its turn variable with the rate of compression. Such a mechanism can be used for impact damping but realistic applications need to consider an enclosed system which keeps the squeezed fluid inside and allows for re-imbibition. The paper presents a simple analytical model for the effects produced in highly compressible porous layers imbibed with Newtonian liquids, during compression between two parallel rigid disks placed in enclosed cells with variable volume buffer, similar to a hydro-pneumatic accumulator.

  15. Behavior in normal and reduced gravity of an enclosed liquid/gas system with nonuniform heating from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Schiller, D. N.; Disimile, P.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature and velocity fields have been investigated for a single-phase gas system and a two-layer gas-and-liquid system enclosed in a circular cylinder being heated suddenly and nonuniformly from above. The transient response of the gas, liquid, and container walls was modelled numerically in normal and reduced gravity (10 to the -5 g). Verification of the model was accomplished via flow visualization experiments in 10 cm high by 10 cm diameter plexiglass cylinders.

  16. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  17. An experimental and numerical investigation of velocity in an enclosed residential complex parking area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Motlagh, Majid Shafie Pour; Mousavi, Monireh Sadat; Niksokhan, Mohhamad hosein; Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present research is analysis of velocity vector and magnitude in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran. Velocity parameters are key factor and can be helpful in proposing solutions to improve indoor air quality. Since The flow pattern determines that how and where the pollutants propagate. In this research at first, the proportion of vehicular exhaust emissions is estimated and then experimental and numerical analyses are performed. In experimental analysis, a full-scale experiment of parking area has been used; velocity is measured by calibrated measuring devices. Samples were performed in several times. In order to perform numerical calculation, a 3-dimensional model was created by Fluent software that solves flow equations with finite volume method. In this research, the flow condition is assumed to be incompressible and turbulent. Standard k-ɛ scheme was selected as turbulence modeling. In the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique the geometry of parking area is generated in ICEM-CFD software and hexahedral mesh type is used. Velocity vectors and magnitudes in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran are estimated. The findings obtained from numerical simulation are in complete accord with experimental results.

  18. Sound reduction at a target point inside an enclosed cavity using particle dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li; Shi, Yaogui; Yang, Qiliang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel structural damping approach to reduce the sound pressure at a target point inside an enclosed cavity. In this approach, particle dampers filled with either metal or nonmetal particles are used. The dissipation mechanisms of such dampers are primarily related to the friction and collision of particle-wall and particle-particle contacts. In this research, each panel contribution was first analyzed to identify the panel that contributes the most to the target point. The proposed particle dampers were then attached to this panel for sound reduction. In the numerical process, a Particle Dampers Cyclic Iterative Method (PDCIM) was proposed for extracting the damping loss factor of the particle dampers to compute the sound pressure of a target point in the cavity with the particle dampers. For further comparative studies, simulation experiments are conducted for three cases: a case with the particle dampers, a case with the empty particle containers and a case with the equivalent mass. The numerical study found that the case with the particle dampers had the best sound reduction effect. Later, model tests were carried out to validate the numerical results. Experimental test results revealed that the particle dampers are remarkably effective for reducing the sound inside the enclosed cavity.

  19. Numerical simulations to determine the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions in small enclosed workspace.

    PubMed

    Shibata, N; Tanaka, M; Ojima, J; Iwasaki, T

    2000-10-01

    In order to improve arc welding work in a small enclosed workspace, numerical simulations were conducted to find the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions, such as welding currents, hood position and flow rates with no blowhole formation. In the simulations, distributions of airflow vectors and fume concentrations were calculated for two hood opening positions: one faced a welder's breathing zone, the other a contaminant source. As a result it was predicted that a hood opening facing a breathing zone remarkably lowered the fume concentration in the breathing zone compared with that facing a contaminant source. The reliability was confirmed in CO2 arc welding experiments in the enclosed workspace by using a welding robot. In addition, the number of blowholes in welds, examined with x-ray, decreased with the increase in the welding current and with the decrease in the exhaust flow rate. These results showed that the fume concentration near welder's breathing zone and the number of blowholes could be reduced effectively by appropriate selection of the welding current and hood position, and it was confirmed that the numerical simulations were sufficiently useful to predict these appropriate welding conditions.

  20. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.

  1. Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla Souza; Freire, Luiz Octavio

    2013-01-01

    In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection.

  2. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2013-03-05

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  3. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  4. Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update*

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla Souza; Freire, Luiz Octavio

    2013-01-01

    In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection PMID:23857686

  5. Reducing workers' dust exposure during bag stacking in enclosed vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cecala, A B; Covelli, A; Thimons, E D

    1989-02-01

    The Bureau of Mines has evaluated cost effective systems to ventilate enclosed vehicles being loaded directly with bagged product material at mineral processing plants. This evaluation included both forms of transportation: railcars and trailer trucks. The goal of this research was to lower the dust exposure of workers stacking bags in these enclosed vehicles; these workers usually have the highest dust exposures in the entire processing plant. The problem occurs because there is no mechanical ventilation inside these vehicles. As the vehicle is being loaded, dust concentrations increase to substantial levels because released dust has no means of exiting the vehicle or of being diluted with fresh air. In cases where the dust is hazardous, as with silica sand, this may present a serious health hazard. This research project was a two-step effort. The first step was a qualitative laboratory evaluation performed in a railcar to compare different types of ventilation systems (blowing, exhaust, and push-pull systems) using a methane (CH4) tracer gas technique. An exhaust system located over the snake conveyor was the most effective system at reducing gas levels in and around the bag stacker's work area. The second step then involved a field evaluation at a silica sand processing plant to determine the system's effectiveness in the actual work environment. Three different versions were evaluated in an attempt to optimize the exhaust ventilation system's effectiveness. The most effective version involved exhausting 54.5 m3/min (2000 ft3/min) through a fiberglass tube located 1.1 m past the end of the slinger at a 2.0-m height so as not to interfere with the bag stacker's job function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 3D-Printing inside the Glovebox: A Versatile Tool for Inert-Gas Chemistry Combined with Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Felix; Kaldun, Christian; Namyslo, Jan C; Hübner, Eike G

    2016-04-01

    3D-Printing with the well-established 'Fused Deposition Modeling' technology was used to print totally gas-tight reaction vessels, combined with printed cuvettes, inside the inert-gas atmosphere of a glovebox. During pauses of the print, the reaction flasks out of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were filled with various reactants. After the basic test reactions to proof the oxygen tightness and investigations of the influence of printing within an inert-gas atmosphere, scope and limitations of the method are presented by syntheses of new compounds with highly reactive reagents, such as trimethylaluminium, and reaction monitoring via UV/VIS, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. The applicable temperature range, the choice of solvents, the reaction times, and the analytical methods have been investigated in detail. A set of reaction flasks is presented, which allow routine inert-gas syntheses and combined spectroscopy without modifications of the glovebox, the 3D-printer, or the spectrometers. Overall, this demonstrates the potential of 3D-printed reaction cuvettes to become a complementary standard method in inert-gas chemistry.

  7. Damped oscillations of a frictionless piston in an adiabatic cylinder enclosing an ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2017-05-01

    Suppose that a piston of nonzero mass encloses an ideal gas in a vertical cylinder. The piston and cylinder are thermally insulated so that no energy is lost by heat transfer to the surroundings. If the piston is set into motion, it oscillates like a block on a spring. However, the motion is damped because the gas density and pressure immediately adjacent to the piston are higher or lower than the bulk values, depending on whether the piston is compressing or expanding the gas, respectively. That automatically gives rise to a drag force linear in the velocity of the piston. It is not necessary to add extra dissipative terms such as kinetic friction between the piston and cylinder, or viscosity of the gas, to damp out the motion of the piston. The ideas should thus be helpful to undergraduate students performing a Rüchardt experiment to measure the ratio of the heat capacities of a gas.

  8. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  9. Numerical Simulation And Experimental Investigation Of The Lift-Off And Blowout Of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuturmilli, Rajasekhar; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Lea-Der

    2003-01-01

    Enclosed flames are found in many industrial applications such as power plants, gas-turbine combustors and jet engine afterburners. A better understanding of the burner stability limits can lead to development of combustion systems that extend the lean and rich limits of combustor operations. This paper reports a fundamental study of the stability limits of co-flow laminar jet diffusion flames. A numerical study was conducted that used an adaptive mesh refinement scheme in the calculation. Experiments were conducted in two test rigs with two different fuels and diluted with three inert species. The numerical stability limits were compared with microgravity experimental data. Additional normal-gravity experimental results were also presented.

  10. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  11. CSER 99-002: CSER for unrestricted moderation of sludge material with two-boat operations in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC21-C

    SciTech Connect

    LAN, J.S.

    1999-04-29

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report was prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest under contract to BWHC. This document establishes the criticality safety parameters for unrestricted moderation of Sludge material with two-boat operations in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C.

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning of 61 plutonium gloveboxes in D-Wing, Building 212 Argonne National Laboratory-East: Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is a government-owned, contractor operated, multipurpose research facility located 25 miles southwest of downtown Chicago on 689 hectares (1,700 acres) in DuPage County, Illinois, as shown in Figure 1.1. Building 212 is located in the central area of ANL-E, as shown in Figure 1.2. The purpose of this project was to eliminate the risk of radioactive material release from the contaminated glovebox systems and to make the laboratories available for unrestricted use. The following work objectives were established: (1) Identify and remove radioactive materials for return to ANL-E Special Materials control. (2) Remove and package the radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the gloveboxes. (3) Decontaminate the gloveboxes to nontransuranic (non-TRU) levels. (4) Size-reduce and package the gloveboxes and support systems. (5) Document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste. (6) Decontaminate, survey, and release the nine laboratories and corridor areas for unrestricted use.

  13. Myxobacteria Produce Outer Membrane-Enclosed Tubes in Unstructured Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social microbes that exhibit complex multicellular behaviors. By use of fluorescent reporters, we show that Myxococcus xanthus isolates produce long narrow filaments that are enclosed by the outer membrane (OM) and contain proteins. We show that these OM tube (OMT) structures are produced at surprisingly high levels when cells are placed in liquid medium or buffer without agitation. OMTs can be long and easily exceed multiple cell lengths. When viewed by transmission electron microscopy, their morphology varies between tubes and chain-like structures. Intermediate-like structures are also found, suggesting that OMTs may transition between these two morphotypes. In support of this, video epifluorescence microscopy found that OMTs in solution dynamically twist and jiggle. On hard surfaces, myxobacteria glide, and upon cell-cell contact, they can efficiently exchange their OM proteins and lipids by a TraAB-dependent mechanism. Although the structure of OMTs hints at a possible role as conduits for exchange, evidence is presented to the contrary. For example, abundant OMT production occurs in traA or traB mutants and when cells are grown in liquid medium, yet transfer cannot occur under these conditions. Thus, genetic and environmental conditions that promote OMT production are incongruent with OM exchange. PMID:24391054

  14. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ∼270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (∼100 km s{sup –1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (≲ 10 km s{sup –1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  15. A Glove Box Enclosed Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Reevr, E, M; Robino, C.V.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes an inert atmosphere enclosed gas-tungsten arc welding system which has been assembled in support of the MC2730, MC2730A and MC 3500 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Enhanced Surveillance Program. One goal of this program is to fabricate welds with microstructures and impurity levels which are similar to production heat source welds previously produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mound Facility. These welds will subsequently be used for high temperature creep testing as part of the overall component lifetime assessment. In order to maximize the utility of the welding system, means for local control of the arc atmosphere have been incorporated and a wide range of welding environments can easily be evaluated. The gas-tungsten arc welding system used in the assembly is computer controlled, includes two-axis and rotary motion, and can be operated in either continuous or pulsed modes. The system can therefore be used for detailed research studies of welding impurity effects, development of prototype weld schedules, or to mimic a significant range of production-like welding conditions. Fixturing for fabrication of high temperature creep test samples have been designed and constructed, and weld schedules for grip-tab and test welds have been developed. The microstructure of these welds have been evaluated and are consistent with those used during RTG production.

  16. Numerical study of conjugate transient solidification in an enclosed region

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanath, R.; Jaluria, Y.

    1995-05-01

    Solidification in an enclosed space is investigated, considering conduction in the mold wall. This gives rise to a conjugate, transient problem, with the flow in the liquid driven by thermal buoyancy. An enthalpy formulation is used for the energy equation, with a porous medium approximation for the region undergoing phase change. The governing equations are solved using primitive variables in the physical space. The control volume approach is employed to discretize the equations. The numerical simulation of the phase change process is discussed in detail. The mold is subjected to different thermal conditions at the outer surface, and the effect of these on the shape of the solid-liquid interface, rate of solid formation, and rate of heat transfer quantified. Streamlines, isotherms, and velocity profiles are also obtained. The conditions under which natural convection in the melt can be neglected are investigated. The effects of important design parameters such as the mold material and width, aspect ratio of the cavity, and heat removal rate from the mold are considered in detail. A comparison is made of the important characteristics between the conjugate and nonconjugate cases. The differences in the numerical simulation of these two cases are investigated. Of particular interest are the temperature distributions that arise in the liquid, solid, and mold. It is shown that conjugate transport must be included for a realistic simulation of practical problems.

  17. Candle Flames in Microgravity Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    Closeup view inside glovebox showing a candle flame. The Candle Flames in Microgravity experiment is carried onboard Columbia to examine whether candle flames can be sustained in space; to study the interaction and physical properties of diffusion flames. In space, where buoyancy-driven convection is reduced, the role diffusion plays in sustaining candle flames can be isolated. Results have implications for other diffusion flame studies. Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame on Earth.

  18. InSPACE-3 experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-01

    NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg,Expedition 36 flight engineer,works with the InSPACE-3 experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. InSPACE-3 applies different magnetic fields to vials of colloids,or liquids with microscopic particles,and observes how fluids can behave like a solid. Also sent as Twitter message.

  19. InSPACE-3 experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-01

    ISS036-E-028026 (1 Aug. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works with the InSPACE-3 experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. InSPACE-3 applies different magnetic fields to vials of colloids, or liquids with microscopic particles, and observes how fluids can behave like a solid. Results may improve the strength and design of materials for stronger buildings and bridges.

  20. Crewmember working on the spacelab Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialists Bonnie Dunbar and Larry DeLucas in the aft section of the U. S. Microgravity Laboratory-1. Dunbar is preparing to load a sample in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Integrated Furnace Experiment Assembly (IFEA) in rack 9 of the Microgravity Laboratory. DeLucas is checking out the multi-purpose Glovebox Facility.

  1. Serova works with test samples from Kaskad Cell Cultivation Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-29

    ISS041-E-037551 (29 Sept. 2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Elena Serova, Expedition 41 flight engineer, works with test samples from the Kaskad cell cultivation experiment in a glovebox in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  2. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dugdale, J.S.; Humiston, T.J.; Omer, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant.

  3. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... create a negative pressure in the enclosure to ensure that all emissions are routed to the control device. ... Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. (a) Use of closed vent system and control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks...

  4. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... create a negative pressure in the enclosure to ensure that all emissions are routed to the control device. ... Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. (a) Use of closed vent system and control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks...

  5. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated...

  6. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  7. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  8. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  9. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  10. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  11. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  12. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  13. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  14. Use of simulation to examine operational scenarios in a lathe glovebox for the processing of nuclear materials.

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, M.; Ashok, P.; Cox, D. J.; Pittman, P. C.; Turner, C. J.; Hollen, R. M.

    2001-06-01

    In the process of dispositioning nuclear materials into storage, the use of a robot eliminates the safety risks to humans and increases productivity. The current process of processing typically uses humans to handle the hazardous material using gloves through glove-ports. This process is not only dangerous, but also costly, because humans can only be subjected to limited exposure to nuclear materials due to the actual Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) and thus have a fixed amount of dedicated workload per unit time. Use of robotics reduces ORE to humans and increases productivity. The Robotics Research Group at the University of Texas at Austin has created a simulation model of a conceptual application that uses a robot inside the glovebox to handle hazardous materials for lathe machining process operations in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL). The actions of the robot include preparing the parts for entry into the box, weighing the parts, positioning the parts into the headstock chuck of the lathe, handling the subsequent processed parts, changing and replacing the lathe tools and chuck assemblies are necessary to process the material. The full three-dimensional geometric model of the simulation demonstrates the normal expected operation from beginning to end and verifies the path plans for the robot. The emphasis of this paper is to report additional findings from the simulation model, which is currently being expanded to include failure mode analysis, error recovery, and other what-if scenarios involved in unexpected, or unplanned, operation of the robot and lathe process inside of the glovebox.

  15. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  16. Gerst during BASS-II experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-30

    ISS040-E-083576 (30 July 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, performs two tests with a combustion experiment known as the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The experiment seeks to provide insight on how flames burn in space compared to Earth which may provide fire safety benefits aboard future spacecraft.

  17. Gerst during BASS-II experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-30

    ISS040-E-083578 (30 July 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, performs two tests with a combustion experiment known as the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The experiment seeks to provide insight on how flames burn in space compared to Earth which may provide fire safety benefits aboard future spacecraft.

  18. Muscarinic receptor heterogeneity in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Rogelio O; Garay, Edith; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Ionic current responses elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes (follicles) were studied using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. ACh generated a fast chloride current (Fin) and inhibited K+ currents gated by cAMP (IK,cAMP) following receptor activation by adenosine, follicle-stimulating hormone or noradrenaline. These previously described cholinergic responses were confirmed to be of the muscarinic type, and were independently generated among follicles from different frogs.Inhibition of IK,cAMP was about 100 times more sensitive to ACh than Fin activation; the half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) were 6.6 ± 0.4 and 784 ± 4 nm, respectively.Both responses were blocked by several muscarinic receptor antagonists. Using the respective EC50 concentrations of ACh as standard, the antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide blocked the two effects with very different potencies. Fin was blocked with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.4 ± 0.07 nm, whilst the IC50 for IK,cAMP inhibition was 5.9 ± 0.2 μm.Oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, preferentially stimulated IK,cAMP inhibition (EC50= 15.8 ± 1.4 μm), whilst Fin was only weakly activated. In contrast, oxotremorine inhibited Fin generated by ACh with an IC50 of 2.3 ± 0.7 μm.Fin elicited via purinergic receptor stimulation was not affected by oxotremorine, indicating that the inhibition produced was specific to the muscarinic receptor, and suggesting that muscarinic actions do not exert a strong effect on follicular cell-oocyte coupling.Using reverse transcription-PCR, transcripts of a previously cloned muscarinic receptor from Xenopus (XlmR) were amplified from the RNA of both the isolated follicular cells and the oocyte. The pharmacological and molecular characteristics suggest that XlmR is involved in IK,cAMP inhibition.In conclusion, follicular cells possess two different muscarinic receptors, one resembling the M2 (or M4) subtype

  19. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  20. Target-enclosing control for second-order multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Wei, T. T.

    2015-09-01

    This paper poses the enclosing control problem with identical geometry for a group of targets which are either stationary or moving and offers consensus-based distributed control protocols. An estimator is first introduced to estimate the central position of the targets. We then propose a target-enclosing control law with velocity information based on the centre estimating algorithm and consensus theory. A target-enclosing control law without the velocity information is further designed. The Lyapunov theory and Lasalle's invariance principle are applied to show the convergence of the proposed control algorithms. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategy.

  1. Utilization of polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to improve the performance of modern power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakich, J.D.; Lenk, D.W. ); Koepfinger, J.L. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper introduces the first commercially available polymer enclosed intermediate class metal oxide surge arrester. It describes the unique construction of the design, including reduced size, increased flexibility, a collared seal on the polymer housing and an open webbed fiberglass-epoxy module which houses the metal oxide disc elements. Performance advantages are discussed. These include improved short term contamination performance of the insulator-like polymer design when compared to multi-unit porcelain housed designs. Data will show that polymer housed open-webbed fiberglass module construction extends the pressure relief capability beyond that of typical porcelain enclosed designs. The capability of the polymer enclosed design to withstand repeated pressure relief tests, simulating system reclose on a failed arrester, is also discussed. This paper discusses the circumstances at one utility which has considered utilizing polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to effectively upgrade their system protection capabilities.

  2. Study of total ionizing dose radiation effects on enclosed gate transistors in a commercial CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Huangfu, Li-Ying; Gou, Qiu-Jing

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies the total ionizing dose radiation effects on MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) transistors with normal and enclosed gate layout in a standard commercial CMOS (compensate MOS) bulk process. The leakage current, threshold voltage shift, and transconductance of the devices were monitored before and after γ-ray irradiation. The parameters of the devices with different layout under different bias condition during irradiation at different total dose are investigated. The results show that the enclosed layout not only effectively eliminates the leakage but also improves the performance of threshold voltage and transconductance for NMOS (n-type channel MOS) transistors. The experimental results also indicate that analogue bias during irradiation is the worst case for enclosed gate NMOS. There is no evident different behaviour observed between normal PMOS (p-type channel MOS) transistors and enclosed gate PMOS transistors.

  3. Ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on different time enclosed in desertification steppe soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.; Jia, Y. Q.

    2017-08-01

    It is the research object for the ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on the different time of desertification grasslands enclosed and grazing grassland in Taibusi country of the Inner Mongolia, China. Through the measurement and analysis on ecological stoichiometric ratio of C, N and P in soil, the time of desertification grassland enclosed is determined. There are 13 soil of desertification grassland with different en-closure time, and 1 soil of grazing grassland. They are analyzed for the soil organic carbon, total nitro-gen, total phosphorus content and their density. The C/N of soil were increased with the extension of the time of desertification grassland enclosed. To 22 years enclosed, the C/N of grassland desertification soil enclosed is greater than the soil of grazing grassland that is 17. After the desertification grassland is en-closed, the C/N of soil is 13, and it is accumulated to maximum for C and N, and The grazing period is the best.

  4. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in <3 days using immobilized consortium, while 3-5 days were required using free cells. The O2 supply efficiency of an enclosed in-well aeration system was assessed in a box filled with perlite and peat. Dissolved O2 (DO) concentrations increased to 8-12 mg L(-1) in 12 h for sampling ports within 12 cm of the aeration well. A diffusion coefficient as 33.5 cm(2) s(-1) was obtained. The DO concentration was >4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium.

  5. PIV measurement of high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in an enclosed flow apparatus with fan agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Pecenak, Zachary K.; Cao, Lujie; Woodward, Scott H.; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Enclosed flow apparatuses with negligible mean flow are emerging as alternatives to wind tunnels for laboratory studies of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) with or without aerosol particles, especially in experimental validation of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). It is desired that these flow apparatuses generate HIT at high Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers ({{R}λ} ) and enable accurate measurement of turbulence parameters including kinetic energy dissipation rate and thereby {{R}λ} . We have designed an enclosed, fan-driven, highly symmetric truncated-icosahedron ‘soccer ball’ airflow apparatus that enables particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and other whole-field flow measurement techniques. To minimize gravity effect on inertial particles and improve isotropy, we chose fans instead of synthetic jets as flow actuators. We developed explicit relations between {{R}λ} and physical as well as operational parameters of enclosed HIT chambers. To experimentally characterize turbulence in this near-zero-mean flow chamber, we devised a new two-scale PIV approach utilizing two independent PIV systems to obtain both high resolution and large field of view. Velocity measurement results show that turbulence in the apparatus achieved high homogeneity and isotropy in a large central region (48 mm diameter) of the chamber. From PIV-measured velocity fields, we obtained turbulence dissipation rates and thereby {{R}λ} by using the second-order velocity structure function. A maximum {{R}λ} of 384 was achieved. Furthermore, experiments confirmed that the root mean square (RMS) velocity increases linearly with fan speed, and {{R}λ} increases with the square root of fan speed. Characterizing turbulence in such apparatus paves the way for further investigation of particle dynamics in particle-laden homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  6. Threat of paediatric hyperthermia in an enclosed vehicle: a year-round study.

    PubMed

    Duzinski, Sarah V; Barczyk, Amanda N; Wheeler, Tareka C; Iyer, Sujit S; Lawson, Karla A

    2014-08-01

    To describe temperature change throughout the workday in an enclosed vehicle in Austin, Texas across the calendar year while accounting for heat index. In this observational study, vehicular temperature was measured 1 day per month during 2012 in Austin, Texas. Data were recorded at 5-min intervals via an EL-USB-1-PRO digital temperature sensor from 8:00 to 16:00. Selected days were primarily cloud-free (with 'clear' or 'few clouds') with a predicted ambient temperature high within ±20°F of the 30-year normal high. Referent temperature and 30-year normal data were collected via the nearest National Weather Service (NWS) weather station. The NWS heat index and corresponding hazard levels were used as a guideline for this study. Per NWS guidelines, the enclosed vehicle temperature rose to 'danger' levels of ≥105°F (41°C) in all months except January and December and to 'extreme caution' levels of ≥90°F (32°C) in every month of the year. In June, the vehicle rose to ≥105°F (41°C) by 9:25. The hottest vehicular temperature achieved was 137°F (58°C). In 9 months of the year, the vehicle reached ≥90°F (32°C) by noon. We also found that an ambient temperature as low as 68°F was associated with vehicular temperatures ≥105°F (41°C). Infants and children in states that experience mild winter temperatures face the threat of vehicular hyperthermia disability and death across the calendar year. Prevention efforts that focus on awareness of a childhood heat vulnerability, parental perception of susceptibility to forgetting a child in a vehicle and universal availability of vehicular safety devices may reduce paediatric vehicular hyperthermia death. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Novel Cl- currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone and acetylcholine in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Voltage-clamp techniques were used to study the membrane currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed oocytes of Xenopus laevis (follicles). Both agonists caused complex responses that were more evident when the follicles were in hypotonic Ringer solution (HR; 190.4 mosM). In this medium, currents activated by FSH regularly showed three phases whereas currents activated by ACh displayed three to six phases. At a holding potential of -60 mV, FSH, and ACh responses involved combinations of inward and outward currents. Both FSH and ACh responses included a slow smooth inward component that was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, mainly to Cl- (S(in)). This current was strongly dependent on the osmolarity of the external solution: an increase in osmolarity of the HR solution of 18-20 mosM caused a 50% decrease in S(in). In contrast, a fast and transient Cl- current (F(in)) specifically elicited by ACh was not dependent on osmolarity. Both, F(in) and S(in) currents required the presence of follicular cells, since defolliculation using three different methods abolished all the response to FSH and at least four components of the ACh responses. The membrane channels carrying F(in) and oscillatory Cl- currents elicited by stimulation of ACh or serum receptors, were much more permeable to I- and Br- than Cl-, whereas S(in) channels were equally permeable to these anions. Unlike the oscillatory Cl- currents generated in the oocyte itself, S(in) and F(in) currents in follicle-enclosed oocytes were not abolished by chelation of intracellular Ca2+, either with EGTA or BAPTA, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ does not play a critical role in the activation of these currents. Our experiments show that S(in) and F(in) currents are quite distinct from the previously characterized oscillatory Cl- responses of oocytes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that the FSH and ACh receptors, the Cl- channels

  8. OPERATION OF A TRITIUM GLOVEBOX CLEAN-UP SYSTEM USING ZIRCONIUM MANGANESE IRON AND ZIRCONIUM TWO IRON METAL GETTERS

    SciTech Connect

    E. LARSON; K. COOK

    2000-08-01

    A metal hydride-based tritium clean-up system has been successfully operated for more than four years on an 11 m{sup 3} helium/nitrogen glovebox which was used for handling metal tritide powders. The clean-up system consists of two beds: (1) a Zr-Mn-Fe (in a 10% by weight Al binder, SAES ST909) bed operating at 675 C followed by (2) a Zr{sub 2}Fe (SAES ST198) bed operating at 250 C. The Zr-Mn-Fe bed serves to condition the gas stream by cracking hydrogenous impurities (such as H{sub 2}O and hydrocarbons) and absorbing oxygen and carbon. The Zr{sub 2}Fe bed absorbs the hydrogen isotopes from the flowing stream by forming a solid hydride compound. These beds contain 3 kilograms of Zr{sub 2}Fe and have been loaded routinely with 230-250 STP liters of hydrogen isotopes in earlier trials. The Zr-Mn-Fe alloy exhibits an anomaly during activation, namely an exotherm upon initial exposure to nitrogen. The purpose of this work is to better understand this reaction. Nitrogen absorption studies were done in order to quantify the nitrogen taken up by the getter and to characterize the reaction kinetics. In addition, ST909 phases before and after the reaction were studied with x-ray diffraction.

  9. Models of anxiety: responses of rats to novelty in an open space and an enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; Chazot, P L

    2006-07-15

    Exposure to novelty has been shown to induce anxiety responses in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exposition of naïve rats to novelty would result in a comparable or a different pattern of responses in an open space versus enclosed space with or without the presence of an object in the centre of the field. Lewis and Wistar rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss the value and validity of these anxiety paradigms. We examined a wide range of measures, which cover several aspects of animals' responses. The results of this study revealed significant differences between the behaviour of animals in an open space and in the enclosed space. It also revealed significant differences in animal's responses to the presence and absence of an object in the open space and in the enclosed space. In the enclosed space, rats spent most of their time in the outer area with lower number of exits and avoided the object area except when there was an object, while in the open space rats displayed frequent short duration re-entries in the outer area and spent longer time in the object area in presence of an object. The time spent in the inner area (away from the outer area and the object area) was significantly longer and the number of faecal boli was significantly higher in the open space than in the enclosed space. In the present report, we will discuss the fundamental differences between enclosed space and open space models, and we will examine some methodological issues related to the current animal models of human behaviour in anxiety. In the enclosed space, animals can avoid the potential threat associated with the centre area of a box and chose the safety of walls and corners, whereas, in the open space animals have to avoid every parts of the field from which there was no safe escape. The response of animals to novelty in an open space model appears more relevant to anxiety than in an enclosed space

  10. Virts preps MSG for Micro-5 experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    iss042e046523 (12/16/14) --- Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA is seen here on 16 December 2014 setting up the station’s Microgravity Science Glovebox for the upcoming Micro-5 experiment. Micro-5 will use roundworms as a model organism with the microbe Salmonella typhimurium, which causes food poisoning in humans, to better understand the risks of in-flight infections in space explorers.

  11. Kotov works with samples from Bioscience Experiment in the MRM2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-24

    ISS022-E-071573 (24 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  12. Kotov works with samples from the Bioscience Experiment ASEPTIC during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-19

    ISS022-E-068645 (18 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the new Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  13. Kotov works with samples from the Bioscience Experiment ASEPTIC during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-19

    ISS022-E-068640 (18 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the new Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  14. Kotov works with samples from Bioscience Experiment in the MRM2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-24

    ISS022-E-071575 (24 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  15. Kotov works with samples from Bioscience Experiment in the MRM2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-24

    ISS022-E-071574 (24 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  16. Kotov works with samples from Bioscience Experiment in the MRM2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-24

    ISS022-E-071576 (24 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  17. Kotov works with samples from the Bioscience Experiment ASEPTIC during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-19

    ISS022-E-068638 (18 Feb. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 22 flight engineer, works with samples from the bioscience experiment ASEPTIC (BTKh-39) in the new Russian Glavboks-S (Glovebox) located in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.

  18. Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI): An International Space Station Glovebox Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.; Jeter, L.; Luz, P.; Volz, M. P.; Spivey, R.; Smith, G.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. It is detrimental to material properties and precludes obtaining meaningful scientific results. On Earth, density differences allow an initiated bubble can rise through the liquid and "pop" at the surface resulting in a sound casting. This is not likely to occur in a microgravity environment and, unfortunately, a number of experiments conducted in microgravity have suffered from porosity effects. The current investigation is a systematic effort towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification in a microgravity environment. This will be investigated by utilizing a transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. The talk will cover the porosity problem, the details of the proposed experiments and the experimental hardware, and the expectations from the microgravity experiments.

  19. Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI): An International Space Station Glovebox Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.; Jeter, L.; Luz, P.; Volz, M. P.; Spivey, R.; Smith, G.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. It is detrimental to material properties and precludes obtaining meaningful scientific results. On Earth, density differences allow an initiated bubble can rise through the liquid and "pop" at the surface resulting in a sound casting. This is not likely to occur in a microgravity environment and, unfortunately, a number of experiments conducted in microgravity have suffered from porosity effects. The current investigation is a systematic effort towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification in a microgravity environment. This will be investigated by utilizing a transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. The talk will cover the porosity problem, the details of the proposed experiments and the experimental hardware, and the expectations from the microgravity experiments.

  20. An effective device for gas-liquid oxygen removal in enclosed microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenfeng; Kang, Ruijuan; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cong, Wei; Cai, Zhaoling

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance gas-liquid transmission device (HPTD) was described in this paper. To investigate the HPTD mass transfer characteristics, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients, K(A)(La,CO(2)) for the absorption of gaseous CO(2) and K(A)(La,O(2)) for the desorption of dissolved O(2) were determined, respectively, by titration and dissolved oxygen electrode. The mass transfer capability of carbon dioxide was compared with that of dissolved oxygen in the device, and the operating conditions were optimized to suit for the large-scale enclosed micro-algae cultivation. Based on the effectiveness evaluation of the HPTD applied in one enclosed flat plate Spirulina culture system, it was confirmed that the HPTD can satisfy the demand of the enclosed system for carbon supplement and excessive oxygen removal.

  1. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  2. SUBSA and PFMI Transparent Furnace Systems Currently in use in the International Space Station Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Gilley, Scott; Ostrogorsky, Aleksander; Grugel, Richard; Smith, Guy; Luz, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) and Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) furnaces were developed for operation in the International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). Both furnaces were launched to the ISS on STS-111, June 4, 2002, and are currently in use on orbit. The SUBSA furnace provides a maximum temperature of 850 C and can accommodate a metal sample as large as 30 cm long and 12mm in diameter. SUBSA utilizes a gradient freeze process with a minimum cooldown rate of 0.5C per min, and a stability of +/- 0.15C. An 8 cm long transparent gradient zone coupled with a Cohu 3812 camera and quartz ampoule allows for observation and video recording of the solidification process. PFMI is a Bridgman type furnace that operates at a maximum temperature of 130C and can accommodate a sample 23cm long and 10mm in diameter. Two Cohu 3812 cameras mounted 90 deg apart move on a separate translation system which allows for viewing of the sample in the transparent hot zone and gradient zone independent of the furnace translation rate and direction. Translation rates for both the cameras and furnace can be specified from 0.5micrometers/sec to 100 micrometers/sec with a stability of +/-5%. The two furnaces share a Process Control Module (PCM) which controls the furnace hardware, a Data Acquisition Pad (DaqPad) which provides signal condition of thermal couple data, and two Cohu 3812 cameras. The hardware and software allow for real time monitoring and commanding of critical process control parameters. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the SUBSA and PFMI systems along with performance data and some preliminary results from completed on-orbit processing runs.

  3. SUBSA and PFMI Transparent Furnace Systems Currently in use in the International Space Station Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Gilley, Scott; Ostrogorsky, Aleksander; Grugel, Richard; Smith, Guy; Luz, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) and Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) furnaces were developed for operation in the International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). Both furnaces were launched to the ISS on STS-111, June 4, 2002, and are currently in use on orbit. The SUBSA furnace provides a maximum temperature of 850 C and can accommodate a metal sample as large as 30 cm long and 12mm in diameter. SUBSA utilizes a gradient freeze process with a minimum cooldown rate of 0.5C per min, and a stability of +/- 0.15C. An 8 cm long transparent gradient zone coupled with a Cohu 3812 camera and quartz ampoule allows for observation and video recording of the solidification process. PFMI is a Bridgman type furnace that operates at a maximum temperature of 130C and can accommodate a sample 23cm long and 10mm in diameter. Two Cohu 3812 cameras mounted 90 deg apart move on a separate translation system which allows for viewing of the sample in the transparent hot zone and gradient zone independent of the furnace translation rate and direction. Translation rates for both the cameras and furnace can be specified from 0.5micrometers/sec to 100 micrometers/sec with a stability of +/-5%. The two furnaces share a Process Control Module (PCM) which controls the furnace hardware, a Data Acquisition Pad (DaqPad) which provides signal condition of thermal couple data, and two Cohu 3812 cameras. The hardware and software allow for real time monitoring and commanding of critical process control parameters. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the SUBSA and PFMI systems along with performance data and some preliminary results from completed on-orbit processing runs.

  4. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is prepared for lifting up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-16

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is prepared for lifting up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  5. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-16

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  6. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yonggang; He, Haitang; Ye, Hongfei

    2015-05-01

    The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ˜0.3 eV/Å to ˜0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  7. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yonggang; He, Haitang; Ye, Hongfei

    2015-05-15

    The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ∼0.3 eV/Å to ∼0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  8. Overview of existing regulations for ventilation requirements of enclosed vehicular parking facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Krarti, M.; Ayari, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current standards and regulations regarding the ventilation in enclosed parking facilities in the US and other countries. First, the paper discusses the emission rates of motor vehicle pollutants and their health effects. In particular, typical emission rates for different vehicle and fuel types are presented to highlight the effect of various parameters on the ventilation rate requirements for parking garages. In addition, the paper provides a brief description of some of the common ventilation problems reported in the literature for enclosed parking garages.

  9. Enclosed Electronic System for Force Measurements in Knee Implants

    PubMed Central

    Forchelet, David; Simoncini, Matteo; Arami, Arash; Bertsch, Arnaud; Meurville, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar; Ryser, Peter; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is a widely performed surgical technique. Soft tissue force balancing during the operation relies strongly on the experience of the surgeon in equilibrating tension in the collateral ligaments. Little information on the forces in the implanted prosthesis is available during surgery and post-operative treatment. This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an instrumented insert performing force measurements in a knee prosthesis. The insert contains a closed structure composed of printed circuit boards and incorporates a microfabricated polyimide thin-film piezoresistive strain sensor for each condylar compartment. The sensor is tested in a mechanical knee simulator that mimics in-vivo conditions. For characterization purposes, static and dynamic load patterns are applied to the instrumented insert. Results show that the sensors are able to measure forces up to 1.5 times body weight with a sensitivity fitting the requirements for the proposed use. Dynamic testing of the insert shows a good tracking of slow and fast changing forces in the knee prosthesis by the sensors. PMID:25196007

  10. Enclosed electronic system for force measurements in knee implants.

    PubMed

    Forchelet, David; Simoncini, Matteo; Arami, Arash; Bertsch, Arnaud; Meurville, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar; Ryser, Peter; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-08-14

    Total knee arthroplasty is a widely performed surgical technique. Soft tissue force balancing during the operation relies strongly on the experience of the surgeon in equilibrating tension in the collateral ligaments. Little information on the forces in the implanted prosthesis is available during surgery and post-operative treatment. This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an instrumented insert performing force measurements in a knee prosthesis. The insert contains a closed structure composed of printed circuit boards and incorporates a microfabricated polyimide thin-film piezoresistive strain sensor for each condylar compartment. The sensor is tested in a mechanical knee simulator that mimics in-vivo conditions. For characterization purposes, static and dynamic load patterns are applied to the instrumented insert. Results show that the sensors are able to measure forces up to 1.5 times body weight with a sensitivity fitting the requirements for the proposed use. Dynamic testing of the insert shows a good tracking of slow and fast changing forces in the knee prosthesis by the sensors.

  11. A Theoretical and Experimental Examination of Fluorescence in Enclosed Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Lambson, Kara; Liang, Xing; Sharikova, Anna V.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Photosensitizer fluorescence emitted during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is of interest for monitoring the local concentration of the photosensitizer and its photobleaching. In this study, we use Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to evaluate the relationship between treatment light and fluorescence, both collected by an isotropic detector placed on the surface of the tissue. In treatment of the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, the light source position changes continually. The MC program is designed to simulate an infinitely broad photon beam incident on the tissue at various angles to determine the effect of angle. For each of the absorbed photons, a fixed number of fluorescence photons are generated and traced. The theoretical results from the MC simulation show that the angle theta has little effect on both the measured fluorescence and the ratio of fluorescence to diffuse reflectance. However, changes in the absorption and scattering coefficients, μa and μs′, do cause the fluorescence and ratio to change, indicating that a correction for optical properties will be needed for absolute fluorescence quantification. Experiments in tissue-simulating phantoms confirm that an empirical correction can accurately recover the sensitizer concentration over a physiologically relevant range of optical properties. PMID:25999641

  12. Rapid semi-continuous calibration and field test of membrane-enclosed silicone collector as passive water sampler.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Albrecht; Schwab, Katrin; Brümmer, Janine; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Paschke, Heidrun; Popp, Peter

    2006-08-18

    The new membrane-enclosed silicone collector (MESCO) was, in two different configurations with respect to the thickness of low-density polyethylene membrane used, subject to serial batch extraction tests to obtain (preliminary) sampling rates for estimating water concentrations of selected chlorinated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This rapid calibration procedure is simple to implement compared to experiments in a flow-through apparatus and yielded reasonable sampling rates in the range of 50 microL-2 mL per hour for the compounds tested. The new MESCO formats were also exposed for 28 days in the polluted creek to test their field performance. For priority contaminants of special interest, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and hexachlorobenzene, the time-weighted average concentrations derived from the freshly calibrated sampling devices agree well with those obtained by conventional water analysis of spot samples.

  13. Investigation of a fertilizer-tap water medium for mass algal production in outdoor plastic-enclosed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Geldenhuys, D.J.; Walmsley, R.D.; Toerien, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using two fertilizers (urea plus superphosphate in tap water as a medium for the mass culture of green algae (Scenedesmus and Ankistrodesmus) in outdoor plastic-enclosed minipond systems was investigated. Experiments in which the basic fertilizer-tap water medium was enriched with micro- and/or macronutrients revealed no nutrient deficiency symptoms in the algal biomass produced. Biomass production was found to be quantitatively related to the concentration of fertilizer added and maximal production (more than 15 g/squared m day)was achieved following the addition of 30 mg N/L (1.89 g N/squared m day) and 4.5 mg P/L (0.28 g P per squared m per day). (Refs. 11).

  14. Location Representation in Enclosed Spaces: What Types of Information Afford Young Children an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. "Nature," 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify…

  15. Inter-observer variation in identifying mammals from their tracks at enclosed track plate stations

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer

    2009-01-01

    Enclosed track plate stations are a common method to detect mammalian carnivores. Studies rely on these data to make inferences about geographic range, population status and detectability. Despite their popularity, there has been no effort to document inter-observer variation in identifying the species that leave their tracks. Four previous field crew leaders...

  16. Location Representation in Enclosed Spaces: What Types of Information Afford Young Children an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. "Nature," 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify…

  17. Creating a parameterized model of a CMOS transistor with a gate of enclosed layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, S. M.; Atkin, E. V.; Ivanov, P. Y.

    2016-02-01

    The method of creating a parameterized spice model of an N-channel transistor with a gate of enclosed layout is considered. Formulas and examples of engineering calculations for use of models in the computer-aided Design environment of Cadence Vitruoso are presented. Calculations are made for the CMOS technology with 180 nm design rules of the UMC.

  18. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks. 153.217 Section 153.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements...

  19. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks. 153.217 Section 153.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.118... control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2)...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1016 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Identification of the process unit(s) or affected facilities and the regulated materials they handle. (2) A... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units. 63.1016 Section 63.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  3. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.118... control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2)...

  4. 40 CFR 65.118 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.118... control device. Process units that are enclosed in such a manner that all emissions from equipment leaks... following records: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the regulated materials they handle. (2)...

  5. Community Space and Cultural Transmission: Formation and Schooling in English Enclosed Convents in the Seventeenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In the first seventy five years of the seventeenth century twenty two enclosed convents for English women were founded in exile where more than 1950 women were professed. In order to lead the strict religious life following the requirements of the Council of Trent for enclosure for women religious, these foundations required specialised buildings…

  6. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  7. Evaluation of an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device for decontamination of mobile handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Mathew, J Itty; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Sankar, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette L; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile handheld devices used in health care settings may become contaminated with health care-associated pathogens. We demonstrated that an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device was effective in rapidly reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and with longer exposure times, Clostridium difficile spores, on glass slides and reducing contamination on in-use mobile handheld devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The gradient of luminosity between open/enclosed arms, and not the absolute level of Lux, predicts the behaviour of rats in the plus maze.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lenir Orlandi; da Cunha, Isabel Cristina; Neto, José Marino; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida; Faria, Moacir Serralvo

    2005-04-15

    The effect of the gradient of luminosity between the open and the enclosed arms (O/E(DeltaLux)) of the elevated plus maze (EPM), upon the level of fear/anxiety in rats submitted to the trial 1/trial 2 paradigm was investigated. Male Wistar rats were assigned to freely explore either of three EPM configuration, with the enclosed arm walls constructed with either translucent glass (O/E(DeltaLux)=11), opaque glass (O/E(DeltaLux)=96) or wood (O/E(DeltaLux)=141), for 2 consecutive days (trial 1/trial 2). Independently of the EPM configuration, rats exhibited increased fear during trial 2 relative to trial 1, thus indicating that the level of O/E(DeltaLux), at least in the range used here, is not a determinant variable for the establishment of increased anxiety induced by prior maze experience. The groups tested under 11 and 141 O/E(DeltaLux) were those who exhibited the low and higher level of open arm avoidance, respectively. There was also an increased open arms avoidance over trial 1 in rats tested under 11 and 96 O/E(DeltaLux), only. These results suggest that the enclosed arm preference of rats during trial 1 EPM procedure may be changed by the level of O/E(DeltaLux) of the test. The present results are discussed with respect to the controversy regarding the role of luminosity on EPM performance.

  9. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  10. Foale conducts MSG setup for PFMI experiment in U.S. Lab during Expedition 8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-28

    ISS008-E-06300 (28 November 2003) --- Astronaut C. Michael Foale, Expedition 8 mission commander and NASA ISS science officer, installs equipment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiment in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). This experiment studies how bubbles form in metal and crystal samples, thus deteriorating the samples’ strength and usefulness in experiments.

  11. Foale conducts MSG setup for PFMI experiment in U.S. Lab during Expedition 8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-28

    ISS008-E-06301 (28 November 2003) --- Astronaut C. Michael Foale, Expedition 8 mission commander and NASA ISS science officer, installs equipment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiment in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). This experiment studies how bubbles form in metal and crystal samples, thus deteriorating the samples’ strength and usefulness in experiments.

  12. Foale conducts MSG setup for PFMI experiment in U.S. Lab during Expedition 8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-28

    ISS008-E-06309 (28 November 2003) --- Astronaut C. Michael Foale, Expedition 8 mission commander and NASA ISS science officer, installs equipment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiment in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). This experiment studies how bubbles form in metal and crystal samples, thus deteriorating the samples’ strength and usefulness in experiments.

  13. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. The employer shall ensure that atmosphereic...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. The employer shall ensure that atmosphereic...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. The employer shall ensure that atmosphereic...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. The employer shall ensure that atmosphereic...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. The employer shall ensure that atmosphereic...

  18. Alexander Samokutyaev conducts BTKh-14/Bioemulsiya (Bioemulsion) Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-05

    ISS027-E-022454 (5 May 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 27 flight engineer, uses a glovebox to service the Russian Bioemulsion science payload in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station. The Bioemulsion experiment is attempting to develop faster technologies for obtaining microorganism biomass and biologically active substance biomass for creating highly efficient environmentally pure bacteria, enzymes, and medicinal/pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. Crewmember working on the spacelab Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    STS050-02-001 (9 July 1992) --- View showing Payload Specialists Bonnie Dunbar and Larry DeLucas in the aft section of the U. S. Microgravity Laboratory-1. Dunbar is preparing to load a sample in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Integrated Furnace Experiment Assembly (IFEA) in rack 9 of the Microgravity Laboratory. DeLucas is checking out the multipurpose Glovebox Facility.

  20. Flight Engineer Donald R. Pettit works with the InSpace experiments in the MSG in the U.S. Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    ISS006-E-41733 (1 April 2003) --- Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, works with the InSpace (Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Do individual Spitzer young stellar object candidates enclose multiple UKIDSS sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Esteban F. E.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We analyze United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) observations of a sample of 8325 objects taken from a catalog of intrinsically red sources selected in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Given the differences in angular resolution (factor >2 better in UKIDSS), our aim is to investigate whether there are multiple UKIDSS sources that might all contribute to the GLIMPSE flux, or whether there is only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart. We then study possible corrections to estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) based on counts of GLIMPSE young stellar objects (YSOs). This represents an exploratory work toward the construction of a hierarchical YSO catalog. Methods: After performing PSF fitting photometry in the UKIDSS data, we implemented a technique to recognize the dominant UKIDSS sources automatically by evaluating their match with the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the associated GLIMPSE red sources. This is a generic method that could be robustly applied for matching SEDs across gaps at other wavelengths. Results: We found that most (87.0 ± 1.6%) of the candidate YSOs from the GLIMPSE red source catalog have only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart that matches the mid-infrared SED (fainter associated UKIDSS sources might still be present). Although at first sight this could seem surprising, given that YSOs are typically in clustered environments, we argue that within the mass range covered by the GLIMPSE YSO candidates (intermediate to high masses), clustering with objects with comparable mass is unlikely at the GLIMPSE resolution. Indeed, by performing simple clustering experiments based on a population synthesis model of Galactic YSOs, we found that although 60% of the GLIMPSE YSO enclose at least two UKIDSS sources, in general only one dominates the flux. Conclusions: No significant corrections are needed for estimates of the SFR of the Milky Way based on the assumption that the GLIMPSE YSOs

  2. GLOVEBOX GLOVE CHARACTERIZATION SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-05-14

    A task was undertaken to determine primarily the permeation behavior of various glove compounds from four manufacturers. As part of the basic characterization task, the opportunity to obtain additional mechanical and thermal properties presented itself. Consequently, a total of fifteen gloves were characterized for permeation, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Puncture Resistance, Tensile Properties and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Detailed reports were written for each characterization technique used. This report contains the summary of the results.

  3. A simple single-port laparoscopic-assisted technique for completely enclosing inguinal hernia in children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Tang; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Lee, Jui-Ying; Chiou, Chi-Shu

    2009-07-01

    Single-port endoscopic-assisted percutaneous extraperitoneal closure of inguinal hernia with variable devices is a novel technique in minimal-access surgery for pediatric inguinal hernias. However, a small peritoneal gap of the suture at the location of spermatic vessels and vas deferens may be left untouched, whereas some subcutaneous tissues, including nerves and muscles, may cause injury by their inclusion in the upper portion of the circuit suturing. The technique may fail to entirely enclose the hernia defect and has the potential to lead to higher incidence of hydrocele and hernia recurrence. The authors describe the modification of single-port endoscopic-assisted ligation with a homemade hooked injection needle, which is designed to cause hydrodissection to the preperitoneal space, tautly enclose the hernia defect without upper subcutaneous tissues and a lower peritoneal gap, and aid in the achievement of a near-zero recurrence rate.

  4. Metal contamination in water, sediment and biota from a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    PubMed

    Aly, Walid; Williams, Ian D; Hudson, Malcolm D

    2013-05-01

    This study identifies and quantifies the spatial variations of metal contamination in water, sediment and biota: the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and the Mermaid's glove sponge (Haliclona oculata), within a heavily anthropogenically impacted semi-enclosed estuarine-coastal area with a low ability to disperse and flush contaminants (Poole Harbour, UK). The results showed that metal contamination was detected in all environmental compartments. Water was polluted with As, and Hg sediment metals were mostly within "the possible effect range" in which adverse effects occasionally occurs. Cockles had considerable concentrations of Ni, Ag and Hg in areas close to pollution sources, and sponges accumulate Cu and Zn with very high magnitude. A systematic monitoring approach that includes biological monitoring techniques, which covers all embayments, is needed, and an integrated management of the semi-enclosed coastal zones should be based on the overall hydrological characteristics of these sensitive areas and their ability to self-restore which is different than open coastal zones.

  5. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  6. Lagrangian Turbulence and Transport in Semi-enclosed Basins and Coastal Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lagrangian Turbulence and Transport in Semi-enclosed...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is the development and application of new methods of investigation for the use of Lagrangian ...data and other emerging in-situ and remote instruments (drifters, HF radar, gliders and satellite ) that provide information on upper ocean advection

  7. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  8. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sabrina B.; Spencer-Smith, Russell; Shah, Mahwish; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Cook, Richard T.; Snyder, Lori A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs. PMID:27681925

  9. Xenotransplantation of islets enclosed in agarose microcapsule carrying soluble complement receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Luan, Nguyen Minh; Iwata, Hiroo

    2012-11-01

    Strong immunological reactions remain a major barrier to treating diabetic patients using xenogeneic islets. In a previous study, we developed a method for enclosing islets with agarose microbeads carrying soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1-Mics), a potent complement inhibitor in both classical and alternative complement activation pathways. This is the follow-up in vivo study to evaluate the protective effect of these sCR1-Mics using a xenotransplantation model (rats to mice). ACI/NSIc rat islets enclosed in sCR1-Mics were transplanted into the intraperitoneal cavity of diabetic C57BL/6 mice without immunosuppression therapy. Transplantation of islets in plain agarose microbeads (Mics) was used as a reference. While islets enclosed in plain Mics were rapidly destroyed (graft survival in recipients of 1000 islets: 11.6±3.8 days), transplantation of islets in sCR1-Mics significantly prolonged graft survival (34.1±3.2 days). Moreover, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed that islets in sCR1-Mics normalized blood glucose levels in a similar manner as islets in pancreas of normal mice. In conclusion, sCR1 immobilized onto agarose microbeads exerted some protective effect in xenogeneic islets resulting in prolonged graft survival.

  10. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces.

    PubMed

    Oriola, Taiwo A

    2009-01-01

    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  11. Operation of an enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the Shenzhou-8 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Richter, Peter R.; Hao, Zongjie; An, Yanjun; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Yongding; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Schuster, Martin; Haag, Ferdinand W.; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Long- term spaceflight needs reliable Biological life support systems (BLSS) to supply astronauts with enough food, fresh air and recycle wasters, but the knowledge about the operation pattern and controlling strategy is rear. For this purpose, a miniaturized enclosed aquatic ecosystem was developed and flown on the Chinese spaceship Shenzhou-8. The system with a total volume of about 60 mL was separated into two chambers by means of a gas transparent membrane. The lower chamber was inoculated with Euglena gracilis cells, and the upper chamber was cultured with Chlorella cells and three snails. After 17.5 days flight, the samples were analyzed. It was found that all snails in the ground module (GM) were alive, while in the flight module (FM) only one snail survived. The total cell numbers, assimilation of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents showed a decrease in FM than in GM. The correlation analysis showed upper chambers of both FM and GM had the same positive and negative correlation factors, while differential correlation was found in lower chambers. These results suggested primary productivity in the enclosed system decreased in microgravity, accompanied with nutrients assimilation. The FM chamber endured lacking of domination species to sustain the system development and GM chamber endured richness in population abundance. These results implied photosynthesis intensity should be reduced to keep the system healthy. More Chlorella but less Euglena might be a useful strategy to sustain system stability. It is the first systematic analysis of enclosed systems in microgravity.

  12. A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelin, Hu; Qin, Chen; Wang, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a unique role in extreme hurricane events. The impact of wetlands on storm surge depends on multiple factors including vegetation, landscape, and storm characteristics. The Delft3D model, in which vegetation effects on flow and turbulence are explicitly incorporated, was applied to the semi-enclosed Breton Sound (BS) estuary in coastal Louisiana to investigate the wetland impact. Guided by extensive field observations, a series of numerical experiments were conducted based on variations of actual vegetation properties and storm parameters from Hurricane Isaac in 2012. Both the vegetation-induced maximum surge reduction (MSR) and maximum surge reduction rate (MSRR) increased with stem height and stem density, and were more sensitive to stem height. The MSR and MSRR decreased significantly with increasing wind intensity. The MSRR was the highest with a fast-moving weak storm. It was also found that the MSRR varied proportionally to the expression involving the maximum bulk velocity and surge over the area of interest, and was more dependent on the maximum bulk surge. Both MSR and MSRR appeared to increase when the area of interest decreased from the whole BS estuary to the upper estuary. Within the range of the numerical experiments, the maximum simulated MSR and MSRR over the upper estuary were 0.7 m and 37%, respectively.

  13. Identification of contaminant sources in enclosed environments by inverse CFD modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T F; Chen, Q

    2007-06-01

    In case contaminants are found in enclosed environments such as aircraft cabins or buildings, it is useful to find the contaminant sources. One method to locate contaminant sources is by inverse computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. As the inverse CFD modeling is ill posed, this paper has proposed to solve a quasi-reversibility (QR) equation for contaminant transport. The equation improves the numerical stability by replacing the second-order diffusion term with a fourth-order stabilization term in the governing equation of contaminant transport. In addition, a numerical scheme for solving the QR equation in unstructured meshes has been developed. This paper demonstrates how to use the inverse CFD model with the QR equation and numerical scheme to identify gaseous contaminant sources in a two-dimensional aircraft cabin and in a three-dimensional office. The inverse CFD model could identify the contaminant source locations but not very accurate contaminant source strength because of the dispersive property of the QR equation. The results also show that this method works better for convection dominant flows than the flows that convection is not so important. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to find contaminant source locations and strengths in enclosed environments with the data of airflow and contaminants measured by sensors. The method can be a very useful tool to find where, what, and how contamination has happened. The results can be used to develop appropriate measures to protect occupants in the enclosed environments from infectious diseases or terrorist releases of chemical/biological warfare agents as well as to decontaminate the environments.

  14. Polydiacetylene-enclosed near-infrared fluorescent semiconducting polymer dots for bioimaging and sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Jing; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Huang, Ya-Chi; Chen, Chuan-Pin; Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2014-05-20

    Semiconducting polymer dots (P-dots) recently have emerged as a new type of ultrabright fluorescent probe with promising applications in biological imaging and detection. With the increasing desire for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescing probes for in vivo biological measurements, the currently available NIR-emitting P-dots are very limited and the leaching of the encapsulated dyes/polymers has usually been a concern. To address this challenge, we first embedded the NIR dyes into the matrix of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-co-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] (PF-BT-DBT) polymer and then enclosed the doped P-dots with polydiacetylenes (PDAs) to avoid potential leakage of the entrapped NIR dyes from the P-dot matrix. These PDA-enclosed NIR-emitting P-dots not only emitted much stronger NIR fluorescence than conventional organic molecules but also exhibited enhanced photostability over CdTe quantum dots, free NIR dyes, and gold nanoclusters. We next conjugated biomolecules onto the surface of the resulting P-dots and demonstrated their capability for specific cellular labeling without any noticeable nonspecific binding. To employ this new class of material as a facile sensing platform, an easy-to-prepare test paper, obtained by soaking the paper into the PDA-enclosed NIR-emitting P-dot solution, was used to sense external stimuli such as ions, temperature, or pH, depending on the surface functionalization of PDAs. We believe these PDA-coated NIR-fluorescing P-dots will be very useful in a variety of bioimaging and analytical applications.

  15. Manganese exposures during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in an enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michael K; Ewing, William M; Longo, William; DePasquale, Christopher; Mount, Michael D; Hatfield, Richard; Stapleton, Randall

    2005-08-01

    The work reported here evaluates the effectiveness of various rates of dilution ventilation in controlling welder exposures to manganese in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) fume when working in enclosed or restricted spaces. Personal and area monitoring using total and respirable sampling techniques, along with multiple analytical techniques, was conducted during the welding operations. With 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) (56.63 m3/min) dilution ventilation, personal breathing zone concentrations for the welder using 1/8 inches (3.18 mm) E6010 and E7018 mild steel electrodes were within 75% of the existing threshold limit value (TLV of 0.2 mg/m3 for total manganese and were five times greater than the 2001-2003 proposed respirable manganese TLV of 0.03 mg/m3. Manganese concentrations using high manganese content electrodes were five times greater than those for E6010 and E7018 electrodes. Area samples upstream and downstream of the welder using E6010 and E7018 electrodes exceeded 0.2 mg/m3 manganese. Concentrations inside and outside the welding helmet do not indicate diversion of welding fume by the welding helmet from the welder's breathing zone. There was close agreement between respirable manganese and total manganese fume concentrations. Total fume concentrations measured by gravimetric analysis of matched-weight, mixed cellulose ester filters were comparable to those measured via preweighed PVC filter media. This study indicates that 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation per 29 CFR 1910.252 (c)(2) may not be a sufficient means of controlling respirable manganese exposures for either welders or their helpers in restricted or enclosed spaces. In the absence of site-specific monitoring data indicating otherwise, it is prudent to employ respiratory protection or source capture ventilation for SMAW with E6010, E7018, and high manganese content electrodes rather than depending solely on 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation in enclosed spaces.

  16. Competing two enzymatic reactions realizing one-step preparation of cell-enclosing duplex microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of cell-enclosing microcapsules in biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields is widely recognized. In this study, we developed a method enabling the preparation of microcapsules with a liquid core in one step using two enzymatic reactions, both of which consume H2 O2 competitively. The microcapsule membrane prepared in this study is composed of the hydrogel obtained from an alginate derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (Alg-Ph). The cell-enclosing microcapsules with a hollow core were obtained by extruding an aqueous solution of Alg-Ph containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP), catalase, and cells into a co-flowing stream of liquid paraffin containing H2 O2 . Formation of the microcapsule membrane progressed from the surface of the droplets through HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of Ph moieties by consuming H2 O2 supplied from the ambient liquid paraffin. A hollow core structure was induced by catalase-catalyzed decomposition of H2 O2 resulting in the center region being at an insufficient level of H2 O2 . The viability of HeLa cells was 93.1% immediately after encapsulation in the microcapsules with about 250 µm diameter obtained from an aqueous solution of 2.5% (w/v) Alg-Ph, 100 units mL(-1) HRP, 9.1 × 10(4) units mL(-1) catalase. The enclosed cells grew much faster than those in the microparticles with a solid core. In addition, the thickness of microcapsule membrane could be controlled by changing the concentrations of HRP and catalase in the range of 13-48 µm. The proposed method could be versatile for preparing the microcapsules from the other polymer derivatives of carboxymetylcellulose and gelatin. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Determining the Carbon Transport Rate of an Enclosed Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem in Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y. A.; Van Haren, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Determining how carbon moves through a tropical rainforest ecosystem is an important step towards understanding its role as a carbon sink system in the global carbon cycle. The paths by which carbon moves through forest ecosystems are reasonably well known. However, very little is known about how quickly this happens. We will present data from experiments where we isotopically pulse label the atmospheric carbon dioxide within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome with natural gas derived CO2 (∂13C ~ -40‰ vs. ~ -8.5‰ for ambient air). We are continually monitoring the CO2 concentration and isotope composition of the ambient air along a vertical profile to measure ecosystem gas exchange, and that of six branch-bag and five soil-chamber locations within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest, with an Aerodyne Quantum Cascade Laser to trace the labeled carbon (precision for ∂13C = 0.02‰ and CO2 = 0.07ppm, calibrated to NOAA air standards). Environmental parameters such as light, relative humidity, soil moisture, and temperature are monitored at fifteen-minute intervals. We have selected one vine species and three different tree species for branch bag enclosures at two canopy heights that we expect represent the bulk photosynthetic biomass of the rainforest. The soil chambers are distributed randomly. By treating the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome, a glass enclosed ecosystem with 1900m2 of ground, 26700m3 of air, and 92 different plant species, as a model ecosystem, we anticipate to determine carbon transport rates that would otherwise be practically impossible to determine in the real world due to the difficulty of isotopically labeling and monitoring entire canopies or even individual trees, which can reach heights over 60m. The data we have collected thus far will provide a baseline comparison for the labeling data. Comparing the branch bag data with the ecosystem data has helped us determine how well small branches represent the canopy and whole

  18. Demonstration of an Area-Enclosing Guided-Atom Interferometer for Rotation Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Saijun; Su, Edward; Prentiss, Mara

    2007-10-26

    We demonstrate area-enclosing atom interferometry based on a moving guide. Light pulses along the free-propagation direction of a magnetic guide are applied to split and recombine the confined atomic matter-wave, while the atoms are translated back and forth along a second direction in 50 ms. The interferometer is estimated to resolve 10 times the earth rotation rate per interferometry cycle. We demonstrate a ''folded figure 8'' interfering configuration for creating a compact, large-area atom gyroscope with multiple-turn interfering paths.

  19. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  20. Evaluation of a New Thermal Fog Machine for Control of Adult Aedes albopictus in a Large Enclosed Space.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De; Ren, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Testing of the PSO BASDKA-AC1200 multifunction ultrafine particle atomization machine, a thermal fog machine, with Aqualuer 20-20(®) (permethrin 20.6%, piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) was conducted against Aedes albopictus. The machine was set at a 40 sec maximum burst interval dispersing 36 ml of chemical with an average droplet volume of 50%. Female adult Ae. albopictus were placed into cylindrical paper cages and adhered to poles at 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 m from the center point of the machine. Control cages consisted of 1 cage placed at 5, 10, and 25 m. Control and treatment groups were left in the experiment area for 15 min. Initial knockdown after 15 min and 24 h mortality were documented. At 15 min post-treatment, Ae. albopictus displayed less than 50% knockdown. After 24 h, all treatment cages displayed greater than 90% mortality. Further bottle bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest chemical dose possible to achieve a lethal dose of 90%. A 1% dilution (10 ml Aqualuer 20-20 to 1,000 ml of polyether) of Aqualuer showed high mortality in the laboratory. However, after running 3 repetitions of a 1% dilution, there was no significant difference between the mortality of the mosquitoes at any of the distances 24 h post-treatment. This study indicates that the test machine would be an applicable and suitable machine for control of Ae. albopictus in enclosed spaces.

  1. Construction of microscale structures in enclosed microfluidic networks by using a magnetic beads based method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-08-20

    A large number of microscale structures have been used to elaborate flowing control or complex biological and chemical reaction on microfluidic chips. However, it is still inconvenient to fabricate microstructures with different heights (or depths) on the same substrate. These kinds of microstructures can be fabricated by using the photolithography and wet-etching method step by step, but involves time-consuming design and fabrication process, as well as complicated alignment of different masters. In addition, few existing methods can be used to perform fabrication within enclosed microfluidic networks. It is also difficult to change or remove existing microstructures within these networks. In this study, a magnetic-beads-based approach is presented to build microstructures in enclosed microfluidic networks. Electromagnetic field generated by microfabricated conducting wires (coils) is used to manipulate and trap magnetic beads on the bottom surface of a microchannel. These trapped beads are accumulated to form a microscale pile with desired shape, which can adjust liquid flow, dock cells, modify surface, and do some other things as those fabricated microstructures. Once the electromagnetic field is changed, trapped beads may form new shapes or be removed by a liquid flow. Besides being used in microfabrication, this magnetic-beads-based method can be used for novel microfluidic manipulation. It has been validated by forming microscale dam structure for cell docking and modified surface for cell patterning, as well as guiding the growth of neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiarthritic and chondroprotective activity of Lakshadi Guggul in novel alginate-enclosed chitosan calcium phosphate nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Rasika M; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antiarthritic and chondroprotective potentials of Lakshadi Guggul (LG) and Cissus quadrangularis encapsulated in novel alginate-enclosed chitosan-calcium phosphate nanocarriers (NCs) both in vitro in primary human chondrocytes and in vivo in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β and osteoarthritis chondrocytes grown in an ex vivo inflammation-based coculture were incubated with different concentrations of herbals, and cell modulatory activities were determined. For in vivo studies, herbals and their encapsulated nanoformulations were administered orally to DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis. C. quadrangularis and LG showed enhanced chondroprotective and proliferative activity in IL-1β-exposed primary chondrocytes, with LG showing the highest therapeutic potency. LG increased viability, proliferative and mitogenic activity, and inhibited cell apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. In vivo studies with LG and alginate-enclosed chitosan-calcium phosphate LG NCs revealed cartilage regenerative activity in those administered with the nanoformulation. The NCs were nontoxic to mice, reduced joint swelling and paw volume, and inhibited gene expression of MMPs and cytokines. The promising results from this study reveal, for the first time, the novel polymeric NC encapsulating LG as a potential therapeutic for rheumatic diseases.

  3. Application test of a Detection Method for the Enclosed Turbine Runner Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunlong; Shen, Dingjie; Xie, Yi; Yang, Xiangwei; Long, Yi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    At present, for the existing problems of the testing methods for the key hidden metal components of the turbine runner chamber, such as the poor reliability, the inaccurate locating and the larger detection blind spots of the detection device, under the downtime without opening the cover of the hydropower turbine runner chamber, an automatic detection method based on real-time image acquisition and simulation comparison techniques was proposed. By using the permanent magnet wheel, the magnetic crawler which carry the real-time image acquisition device, could complete the crawling work on the inner surface of the enclosed chamber. Then the image acquisition device completed the real-time collection of the scene image of the enclosed chamber. According to the obtained location by using the positioning auxiliary device, the position of the real-time detection image in a virtual 3D model was calibrated. Through comparing of the real-time detection images and the computer simulation images, the defects or foreign matter fall into could be accurately positioning, so as to repair and clean up conveniently.

  4. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  5. Location representation in enclosed spaces: what types of information afford young children an advantage?

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify location in a square-shaped space, where geometry is uninformative, so long as scale-like information was available on the walls of the space [Huttenlocher, J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2007a). Coding location in enclosed spaces: Is geometry the principle? Developmental Science, 10, 741-746]. Here we build on this work by examining more closely what types of cues afford 18- to 24-month-olds an advantage in locating a target object following disorientation. Their performance was assessed when linear scale-like information was presented either in isolation or in composite form. It was found that, even in isolation, young children searched at the appropriate locations, with added benefit when presented as a composite. We suggest that linear scale-like dimensions, especially when available in composite form, play a critical role in supporting location representation in young children.

  6. Membrane-enclosed multienzyme (MEME) synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Monestier, Marie; Latousakis, Dimitrios; Bell, Andrew; Tribolo, Sandra; Tailford, Louise E; Colquhoun, Ian J; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Rejzek, Martin; Dedola, Simone; Field, Robert A; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-08-19

    Naturally occurring 2,7-anhydro-alpha-N-acetylneuraminic acid (2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac) is a transglycosylation product of bacterial intramolecular trans-sialidases (IT-sialidases). A facile one-pot two-enzyme approach has been established for the synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid derivatives including those containing different sialic acid forms such as Neu5Ac and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The approach is based on the use of Ruminoccocus gnavus IT-sialidase for the release of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid from glycoproteins, and the conversion of free sialic acid by a sialic acid aldolase. This synthetic method, which is based on a membrane-enclosed enzymatic synthesis, can be performed on a preparative scale. Using fetuin as a substrate, high-yield and cost-effective production of 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac was obtained to high-purity. This method was also applied to the synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Gc. The membrane-enclosed multienzyme (MEME) strategy reported here provides an efficient approach to produce a variety of sialic acid derivatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Buoyant Convection on the Stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Jia, Kezhong; Stocker, Dennis P.; Chen. Lea-Der

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. There have been numerous studies of flame stability. Relatively few studies have investigated the stability of flames with an oxidizer co-flow, compared with the number of studies on (nearly) free jet diffusion flames. The air flow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. In normal gravity, however, the effects of the air flow on flame stability are often complicated by the presence of buoyant convection. A comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames can provide clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) research, described at the following URL site: http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm, is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flames.

  8. Enclosed pillar arrays integrated on a fluidic platform for on-chip separations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V; Taylor, Lisa; Sepaniak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of reliably producing sealed 3-D structures, few researchers have tackled the challenges of creating pillar beds suitable for miniaturized liquid phase separation systems. Herein, we describe an original processing sequence for the fabrication of enclosed pillar arrays integrated on a fluidic chip which, we believe, will further stimulate interest in this field. Our approach yields a mechanically robust enclosed pillar system that withstands mechanical impacts commonly incurred during processing, sealing and operation, resulting in a design particularly suitable for the research environment. A combination of a wafer-level fabrication sequence with chip-level elastomer bonding allows for chip reusability, an attractive and cost efficient advancement for research applications. The characteristic features in the implemented highly ordered pillar arrays are scalable to submicron dimensions. The proposed fluidic structures are suitable for handling picolitre sample volumes and offer prospects for substantial improvements in separation efficiency and permeability over traditional packed and monolithic columns. Our experimental observations indicate plate heights as low as 0.76 {mu}m for a 10 mm long pillar bed. Theoretical calculations confirm that ordered pillar arrays with submicron pore sizes combine superior analysis speed, picolitre sample volumes, high permeability and reasonably large plate numbers on a small footprint. In addition, we describe a fluidic interface that provides streamlined coupling of the fabricated structures with off-chip fluidic components.

  9. Application of RADTRAN to estimation of doses to persons in enclosed spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code for transportation risk analysis can be used to estimate doses to persons in enclosed volumes. This application was developed in response to a need to examine consequences of a hypothetical container leak during accident-free transportation by cargo air. The original problem addressed tritium containers, but the method can be applied to any gaseous or suspended particulate material potentially released in an airplane or other enclosed area (e.g., warehouse) under accident-free conditions. Such leakage can occur during shipment of any radioactive gas or material with a gaseous phase. Atmospheric dispersion is normally modeled in RADTRAN as a series of downwind isopleths each of which is assigned a dilution factor (also known as time-integrated concentration or X/Q value). These values are located in look-up tables in RADTRAN and are normally taken from externally performed Gaussian dispersion calculations. The dilution factors are used to estimate inhalation dose to persons in the specified downwind areas.

  10. Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Pelham, T W; Holt, L E; Moss, M A

    2002-04-01

    This article summarises the latest information on the adverse cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO(2) emissions are identified, current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation of these toxic gases are presented. A detailed literature search involving 72 references in English and French from research conducted in North America and Europe was used. Material was from peer reviewed journals and other appropriate sources. Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) which are present in enclosed skating facilities, may exacerbate a pre-existing pathogenic condition in those people who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, short track speed skating, and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it would seem appropriate to seek more definitive answers to this important health problem. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, 10 recommendations are listed.

  11. Cost-effectiveness comparison between topical silver sulfadiazine and enclosed silver dressing for partial-thickness burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Sheckter, Clifford C; Van Vliet, Michael M; Krishnan, Naveen M; Garner, Warren L

    2014-01-01

    The standard treatment of partial-thickness burns includes topical silver products such as silver sulfadiazine (SSD) cream and enclosed dressings including silver-impregnated foam (Mepilex Ag; Molnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) and silver-laden sheets (Aquacel Ag; ConvaTec, Skillman, NJ). The current state of health care is limited by resources, with an emphasis on evidence-based outcomes and cost-effective treatments. This study includes a decision analysis with an incremental cost-utility ratio comparing enclosed silver dressings with SSD in partial-thickness burn patients with TBSA less than 20%. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify clinically relevant health states in partial-thickness burn patients. These health states include successful healing, infection, and noninfected delayed healing requiring either surgery or conservative management. The probabilities of these health states were combined with Medicare CPT reimbursement codes (cost) and patient-derived utilities to fit into the decision model. Utilities were obtained using a visual analog scale during patient interviews. Expected cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using the roll-back method. The incremental cost-utility ratio for enclosed silver dressing relative to SSD was $40,167.99/QALY. One-way sensitivity analysis of complication rates confirmed robustness of the model. Assuming a maximum willingness to pay $50,000/QALY, the complication rate for SSD must be 22% or higher for enclosed silver dressing to be cost effective. By varying complication rates for SSD and enclosed silver dressings, the two-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated the cost effectiveness of using enclosed silver dressing at the majority of complication rates for both treatment modalities. Enclosed silver dressings are a cost-effective means of treating partial thickness burns.

  12. Hopkins during SODI-DCMIX 2 Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-30

    ISS038-E-009253 (26 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, prepares to install and activate the Selectable Optics Diagnostic Instrument (SODI) cell array two in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Selectable Optics Diagnostic Instrument-Diffusion Coefficient in Mixtures 2 (SODI-DCMIX 2) experiment. SODI-DCMIX 2 is supporting research to determine diffusion coefficients in different petroleum field samples and refine petroleum reservoir models to help lead to more efficient extraction of oil resources.

  13. Hopkins during SODI-DCMIX 2 Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-30

    ISS038-E-009255 (26 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, prepares to install and activate the Selectable Optics Diagnostic Instrument (SODI) cell array two in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) for the Selectable Optics Diagnostic Instrument-Diffusion Coefficient in Mixtures 2 (SODI-DCMIX 2) experiment. SODI-DCMIX 2 is supporting research to determine diffusion coefficients in different petroleum field samples and refine petroleum reservoir models to help lead to more efficient extraction of oil resources.

  14. Research on red tide occurrences using enclosed experimental ecosystems in west Xiamen Harbor, China—Relationship between various factors and red tide occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; Harrison, P. J.

    2000-06-01

    A series of enclosed ecosystem experiments were conducted in a land-based tank near the seaside of West Xiamen Harbor. The results of experiments conducted in different seasons and years showed a repeatable phytoplankton succession. In this relatively stable ecosystem with added nutrients and trace metals, diatoms dominated initially, dinoflagellates dominated in the later stage, and dinoflagellate red tides eventually occurred. Vitamin B12 enrichment may speed up this succession process. Stirring the water column could stop this process. Soluble Mn at a level of 3 4 μg/L in seawater, which also is the existing concentration of soluble Mn in Xiamen Harbor seawater, is sufficient for the multiplication of algae and occurrence of red tide. The present study showed that excessive soluble Mn in Xiamen Harbor cannot cause red tide, and that Fe was one of the important factors causing diatiom red tide in this present study.

  15. Coastal upwelling and downwelling forcing of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. D.; Largier, J. L.; Torres, R.; Sheridan, M.; Trasviña, A.; Souza, A.; Pazos, Y.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-05-01

    Semi-enclosed bays in upwelling regions are exposed to forcing related to winds, currents and buoyancy over the shelf. The influence of this external forcing is moderated by factors such as connectivity to the open ocean, shelter by surrounding topography, dimensions of the bay, and freshwater outflows. Such bays, preferred locations for ports, mariculture, marine industry, recreational activities and coastal settlement, present a range of characteristics, understanding of which is necessary to their rational management. Observations in such a semi-enclosed bay, the Ria de Vigo in Spain, are used to characterize the influence of upwelling and downwelling pulses on its circulation. In this location, near the northern limit of the Iberian upwelling system, upwelling events dominate during a short summer season and downwelling events the rest of the year. The ria response to the external forcing is central to nutrient supply and resultant plankton productivity that supports its high level of cultured mussel production. Intensive field studies in September 2006 and June 2007 captured a downwelling event and an upwelling event, respectively. Data from eight current profiler moorings and boat-based MiniBat/ADCP surveys provided an unprecedented quasi-synoptic view of the distribution of water masses and circulation patterns in any ria. In the outer ria, circulation was dominated by the introduction of wind-driven alongshore flow from the external continental shelf through the ria entrances and its interaction with the topography. In the middle ria, circulation was primarily related to the upwelling/downwelling cycle, with a cool, salty and dense lower layer penetrating to the inner ria during upwelling over the shelf. A warmer, lower salinity and less dense surface layer of coastal waters flowed inward during downwelling. Without external forcing, the inner ria responded primarily to tides and buoyancy changes related to land runoff. Under both upwelling and downwelling

  16. A glovebox with three levels of containment and clean room facilities for growing and handling biological material at physiologically correct gas compositions and with optimal quality assessment for tissue-engineering, ex vivo expansion, manipulation and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, J A; Voeten, R G H M; Mosborg Peterson, P

    2002-07-01

    Traditional two levels of containment provide enclosure and underpressure in order to avoid hazardous material to flow towards e.g. a crewmember and thereby cause severe harm. The present-day demands for laboratory safety have revealed a paradox: In the laboratory overpressure is needed to prevent contamination of biological material and under pressure is needed to prevent the pollution of the environment. A new type of combined workbench/incubator has been constructed to meet future regulatory demands for handling and growing human biological cellular material at safe constant physiological conditions: A so-called three levels of containment glovebox/workbench. This new invention avoids the hazards of prior technology. It sets new standards for proper handling of biological materials and will meet the coming safety demands from the growing field of tissue engineering and ex vivo biotechnology. The invention is computer controlled, has a build in cleaning facility for assuring a particle free and aseptic working facility. We now have invented a solution to the above paradox concerning laboratory safety that seems to fulfil the need for safe biological experiments in microgravity. This concept has already been applied into ground-based research and is expected in a few years also to be applied similarly in the ISS environment. Furthermore, handling biological material mimicking in vivo conditions ex vivo requires precise and stabile monitoring and regulation of the isotherm and isobar conditions. Handling stem cells requires in addition low to very low oxygen tension to mimic the stem cells natural habitats. Besides that, the ex vivo gaseous atmosphere and temperature surrounding the cells has to be of same correct composition and temperature as found in the body in order to mimic in vivo situations in such way, that scientifically correct, reproducible and comparable results can be achieved. This fact is strengthened by forthcoming regulations as being prepared by

  17. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; ...

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  18. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imaging with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.

  19. Synthesis and photochemical applications of processable polymers enclosing photoluminescent carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Dario; Mazzier, Daniela; Silvestrini, Simone; Privitera, Alberto; Marega, Carla; Franco, Lorenzo; Moretto, Alessandro

    2015-04-28

    Herein, we propose convenient routes to produce hybrid-polymers that covalently enclosed, or confined, N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs). We focus our attention on polyamide, polyurea-urethane, polyester, and polymethylmetacrylate polymers, some of the most common resources used to create everyday materials. These hybrid materials can be easily prepared and processed to obtain macroscopic objects of different shapes, i.e., fibers, transparent sheets, and bulky forms, where the characteristic luminescence properties of the native N-doped CQDs are preserved. More importantly we explore the potential use of these hybrid composites to achieve photochemical reactions as those of photoreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (under UV-light), the selective photo-oxidation of benzylalcohol to the benzaldehyde (under vis-light), and the photocatalytic generation of H2 (under UV-light).

  20. Application of macrobenthos functional groups to estimate the ecosystem health in a semi-enclosed bay.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shitao; Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Shi, Honghua; Ding, Dewen

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the functional group concept was first applied to evaluate the ecosystem health of Bohai Bay. Macrobenthos functional groups were defined according to feeding types and divided into five groups: a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE), and detritivorous group (DE). Groups CA, DE, OM, and PL were identified, but the HE group was absent from Bohai Bay. Group DE was dominant during the study periods. The ecosystem health was assessed using a functional group evenness index. The functional group evenness values of most sampling stations were less than 0.40, indicating that the ecosystem health was deteriorated in Bohai Bay. Such deterioration could be attributed to land reclamation, industrial and sewage effluents, oil pollution, and hypersaline water discharge. This study demonstrates that the functional group concept can be applied to ecosystem health assessment in a semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical assembly of Ag nanocrystals on enclosed surfaces in monocrystalline Si

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Michael S.; Theodore, N. David; Wei, Chao-Chen; Shao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Growth of thin crystals on external substrate surfaces by many different methods is a well-known technique, but its extension to inner, enclosed surfaces of large defects in monocrystalline materials has not yet been reported. The literature on thin film growth and defects in materials can be leveraged to fabricate new structures for a variety of applications. Here we show a physical process of nucleation and evolution of nanocrystalline silver inside voids in monocrystalline silicon. We found that the Ag growth is hetero-epitaxial using a coincident site lattice. Alignment of Ag and Si atomic planes is uniformly observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and macroscopically by channeling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. PMID:25376502

  2. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: remedial measures.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Monaco, C

    1992-03-01

    Totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) are used to evacuate the crews of mobile offshore drilling units in emergencies. The small size and flat bottom of the TEMPSC predispose most occupants to seasickness, even in relatively calm waters. This paper discusses efforts required to improve the well-being of occupants in terms of reducing seasickness, dehydration, hypothermia, anxiety, and the other factors that contribute to loss of comfort and the will to survive. Specific recommendations include the provision of climatic control to regulate temperature, remove odors and provide fresh air; potable water, electrolytes, and survival rations; and an ample supply of motion sickness bags. Overcrowding should be avoided. Anti-motion-sickness drug therapy to control vomiting should be administered in two ways: initial injection of intramuscular scopolamine for fast action followed by a transdermal ear patch for long-term protection. Leadership and seasickness management should be requisite survival training for all oil rig workers.

  3. Air-quality monitoring and detection of air contamination in an enclosed environment.

    PubMed

    Skliar, M; Ramirez, W F

    1997-01-01

    We report on the development of an air-quality monitoring and early detection system for an enclosed environment with specific emphasis on manned spacecraft. The proposed monitoring approach is based on a distributed parameter model of contaminant dispersion and real-time contaminant concentration measurements. Kalman filtering is identified as a suitable method for generating on-line estimation of the spatial contamination profile, and an implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is shown to be preferable for rear-time implementation. The identification of the contaminant concentration profile allows for a straightforward solution of the early detection of an air contamination event and provides information that enables potential automatic diagnosis of an unknown contamination source.

  4. "Fluid bearing" effect of enclosed liquids in grooves on drag reduction in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haosheng; Gao, Yang; Stone, Howard A.; Li, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    We report details of the fluid motion formed within and above grooves when a laminar continuous phase fluid flows over a second immiscible fluid enclosed in a grooved microchannel. Vortical structures within the transverse grooves were caused by a slip velocity at the fluid-fluid interface and act as "fluid bearings" on the boundary to lubricate the flow of the continuous phase. We investigated the drag reduction in the laminar flow in the microchannel by measuring slip at the boundaries and calculating an effective slip length, taking into account the influence of the effect of the viscosity ratio of the two fluids on the effective slip length. The "fluid bearing" effect can be used to transport high viscosity fluids using low viscosity fluids trapped in cavities to reduce drag.

  5. Exploring a partially enclosed space by lead-exposed female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lasky, R E; Laughlin, N K

    2001-01-01

    Beginning on Day 8 postpartum, lead acetate was administered to female rhesus monkeys (n=48). Their blood lead levels rose to 35-40 microg/dl (the level maintained for the duration of the study period) by 12 weeks of age. Weekly, these lead-exposed monkeys and their controls (n=23) were placed in a partially enclosed space from the second postnatal week until they escaped three times or were 26 weeks old. The lead-exposed monkeys exhibited more fear, were more likely to be agitated, and climbed more frequently during the first testing session. In subsequent sessions, they more frequently explored the periphery of the test area than the controls. The lead-exposed monkeys also tended to escape sooner although that trend did not consistently reach the.05 level of significance. The increased activity and agitation of the lead-exposed monkeys is suggestive of deficits reported in human children with high blood lead levels.

  6. RF Exposure Analysis for Multiple Wi-Fi Devices In Enclosed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Rhodes, Bryan A.; deSilva, B. Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.; Keiser, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Wi-Fi devices operated inside a metallic enclosure have been investigation in the recent years. A motivation for this study is to investigate wave propagation inside an enclosed environment such as elevator, car, aircraft, and spacecraft. There are performances and safety concerned that when the RF transmitters are used in the metallic enclosed environments. In this paper, the field distributions inside a confined room were investigated with multiple portable Wi-Fi devices. Computer simulations were performed using the rigorous computational electromagnetics (CEM). The method of moments (MoM) was used to model the mutual coupling among antennas. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was applied for the multiple reflections off the ground and walls. The prediction of the field distribution inside such environment is useful for the planning and deployment of a wireless radio and sensor system. Factors that affect the field strengths and distributions of radio waves in confined space were analyzed. The results could be used to evaluate the RF exposure safety in confined environment. By comparing the field distributions for various scenarios, it was observed that the Wi-Fi device counts, spacing and relative locations in the room are important factors in such environments. The RF Keep Out Zone (KOZ), where the electric field strengths exceed the permissible RF exposure limit, could be used to assess the RF human exposure compliance. As shown in this study, it s possible to maximize or minimize field intensity in specific area by arranging the Wi-Fi devices as a function of the relative location and spacing in a calculated manner.

  7. Iron geochemistry in surface sediments of a temperate semi-enclosed bay, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Huang, Xiang-Li; Yang, Gui-Peng; Chen, Liang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe) speciation and microbial reducible Fe(III) oxides (MR-Fe(III)) in surface sediments of semi-enclosed Jiaozhou Bay were quantified to reveal Fe geochemistry in the settings subjected to anthropogenic perturbations. Results indicate that sedimentary Fe in the bay is mainly of natural weathering source, without appreciable anthropogenic Fe inputs, as indicated by a generally good linear coupling of total Fe to aluminum. Among the three highly reactive Fe(III) (Fe(III)HR) pools, well crystalline Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)wc) were always the predominant phase, followed by poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)pc), and amorphous Fe(III) oxides (Fe(III)am) were only of minor importance. The dominance of non-sulfidized Fe(II) over sulfidized Fe in the sediments points to the importance of microbial iron(III) reduction (MIR) in the free sulfide-starved conditions. High riverine inputs of TOC leads to outliers in the Fe(III)HR versus total organic carbon (TOC) ratio compared the rest of the bay. OM-dependent MIR as the common driving force has rendered all Fe(II)-bearing phases linearly coupled to TOC. MR-Fe(III) in the surface sediments covered all Fe(III)am and a fraction of less reactive Fe(III) phases, while Fe(III)wc was at most a minor contributor. Highly reactive Fe appears to be enriched to some extent in the temperate semi-enclosed bay, as in the wet-tropical counterparts.

  8. Coarsening Experiment Being Prepared for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures-2 (CSLM-2) experiment is a materials science space flight experiment whose purpose is to investigate the kinetics of competitive particle growth within a liquid matrix. During coarsening, small particles shrink by losing atoms to larger particles, causing the larger particles to grow. In this experiment, solid particles of tin will grow (coarsen) within a liquid lead-tin eutectic matrix. The preceding figures show the coarsening of tin particles in a lead-tin eutectic as a function of time. By conducting this experiment in a microgravity environment, we can study a greater range of solid volume fractions, and the effects of sedimentation present in terrestrial experiments will be negligible. The CSLM-2 experiment is slated to fly onboard the International Space Station. The experiment will be run in the Microgravity Science Glovebox installed in the U.S. Laboratory module.

  9. Facile bench-top fabrication of enclosed circular microchannels provides 3D confined structure for growth of prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dolega, Monika E; Wagh, Jayesh; Gerbaud, Sophie; Kermarrec, Frederique; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Donald K; Gidrol, Xavier; Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple bench-top method to fabricate enclosed circular channels for biological experiments. Fabricating the channels takes less than 2 hours by using glass capillaries of various diameters (from 100 µm up to 400 µm) as a mould in PDMS. The inner surface of microchannels prepared in this way was coated with a thin membrane of either Matrigel or a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte to control cellular adhesion. The microchannels were then used as scaffolds for 3D-confined epithelial cell culture. To show that our device can be used with several epithelial cell types from exocrine glandular tissues, we performed our biological studies on adherent epithelial prostate cells (non-malignant RWPE-1 and invasive PC3) and also on breast (non-malignant MCF10A) cells We observed that in static conditions cells adhere and proliferate to form a confluent layer in channels of 150 µm in diameter and larger, whereas cellular viability decreases with decreasing diameter of the channel. Matrigel and PSS (poly (sodium 4-styrenesulphonate)) promote cell adhesion, whereas the cell proliferation rate was reduced on the PAH (poly (allylamine hydrochloride))-terminated surface. Moreover infusing channels with a continuous flow did not induce any cellular detachment. Our system is designed to simply grow cells in a microchannel structure and could be easily fabricated in any biological laboratory. It offers opportunities to grow epithelial cells that support the formation of a light. This system could be eventually used, for example, to collect cellular secretions, or study cell responses to graduated hypoxia conditions, to chemicals (drugs, siRNA, …) and/or physiological shear stress.

  10. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  11. The role of dams in the water stability and oxygenation of semi-enclosed bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos; Kountoura, Krystallia

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that dams were constructed in order to provide significant domestic and economic benefits. Apart from the advantages of these constructions, such as the hydroelectric power production, the flooding control and the storage of water for irrigation, there are also important impacts. Among the most serious of them upstream, is the conversion from a river system to a lake, the sediment transport and changes in the river's temperature and oxygen. However due to the irregular discharge resulting from the dams operation, there are also changes in biodiversity and in bio-geochemical cycle of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus thereby causing changes in temperature, turbidity, stratification, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and heavy metals, downstream. In order to determine how the existence of dams affects both the water stability and the dissolved oxygen conditions, we studied the enclosed bay of Amvrakikos Gulf in Western Greece. The gulf receives freshwater inputs from north by two rivers along which there are three dams. Before the dams, the maximum discharges into the Amvrakikos Gulf were during late winter and spring months. During autumn and early winter stratification was weak and mixing could take place within the entire gulf. After the dams construction, the rivers have been discharging large amounts of freshwater into the gulf in accordance to the Public Power Corporation's needs. Due to the fact that large volumes of fresh water discharged into the system during summer and autumn, much later than would occur without the presence of dams, the water column is characterized by stratification during those periods. As a consequence, the pycnocline which is characterized by high static stability, prevents both the mixing between the surface and the bottom layer and the oxygenation of the isolated water near the bottom. On the other hand due to the limited hydropower needs during spring, the volume of fresh water which discharged into the system is

  12. Reef fish dynamic response to climatic variability in a warm eastern Mediterranean semi-enclosed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiadi, K.; Koskeridou, E.; Giamali, Ch.; Karakitsios, V.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the effects of global warming on fish populations reveal that the resulting hypoxia-based habitat compression due to the expansion of the oxygen minimum zone may lead to the restriction of fish depth distributions to the oxygenated near-surface layer1. Here we postulate that similar phenomena may have affected the fish distribution in the early Pliocene Heraklion semi-enclosed sea (Crete, eastern Mediterranean). Fish otoliths from Voutes section are systematically identified and the data is examined from a palaeoecologic perspective in response to the Pliocene climatic variability. Bregmaceros and Diaphus taaningi otoliths' relative abundances are used as reliable palaeoclimatic indicators2. The Voutes section sediments contain a very rich fish fauna. Diaphus spp., Bregmaceros sp., Sardinella maderensis, Phosichthyidae and Sternoptychyidae form the pelagic component. Mesopelagic taxa belong mostly to Myctophids. The benthopelagic and benthic component of the fish fauna is very well diversified and is comprised of Gobiids, such as Gobius cf. niger, Callogobius sp., Lesueurigobius aff. sanzoi, and Aphya sp., as well as Gadiculus labiatus, Laemonema sp., Oblada melanura, Parascombrus mutinensis, Barbourisia rufa, Blennius sp., Ammodytes sp., Solea aff. solea. The presence of Oligopus sp., Spratelloides sp., and Brotula cf. mutlibarbata in the middle part of the section indicate the development of a reef in the study area. The palaeoecologic analysis of the surface, intermediate and deep water faunal groups indicate that the pelagic fish populations in the semi-enclosed early Pliocene Heraklion basin directly reflect the climatic variability. However, the intermediate and deep water fish did not respond to climate change in the same manner. Indeed, two dysoxic events are recorded in this section, where the pelagic component of the fauna is almost exclusively comprised of Bregmaceros sp., few Myctophids are present, and the benthic and benthopelagic

  13. Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons

    Treesearch

    K. Novick; J. Walker; W.S. Chan; A. Schmidt; C. Sobek; J.M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these...

  14. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  15. DFTr optimization and DFTr-MD studies of glucose, ten explicit water molecules enclosed by an implicit solvent, COSMO

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DFTr optimization studies are carried out on alpha/beta-glucose surrounded by ten explicit water molecules and the glucose/water super-molecule completely enclosed by an implicit solvation model, COSMO. Twenty one starting configurations of the explicit waters were first optimized empirically with t...

  16. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres This...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres This...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres This...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915 Labor Regulations Relating... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment Pt. 1915, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1915—Compliance Assistance Guidelines for Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres This...

  1. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  2. Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets on reduced graphene oxide for formic acid electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Yan, Yucong; Chen, Wenlong; Khan, Yousaf; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2016-12-06

    Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets were generated on reduced graphene oxide and exhibited the substantially enhanced properties for the formic acid oxidation reaction. The combination of carbonyl groups formed on the surface of annealed graphene oxide and Br(-) ions played important roles in this synthesis.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  5. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  6. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire...

  7. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire...

  8. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire...

  9. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire...

  10. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire...

  11. Preliminary Findings from the SHERE ISS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy R.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Erni, Philipp; Soulages, Johannes; Magee, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) is an International Space Station (ISS) glovebox experiment designed to study the effect of preshear on the transient evolution of the microstructure and viscoelastic tensile stresses for monodisperse dilute polymer solutions. The SHERE experiment hardware was launched on Shuttle Mission STS-120 (ISS Flight 10A) on October 22, 2007, and 20 fluid samples were launched on Shuttle Mission STS-123 (ISS Flight 10/A) on March 11, 2008. Astronaut Gregory Chamitoff performed experiments during Increment 17 on the ISS between June and September 2008. A summary of the ten year history of the hardware development, the experiment's science objectives, and Increment 17's flight operations are discussed in the paper. A brief summary of the preliminary science results is also discussed.

  12. Heat transfer in a rarefied gas enclosed between parallel plates: Role of boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyalka, S. K.; Thomas, J. R., Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The influence of boundary conditions of accomodation coefficients and Maxwellian diffuse specular reflection on heat transfer through a rarefied gas enclosed between two parallel plates is examined. An exact expression for heat transfer for accomodation coefficient boundary conditions and the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model is constructed by using results of Cercignani and Pagani and Thomas, Chang, and Siewert. These results are compared with some variational results of Cipolla and Cercignani and some exact results of Thomas, Chang, and Siewert and Thomas for the BGK model and Maxwellian diffuse specular reflection boundary conditions. It is concluded that the two boundary conditions provide results that agree within about 3% for a range of Knudsen numbers and boundary parameters. It is found that the variational results are remarkably accurate for the BGK model and both types of boundary conditions. Further, it is noted that the heat transfer between parallel plates with different accommodation coefficients at the two surfaces can be calculated exactly by using a harmonic mean for each surface.

  13. Diffusion and rheology in a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting colloids enclosed by a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte-Rivera, Christian; Zia, Roseanna

    2014-11-01

    We study diffusion and rheology of a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting colloidal spheres enclosed by a spherical cavity, utilizing the Stokesian Dynamics framework to account for long-range many-body and pairwise lubrication interactions between the particles and between particle and enclosure. Previous studies of 1D- and 2D-confined suspensions have revealed that boundaries exert a pronounced qualitative influence on microstructure, dynamics, and rheology. While studies of the motion of a point particle in a cavity have been reported, the neglect of finite size sacrifices significant qualitative information, resulting in an incorrect coupling between torque and velocity, among others. We have derived new hydrodynamic mobility functions for finite-size particles confined by a spherical boundary that faithfully capture the physics of the boundary and its influence on particle dynamics. We obtain the full grand-mobility matrix and, from these, the position-dependent short-time self-diffusivity for an isolated particle and the dynamics of a hydrodynamically interacting pair suspended in the cavity. Both of these are studied over a range of particle-to-cavity size ratios. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF GRFP under Grant No. DGE-0707428. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

  14. Casimir potential of a compact object enclosed by a spherical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer, Saad; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Jaffe, Robert L.

    2010-11-15

    We study the electromagnetic Casimir interaction of a compact object contained inside a closed cavity of another compact object. We express the interaction energy in terms of the objects' scattering matrices and translation matrices that relate the coordinate systems appropriate to each object. When the enclosing object is an otherwise empty metallic spherical shell, much larger than the internal object, and the two are sufficiently separated, the Casimir force can be expressed in terms of the static electric and magnetic multipole polarizabilities of the internal object, which is analogous to the Casimir-Polder result. Although it is not a simple power law, the dependence of the force on the separation of the object from the containing sphere is a universal function of its displacement from the center of the sphere, independent of other details of the object's electromagnetic response. Furthermore, we compute the exact Casimir force between two metallic spheres contained one inside the other at arbitrary separations. Finally, we combine our results with earlier work on the Casimir force between two spheres to obtain data on the leading-order correction to the proximity force approximation for two metallic spheres both outside and within one another.

  15. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen

    2014-12-01

    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  17. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  18. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  19. Field Assessment of Enclosed Cab Filtration System Performance Using Particle Counting Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, John A.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Noll, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Enclosed cab filtration systems are typically used on mobile mining equipment to reduce miners’ exposure to airborne dust generated during mining operations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently worked with a mining equipment manufacturer to examine a new cab filtration system design for underground industrial minerals equipment. This cab filtration system uses a combination of three particulate filters to reduce equipment operators’ exposure to dust and diesel particulates present in underground industrial mineral mines. NIOSH initially examined this cab filtration system using a two-instrument particle counting method at the equipment company’s manufacturing shop facility to assess several alternative filters. This cab filtration system design was further studied on several pieces of equipment during a two- to seven-month period at two underground limestone mines. The two-instrument particle counting method was used outside the underground mine at the end of the production shifts to regularly test the cabs’ long-term protection factor performance with particulates present in the ambient air. This particle counting method showed that three of the four cabs achieved protection factors greater than 1,000 during the field studies. The fourth cab did not perform at this level because it had a damaged filter in the system. The particle counting measurements of submicron particles present in the ambient air were shown to be a timely and useful quantification method in assessing cab performance during these field studies. PMID:23915268

  20. Numerical analysis of steady and transient natural convection in an enclosed cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi, Tanveer Hassan; Tahzeeb, Rahat Bin; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation of natural convection heat transfer of air inside an enclosed cavity which can be helpful to find out the critical width of insulation in air insulated walls seen in residential buildings and industrial furnaces. Natural convection between two walls having different temperatures have been simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 12.0 in both steady and transient conditions. To simulate different heat transfer and fluid flow conditions, Rayleigh number ranging from 103 to 105 has been maintained (i.e. Laminar flow.) In case of steady state analysis, the CFD predictions were in very good agreement with the reviewed literature. Transient simulation process has been performed by using User Defined Functions, where the temperature of the hot wall varies with time linearly. To obtain and compare the heat transfer properties, Nusselt number has been calculated at the hot wall at different conditions. The buoyancy driven flow characteristics have been investigated by observing the flow pattern in a graphical manner. The characteristics of the system at different temperature differences between the wall has been observed and documented.

  1. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

    1992-02-01

    Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness.

  2. Micromachined optical fiber enclosed 4-electrode IPMC actuator with multidirectional control ability for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Tsai, Jen-Wei

    2011-02-01

    The present paper examined a novel micromachined column structured Ion Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuator with multidirectional control capability. The developed 4-electrode transducer enclosed a section of optical fiber, thereby allowing electronic directional control of conducted laser light. The fabricated device with IPMC actuator dimensions of 5 mm x 2 mm x 1 mm reached a maximum displacement of 400 μm when a square wave of 9 V was applied to the top-bottom electrode pair. Displacements in different directions and moving angles were characterized with side-side and top-right electrode pairs connected to the actuating signals. Furthermore, the generating moment per volt per second by the transducer was analyzed. The maximum value of approximately 200 μN*m/V/s was displayed when the device actuated with the side-side electrode pair. Controlling the developed IPMC actuator moved the laser beam in multiple directions. This device could be promising for biomedical applications such as microendoscopic ocular surgery.

  3. Trapping of fine sediment in a semi-enclosed bay, Palau, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Victor, Steven; Wolanski, Eric; Richmond, Robert H.

    2003-08-01

    Airai Bay, Palau, is a small (3 km 2), semi-enclosed, mangrove-fringed, meso-tidal, coral lagoon on the southeast coast of Palau. It drains a small catchment area (26 km 2) of highly erodible soils in an area with high annual rainfall (3.7 m). River floods are short-lived and the sediment load is very large, with suspended fine sediment concentration exceeding 1500 mg l -1. The resulting river plume is about 2 m thick. The brackish water residence time is about 7 days; during this period the plume remains a distinct surface feature even after river runoff has ceased. About 98% of the riverine fine sediment settles in Airai Bay, of which about 15-30% is deposited in the mangroves during river floods. This mud remains trapped in Airai Bay because the bay is protected from ocean swells and the tidal currents and locally generated wind waves are too small to resuspend the mud in quantity. The mud is smothering coral reefs, creating a phase shift from coral to fleshy algae dominance, and is even changing habitats by creating mud banks. The persistence of Airai Bay marine resources may not be possible without improved soil erosion control in the river catchment.

  4. Bioluminescent enzyme assay for the indication of plant stress in enclosed life support systems.

    PubMed

    Kratasyuk, Valentina; Esimbekova, Elena; Correll, Melanie; Bucklin, Ray

    2011-01-01

    The application of bioluminescent sensors for monitoring key metabolites and enzymes that are indicators of stress in plants is demonstrated. The sensitivity of bioluminescent assay for NAD(P)H and NAD(P)(+) was about 0.5 and 1 nmol, respectively. The levels of NAD(P)H and NAD(P)(+) in radish (Raphanus sativus) root extracts from controls and from stress-induced conditions were compared. To induce environmental stress, the plants were grown in enclosed environmental chambers with low pressure (9 or 32 kPa), high humidity (>80%) and low oxygen partial pressure (down to 3.3-6.5 kPa). The concentrations of NAD(P)(+) and NAD(P)H in plants varied under stress conditions. Decreasing both total pressure from 101.5 to 32 or 9 kPa and partial pressure of oxygen increased the ratio of NAD(P)(+) /NAD(P)H from 0.2 to 4 or 6, respectively. The increase in this ratio suggests that plants are undergoing stress in these hypobaric environments. The developed bioluminescent assay for quantification of pyridine nucleotides in plant tissues is rapid, low-cost and easily performed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  6. Pollution of PM10 in an underground enclosed loading dock in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualqumboz, M. S.; Mohammed, N. I.; Malakahmad, A.; Nazif, A. N.; Albattniji, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    The enclosed nature of underground loading docks results in accumulation of motor vehicles emissions. Thus, concentration of numerous harmful air pollutants including PM10 particles can increase and reach dangerous levels. This paper aims to study short-term and long-term exposure of PM10 particles inside an underground loading dock located in Malaysia. In addition, the correlation with indoor temperature, relative humidity and vehicles flow will be measured. The concentrations of PM10 were measured for three consecutive weeks using the real-time air quality monitoring instrument AQM60. Series of statistical tests and multiple linear regression analysis were applied on the data using SPSS software and MATLAB R2013a. The results illustrated that PM10 daily average concentration was in compliance with the Malaysian guideline of 150 µg/m3. Actually, 95% of instantaneous PM10 concentration readings were below 75 μg/m3. In addition, significant correlation were found between PM10 concentration and indoor temperature, relative humidity and the previous concentration. The multiple R and R2 were 0.91 and 0.83, respectively. PM10 concentration was also correlated with motor vehicles flow. In conclusion, health effects of long-term exposure to small repetitive doses of air pollutant inside underground facilities should be studied and appropriate control measures need to be implemented.

  7. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

    2012-02-01

    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare.

  8. Identification of the breast edge using areas enclosed by iso-intensity contours.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, J; Alport, M J; Rae, W I D

    2007-09-01

    The segmentation of a mammogram into background and breast is a crucial first step in the computer aided diagnosis of mammograms that has the advantage of simplifying further processing of the image (by eliminating the background) and also provides a reference for the alignment of views when two views are being compared. A novel method of segmenting the breast from the background by analysing the area enclosed by iso-intensity contours is presented. Results are evaluated by comparison with manual borders drawn by three radiologists for a set of 25 mammograms. The effect of different pre-processing methods, on the accuracy of automated borders, is investigated. The best methods yielded average root-mean-square differences between the manual and automated iso-intensity borders of 3.0+/-0.3 mm for the image set containing clear breast edges and 4.8+/-0.5 mm for the image set containing indistinct breast edges compared to 5.1+/-0.8 and 7.9+/-0.9 mm for the two data sets with no pre-processing. Results are also compared to those obtained from global thresholding.

  9. On the inconsistencies related to prediction of flow into an enclosing hood obstructed by a worker.

    PubMed

    Karaismail, Ertan; Celik, Ismail

    2010-06-01

    The recirculating flow structures formed in the wake of a worker standing in front of an enclosing fume hood were numerically investigated. Two- and three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar/turbulent computations were performed for a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(5). The standard k-epsilon, Renormalization group (RNG) k-epsilon, and Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-omega models were used in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations, and the results were compared with each other and also with the previous predictions reported in the literature. Numerical issues regarding the grid convergence and the inadequacies of turbulence models that may come into play at low Reynolds numbers were addressed. On the whole, SST k-omega model was found to be promising for qualitatively accurate prediction of both steady and unsteady recirculatory flow patterns in the wake of the worker. On the other hand, the standard and RNG k-epsilon models failed in prediction of anticipated unsteadiness at low Reynolds numbers. In a more realistic three-dimensional simulation with SST k-omega model, the anticipated unsteady and recirculating flow field in the wake of the worker was captured. Present results seem to qualitatively agree with the deductions made from experimental analyses in the literature while conflicting with some aspects of the previously reported numerical results. The apparent inconsistencies observed between the current results and those published in the literature were elucidated.

  10. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?

    PubMed

    Haw, Sally J; Gruer, Laurence; Amos, Amanda; Currie, Candace; Fischbacher, Colin; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hastings, Gerard; Malam, Sally; Pell, Jill; Scott, Calum; Semple, Sean

    2006-03-01

    From 26 March 2006, smoking will be prohibited in wholly and substantially enclosed public places in Scotland, and it will be an offence to permit smoking or to smoke in no-smoking premises. We anticipate that implementation of the smoke-free legislation will result in significant health gains associated with reductions in exposure to both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal tobacco consumption as well as other social and economic impacts. Health Scotland in conjunction with the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and the Scottish Executive have developed a comprehensive evaluation strategy to assess the expected short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes. Using routine health, behavioural and economic data and commissioned research, we will assess the impact of the smoke-free legislation in eight key outcome areas--knowledge and attitudes, ETS exposure, compliance, culture, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, economic impacts on the hospitality sector and health inequalities. The findings from this evaluation will make a significant contribution to the international understanding of the health effects of exposure to ETS and the broader social, cultural and economic impacts of smoke-free legislation.

  11. Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Primary Productivity in the Semi-Enclosed Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, R.; Nishi, S.; Taniguchi, M.; Tominaga, O.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have shown that submarine groundwater discharge is an alternative nutrient pathway and can drive primary production in coastal seas. However, very little is known about an exact relationship between input of groundwater and response of primary production. To clarify the relationship, we conducted the field survey in the semi-enclosed coastal bay in Japan (Obama Bay). There are abundant amounts of groundwater resources in the basin. Firstly, we conducted 222Rn continuous measurement along the coast in March 2013 to obtain the spatial difference of groundwater impact. As a result, 222Rn activity clearly showed that groundwater discharge concentrates in the western part of the bay head. We thus conducted in-situ measurements of primary productivity using stable 13C tracer method and environmental parameters (ex. 222Rn activity, light intensity, temperature and nutrient concentrations) at 6 stations within the western bay head in July and August 2013. Primary productivity within the western bay head changed from 11.0 to 49.5 μg C L-1 hr-1 in July and from 9.3 to 32.4 μg C L-1 hr-1 in August. Moreover, there was significant relationship between primary productivity and 222Rn concentration in both months. Although light intensity and water temperature were different in each station and month, concentrations of nutrients limited primary productivity. These results showed that nutrient supply from SGD would affect crucial impact on primary productivity in Obama Bay.

  12. Microbiological and clinical effects of chlorhexidine enclosed in fixtures of 3I-Titamed implants.

    PubMed

    Groenendijk, Edith; Dominicus, Jan J K; Moorer, Wilfred R; Aartman, Irene H A; van Waas, Marinus A J

    2004-04-01

    This double-blind study used a split-mouth design to investigate the microbiological and clinical effects of 0.2% chlorhexidine enclosed in fixtures. Twelve patients had 46 fixtures implanted. At second-stage surgery, a microbiological sample (baseline sample) of the inner parts of the fixtures was taken. Then, a 0.2% chlorhexidine solution was applied into the inner space of 23 fixtures (test group), and in 23 fixtures saline was applied (control group). Abutments were installed and gingival index, plaque index and crevicular fluid flow were monitored weekly. After 6 weeks, a second microbiological sample of the inner part of the fixtures was taken. At baseline, viable bacteria were detected within 46% of the fixtures. After weeks, bacteria were found in 87% of the fixtures. The numbers of bacteria in the control group were significantly higher than those in the test group. The results indicate that, after first-stage surgery, contamination of the inner spaces of the fixtures is commonplace. Application of a 0.2% chlorhexidine solution at second-stage surgery inhibits growth or acquisition of bacteria in the fixtures. In both test and control groups, the crevicular fluid flow as well as the gingival index decreased during the experimental period. At 4, 5, and 6 weeks after chlorhexidine application, these values in the test group appeared lower, but did not attain statistical significance.

  13. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  14. Self-extinguishing behavior of kerosene spray fire in a completely enclosed compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changjian; Guo, Jin; Yan, Weigang; Lu, Shouxiang

    2013-10-01

    The self-extinguishing behavior of kerosene spray fire was investigated in a completely enclosed compartment with the size of 3 m × 3 m × 3.4 m. The spray was generated by locating one BETE nozzle at the center of the bottom wall. A series of spray fire videos were obtained by changing BETE nozzle type and injecting pressure. The results show that spray fire undergoes four stages: the growth stage, the quasi-steady stage, the stretch stage and the self-extinguishing stage. Consumption of large quantities of oxygen causes spray fire to first be stretched and then quench. In this process, fire base migrates away from spray region and leads to the emergence of ghosting fire. Ghosting fire promotes the instability of spray fire and large fluctuation of its height, which provides help to its self-extinguishing. With increasing the injecting pressure or the nozzle diameter, the self-extinguishing time decreases. It is found that the self-extinguishing time is approximately in inverse relation with injecting flow rate. Additionally, we also observed the occurrence of two-phase deflagration just after ignition, and it accelerates the spray fire growth and induces a larger fire height than the following quasi-steady spray fire. The deflagration turns stronger with increasing the injecting pressure.

  15. 76 FR 17448 - Subpart A (“General Provisions”) and Subpart B (“Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment''); Extension of the Office of... Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment''). DATES: Comments must be...(a)(1) and (a)(2)); Flammable Atmospheres (Sec. 1915.12(b)(1) and (b)(2)); and Toxic,...

  16. Soundscape studies in Montreal's Biodome: using enclosed ecosystems to explain biodiversity to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher Favret, K. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Biodome in Montreal is a unique public museum with over 750 species organized into five different ecosystems. We spent several weeks obtaining soundscapes from three of these: Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Coast, and Sub-Antarctic Islands. The idea was to leverage the accessibility and known biodiversity of these mesocosms to calibrate instruments, evaluate methods for assessing biodiversity, and educate people ranging from the penguin keeper to the general public about soundscape ecology and biodiversity assessments. The Gulf of St. Lawrence exhibit has hundreds of fish that belong to 20 species swimming in 2.5 million gallons of seawater, with seabirds and invertebrates nearby. The Sub-Antarctic Islands exhibit, by contrast, has four species of penguins. As part of Montreal's Space for Life program, there is a searchable index of the species available to the public: http://espacepourlavie.ca/en/fauna-and-flora-biodome.The emerging field of soundscape ecology offers a new approach for effectively monitoring changes in sounds generated by communities ranging from urban centers to oceans. The entropy-based approach pioneered by Sueur et al., (2008) characterizes acoustic spectrograms based on the spectral space-filling properties of the sound producers. By calculating the complexity of the acoustic environment, we can detect cycles over various time scales. Disturbed systems can be detected by changes in the timing and frequency of sounds filling various "niches" in the soundscape that might act as early warnings of changes induced on scales from single events to climate shifts. These changes range from presence or absence of vocalizations by individual species, to changes in the higher order statistics of the daily sound structures that include sounds with physical, biological, and human origins. Here we show what we have learned so far about comparing enclosed ecosystems to the real world outside, and some of the challenges and rewards of using soundscape

  17. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  18. Dynamics of Tidally Driven Nutrient Transport into a Semi-Enclosed Isolated Coral Reef Atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R.; Lowe, R.; Jones, N. L.; Ivey, G. N.; Falter, J.; McCulloch, M. T.; Brinkman, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    The hydrodynamics within and surrounding coral reefs directly influence ecosystem productivity, community structure and diversity. Most studies on reef atolls have focused on shallow reef flats forced by surface waves, but fluxes of nutrients and heat driven by internal waves can be important within the deeper outer slopes and lagoons of many atolls. At present the number of studies into the effect of internal waves on reef environments are geographically limited, and principally for sites with relatively small tidal ranges. Scott Reef rises steeply from depths of 2500 m on the edge of Western Australia's continental slope. A combination of complex shelf topography, stable thermal stratification, and a large barotropic tide (>3m) contribute to the strong internal wave climate around this isolated atoll. The emphasis of this study is on the physical environment associated with the rich ecosystem in the large (300km2) and deep ( 50 m) semi-enclosed lagoon of South Scott. A multidisciplinary research cruise took place during April 2015. To investigate the dynamics of the internal waves influencing the lagoon, a mooring was deployed at a lagoon entrance with an array of current meters, temperature sensors and pressure sensors over a 15 day period. A simultaneous ship-based sampling programme of water column profiles, including water quality analysis, provided a comprehensive understanding of the how the physical environment contributes to maintaining this productive reef system. Results reveal that steep topography forces the internal waves to shoal into the north-east of the lagoon, transporting nutrient-rich deep water that results in a 3-fold increase in nitrate concentrations. Our field measurements indicate that cold water intrusions cause a baroclinic velocity response of 0.3 m s-1 and previous modelling studies reveal that the cold water can propagate up to 9 km into the lagoon at flood tide. The ecological implications for this replenishment of nutrients will

  19. Hydrodynamic and transport responses to land reclamation in different areas of semi-enclosed subtropical bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal areas worldwide have been reclaimed to meet the increasing land demand. Understanding the effects of land reclamation on the hydrodynamics and transport processes of a semi-enclosed bay is therefore of significance. From a case study of Deep Bay (DB) in China and referring to idealized bay models, the effects of two types of land reclamation, one that narrows the bay mouth and another that reduces the water area inside the bay, were examined in this study. Simulation results of idealized models show that the current velocity at the bay mouth and the incoming tidal energy flux are negatively correlated with the width of bay mouth, as the tidal prism remains almost constant when the bay mouth width reduces. The bay mouth width reduction would also increase the tidal energy dissipation inside of the bay due to friction increase. In DB, a 30% reduction in the mouth width increased the bay mouth current velocity by up to 5% and the total incoming energy flux by 18%. The narrowed bay mouth also substantially changed the bay's vertical structure of salinity, increasing the stratification strength by 1.7×10-4 s-2. For reductions in the water surface area in the head of the bay, results from idealized bay simulations show that the current velocity throughout the bay, the incoming tidal energy flux, and salinity at the inner bay all decrease with water area reduction. Reclaiming 14% of area in DB, the current velocity reduced by 9% at the bay mouth, but increased in the middle and inner parts. The incoming tidal energy flux also increased as the coastline became more streamlined after reclamation, and the salinity at inner bay decreased. Both reclamation types have substantially altered the water and salt transport processes and increased the water exchange ability of the bay with the adjacent sea.

  20. Assessment of hydrodynamics, biochemical parameters and eddy diffusivity in a semi-enclosed Ionian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-11-01

    In the framework of the Italian flagship Project RITMARE, during December 2013 a meteo-oceanographic station was installed in the Mar Grande basin, a semi-enclosed bay in Southern Italy, connected to the Ionian Sea. Due to the presence of coastal heavy industry and anthropic pressure, this marine system has experienced environmental degradation over the last decades. Therefore, much monitoring of hydrodynamics and water quality indicators is required. In fact, this monitoring makes it possible to check the real-time biochemical status of the basin and therefore promptly intervene when accidental spills occur, and to create a dataset necessary to calibrate and validate modelling systems providing forecasts. The present paper aims to analyze and discuss the long term and continuous recordings of hydrodynamic and biochemical data collected by this station, available for the period from January 2014 up to December 2014. In detail, hourly measurements of wind, waves, current velocity, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and turbidity concentrations were archived in monthly time-series and processed in frequency domain, using the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), to both delineate the reciprocal effects of drivers and deduce some correlations between parameters (De Serio and Mossa, 2013). Following this, monthly surface current data were processed in order to obtain time-averaged values of the turbulent velocity components, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent time scales. Based on these calculated turbulent parameters, the horizontal eddy diffusivity was computed with the hypothesis of homogeneous turbulence using two methods, which provided results with the same order of magnitude. These results are of interest for numerical dispersion models. Finally, only referring to the month of December 2014, the time series of the crude oil concentration was available at the station and was examined in depth. The field data enabled us to conclude that the crude oil dispersion