Science.gov

Sample records for glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent

  1. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins with and without a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent on reproductive performance and serum chemistry of pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Llano, G; Smith, T K

    2006-09-01

    Contamination of animal feedstuffs with Fusarium mycotoxins can cause reduced feed intake and hyperaminoacidemia resulting from reduced hepatic protein synthesis. The current study investigated the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on reproductive performance, serum chemistry, ADFI, and ADG of gilts, and tested the ability of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) to reduce or eliminate the effects of the contaminated feeds. Thirty-six Yorkshire gilts were fed 3 diets (n = 12 gilts/diet) from 91 +/- 3 d of gestation until farrowing. Diets included 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Diets contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins did not affect ADFI (P = 0.24), but ADG (P = 0.029) and G:F (P = 0.047) were reduced. Serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, haptoglobin, protein, albumin, globulin, urea, glucose, cholesterol, Ca, Na, Mg, P, K, and Cl, and hepatic enzyme activities were not affected by diet. The frequency of stillborn piglets was greater (P = 0.03) for gilts fed contaminated grains compared with that of gilts fed contaminated grains + GMA. The feeding of contaminated grains + GMA also increased (P = 0.026) the percentage of pigs born alive compared with gilts fed the contaminated diets. In conclusion, feeding gilts diets that are naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can increase the incidence of stillborn piglets and this effect can be reduced by dietary supplementation with GMA.

  2. Influence of Mycotoxins and a Mycotoxin Adsorbing Agent on the Oral Bioavailability of Commonly Used Antibiotics in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Joline; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Pasmans, Frank; De Baere, Siegrid; Devreese, Mathias; Osselaere, Ann; Verbrugghe, Elin; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; Audenaert, Kris; Haesaert, Geert; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2012-01-01

    It is recognized that mycotoxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in animals, including altered gastrointestinal barrier function. It is the aim of the present study to determine whether mycotoxin-contaminated diets can alter the oral bioavailability of the antibiotics doxycycline and paromomycin in pigs, and whether a mycotoxin adsorbing agent included into diets interacts with those antibiotics. Experiments were conducted with pigs utilizing diets that contained blank feed, mycotoxin-contaminated feed (T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol), mycotoxin-contaminated feed supplemented with a glucomannan mycotoxin binder, or blank feed supplemented with mycotoxin binder. Diets with T-2 toxin and binder or deoxynivalenol and binder induced increased plasma concentrations of doxycycline administered as single bolus in pigs compared to diets containing blank feed. These results suggest that complex interactions may occur between mycotoxins, mycotoxin binders, and antibiotics which could alter antibiotic bioavailability. This could have consequences for animal toxicity, withdrawal time for oral antibiotics, or public health. PMID:22606377

  3. The effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and glucomannan in turkey poults based on specific and non-specific parameters.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Girgis, George N; Tran, Si-Trung; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska; Smith, Trevor K

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and a yeast derived glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) on selected specific and non-specific parameters in turkey poults. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male turkey poults were fed the experimental diets for twelve weeks. Experimental diets were formulated with control grains, control grains+0.2% GMA, naturally-contaminated grains, or naturally-contaminated grains+0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was the major contaminant of the contaminated grains and concentrations varied from 4.0 to 6.5 mg/kg in the contaminated diets. Non-specific parameters measured included: performance parameters, plasma biochemistry profiles, morphometry and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte counts in the duodenum. Plasma concentrations of DON and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were used as specific parameters. Performance parameters and plasma biochemistry were altered by the feeding of contaminated diets and GMA but this was not consistent throughout the trial. The feeding of contaminated diets reduced duodenal villus height and apparent villus surface area. This effect was prevented by GMA supplementation. The feeding of contaminated diets elevated total duodenal CD8(+) T-lymphocyte counts but this effect was not prevented by GMA. No significant differences were seen in plasma concentrations of DON and DOM-1 comparing birds fed contaminated and contaminated+GMA diets suggesting that GMA did not prevent DON absorption under these conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotherm modeling of organic activated bentonite and humic acid polymer used as mycotoxin adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R; Vermeulen, S; Haritova, A; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare two representative samples of different classes of adsorbents intended for use as feed additives in the prevention or reduction of the adverse effects exerted by mycotoxins, specifically ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN). The adsorbents, an organically activated bentonite (OAB) and a humic acid polymer (HAP), were tested in a common in vitro model with a pH course comparing the maximum pH changes that can be expected in the digestive system of a monogastric animal, i.e. pH 7.4 for the oral cavity, pH 3.0 for the stomach, and pH 8.4 for the intestines. In the first experiment, the concentration-dependent adsorbent capacity of OAB and HAB were tested using a fixed concentration of either mycotoxin. Thereafter, adsorption was evaluated applying different isotherms models, such as Freundlich, Langmuir, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Redlich-Peterson, to characterize the adsorption process as being either homo- or heterogeneous and representing either mono- or multilayer binding. At the recommended statutory level for the mycotoxins of 0.1 mg kg(-1) OTA and 0.5 mg kg(-1) ZEN, OAB showed an adsorbed capacity of >96% towards both mycotoxins, regardless of the pH. The HAP product was also able to absorb >96% of both mycotoxins at pH 3.0, but extensive desorption occurred at pH 8.4. Based on χ-square (χ(2)) values, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson equations proved to be the best models to predict monolayer equilibrium sorption of OTA and ZEN onto the organically activated bentonite and the humic acid polymer. The applied methodology has a sufficient robustness to facilitate further comparative studies with different mycotoxin-adsorbing agents.

  5. Effect of three mycotoxin adsorbents on growth performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y L; Meng, G Q; Wang, H R; Zhu, H L; Hou, Y Q; Wang, W J; Ding, B Y

    2011-04-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of an esterified glucomannan (EGM), a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and a compound mycotoxin adsorbent (CMA) on performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Mould-contaminated diets were prepared by replacing half of the non-contaminated maize in the basal diets with mould-contaminated maize, which contained 450·6 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1, 68·4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A and 320·5 µg/kg of T-2 toxin. 2. The mould-contaminated diet significantly decreased body weight gain (BWG) between 10 and 21 d, feed intake (FI) between 35 and 42 d, the apparent retention of crude lipid and phosphorus, and the lightness (L*) value of breast and thigh muscle. It also significantly increased the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) value in breast muscle and the b* value in thigh muscle. 3. The addition of 0·2% HSCAS significantly increased FI between 35 and 42 d and the apparent retention of phosphorus. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly improved BWG from 10 to 21 d, and increased FI from 35 to 42 d and from 10 to 42 d. CMA also significantly increased the apparent retention of crude lipid, crude protein, ash and phosphorus. All three mycotoxin-adsorbent treatments significantly improved the L* values of breast and thigh muscle when compared with the mould-contaminated group. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly decreased b* value and improved tenderness in thigh muscle. 0·05% EGM significantly decreased b* value of thigh muscle compared to mould-contaminated group. 4. The results indicated that mycotoxins in contaminated feed retard growth, nutrient retention and meat quality, whereas the addition of 0·05% EGM, 0·2% HSCAS or 0·1% CMA prevents the adverse effects of mycotoxins to varying extents, with 0·1% CMA being the most effective adsorbent treatment.

  6. Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, J. W.; Klich, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. PMID:12857779

  7. Mycotoxins

    Creekmore, Lynn H.

    1999-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxins produced by molds (fungi) that, when they are ingested, can cause diseases called mycotoxicosis. These diseases are are not infectious. The effects on the animal are caused by fungal toxins in foods ingested, usually grains, and are not caused by infection with the fungus. Many different molds produce mycotoxins and many corresponding disease syndromes have been described for domestic animals. However, only two types of mycotoxin poisoning, aflatoxicosis and fusariotoxicosis, have been documented in free-ranging migratory birds. Until recently, sickness or death caused by mycotoxins were rarely reported in migratory birds. Identification of mycotoxins as the cause of a mortality event can be difficult for a number of reasons. The effects may be subtle and difficult to detect or identify, or the effects may be delayed and the bird may have moved away from the contaminated food source before becoming sick or dying. Also, grain containing toxin-producing molds can be difficult or impossible to recognize because it may not appear overtly moldy.Techniques to detect and quantify a variety of mycotoxins important to domestic animal and human health are available through many diagnostic laboratories that serve health needs for those species. These same techniques are applicable for wildlife. Further study and improved diagnostic technology is likely to result in identification of additional types of mycotoxins as causes of disease and death in waterfowl and other wildlife.

  8. Mycotoxins

    According to FAO, at least 25 percent of the world's food crops are contaminated with mycotoxins, at a time when the production of agricultural commodities is barely sustaining the increasing population. The global volume of such agricultural products as maize, groundnuts, copra, palm nuts and oilse...

  9. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Q H; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, G G; Jiang, S Z

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins.

  10. Development of a computationally-designed polymeric adsorbent specific for mycotoxin patulin.

    PubMed

    Piletska, Elena V; Pink, Demi; Karim, Kal; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2017-12-04

    Patulin is a toxic compound which is found predominantly in apples affected by mould rot. Since apples and apple-containing products are a popular food for the elderly, children and babies, the monitoring of the toxin is crucial. This paper describes a development of a computationally-designed polymeric adsorbent for the solid-phase extraction of patulin, which provides an effective clean-up of the food samples and allows the detection and accurate quantification of patulin levels present in apple juice using conventional chromatography methods. The developed bespoke polymer demonstrates a quantitative binding towards the patulin present in undiluted apple juice. The polymer is inexpensive and easy to mass-produce. The contributing factors to the function of the adsorbent is a combination of acidic and basic functional monomers producing a zwitterionic complex in the solution that formed stronger binding complexes with the patulin molecule. The protocols described in this paper provide a blueprint for the development of polymeric adsorbents for other toxins or different food matrices.

  11. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunology of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Woodward, B

    2005-12-01

    Feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins has been shown to alter metabolism and performance of laying hens. The objectives of the current experiment were to examine the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunological indices and functions of laying hens and the possible protective effect of feeding a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). One hundred forty-four laying hens were fed for 12 wk with diets formulated with (1) uncontaminated grains, (2) contaminated grains, or (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON, 12 mg/kg), 15-acetyl-DON (0.5 mg/kg), and zearalenone (0.6 mg/kg) were identified in the contaminated diets arising from contaminated grains grown in Ontario, Canada. The concentrations of DON arising from naturally contaminated grains in this study were similar to purified mycotoxin fed to experimental mice. The chronic feeding of Fusarium mycotoxins induced small decreases in hematocrit values, total numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes including both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and biliary IgA concentration. Supplementation of diets containing feedborne mycotoxins with GMA prevented the reduction in total number of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the reduction in biliary IgA concentration. In addition, the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to dinitrochlorobenzene was increased by feed-borne mycotoxins, whereas IgG and IgM antibody titers to sheep red blood cells were not affected by diet. We concluded that chronic consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins at levels likely to be encountered in practice were not systemically immunosuppressive or hematotoxic; however, mucosal immunocompetence needs to be explored further.

  12. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunology of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Woodward, B

    2005-11-01

    Feeding grains naturally-contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins has been shown to alter the metabolism and performance of turkeys. The objectives of the current experiment were to examine the effects of feeding turkeys with grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on their hematology and immunological indices (including functions), and the possible protective effect of feeding a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains with 0.2% GMA. The chronic consumption of Fusarium mycotoxins caused minor and transient changes in hematocrit (0.33 L/L) and hemoglobin (10(6) g/L) concentrations as well as in blood basophil (0.13 x 10(9)/L) and monocyte counts (3.42 x 10(9)/L) compared with controls. Supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented these effects on blood cell counts. Biliary IgA concentrations were significantly increased (4.45-fold) when birds were fed contaminated grains compared with controls, but serum IgA concentrations were not affected. Contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, which is a CD8+ T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, was decreased (48%) by feed-borne mycotoxins compared with the control. By contrast, the primary and secondary antibody response to sheep red blood cells, a CD4+ T-cell-mediated response, was not affected. It was concluded that chronic consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins exerts only minor adverse effects on the hematology and some immunological indices of turkeys. Consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins may, however, increase the susceptibility of turkeys to infectious agents against which CD8+ T cells play a major role in defense.

  13. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins with or without yeast cell wall adsorbent on organ weight, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Wang, S J; Jiang, S Z; Wu, Y B

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the toxicity of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on organ weight, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters of broiler chickens and to evaluate the efficacy of yeast cell wall adsorbent in preventing mycotoxin-induced adverse effects. In total, 300 one-day-old vaccinated (Marek's disease and infectious bronchitis) Arbor Acres broiler chickens (mixed sex) were randomly divided into 3 treatments (5 repetitions per treatment) and fed basal diet and naturally contaminated diets with or without yeast cell wall adsorbent. Treatments were control, naturally contaminated diet (NCD; aflatoxin, 102.08 mg/kg; zearalenone, 281.92 mg/kg; fumonisin, 5,874.38 mg/kg; deoxynivalenol, 2,038.96 mg/kg), and NCD + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall adsorbent (NCDD). The test included 2 phases: d 0-21 and d 22-42. At 42 d, broilers fed contaminated diets without yeast cell wall adsorbent had higher (P < 0.05) serum albumin and higher relative weight of liver, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus, and greater splenic mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 at 42 d compared with the control, but lower (P < 0.05) serum globulin at 42 d, IgA at 21 d, relative weight of spleen at 21 d, antibody titers of Newcastle disease at both 28 d and 42 d, and splenic mRNA expression of IFN-γ at 42 d were observed in the NCD treatment compared with control. Dietary addition of yeast cell wall adsorbent in the NCD treatment showed a positive protection effect on the relative weight of the liver and spleen at 21 d, relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus at 42 d, antibody titers of Newcastle disease at both 28 d and 42 d, and splenic mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ at 42 d. It is suggested that feeding a naturally contaminated diet for 42 d might result in a deleterious effect in broiler chickens, and addition of 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall enterosorbent can partly neutralize the detrimental effects of the naturally contaminated feed.

  14. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins in chickens infected with coccidia.

    PubMed

    Girgis, George N; Sharif, Shayan; Barta, John R; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K

    2008-11-01

    The potential for Fusarium mycotoxins to modulate immunity was studied in chickens raised to 10 weeks of age using an enteric coccidial infection model. Experimental diets included: control, diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, and diets containing contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Contaminated diets contained up to 3.8 microg/g deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.3 microg/g 15-acetyl DON and 0.2 microg/g zearalenone. An optimized mixture (inducing lesions without mortality) of Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella was used to challenge birds at 8 weeks of age. Immune parameters were studied prior to challenge, at the end of the challenge period (7 days post-inoculation, PI), and at the end of the recovery period (14 days PI). Total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG concentrations in challenged birds fed the contaminated diet were higher than controls at the end of the challenge period. Serum concentration of IgA, but not IgG, was significantly decreased at the end of the recovery period in birds fed the contaminated diet. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations in blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly at the end of the challenge period in birds fed the control or the contaminated diet compared to their percentages prior to challenge. The pre-challenge percentage of CD8+ population was restored at the end of the recovery period only in birds fed the control diet. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene expression in caecal tonsils was up-regulated in challenged birds fed the contaminated diet at the end of the challenge period. No significant effect of diet was observed on oocyst counts despite the changes in the studied immune parameters. It was concluded that Fusarium mycotoxins modulate the avian immune system. This modulation involves alteration of gene expression but apparently does not enhance susceptibility or resistance to a primary coccidial challenge.

  16. Influence of mycotoxin binders on the oral bioavailability of tylosin, doxycycline, diclazuril, and salinomycin in fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    De Mil, T; Devreese, M; Maes, A; De Saeger, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2017-07-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in broiler feed can have deleterious effects on the wellbeing of the animals and their performance. Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the intestinal tract and thereby prevent the oral absorption of the mycotoxin. The simultaneous administration of coccidiostats and/or antimicrobials with mycotoxin binders might lead to a reduced oral bioavailability of these veterinary medicinal products. This paper describes the influence of 3 mycotoxin binders (i.e., clay 1 containing montmorillonite, mica, and feldspars; clay 2 containing montmorillonite and quartz; and yeast 1 being a modified glucomannan fraction of inactivated yeast cells) and activated carbon on the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters of the antimicrobials doxycycline and tylosin, and the coccidiostats diclazuril and salinomycin. A feeding study with 40 15 day-old broilers was performed evaluating the effects of long-term feeding 2 g mycotoxin binder/kg of feed. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8 birds each, i.e., a control group receiving no binder and 4 test groups receiving either clay 1, clay 2, yeast 1, or activated carbon mixed in the feed. After 15 d of feeding, both the control and each test group were administered doxycycline, tylosin, diclazuril, and salinomycin, consecutively, respecting a wash-out period of 2 to 3 d between each administration. The 4 medicinal products were dosed using a single bolus administration directly in the crop. After each bolus administration, blood was collected for plasma analysis and calculation of the main pharmacokinetic parameters and relative oral bioavailability (F = area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8 h) in the test groups/AUC0-8 h in the control group)*100). No effects were observed of any of the mycotoxin binders on the relative oral bioavailability of the coccidiostats (i.e., F between 82 and 101% and 79 and 93% for diclazuril and salinomycin

  17. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on small intestinal morphology of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Girish, C K; Smith, T K

    2008-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Three hundred 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat, corn, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, and contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Morphometric indices were measured at the end of each growth phase and included villus height (VH), crypt depth, villus width, thicknesses of submucosa and muscularis, villus-to-crypt ratio, and apparent villus surface area (AVSA). At the end of the starter phase, feedborne mycotoxins significantly decreased the VH in the duodenum, and supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented this effect. The feeding of contaminated grains also reduced (P < 0.05) VH and AVSA in jejunum, whereas none of the variables were affected in the ileum. Villus width and AVSA of duodenum, VH, and AVSA of jejunum and submucosa thickness of ileum were significantly reduced when birds were fed contaminated grains at the end of the grower phase, and supplementation with GMA prevented these effects in jejunum and ileum. No effects of diets were seen on morphometric variables at the end of the developer and finisher phases. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins results in adverse effects on intestinal morphology during early growth phases of turkeys, and GMA can prevent many of these effects.

  18. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, serum chemistry, and intestinal histology of New Zealand White fryer rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, M A; Girgis, G N; Brash, M; Smith, T K

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to fryer rabbits. The efficacy of a glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also examined. Thirty 5-wk-old male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a control diet, a contaminated diet, or a contaminated diet + 0.2% GMA for 21 d. Experimental diets contained deoxynivalenol (DON; vomitoxin) at a concentration of 0.25, 4.3, and 4.9 μg/g, respectively. Feed intake was measured daily and water intake was measured every 3 d. At the end of the feeding period, blood was collected for evaluation of serum chemistry and hematology. Visceral organs were excised, weighed, and processed for histopathological examination. Body weight gain and water intake were greater in rabbits fed the contaminated diet (P = 0.075 and 0.020, respectively) and those fed the contaminated + GMA diet (P = 0.026 and 0.002, respectively) compared with controls. Rabbits fed the contaminated + GMA diet had significantly increased serum urea concentrations (P = 0.023) and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P = 0.020) compared with controls. Increase in BW gain of rabbits fed the contaminated diets was caused by increased water consumption. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on relative organ weights, but decreased infiltrations with eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in different regions of the intestine in rabbits fed the contaminated or the contaminated + GMA diet. It was concluded that rabbits could be adversely affected by feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins but appear to be less sensitive than other mammalian species. Supplementation with GMA did not reduce many of the effects of feed-borne mycotoxins.

  19. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology, metabolism, and immunocompetence of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Girish, C K; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Karrow, N A

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology, metabolism, and immunological parameters of turkeys. The efficacy of polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) in preventing these adverse effects was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, contaminated grains, and contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Feeding contaminated grains significantly decreased BW gains during the grower and developer phases, and GMA supplementation prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet, however, on feed intake or feed efficiency. The feeding of contaminated grains reduced total lymphocyte counts at wk 3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with GMA increased plasma total protein concentrations compared with controls and birds fed the contaminated diet. Plasma uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were increased at the end of the experiment compared with controls, and the feeding of GMA prevented this effect. Feeding contaminated grains significantly increased the percentage of CD4(+) lymphocyte populations during wk 6; however, there was no change in the percentage of CD8(+) and B-lymphocyte populations. Contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, which is a CD8(+) T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, was significantly decreased after 24 and 72 h by feedborne mycotoxins compared with controls. Supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented the decrease in response after 24 h. Secondary antibody (IgG titer) response against SRBC antigens (CD4(+) T cell-dependent) was significantly decreased after feeding contaminated grains compared with controls. It was concluded that turkey performance and some blood and

  20. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Girish, C K; MacDonald, E J; Scheinin, M; Smith, T K

    2008-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a poly-meric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Forty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based diets up to wk 6, formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant, and the concentrations were 2.2 and 3.3 mg/kg of feed during starter and grower phases, respectively. Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and metabolites analyzed included norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) was observed between the concentration of 5-HT and BW gain after feeding contaminated diets. The feeding of contaminated diet had no significant effects on the concentrations of neurotransmitters and metabolites in hypothalamus and cortex. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys. Supplementation with GMA partially inhibited these effects.

  1. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Yegani, M; Chowdhury, S R; Oinas, N; MacDonald, E J; Smith, T K

    2006-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens. In Experiment 1, thirty-six 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Concentrations of brain neurotransmitters and metabolites were analyzed in pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and the metabolites measured included dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxylphenyacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The feeding of contaminated grains significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT and decreased the 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid:5-HT in the pons region in the brain stem. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet on concentrations of other neurotransmitters or metabolites in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. In Experiment 2, thirty-six 1-d-old turkey poults were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Hypothalamic, pons, and cortex neurotransmitter concentrations were not affected by diet. In Experiment 3, forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens were fed diets including the following for 15 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. There was no effect of diet on neurotransmitter concentrations in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. It was concluded that differences in intraspecies effects of these mycotoxins on brain neurotransmitter concentrations might explain the intraspecies differences in the severity of Fusarium mycotoxin-induced reductions in feed intake.

  2. Hepatotoxic mycotoxins

    Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus species including A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Fumonisins are produced by Fusarium species, mainly F. verticillioides and F. parasiticus. These mycotoxins are common contaminants of commodities and have been shown to co-contaminate corn. Aflatoxins are know...

  3. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  4. Glucomannan- and glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched pork affect liver fatty acid profile, LDL receptor expression and antioxidant status in Zucker fa/fa rats fed atherogenic diets

    PubMed Central

    González-Torres, Laura; Matos, Cátia; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Santos-López, Jorge A.; Sánchez-Martínez, Iria; García–Fernández, Camino; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions. Cholesterolemia was lower in HG and HGS than in HC. GS vs. G showed higher stearic but lower oleic levels. SFA and PUFA decreased while MUFA increased by cholesterol feeding. The arachidonic/linoleic and docosahexaenoic/alpha-linolenic ratios were lower in HC, HG, and HGS vs. C, G, and GS, respectively, suggesting a delta-6-elongase-desaturase system inhibition. Moreover, cholesterol feeding, mainly in HGS, decreased low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression and the delta-5-desaturase activity and increased the delta-9-desaturase activity. In conclusion, the liver production of highly unsaturated fatty acids was limited to decrease their oxidation in presence of hypercholesterolaemia. Glucomannan or glucomannan/spirulina-RP has added new attributes to their functional properties in meat, partially arresting the negative effects induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol feeding on the liver fatty acid and antioxidant statuses. PMID:28325998

  5. Extraction of glucomannan of porang tuber (Amorphophallus onchophillus) by using IPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardhani, Dyah Hesti; Nugroho, Fatoni; Muslihuddin, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Amorphophallus oncophyllus also known as porang tuber is a local tuber rich of glucomannan. Due to the unique rheological and the gelling properties, glucomannan is widely employed as emulsifier and stabilizer and has been approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Isolation method of glucomannan from the tuber affects the mannan properties which in turn influence the scope of the applications. Ethanol solution combined with thermal treatment is commonly applied to purify glucomannan. However, the Amorphophallus sp also contains ˜0.2 mg b-carotenes/100 g dry weight, an impurities which difficult to be removed by ethanol-2 propyl alcohol (IPA) is more effective to remove undesirable components of glucomannan including carotenes compared to ethanol. This research objective was to study the effect of extraction time, temperature, IPA concentration, and ratio of solvent and flour on purification of glucomannan of A. onchophillus. Glucomannan content, starch content and viscosity were determined after the extraction. The highest glucomannan concentration was obtained at extraction by using 80% IPA and ratio of solvent/sample 8:1 (ml/g) for 4 h at 75°C. This condition gave 72.8% glucomannan and 2.69% starch with 4,300 cPs viscosity.

  6. Rheological Properties of Graphene Oxide/Konjac Glucomannan Sol.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenkun; Duan, Tao; Hu, Zuowen

    2018-05-01

    We have demonstrated there is a significant intermolecular interaction between GO and KGM that results from hydrogen bonding and physical cross-linking by studying the rheological properties of a graphene oxide/konjac glucomannan (GO/KGM) solution. When the addition of GO was 5%, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) were only improved by 0.25%. However, G' and G″ were improved by approximately 90% and 73.4%, respectively, when the GO content was increased to 7.5%. The moduli also displayed a relationship between the power function and concentration. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of GO/KGM was investigated by Raman, FT-IR, XPS and SEM. The results suggested that hydrogen bonding and physical crosslinking are generated from the abundant carboxy and hydroxyl groups of graphene oxide and the hydroxyl groups of konjac glucomannan.

  7. A Review on Konjac Glucomannan Gels: Microstructure and Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaoshan; Mu, Ruojun; Pang, Jie; Zheng, Yafeng

    2017-01-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has attracted extensive attention because of its biodegradable, non-toxic, harmless, and biocompatible features. Its gelation performance is one of its most significant characteristics and enables wide applications of KGM gels in food, chemical, pharmaceutical, materials, and other fields. Herein, different preparation methods of KGM gels and their microstructures were reviewed. In addition, KGM applications have been theoretically modeled for future uses. PMID:29076996

  8. Microbial detoxification of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Susan P

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal natural products that are toxic to vertebrate animals including humans. Microbes have been identified that enzymatically convert aflatoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, patulin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin to less toxic products. Mycotoxin-degrading fungi and bacteria have been isolated from agricultural soil, infested plant material, and animal digestive tracts. Biotransformation reactions include acetylation, glucosylation, ring cleavage, hydrolysis, deamination, and decarboxylation. Microbial mycotoxin degrading enzymes can be used as feed additives or to decontaminate agricultural commodities. Some detoxification genes have been expressed in plants to limit the pre-harvest mycotoxin production and to protect crop plants from the phytotoxic effects of mycotoxins. Toxin-deficient mutants may be useful in assessing the role of mycotoxins in the ecology of the microorganisms.

  9. Masked mycotoxins: A review

    PubMed Central

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Saeger, Sarah De; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle P; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders. PMID:23047235

  10. Effects of feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on protein metabolism in late gestation and lactation of first-parity sows.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Llano, G; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Caballero-Cortes, C; Friendship, R

    2010-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to sows on the capacity for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, the protein content per cellular unit, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan adsorbent (GMA) to prevent these effects in late gestation and in lactation. Thirty-two Yorkshire sows were assigned to 4 treatment groups (8 per treatment) from 91 +/- 3 d of gestation up to weaning on d 21 after farrowing. Diets included 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. A fourth treatment of feeding sows the control diet at a restricted feed allowance was also included. The variables measured include ADFI, average daily BW change, serum total protein, urea, and ammonia, and skeletal muscle DNA, RNA, and protein. To assess the capacity for protein synthesis, ratios of RNA:DNA, and RNA:protein were compared among dietary treatments. To assess the degree of muscle protein mobilization in gestation and lactation, ratios of protein:DNA were compared among dietary treatments. Muscle samples were obtained from the triceps brachii. Blood and muscle samples were obtained 3 times: the first was obtained 1 d before the sows began to receive the experimental diets (90 +/- 3 d of gestation), a second sample was obtained 14 d later (104 +/- 3 d of gestation), and the third sample was obtained 10 d after farrowing. Serum ammonia concentrations were similar in sows fed the contaminated feed and sows fed the restricted feed compared with controls, but serum ammonia concentrations were greater in sows fed contaminated feed (P = 0.02) and restricted-fed sows (P = 0.008) compared with sows fed the contaminated grains plus GMA on 104 +/- 3 d of gestation. There were no reductions in the capacity for protein synthesis caused by mycotoxins or restricted feeding compared with controls. A reduction in ADFI (P = 0.003) was observed in sows fed the 2 contaminated diets in lactation

  11. Glucomannan or Glucomannan Plus Spirulina-Enriched Squid-Surimi Diets Reduce Histological Damage to Liver and Heart in Zucker fa/fa Rats Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched and Non-Cholesterol-Enriched Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Glucomannan-enriched squid surimi improves cholesterolemia and liver antioxidant status. The effect of squid surimi enriched with glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina on liver and heart structures and cell damage markers was tested in fa/fa rats fed highly saturated-hyper-energetic diets. Animals were fed 70% AIN-93M rodent diet plus six versions of 30% squid surimi for 7 weeks: control (C), glucomannan (G), and glucomannan plus spirulina (GS). The cholesterol-control (HC), cholesterol-glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-glucomannan plus spirulina (HGS) groups were given similar diets that were enriched with 2% cholesterol and 0.4% cholic acid. G and GS diets versus C diet significantly inhibited weight gain and lowered plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, liver steatosis, lipogranulomas, and total inflammation and alteration scores. The hypercholesterolemic agent significantly increased the harmful effects of the C diet. Liver weight, the hepatosomatic index, all damage markers, and total histological scoring rose for HC versus C (at least P < .05). The addition of glucomannan (HG vs. HC) improved these biomarkers, and non-additional effects from spirulina were observed except for the total liver alteration score. In conclusion, glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina blocked the highly saturated-hyper-energetic diet negative effects both with and without added cholesterol. Results suggest the usefulness of including these functional ingredients in fish products.

  12. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  13. Effects of aflatoxin on some haematological parameters and protective effectiveness of esterified glucomannan in Merino rams.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Nurcan; Dönmez, H H; Keskin, E; Kısadere, İ

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan + aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear.

  14. Mycotoxin analysis: an update.

    PubMed

    Krska, Rudolf; Schubert-Ullrich, Patricia; Molinelli, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; MacDonald, Susan; Crews, Colin

    2008-02-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of cereals and related products used for feed can cause intoxication, especially in farm animals. Therefore, efficient analytical tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic fungal metabolites in feed are required. Current methods usually include an extraction step, a clean-up step to reduce or eliminate unwanted co-extracted matrix components and a separation step with suitably specific detection ability. Quantitative methods of analysis for most mycotoxins use immunoaffinity clean-up with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation in combination with UV and/or fluorescence detection. Screening of samples contaminated with mycotoxins is frequently performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), which yields qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Nowadays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are often used for rapid screening. A number of promising methods, such as fluorescence polarization immunoassays, dipsticks, and even newer methods such as biosensors and non-invasive techniques based on infrared spectroscopy, have shown great potential for mycotoxin analysis. Currently, there is a strong trend towards the use of multi-mycotoxin methods for the simultaneous analysis of several of the important Fusarium mycotoxins, which is best achieved by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry). This review focuses on recent developments in the determination of mycotoxins with a special emphasis on LC-MS/MS and emerging rapid methods.

  15. Growth Studies of Probiotic Bacteria on Short Chain Glucomannan, a Potential Prebiotic Substrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-05

    PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SHORT CHAIN GLUCOMANNAN, A POTENTIAL PREBIOTIC SUBSTRATE by Wayne S. Muller Steve Arcidiacono Adam Liebowitz Ken Racicot... PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SHORT CHAIN GLUCOMANNAN, A POTENTIAL PREBIOTIC SUBSTRATE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER PE...commercial prebiotic substrates. All three substrates had similar degree of polymerization (DP) of 2-9. Five probiotic bacteria were evaluated for

  16. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    PubMed

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  17. Effects of konjac glucomannan on heat-induced changes of wheat gluten structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Yiheng; Zhou, Yun; Nirasawa, Satoru; Tatsumi, Eizo; Li, Xiuting; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2017-08-15

    Effects of konjac glucomannan on the structure of wheat gluten were investigated at variable temperatures in this study. Dynamic oscillatory rheology study showed that konjac glucomannan conferred stiffness on gluten with a higher tan δ data at 25°C and 55°C, but this parameter was lower at 75°C and 95°C. Konjac glucomannan decreased the content of thiol equivalent groups and increased the α-helix/β-sheet content ratio, respectively. The thicker layer of gluten protein with 5% konjac glucomannan was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study revealed that konjac glucomannan could alter the conformations of gluten proteins upon heating via non-covalent interactions and physical entanglements. It is likely that konjac glucomannan promotes protein aggregation by strengthening hydrophobic interaction at 25°C and 55°C, and alleviates heat-induced denaturation by decreasing the flexibility of polypeptide chain at higher 75°C and 95°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of esterified-glucomannan on performance and organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology in broilers exposed to individual and combined mycotoxicosis (aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin).

    PubMed

    Raju, M V; Devegowda, G

    2000-12-01

    1. A study was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin B1 (AF), ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ morphology serum biochemistry and haematology of broiler chickens and the efficacy of esterified-glucomannan (E-GM), a cell wall derivative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 in their counteraction. 2. Two dietary inclusion rates of AF (0 and 0.3 mg/kg), OA (0 and 2 mg/kg), T-2 (0 and 3 mg/kg) and E-GM (0 and 1 g/kg) were tested in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial manner on a total of 960 broiler chickens from 1 to 35 d of age in an open sided deep litter pen house. 3. Body weight and food intake were depressed by all the mycotoxins, OA being the most toxic during early life. 4. Weights of kidney and adrenals were increased by AF and OA. Liver weight was increased by AF (17.8%), while OA increased gizzard weight (14.6%) and reduced bone ash content (8.1%). T-2 toxin showed no effect on these variables. 5. Serum cholesterol content was decreased and activity of serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was increased by AF and OA while serum protein content was decreased by AF. These effects were more pronounced at 21 d than at 35 d of age. Inconsistent responses were seen in the other variables: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) content, activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspertate amino transferase. Blood haemoglobin content was depressed by AF and T-2, whereas blood coagulation time was prolonged by OA. 6. Significant interactions were observed between any 2 toxins for their additive effects on body weight, food intake, bone ash content and serum GGT activity at 21 d. Conversely, antagonistic interactions were observed among any 2 of the toxins for their effects on variables such as serum protein and serum cholesterol content. Simultaneous feeding of all 3 mycotoxins did not show increased toxicity above that seen with any 2. 7. Esterified-glucomannan increased body weight (2.26%) and food intake (1.6%), decreased

  20. The use of konjac glucomannan to lower serum thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Azezli, Adil Dogan; Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Orhan, Yusuf

    2007-12-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism occasionally need rapid restoration to the euthyroid state. In view of the increased enterohepatic circulation of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in thyrotoxicosis, and metabolic effects of konjac glucomannan in gastrointestinal system, we aimed to determine the activity of glucomannan in treatment of hyperthyroidism. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, one-blind study design was used with newly diagnosed 48 hyperthyroid patients (30 patients with Graves' disease and 12 with multinodulary goitre). They were assigned to one of the following treatment groups: I) methimazole 2 x 10 mg, propranolol 2 x 20 mg, and glucomannan (Propol) 2 x 1.3 gr daily for two months; II) methimazole 2 x 10 mg, propranolol 2 x 20 mg, and placebo powder daily for two months. No differences were detected from the point of view of the baseline thyroid hormone levels between groups (p > 0.05). Further analyses revealed that the patients receiving glucomannan at the end of the second, fourth and sixth weeks of the study had significantly lower serum T3, T4, FT3 and FT4 levels than the patients who received placebo (p < 0.05). TSH was not different between the two groups at any specific time (p > 0.05). At week 8, thyroid hormone levels were not shown any differences. The glucomannan-treated group had a more rapid decline in all four serum thyroid hormone levels than the placebo-treated group. We believe our preliminary results indicate that glucomannan may be a safe and easily tolerated adjunctive therapeutic agent in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This combination therapy seems most effect during first weeks of treatment of a hyperthyroid patient.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40 ± .06 and −.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

  2. [Mycotoxin research in humans].

    PubMed

    Lazo, Ramón F; Sierra, Gonzalo

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of aflatoxins in Ecuador. Early investigators proved the presence of aflatoxins in human and animal food, but the disturbing data lead to the formation of two research teams at Guayaquil University and the Agrarian University of Ecuador to investigate aflaxotins and other mycotoxins in food and their relationship to human health. Because the concept of mycotoxicosis as a result of the secondary metabolites produced by different species of moulds could cause different clinical patterns, the research team includes Aspergillus metabolites found in the urine of a patient with pulmonary aspergilloma. We considered that the body itself could create secondary metabolites. An ELISA method was used to detect mycotoxins with the specific reactive compounds using a company base assay. This allows the detection quantitative of such metabolites in 24 h collected urine. The patient was treated with itraconazole for nine months, after clinical, radiological and aflatoxins testing. We also investigated three other cases in children with a second level of malnutrition and only with vomitoxins results and in three investigated cases of otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger only in one case traces of aflatoxins were found.

  3. Tremorgenic mycotoxins from Aspergillus caespitosus.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H W; Cole, R J; Hein, H; Kirksey, J W

    1975-06-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn.

  4. Tremorgenic Mycotoxins from Aspergillus Caespitosus

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. W.; Cole, R. J.; Hein, H.; Kirksey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn. PMID:1155935

  5. Protection against trichothecene mycotoxins

    SciT

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Trichothecenes and their effects on humans have attracted national and international attention because of their reported use in warfare. This study arose out of a concern about such uses and the potential harm these substances could cause among civilian and military populations that might be exposed to them. Accordingly, this report is intended to assist in the protection not only of U.S. Armed Forces against the adverse effects of trichothecenes but also of civilian populations that may come into contact with these toxins during peace or war. The committee concentrated on the following two major objectives: (1) examination of themore » environmental and biological behavior of the trichothecene class of mycotoxins to determine what protective measures can be taken and (2) development of the means for optimizing the protection of human beings against the effects of trichothecenes through appropriate prophylaxes and treatments.« less

  6. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  7. Effects of glucomannan/spirulina-surimi on liver oxidation and inflammation in Zucker rats fed atherogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Cholesterolemia is associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Glucomannan- or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched surimis were included in cholesterol-enriched high-saturated diets to test the effects on lipemia; antioxidant status (glutathione status, and antioxidant enzymatic levels, expressions and activities); and inflammation biomarkers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in Zucker fa/fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received diet containing squid-surimi (C), squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HC), glucomannan-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HG), or glucomannan-spirulina-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HGS) over a period of 7 weeks. HC diet induced severe hyperlipemia, hepatomegalia, increased inflammation markers, and impaired antioxidant status significantly (at least p < 0.05) vs. C diet. HG diet decreased lipemia and liver size and normalized antioxidant status to C group levels, but increased TNF-α with respect to HC diet (p < 0.05). In general terms, 3 g/kg of spirulina in diet maintained the positive results observed in the HG diet but, in addition, increased inflammation index [eNOS/(eNOS + iNOS)] and decreased plasma TNF-α (both p < 0.05). In conclusion, glucomannan plus a small amount of spirulina blocks negative effects promoted by hypercholesterolemic diets. Although more studies are needed, present results suggest the utility of including glucomannan and/or spirulina as functional ingredients into fish derivates to be consumed by people on metabolic syndrome risk.

  8. Masked mycotoxins in corn: an update

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants in corn infested with Aspergillus and Fusarium molds. Consumption of mycotoxin products have been shown to be harmful to both humans and animals. Mycotoxins can be “masked” or “hidden” from detection by common antibody-based and chemical analytical methods. The “...

  9. Manufacture and Properties of Glucomannans and Glucomannooligosaccharides Derived from Konjac and Other Sources.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Belén; Míguez, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Alonso, José L

    2017-03-15

    Glucomannans (GM) are polymers that can be found in natural resources, such as tubers, bulbs, roots, and both hard- and softwoods. In fact, mannan-based polysaccharides represent the largest hemicellulose fraction in softwoods. In addition to their structural functions and their role as energy reserve, they have been assessed for their healthy applications, including their role as new source of prebiotics. This paper summarizes the scientific literature regarding the manufacture and functional properties of GM and their hydrolysis products with a special focus on their prebiotic activity.

  10. Glucomannan-mediated facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A facile one-pot approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles with narrow size distribution and good stability was presented by reducing chloroauric acid with a polysaccharide, konjac glucomannan (KGM) in alkaline solution, which is green and economically viable. Here, KGM served both as reducing agent and stabilizer. The effects of KGM on the formation and stabilization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles were studied systematically by a combination of UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the gold nanoparticles exhibited a notable catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. PMID:25177220

  11. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  12. The effects of a modified glucomannan on the performance of stocker cattle grazing endophyte infected tall fescue

    To evaluate the efficacy of a modified glucomannan to mitigate fescue toxicosis, 45 Angus cross (BW = 281 ± 7.0 kg) steer calves were randomly assigned to nine 2-ha pastures of endemically-infected tall fescue in March of 2 yr and allowed to graze for 133 d. The 3 treatments were: non supplemented (...

  13. Targeting mycotoxin biosynthesis pathway genes

    Chemical detoxification and physical destruction of aflatoxins in foods and feed commodities is mostly unattainable in a way that preserves the edibility of the food. Therefore, preventing mycotoxins in general and aflatoxins in particular from entering the food chain is a better approach. This requ...

  14. Immunologically-based methods for detecting masked mycotoxins

    Masked mycotoxins are generally described as including unknown mycotoxins, non-extractable forms of known mycotoxins, or untargeted forms of known mycotoxins. Immunoassays can be developed with either broad cross-reaction to mycotoxin congeners or with high selectivity for a particular toxin. The re...

  15. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2010 - 2011

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2010 and mid-2011. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Analytical methods for mycotoxins conti...

  16. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2009 - 2010

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2009 and mid-2010. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. New and improved methods for mycotoxins...

  17. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on production and metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Swamy, H V L N; Smith, T K; Cotter, P F; Boermans, H J; Sefton, A E

    2002-07-01

    Three hundred sixty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were fed diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins for 56 d. The four diets included control (0.14 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 18 mg/ kg fusaric acid, < 0.1 mg/kg zearalenone), low level of contaminated grains (4.7 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 20.6 mg/kg fusaric acid, 0.2 mg/kg zearalenone), and high level of contaminated grains without (8.2 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 20.3 mg/kg fusaric acid, 0.56 mg/kg zearalenone) and with (9.7 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 21.6 mg/kg fusaric acid, 0.8 mg/kg zearalenone) 0.2% esterified-glucomannan polymer derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 (E-GM). Body weight gain and feed consumption responded in a significant quadratic fashion to the inclusion of contaminated grains during the finisher period. Efficiency of feed utilization, however, was not affected by diets. The feeding of contaminated grains in the finisher period also caused significant linear increases in blood erythrocyte count and serum uric acid concentration and a significant linear decline in the serum lipase activity. Dietary inclusion of contaminated grains resulted in a significant quadratic effect on serum albumin and y-glutamyltransferase activity. Blood hemoglobin and biliary IgA concentrations, however, responded in significant linear and quadratic fashions. Supplementation of E-GM counteracted most of the blood parameter alterations caused by the Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains and reduced breast muscle redness. It was concluded that broiler chickens may be susceptible to Fusarium mycotoxicoses when naturally contaminated grains are fed containing a combination of mycotoxins.

  18. Mycotoxin production by indoor molds.

    PubMed

    Fog Nielsen, Kristian

    2003-07-01

    Fungal growth in buildings starts at a water activity (a(w)) near 0.8, but significant quantities of mycotoxins are not produced unless a(w) reaches 0.95. Stachybotrys generates particularly high quantities of many chemically distinct metabolites in water-damaged buildings. These metabolites are carried by spores, and can be detected in air samples at high spore concentrations. Very little attention has been paid to major metabolites of Stachybotrys called spirocyclic drimanes, and the precise structures of the most abundant of these compounds are unknown. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium prevalent in the indoor environment produce relatively low concentrations of mycotoxins, with the exception of sterigmatocystins that can represent up to 1% of the biomass of A. versicolor at a(w)'s close to 1. The worst-case scenario for homeowners is produced by consecutive episodes of water damage that promote fungal growth and mycotoxin synthesis, followed by drier conditions that facilitate the liberation of spores and hyphal fragments.

  19. Mycotoxins – Limits and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Papiya Mitra; Sasmal, D.

    2001-01-01

    Since early years, a need has always been felt for some control on the quality of foodstuffs. With the discovery of aflatoxins in the early sixties, health authorities in man countries have become active in establishing regulations to protect their citizens and livestock fro t potential harm caused by mycotoxins. FDA mycotox-ins-in-foods sampling program is continuing with an objective to remove those foods from interstate commerce that contain Aflatoxins “at levels judged to be of regulator significance” Aflatoxins, Fumonisin B1 and B2, Deoxynivalenol (DON) Ochratoxin A and Patulin occur in a number of food products. FDA workers were instructed to sample and analyze all products for different types of mycotoxins. All baby foods should always be analyzed for all type of mycotoxins. The limits of Aflatoxins B1,B2,! < G2, and M1 in foods and feed stuffs varies from (0-40) ppb for foods & 0-1000ppb for food); for Ochratoxin A(0-50 ppb in food and 0-1000ppb in feed); for Don (500-2000ppb in food & 5-10,000 ppb in feed); for Zearalenone (0-1000 ppb in food); for Patulin (0-50 ppb in foods), for Diacetoxyscirpenol (0-100 ppd in feed); for chetomin (0ppb I feed); for stachybotryotoxin (0ppb in feeds and for Fumonisins (0-1000 ppb in food 5000-50,000 ppb in feedstuffs). PMID:22557007

  20. Structural characterization of an acetylated glucomannan with antiinflammatory activity and gastroprotective property from Cyrtopodium andersonii.

    PubMed

    Parente, José P; Adão, Camila R; da Silva, Bernadete P; Tinoco, Luzineide W

    2014-06-04

    A polysaccharide with an estimated weight-average molar mass of 5.35×10(5) was obtained from an aqueous extract of pseudobulbs of Cyrtopodium andersonii R. Br. It was composed of d-glucose and d-mannose in 1:3 molar ratio. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses revealed a linear structure of the polymer with a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl units slightly branched at C-2, C-3, and C-6 by side chains, as terminal non reducing residues of d-mannopyranose and d-glucopyranose. It was found to contain 14.6% of acetyl groups substituted at C-2 of (1→4)-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl units. The acetylated glucomannan demonstrated antiinflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of konjac glucomannan on the structure, properties, and drug release characteristics of agarose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Wang, Lin; Mu, Ruo-Jun; Gong, Jingni; Wang, Yuyan; Li, Yuanzhao; Ma, Jiaqi; Pang, Jie; Wu, Chunhua

    2018-06-15

    Pure agarose (AG) hydrogels have strong rigidity and brittleness, which greatly limit their applications. Therefore, in this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM) was used to improve the properties of AG hydrogels. The effect of KGM on the structure and properties of AG hydrogels was investigated by rotational rheometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that the flexibility of the composite hydrogels increases with KGM concentration, which may be attributed to a synergistic interaction between KGM and AG resulting in a compact network structure. In vitro drug release behavior of composite hydrogels was investigated under different environments using model drug ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the encapsulation, drug loading efficiencies, and sustained release capacity of AG hydrogels were enhanced by the incorporation of KGM. These results suggested that KGM has the potential to enhance the properties and drug release characteristics of AG hydrogels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges in the analysis of multiple mycotoxins

    The problems associated with different groups or “families” of mycotoxins have been known for some time, and for many years certain groups of mycotoxins have been known to co-occur in commodities and foods. Until fairly recently commodities and foods were analyzed for individual toxins or groups of ...

  3. Label-Free Aptasensors for the Detection of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Rhouati, Amina; Catanante, Gaelle; Nunes, Gilvanda; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Various methodologies have been reported in the literature for the qualitative and quantitative monitoring of mycotoxins in food and feed samples. Based on their enhanced specificity, selectivity and versatility, bio-affinity assays have inspired many researchers to develop sensors by exploring bio-recognition phenomena. However, a significant problem in the fabrication of these devices is that most of the biomolecules do not generate an easily measurable signal upon binding to the target analytes, and signal-generating labels are required to perform the measurements. In this context, aptamers have been emerged as a potential and attractive bio-recognition element to design label-free aptasensors for various target analytes. Contrary to other bioreceptor-based approaches, the aptamer-based assays rely on antigen binding-induced conformational changes or oligomerization states rather than binding-assisted changes in adsorbed mass or charge. This review will focus on current designs in label-free conformational switchable design strategies, with a particular focus on applications in the detection of mycotoxins. PMID:27999353

  4. The mycotoxin definition reconsidered towards fungal cyclic depsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Vreese, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-04-02

    Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins. Finally, this definition is applied to a set of fungal cyclic depsipeptides, revealing that some of these should indeed be considered as mycotoxins.

  5. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  6. Mycotoxins: A Fungal Genomics Perspective

    SciT

    Brown, Daren W.; Baker, Scott E.

    The chemical and enzymatic diversity in the fungal kingdom is staggering. Large-scale fungal genome sequencing projects are generating a massive catalog of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and pathways. Fungal natural products are a boon and bane to man as valuable pharmaceuticals and harmful toxins. Understanding how these chemicals are synthesized will aid the development of new strategies to limit mycotoxin contamination of food and feeds as well as expand drug discovery programs. A survey of work focused on the fumonisin family of mycotoxins highlights technological advances and provides a blueprint for future studies of other fungal natural products. Expressed sequencemore » tags led to the discovery of new fumonisin genes (FUM) and hinted at a role for alternatively spliced transcripts in regulation. Phylogenetic studies of FUM genes uncovered a complex evolutionary history of the FUM cluster, as well as fungi with the potential to synthesize fumonisin or fumonisin-like chemicals. The application of new technologies (e.g., CRISPR) could substantially impact future efforts to harness fungal resources.« less

  7. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  8. Comparison of konjac glucomannan digestibility and fermentability with other dietary fibers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Ting; Stewart, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a dietary fiber found in Amophophallus konjac. This fiber is fermentable based on human and animal trials, but short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production profiles are unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the digestibility and fermentability in vitro of two preparations of KGM, to better understand how KGM improves human health. Konnyaku (yam cake made of A. konjac), isolated KGM, inulin, and guar gum were subjected to in vitro digestion and in vitro fermentation. Fermentation samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours for gas volume, pH, and SCFA measurements. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate were measured with gas chromatography. Results of the in vitro digestion confirm that KGM and konnyaku are resistant to degradation by digestive enzymes. Gas production in fermentation vessels containing konnyaku and KGM was lower than for inulin from 8 to 24 hours. Both samples produced SCFA concentrations similar to guar gum, which favored acetate and propionate over butyrate production. This study is the first to characterize SCFA production by KGM in its isolated form and in food form. Fermentation patterns presented in this study may provide a mechanism for the previously published health benefit of konnyaku and KGM.

  9. Rheological properties and formation mechanism of DC electric fields induced konjac glucomannan-tungsten gels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Jiang, Yaoping; Lin, Youhui; Pang, Jie; Liu, Xiang Yang

    2016-05-20

    Konjac glucomannan-tungsten (KGM-T) hydrogel of electrochemical reversibility was successfully produced under DC electric fields in the presence of sodium tungstate. The structure and the effects of sodium tungstate concentration, KGM concentration, voltage and electric processing time on the rheological properties of the gels were investigated. pH experiments showed that KGM sol containing Na2WO4·2H2O in the vicinity of the positive electrode became acidic and the negative electrode basic after the application of DC electric fields. Under acid conditions, WO4(2-) ions transformed into isopoly-tungstic acid ions. FTIR and Raman studies indicated that isopoly-tungstic acid ions absorbed on KGM molecular chain and cross-linked with -OH groups at C-6 position on sugar units of KGM. Frequency sweep data showed with increasing sodium tungstate concentration, voltage, and electric processing time, the viscoelastic moduli, i.e., the storage and the loss moduli of the gel increased, whereas an increase in KGM concentration led to a decrease in gel viscoelastic moduli. The temperature sweep measurements indicated the obtained gel exhibited high thermal stability. Finally, the mechanism of gel formation was proposed. Our work may pave the way to use DC electric fields for the design and development of KGM gels as well as polysaccharide gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of konjac glucomannan-ethyl cellulose film formation via microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Wan, Li; Corke, Harold; Yan, Wenli; Ni, Xuewen; Fang, Yapeng; Jiang, Fatang

    2016-04-01

    Konjac glucomannan-ethyl cellulose (KGM-EC, 7:3, w/w) blended film shows good mechanical and moisture resistance properties. To better understand the basis for the KGM-EC film formation, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe the formation of the film from emulsion. Optical microscopy images showed that EC oil droplets were homogeneously dispersed in KGM water phase without obviously coalescence throughout the entire drying process. SEM images showed the surface and cross-sectional structures of samples maintained continuous and homogeneous appearance from the emulsion to dried film. AFM images indicated that KGM molecules entangled EC molecules in the emulsion. Interactions between KGM and EC improved the stability of KGM-EC emulsion, and contributed to uniformed structures of film formation. Based on these output information, a schematic model was built to elucidate KGM-EC film-forming process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Strength Konjac Glucomannan/Silver Nanowires Composite Films with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jia; Zhou, Lei; Tang, Yongjian; Luo, Yong; Duan, Tao; Zhu, Wenkun

    2017-01-01

    Robust, high-strength and environmentally friendly antibacterial composite films were prepared by simply blending konjac glucomannan (KGM) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in an aqueous system. The samples were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and antimicrobial tests. The results showed that there was a high ratio of Ag NWs uniformly distributed in the composite films, which was vital for mechanical reinforcement and stable antibacterial properties. The enhanced thermal stability and mechanical intensity increased, while the elongation at break was reduced with an increase in the amount of Ag NWs found in the composite films. When the percentage of Ag NWs in the composite films reached 5%, the tensile strength was 148.21 MPa, Young’s modulus was 13.79 GPa and the ultimate strain was 25.28%. Antibacterial tests showed that the KGM films had no antibacterial effect. After the addition of Ag NWs, the composite films had an obvious inhibitory effect on bacteria, with the uniform dispersion of Ag NWs promoting the antibacterial effect to a certain degree. These results indicated that these composite films would have a potential application in the fields of environmentally friendly packaging or medicine. PMID:28772883

  12. Carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan from konjac flour: The effect of media and temperature on carboxymethylation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distantina, Sperisa; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Fadilah, Putrie, Amellia Setyani; Novianti, Inas

    2018-02-01

    To increase the solubility of porang flour or konjac flour in the water, the konjac flour was modified chemically into carboxymethyl konjac-glucomannan (CM-KGM), so that the utilization of the product may be wider. The aims of this research were to study the effect of ethanol concentration as the solvent media (50% ethanol and 90% ethanol) and temperature (45-50 °C dan 65-70 °C) on the rate of degrees of substitution (DS) formation in carboxymethylation step. CM-KGM was prepared by alkalization of konjac flour using sodium hydroxide for 30 minutes at 30°C. Then, the product of alkalization was carboxymethylated using sodium monochloroacetic (Na-MCA) with ratio 1:1 gram flour/NA-MCA. Based on the experimental results, the higher DS was attained by carboxymethylation using media solvent of 90% ethanol and temperature carboxymethylation 65-70°C. The relationship between temperature and reaction constant (k) follows: k = 0.3082 exp ((-15,277)/(8.314 T)).

  13. Efficacy and safety testing of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents in broilers following the European Food Safety Authority guidelines.

    PubMed

    Osselaere, A; Devreese, M; Watteyn, A; Vandenbroucke, V; Goossens, J; Hautekiet, V; Eeckhout, M; De Saeger, S; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2012-08-01

    Contamination of feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem and mycotoxin-detoxifying agents are used to decrease their negative effect. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated guidelines and end-points for the efficacy testing of detoxifiers. Our study revealed that plasma concentrations of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol were too low to assess efficacy of 2 commercially available mycotoxin-detoxifying agents against deoxynivalenol after 3 wk of continuous feeding of this mycotoxin at concentrations of 2.44±0.70 mg/kg of feed and 7.54±2.20 mg/kg of feed in broilers. This correlates with the poor absorption of deoxynivalenol in poultry. A safety study with 2 commercially available detoxifying agents and veterinary drugs showed innovative results with regard to the pharmacokinetics of 2 antibiotics after oral dosing in the drinking water. The plasma and kidney tissue concentrations of oxytetracycline were significantly higher in broilers receiving a biotransforming agent in the feed compared with control birds. For amoxicillin, the plasma concentrations were significantly higher for broilers receiving an adsorbing agent in comparison to birds receiving the biotransforming agent, but not to the control group. Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents can thus interact with the oral bioavailability of antibiotics depending on the antibiotic and detoxifying agent, with possible adverse effects on the health of animals and humans.

  14. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Peraica, M.; Radić, B.; Lucić, A.; Pavlović, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by mycotoxins, i.e. secondary metabolites of moulds. Although they occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of moulds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. Mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. The present article reviews outbreaks of mycotoxicoses where the mycotoxic etiology of the disease is supported by mycotoxin analysis or identification of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed. PMID:10534900

  15. Analysis of multiple mycotoxins in food.

    PubMed

    Hajslova, Jana; Zachariasova, Milena; Cajka, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microscopic filamentous fungi. With regard to the widespread distribution of fungi in the environment, mycotoxins are considered to be one of the most important natural contaminants in foods and feeds. To protect consumers' health and reduce economic losses, surveillance and control of mycotoxins in food and feed has become a major objective for producers, regulatory authorities, and researchers worldwide. In this context, availability of reliable analytical methods applicable for this purpose is essential. Since the variety of chemical structures of mycotoxins makes impossible to use one single technique for their analysis, a vast number of analytical methods has been developed and validated. Both a large variability of food matrices and growing demands for a fast, cost-saving and accurate determination of multiple mycotoxins by a single method outline new challenges for analytical research. This strong effort is facilitated by technical developments in mass spectrometry allowing decreasing the influence of matrix effects in spite of omitting sample clean-up step. The current state-of-the-art together with future trends is presented in this chapter. Attention is focused mainly on instrumental method; advances in biosensors and other screening bioanalytical approaches enabling analysis of multiple mycotoxins are not discussed in detail.

  16. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  17. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  18. Structure of the oligomers obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glucomannan produced by the plant Amorphophallus konjac.

    PubMed

    Cescutti, Paola; Campa, Cristiana; Delben, Franco; Rizzo, Roberto

    2002-11-29

    Dimers and trimers obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glucomannan produced by the plant Amorphophallus konjac were analysed in order to obtain information on the saccharidic sequences present in the polymer. The polysaccharide was digested with cellulase and beta-mannanase and the oligomers produced were isolated by means of size-exclusion chromatography. They were structurally characterised using electrospray mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, and NMR. The investigation revealed that many possible sequences were present in the polymer backbone suggesting a Bernoulli-type chain.

  19. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucomannan for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Andrea; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania

    2013-05-28

    To assess the efficacy of glucomannan (GNN) as the sole treatment for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were recruited among children referred to the Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw. Included in the study were children aged 7-17 years with abdominal pain-related FGIDs classified according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria. The children were randomly assigned to receive GNN, a polysaccharide of 1,4-D-glucose and D-mannose, a soluble fiber from the Japanese Konjac plant, at a dosage of 2.52 g/d (1 sachet of 1.26 g 2 times a day), or a comparable placebo (maltodextrin) at the same dosage. The content of each sachet was dissolved in approximately 125 mL of fluid and was consumed twice daily for 4 wk. Of the 89 eligible children, 84 (94%) completed the study. "No pain" and "treatment success" (defined as no pain or a decrease ≥ 2/6 points on the FACES Pain Scale Revised) were similar in the GNN (n = 41) and placebo (n = 43) groups [no pain (12/41 vs 6/43, respectively; RR = 2.1, 95%CI: 0.87-5.07) as well as treatment success (23/41 vs 20/43; RR = 1.2, 95%CI: 0.79-1.83)]. No significant differences between the groups were observed in the secondary outcomes, such as abdominal cramps, abdominal bloating/gassiness, episodes of nausea or vomiting, or a changed in stool consistency. GNN demonstrated no significant influence on the number of children requiring rescue therapy, school absenteeism, or daily activities. In our setting, GNN, as dosed in this study, was no more effective than the placebo in achieving therapeutic success in the management of FGIDs in children.

  1. Physicochemical and textural properties of mozzarella cheese made with konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuhong; Jiang, Fatang; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2018-05-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a natural polysaccharide with several favorable nutritional characteristics, and exhibits functional properties as a potential fat-replacer in dairy products. In our study, composition, color and browning (L*, a* and b* before and after heating), and textural characteristics of low-fat and skimmed Mozzarella cheese with KGM (LFKGM and SKKGM) were compared with those of full-fat, low-fat and skimmed Mozzarella cheese controls (FFC, LFC and SKC) after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4 °C. In general, LFKGM and SKKGM had similar composition to LFC and SKC, respectively, except that LFKGM had higher moisture than LFC and SKKGM had high a w than SKC. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher L* (lightness) than LFC and SKC, respectively, and LFKGM had similar whiteness to FFC before and after heating. However, the browning factor was not affected by KGM addition. The a* values (greenness) of LFKGM and SKKGM were more negative than for LFC and SKC before and after heating. The b* values (yellowness) of LFKGM and SKKGM were higher than LFC and SKC, respectively. Grated SKKGM exhibited lower firmness than SKC, and LFKGM exhibited higher stickiness than LFC. The melted LFKGM and SKKGM had similar resistance and stretch quality to LFC and SKC when they were stretched, respectively. The changes in the lightness, moisture and firmness as affected by KGM addition in the cheeses were more close to those of full-fat cheese compared with the cheeses without KGM, indicating KGM would be a potential fat replacer to be used in Mozzarella cheese. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of mycotoxins during food processing.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia

    2007-10-20

    The mycotoxins that commonly occur in cereal grains and other products are not completely destroyed during food processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most commonly associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include sorting, trimming, cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, canning, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize the highest temperatures having greatest effects. In general the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. However, roasting and extrusion processing show promise for lowering mycotoxin concentrations, though very high temperatures are needed to bring about much of a reduction in mycotoxin concentrations. Extrusion processing at temperatures greater than 150 degrees C are needed to give good reduction of zearalenone, moderate reduction of alfatoxins, variable to low reduction of deoxynivalenol and good reduction of fumonisins. The greatest reductions of fumonisins occur at extrusion temperatures of 160 degrees C or higher and in the presence of glucose. Extrusion of fumonisin contaminated corn grits with 10% added glucose resulted in 75-85% reduction in Fumonisin B(1) levels. Some fumonisin degredation products are formed during extrusion, including small amounts of hydrolyzed Fumonisin B(1) and N-(Carboxymethyl) - Fumonisin B(1) and somewhat higher amounts of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisin B(1) in extruded grits containing added glucose. Feeding trial toxicity tests in rats with extruded fumonisin contaminated corn grits show some reduction in toxicity of grits extruded with glucose.

  3. Fusarium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins. Among the most important mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium are the trichothecenes and the fumonisins. Fumonisins cause fatal livestock diseases and are considered potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins for humans, while trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis. This chapter summarizes the main aspects of morphology, pathology, and toxigenicity of the main Fusarium species that colonize different agricultural crops and environments worldwide, and cause mycotoxin contamination of food and feed.

  4. Structure and properties of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films coated with shellac/stearic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueqin; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Changfeng; Yu, Chengcheng; Chen, Han; Xie, Bingqing

    2015-03-15

    A series of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films were prepared by coating shellac/stearic acid emulsion on deacetylated konjac glucomannan films (dKGM). The effect of stearic acid content on structure and properties of the coated films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), water vapor permeability (WVP), water uptake, water contact angle, and tensile testing. The results revealed that shellac in the coating adhered intimately to the surface of dKGM film, and provided a substrate for the dispersion of stearic acid which played an important role in enhancement of the moisture barrier properties and mechanical properties of the coated films. The WVP of the coated films decreased from 2.63×10(-11) to 0.37×10(-11)g/(msPa) and the water contact angle increased from 68° to 101.2° when stearic acid content increased from 0wt% to 40wt%, showing the potential applications in food preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2011-2012

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2011 and mid-2012. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. A section on mycotoxins in botanicals a...

  6. Mycotoxins from mould infested building materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F

    2000-03-01

    Only limited documentation of non-allergenic, especially toxic reactions after inhalation of microfungal spores in water damaged buildings exists. Recently attention has been drawn to the mycotoxins as causal compounds, as some the dominating genera found in buildings are well known mycotoxin producers.Penicillium chrysogenum and A. ustus do not seem to produce any known mycotoxins when growing on building materials, whereasP. brevicompactum produces mycophenolic acid, someP. polonicum produces verrucosidin and verrucofortine,A. versicolor produces sterigmatocystins,A. niger produces nigragillin, orlandin, naphtho-γ-pyrones and tetracyclic compounds, someA. ochraceus produces ochratoxin A,Alternaria spp. produce alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether,Chaetomium globosum produce chaetoglobosins, and finally 30-40% ofStachybotrys chartarum isolates from buildings produce macrocyclic trichothecenes and a number of other biologically active compounds.

  7. Protection against trichothecene mycotoxins. Final report

    SciT

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins, produced by certain fungi found in cereal grains, are a significant health problem in agricultural settings and have been detected throughout the world. Concern about the reported use of trichothecenes in chemical warfare agents, or 'yellow rain,' led the U.S. Army to request that the National Research Council form a committee on protection against mycotoxins, to study the effects of trichothecenes on civilians and military personnel who might be exposed to high levels of these substances. The report discusses scientific questions about the natural occurrences of mycotoxins, methods of detection and quantitation, decontamination and detoxification, long-term environmental effects,more » effects on humans and animals, and strategies for prevention and treatment. It also recommends areas of research that are particularly promising. An extensive bibliography is included.« less

  8. Biodegradation of Mycotoxins: Tales from Known and Unexplored Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; Audenaert, Kris; De Gelder, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by fungi, may infer serious risks for animal and human health and lead to economic losses. Several approaches to reduce these mycotoxins have been investigated such as chemical removal, physical binding, or microbial degradation. This review focuses on the microbial degradation or transformation of mycotoxins, with specific attention to the actual detoxification mechanisms of the mother compound. Furthermore, based on the similarities in chemical structure between groups of mycotoxins and environmentally recalcitrant compounds, known biodegradation pathways and degrading organisms which hold promise for the degradation of mycotoxins are presented. PMID:27199907

  9. Effects of dietary oxidized konjac glucomannan sulfates (OKGMS) and acidolysis-oxidized konjac glucomannan (A-OKGM) on the immunity and expression of immune-related genes of Schizothorax prenanti.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingrui; Wang, Hongjie; Yan, Qiuping; Zheng, Qiaoran; Yang, Min; Lv, Zhenzhen; He, Mei; Feng, Limei; Zhao, Jiaqi; Tang, Tingting; Wu, Yinglong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, konjac glucomannan (KGM) was degraded by H2O2, and then used trisulfonated sodium amine and HCl, individually, to obtain two kinds of derivatives: oxidized konjac glucomannan sulfates (OKGMS) and acidolysis-oxidized konjac glucomannan (A-OKGM). The effects of two OKGM modified products on the immune parameters and expressions of toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interferon regulatory factors 7 (IRF7) genes in Schizothorax prenanti were determined. The alternative haemolytic complement (ACH50) activity was found to be significantly increased by the OKGMS diets. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) level was significantly enhanced by the OKGMS diets. The lysozyme activity was significantly increased by both OKGMS and A-OKGM diets. The superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in fish fed with all doses of OKGMS diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed with basal diet. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in fish fed with 0.8% and 1.6% A-OKGM diets was significantly higher than control group. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly decreased by both OKGMS and A-OKGM diets. The 0.8% A-OKGM diet significantly up-regulated TLR22 gene expression in the head kidney and spleen. TLR22 gene expression was significantly promoted by all OKGMS diets in the mesonephros and liver. The MyD88 mRNA level in 1.6% A-OKGM group significantly increased in the head kidney. The low dose of OKGMS significantly induced the MyD88 gene expression in the mesonephros, gut and liver, while 0.8% A-OKGM group also showed a significantly enhanced MyD88 mRNA expression in the gut. High dose of OKGMS significantly increased the IRF7 mRNA expression in the mesonephros and spleen. Fish fed with low dose of A-OKGM showed significantly higher expression of IRF7 in the gut and liver. Present study suggested that OKGMS and A-OKGM can act as immunostimulant to improve the immune indexes and up-regulate the immune-related gene

  10. Decontamination and detoxification strategies for the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in animal feed and the effectiveness of microbial biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Bohm, Josef; Zentek, Jurgen

    2010-04-01

    Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and is a significant contaminants due to its frequent occurrence in toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Since toxin production depends strongly on environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, Fusarium toxin contamination can not be avoided completely. Therefore, exposure to this toxin is a permanent health risk for both humans and farm animals. As cereal crops are commonly contaminated with DON and animal diets consist mainly of cereals, it can be assumed that animals are frequently exposed to DON-contaminated feeds. Many strategies can be undertaken to reduce the toxic effect of DON. In addition to the general necessity for minimizing all risk factors that might influence the contamination of cereals with DON, such as the so-called field toxins before harvest, several post-harvest strategies can be applied to counteract possible deleterious effects of this mycotoxin in farm animals. Another approach for decontamination in feedstuffs is the use of adsorbent materials. Adsorbent materials may bind mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce absorption and systemic toxicity. It has been shown that some adsorbents are suitable to alleviate the toxic effects of specific mycotoxins, but its efficacy against trichothecenes is practically zero. Therefore, alternative strategies to reduce animal and human health risk are needed. The use of microbial additives is a method which uses microorganisms having the capability to detoxify mycotoxins by metabolism or degradation prior to their resorption in the gastrointestinal tract. DON has been reported to be completely transformed to de-epoxy-DON by ruminal and intestinal microflora. Eubacterium BBSH 797 was capable of DON degradation and counteracted the toxic effects of DON in animals. This review focuses on

  11. Chemical and biological approaches for mycotoxin control: a review.

    PubMed

    Edlayne, Gonçalez; Simone, Aquino; Felicio, Joana D

    2009-06-01

    Mycotoxins are metabolites and toxic substances produced by certain filamentous fungi that frequently contaminate food and agriculture commodities, which cause disease in animals or man. The toxigenic fungi belong to mainly three genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Examples of mycotoxins of greatest public health and agroeconomic significance include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin and ergot alkaloids. Commodities susceptible to direct contamination with mycotoxins include nuts, oilseeds and grains. Chemical and biological treatments have been attempted to minimize the risk of mycotoxins contamination or eliminate the fungi of food and feeds. One way to prevent or interfere with fungal growth and mycotoxin production is by use of synthetic or natural agents. Bacteria have been studied to control the mycotoxins production and fungal growth in food. Plant genotypes resistant to infection by toxigenic fungi have been also studied. This review will approach same patented methods applied to degrade, prevent and control of mycotoxins in food and feeds.

  12. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  13. DEVELOPING BIOMARKERS FOR MYCOTOXIN EXPOSURE AND EFFECT

    The purpose of this presentation is to briefly summarize the toxicology and current state of biomarker development for commercially important mycotoxins with a focus on their potential usefulness in farm animals. Combining information about known exposure, clinical indicators and biomarkers will pro...

  14. Multiplexed biosensors for detection of mycotoxins

    As analytical methods have improved it has become apparent that mycotoxins exist in many forms within a commodity or food. For the established toxins there has been increased interest in the presence of metabolites that might also harbor toxicity. These include biosynthetic precursors as well as pro...

  15. Approaches to mycotoxin detection using biosensors

    The number of toxins of concern has continued to rise as emerging toxins have taken on new significance and as interest has increased in detecting metabolites of established toxins (including masked mycotoxins). Of course while the desire exists to monitor for more compounds, resources for such moni...

  16. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  17. Fusarium mycotoxins: a trans-disciplinary overview

    Due to health risks and economic losses associated with mycotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Phylogenetic studies have made tremendous progress in d...

  18. Improving public health through mycotoxin control

    This book from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a part of the World Health Organization, aims to sensitize the international community to the mycotoxin problem in a format which is accessible to a wide audience and is useful to decision-makers across a broad spectrum of disciplines i...

  19. Induction of Fluorescence from Tremorgenic Mycotoxins

    There are a large number of neurotoxic mycotoxins, most of which contain an indole-moiety within their structures. A subgroup of such toxins are the tremorgens, which are further divided into several smaller, structurally related groups. Tremorgens have been associated with toxic occurrences in ca...

  20. The control of ice crystal growth and effect on porous structure of konjac glucomannan-based aerogels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xuewen; Ke, Fan; Xiao, Man; Wu, Kao; Kuang, Ying; Corke, Harold; Jiang, Fatang

    2016-11-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM)-based aerogels were prepared using a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. Preparation conditions were chosen to control ice crystal growth and aerogel structure formation. The ice crystals formed during pre-freezing were observed by low temperature polarizing microscopy, and images of aerogel pores were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The size of ice crystals were calculated and size distribution maps were drawn, and similarly for aerogel pores. Results showed that ice crystal growth and aerogel pore sizes may be controlled by varying pre-freezing temperatures, KGM concentration and glyceryl monostearate concentration. The impact of pre-freezing temperatures on ice crystal growth was explained as combining ice crystal growth rate with nucleation rate, while the impacts of KGM and glyceryl monostearate concentration on ice crystal growth were interpreted based on their influences on sol network structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stachybotrys, a mycotoxin-producing fungus of increasing toxicologic importance.

    PubMed

    Fung, F; Clark, R; Williams, S

    1998-01-01

    Stachybotrys as a fungus has been implicated as a source of mycotoxins. While the toxicity of several well-known mycotoxins (aflatoxins) is well documented, recent studies on Stachybotrys have raised the question that mycotoxins produced by this fungus may be responsible for the health effects of occupants in water-damaged buildings. Published articles regarding Stachybotrys-related mycotoxins were reviewed with particular focus on human toxicity. A critical review of papers, reports, and studies on Stachybotrys mycotoxins revealed only descriptive reports of suspected animal and human poisoning secondary to consumption of mold-contaminated food products. No studies of good toxicologic and epidemiologic designs answer whether airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys could produce specific human toxicity. Current data on the toxicology of mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys demonstrate that this group of mycotoxins is capable of producing immunosuppression and inflammatory insults to gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. Case control study and case reports have suggested a possible association with environmental exposure to Stachybotrys mycotoxins, although a firm causal relationship has not been firmly established. Additional studies are needed to document that humans with sufficient exposure to these mycotoxins develop compatible clinical and pathologic pictures as demonstrated in animal models.

  2. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food

    PubMed Central

    Alshannaq, Ahmad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds). These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons) are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn, cereals, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and other food and feed crops in the field and in grain during transportation. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed can cause acute or chronic toxicity in human and animals. In addition to concerns over adverse effects from direct consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods and feeds, there is also public health concern over the potential ingestion of animal-derived food products, such as meat, milk, or eggs, containing residues or metabolites of mycotoxins. Members of three fungal genera, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, are the major mycotoxin producers. While over 300 mycotoxins have been identified, six (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and patulin) are regularly found in food, posing unpredictable and ongoing food safety problems worldwide. This review summarizes the toxicity of the six mycotoxins, foods commonly contaminated by one or more of them, and the current methods for detection and analysis of these mycotoxins. PMID:28608841

  3. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies1

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, G. R.; Ledoux, D. R.; Naehrer, K.; Berthiller, F.; Applegate, T. J.; Grenier, B.; Phillips, T. D.; Schatzmayr, G.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as “biotransformation” or “biodetoxification,” utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses

  4. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  5. Limits and regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Zmudzki, J; Wiśniewska-Dmytrow, H

    2004-01-01

    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants whose presence in food- and feedstuffs cannot be completely avoided. Since several mycotoxins have been associated with and implicated in human and animal diseases there is a need to establish maximum levels, guidelines or action levels for them in some kinds of commodities. International and government authorities in many countries have been investing in mycotoxins research and initiating administrative actions for elaboration of legislation and implementing regulatory measures for the control of mycotoxins. Codex Alimentarius Commission is established international legislation on food and feed. In European Union specific limits and regulations for mycotoxins and other contaminants are constructed under the general Codex standards and based on proposal from European Commission. The legal basis for European Commission became available with the framework Council Regulation (EEC) No 315/93. In this paper, legislation regarding maximum levels for certain mycotoxins in food- and feedstuffs in European Community and other countries were reviewed and discussed.

  6. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins. PMID:24189375

  7. Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Juil; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities and water-damaged indoor environments. Susceptibility to mucosal infectious diseases is closely associated with immune dysfunction caused by mycotoxin exposure in humans and other animals. Many mycotoxins suppress immune function by decreasing the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, impairing phagocytic function of macrophages, and suppressing cytokine production, but some induce hypersensitive responses in different dose regimes. The present review describes various mycotoxin responses to infectious pathogens that trigger mucosa-associated diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of humans and other animals. In particular, it focuses on the effects of mycotoxin exposure on invasion, pathogen clearance, the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the prognostic implications of interactions between infectious pathogens and mycotoxin exposure. PMID:26529017

  8. Mycotoxins in Meat and Processed Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Jean-Denis; Guerre, Philippe

    Mycotoxins are toxic substances elaborated by fungi. They constitute a heterogeneous group of secondary metabolites with diverse potent pharmacological and toxic effects in humans and animals. More than 300 secondary metabolites have been identified but around 30 are of real concern for human and animal health (for review, see Bennett & Klich, 2003). These molecules are produced during mould development on plants in the field or during storage period. They can be found as natural contaminants of many vegetal foods or feeds, mainly cereals, but also fruits, nuts, grains, forage as well as compound foods intended for human or animal consumption. Most important mycotoxins are produced by moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genus (Bhatnagar, Yu, & Ehrlich, 2002; Conkova, Laciakova, Kovac, & Seidel, 2003; Pitt, 2002). These molecules are usually classified depending on the fungal species that produce them (Table 4.1)

  9. Cytokine adsorbing columns.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Takumi

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis induces the activation of complement and the release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide induced by sepsis can decrease systemic vascular resistance, resulting in profound hypotension. The combination of hypotension and microvascular occlusion results in tissue ischemia and ultimately leads to multiple organ failure. Recently, several experimental and clinical studies have reported that treatment for adsorption of cytokines is beneficial during endotoxemia and sepsis. Therefore, the present article discusses cytokine adsorbing columns. These columns, such as CytoSorb, CYT-860-DHP, Lixelle, CTR-001 and MPCF-X, the structures of which vary significantly, have excellent adsorption rates for inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL8. Many studies have demonstrated that treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns has beneficial effects on the survival rate and inflammatory responses in animal septic models. Moreover, several cases have been reported in which treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns is very effective in hemodynamics and organ failures in critically ill patients. Although further investigations and clinical trials are needed, in the future treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns may play a major role in the treatment of hypercytokinemia such as multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  11. Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Joseph H; Thrasher, Jack D; Straus, David C; Madison, Roberta A; Hooper, Dennis

    2013-04-11

    Over the past 20 years, exposure to mycotoxin producing mold has been recognized as a significant health risk. Scientific literature has demonstrated mycotoxins as possible causes of human disease in water-damaged buildings (WDB). This study was conducted to determine if selected mycotoxins could be identified in human urine from patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients (n = 112) with a prior diagnosis of CFS were evaluated for mold exposure and the presence of mycotoxins in their urine. Urine was tested for aflatoxins (AT), ochratoxin A (OTA) and macrocyclic trichothecenes (MT) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Urine specimens from 104 of 112 patients (93%) were positive for at least one mycotoxin (one in the equivocal range). Almost 30% of the cases had more than one mycotoxin present. OTA was the most prevalent mycotoxin detected (83%) with MT as the next most common (44%). Exposure histories indicated current and/or past exposure to WDB in over 90% of cases. Environmental testing was performed in the WDB from a subset of these patients. This testing revealed the presence of potentially mycotoxin producing mold species and mycotoxins in the environment of the WDB. Prior testing in a healthy control population with no history of exposure to a WDB or moldy environment (n = 55) by the same laboratory, utilizing the same methods, revealed no positive cases at the limits of detection.

  12. Detection of Mycotoxins in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Joseph H.; Thrasher, Jack D.; Straus, David C.; Madison, Roberta A.; Hooper, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, exposure to mycotoxin producing mold has been recognized as a significant health risk. Scientific literature has demonstrated mycotoxins as possible causes of human disease in water-damaged buildings (WDB). This study was conducted to determine if selected mycotoxins could be identified in human urine from patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients (n = 112) with a prior diagnosis of CFS were evaluated for mold exposure and the presence of mycotoxins in their urine. Urine was tested for aflatoxins (AT), ochratoxin A (OTA) and macrocyclic trichothecenes (MT) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Urine specimens from 104 of 112 patients (93%) were positive for at least one mycotoxin (one in the equivocal range). Almost 30% of the cases had more than one mycotoxin present. OTA was the most prevalent mycotoxin detected (83%) with MT as the next most common (44%). Exposure histories indicated current and/or past exposure to WDB in over 90% of cases. Environmental testing was performed in the WDB from a subset of these patients. This testing revealed the presence of potentially mycotoxin producing mold species and mycotoxins in the environment of the WDB. Prior testing in a healthy control population with no history of exposure to a WDB or moldy environment (n = 55) by the same laboratory, utilizing the same methods, revealed no positive cases at the limits of detection. PMID:23580077

  13. Silage review: Mycotoxins in silage: Occurrence, effects, prevention, and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Martinez-Tuppia, C; Queiroz, O C M; Jiang, Y; Drouin, P; Wu, F; Vyas, D; Adesogan, A T

    2018-05-01

    Ensiled forage, particularly corn silage, is an important component of dairy cow diets worldwide. Forages can be contaminated with several mycotoxins in the field pre-harvest, during storage, or after ensiling during feed-out. Exposure to dietary mycotoxins adversely affects the performance and health of livestock and can compromise human health. Several studies and surveys indicate that ruminants are often exposed to mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and many other fungal secondary metabolites, via the silage they ingest. Problems associated with mycotoxins in silage can be minimized by preventing fungal growth before and after ensiling. Proper silage management is essential to reduce mycotoxin contamination of dairy cow feeds, and certain mold-inhibiting chemical additives or microbial inoculants can also reduce the contamination levels. Several sequestering agents also can be added to diets to reduce mycotoxin levels, but their efficacy varies with the type and level of mycotoxin contamination. This article gives an overview of the types, prevalence, and levels of mycotoxin contamination in ensiled forages in different countries, and describes their adverse effects on health of ruminants, and effective prevention and mitigation strategies for dairy cow diets. Future research priorities discussed include research efforts to develop silage additives or rumen microbial innocula that degrade mycotoxins. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Penicillium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Penicillium are very diverse and cosmopolite fungi, about 350 species are recognized within this genus. It is subdivided in four subgenera Aspergilloides, Penicillium, Furcatum, and Biverticillium; recently the first three has been included in Penicillium genus, and Biverticillium under Talaromyces. They occur worldwide and play important roles as decomposers of organic materials, cause destructive rots in the food industry where produces a wide range of mycotoxins; they are considered enzyme factories, and common indoor air irritants. In terms of human health are rarely associated as human pathogen because they hardly growth at 37°, while the main risk is related to ingestion of food contaminated by mycotoxins produced by several species of Penicillium. Various mycotoxins can occur in foods and feeds contaminated by Penicillium species, the most important are ochratoxin A and patulin; for which regulation are imposed in a number of countries, and at a less extent cyclopiazonic acid. In this chapter we summarize the main aspect of the morphology, ecology and toxigenicity of Penicillium foodborne mycotoxigenic species which belong mainly in subgenus Penicillium sections Brevicompacta, Chrysogena, Fasciculata, Penicillium, and Roquefortorum.

  15. A Review of the Mycotoxin Enniatin B

    PubMed Central

    Prosperini, Alessandra; Berrada, Houda; Ruiz, María José; Caloni, Francesca; Coccini, Teresa; Spicer, Leon J.; Perego, Maria Chiara; Lafranconi, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is a secondary metabolism product by Fusarium fungi. It is a well-known antibacterial, antihelmintic, antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal compound. It has been found as a contaminant in several food commodities, particularly in cereal grains, co-occurring also with other mycotoxins. The primary mechanism of action of ENN B is mainly due to its ionophoric characteristics, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the last two decades, it has been a topic of great interest since its potent mammalian cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in several mammalian cell lines. Moreover, the co-exposure in vitro with other mycotoxins enhances its toxic potential through synergic effects, depending on the concentrations tested. Despite its clear cytotoxic effect, European Food Safety Authority stated that acute exposure to ENNs, such as ENN B, does not indicate concern for human health, but a concern might be the chronic exposure. However, given the lack of relevant toxicity data, no firm conclusion could be drawn and a risk assessment was not possible. In fact, very few studies have been carried out in vivo and, in these studies, no adverse effects were observed. So, research on toxicological effects induced by ENN B is still on-going. Recently, some studies are dealing with new advances regarding ENN B. This review summarizes the information on biochemical and biological activity of ENN B, focusing on toxicological aspects and on the latest advances in research on ENN B. PMID:29201864

  16. A Review of the Mycotoxin Enniatin B.

    PubMed

    Prosperini, Alessandra; Berrada, Houda; Ruiz, María José; Caloni, Francesca; Coccini, Teresa; Spicer, Leon J; Perego, Maria Chiara; Lafranconi, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is a secondary metabolism product by Fusarium fungi. It is a well-known antibacterial, antihelmintic, antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal compound. It has been found as a contaminant in several food commodities, particularly in cereal grains, co-occurring also with other mycotoxins. The primary mechanism of action of ENN B is mainly due to its ionophoric characteristics, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the last two decades, it has been a topic of great interest since its potent mammalian cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in several mammalian cell lines. Moreover, the co-exposure in vitro with other mycotoxins enhances its toxic potential through synergic effects, depending on the concentrations tested. Despite its clear cytotoxic effect, European Food Safety Authority stated that acute exposure to ENNs, such as ENN B, does not indicate concern for human health, but a concern might be the chronic exposure. However, given the lack of relevant toxicity data, no firm conclusion could be drawn and a risk assessment was not possible. In fact, very few studies have been carried out in vivo and, in these studies, no adverse effects were observed. So, research on toxicological effects induced by ENN B is still on-going. Recently, some studies are dealing with new advances regarding ENN B. This review summarizes the information on biochemical and biological activity of ENN B, focusing on toxicological aspects and on the latest advances in research on ENN B.

  17. Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui; Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran

    2018-01-01

    The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria–xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota. Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin contamination and

  18. An Overview on Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods in Africa

    PubMed Central

    DARWISH, Wageh Sobhy; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that contaminate various feedstuffs and agricultural crops. The contamination of food by mycotoxins can occur before production, during storage, processing, transportation or marketing of the food products. High temperature, moisture content and water activity are among the predisposing factors that facilitate the production of mycotoxins in food. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone are all considered the major mycotoxins produced in food and feedstuffs. In Africa, mycotoxin contamination is considered to be a major problem with implications that affect human and animal health and economy. Aflatoxin-related hepatic diseases are reported in many African countries. Ochratoxin and fumonisin toxicity in humans and animals is widespread in Africa. The available, updated information on the incidence of mycotoxin contamination, decontamination and its public health importance in Africa is lacking. The aim of this review is to highlight, update and discuss the available information on the incidence of mycotoxins in African countries. The public health implications and the recommended strategies for control of mycotoxins in food and agricultural crops are also discussed. PMID:24572628

  19. Chemical approaches to solve mycotoxin problems and improve food safety

    Foodborne illnesses are experienced by most of the population and are preventable. Agricultural produce can occasionally become contaminated with fungi capable of making mycotoxins that pose health risks and reduce values. Many strategies are employed to keep food safe from mycotoxin contamination. ...

  20. Biosensors for Mycotoxin Analysis: Recent Developments and Future Prospects

    The toxicity and prevalence of mycotoxins in commodities and foods has necessitated the development of rapid methods in order to ensure the protection of human food and animal feed supplies. Testing for mycotoxins can be accomplished by many techniques that range from determinative tests in which t...

  1. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2012 – 2013

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2012 and mid-2013. It covers the major mycotoxins: aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. A wide range of analytical methods for...

  2. Mycotoxin Management Studies by USDA-"Ag Lab" in 2008

    Studies again included several popcorn fields in 2008, in order to continue gathering data for modification of the previously developed management strategies for mycotoxins in field corn (the mycotoxin predictive computer program). Weather conditions were generally good for growing corn, but excess...

  3. Mycotoxin Management Studies by USDA-ARS, NCAUR in 2009

    Studies again included several popcorn fields in 2009 in order to continue gathering data for modification of the previously developed management strategies for mycotoxins in field corn (including the mycotoxin predictive computer program). Without an attempt for optimization, the field corn model ...

  4. Do Plant-Bound Masked Mycotoxins Contribute to Toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Silvia W.

    2017-01-01

    Masked mycotoxins are plant metabolites of mycotoxins which co-contaminate common cereal crops. Since their discovery, the question has arisen if they contribute to toxicity either directly or indirectly through the release of the parent mycotoxins. Research in this field is rapidly emerging and the aim of this review is to summarize the latest knowledge on the fate of masked mycotoxins upon ingestion. Fusarium mycotoxins are the most prevalent masked mycotoxins and evidence is mounting that DON3Glc and possibly other masked trichothecenes are stable in conditions prevailing in the upper gut and are not absorbed intact. DON3Glc is also not toxic per se, but is hydrolyzed by colonic microbes and further metabolized to DOM-1 in some individuals. Masked zearalenone is rather more bio-reactive with some evidence on gastric and small intestinal hydrolysis as well as hydrolysis by intestinal epithelium and components of blood. Microbial hydrolysis of ZEN14Glc is almost instantaneous and further metabolism also occurs. Identification of zearalenone metabolites and their fate in the colon are still missing as is further clarification on whether or not masked zearalenone is hydrolyzed by mammalian cells. New masked mycotoxins continuously emerge and it is crucial that we gain detailed understanding of their individual metabolic fate in the body before we can assess synergistic effects and extrapolate the additive risk of all mycotoxins present in food. PMID:28264486

  5. Recent Advances in Mycotoxin Determination for Food Monitoring via Microchip

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan; Liang, Gang; Li, An; Pan, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are one of the main factors impacting food safety. Mycotoxin contamination has threatened the health of humans and animals. Conventional methods for the detection of mycotoxins are gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, all these methods are time-consuming, require large-scale instruments and skilled technicians, and consume large amounts of hazardous regents and solvents. Interestingly, a microchip requires less sample consumption and short analysis time, and can realize the integration, miniaturization, and high-throughput detection of the samples. Hence, the application of a microchip for the detection of mycotoxins can make up for the deficiency of the conventional detection methods. This review focuses on the application of a microchip to detect mycotoxins in foods. The toxicities of mycotoxins and the materials of the microchip are firstly summarized in turn. Then the application of a microchip that integrates various kinds of detection methods (optical, electrochemical, photo-electrochemical, and label-free detection) to detect mycotoxins is reviewed in detail. Finally, challenges and future research directions in the development of a microchip to detect mycotoxins are previewed. PMID:29036884

  6. Mycotoxins are conventional and novel risk biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yasunobu; Wakai, Toshifumi; Kubota, Masayuki; Osawa, Mami; Sanpei, Ayumi; Fujimaki, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant disease with poor prognosis. To improve the clinical outcome, early diagnosis of HCC arising from nonviral agents and hepatitis virus is important. Among several etiological factors, mycotoxins defined as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer might be one of the critical risk factors for nonviral HCC. Aflatoxin B1 is the most well-known carcinogenic mycotoxin for HCC, but the role of the other types of mycotoxin remains unclear. Several studies have reported that a chromatographic separation technique based on high-performance liquid chromatography can successfully detect the concentration of mycotoxins in plasma. In this article, we review recent studies of mycotoxin, and discuss its possible significance as a biomarker of HCC. PMID:23674865

  7. Neurologic and neuropsychiatric syndrome features of mold and mycotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Empting, L D

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to molds, mycotoxins, and water-damaged buildings can cause neurologic and neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms. Many of these clinical features can partly mimic or be similar to classic neurologic disorders including pain syndromes, movement disorders, delirium, dementia, and disorders of balance and coordination. In this article, the author delineates the signs and symptoms of a syndrome precipitated by mold and mycotoxin exposure and contrasts and separates these findings neurodiagnostically from known neurologic diseases. This clinical process is designed to further the scientific exploration of the underlying neuropathophysiologic processes and to promote better understanding of effects of mold/mycotoxin/water-damaged buildings on the human nervous system and diseases of the nervous system. It is clear that mycotoxins can affect sensitive individuals, and possibly accelerate underlying neurologic/pathologic processes, but it is crucial to separate known neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders from mycotoxin effects in order to study it properly.

  8. Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Xing, Fuguo; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data show that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots and lotus seeds have been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region, which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the European Union regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, it can be concluded that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease of use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer-based assays against ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection; and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors have been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay and peanut oil with high sensitivity (> 0.025 ng l(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years.

  9. A Concise History of Mycotoxin Research.

    PubMed

    Pitt, John I; Miller, J David

    2017-08-23

    Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals. In the historical context, ergotism from Claviceps purpurea in rye has been known probably for more than 2000 years and caused the deaths of many thousands of people in Europe in the last millennium. Known in Japan since the 17th century, acute cardiac beriberi associated with the consumption of moldy rice was found to be due to citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum. This toxin was believed to be only of historic importance until its reemergence in Brazil a few years ago. Other Penicillium toxins, including ochratoxin A, once considered to be a possible cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy, are treated in a historical context. The role of Fusarium toxins in human and animal health, especially T-2 toxin in alimentary toxic aleukia in Russia in the 1940s and fumonisins in equine leucoencephalomalasia, is set out in some detail. Finally, this paper documents the story of the research that led to our current understanding of the formation of aflatoxins in grains and nuts, due to the growth of Aspergillus flavus and its role, in synergy with the hepatitis B virus, in human liver cancer. During a period of climate change and greatly reduced crop diversity on a global basis, researchers tasked with monitoring the food system need to be aware of fungal toxins that might have been rare in their working careers that can reappear.

  10. Effect of a small amount of sodium carbonate on konjac glucomannan-induced changes in wheat starch gel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Dan; Winkworth-Smith, Charles G; Foster, Tim J; Nirasawa, Satoru; Tatsumi, Eizo; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2015-02-13

    Wheat starch gels were produced with konjac glucomannan (KGM) and low concentrations of Na2CO3 (0.1-0.2 wt% of starch) using a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). The gelling properties of wheat starch in varying ratios of KGM and Na2CO3 were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A small amount of Na2CO3 resulted in gels with increased elasticity whereas structural ordering during retrogradation was insignificantly affected. Comparison of CLSM images of composite gels revealed that Na2CO3 at 0.2 wt% of starch allowed the formation of fiber-like extensions around scattered swollen granules by KGM and amylose interaction, making swollen granules disperse within the micro phase, which was not typical in CLSM images of gels in the absence of Na2CO3. Dynamic storage modulus and dynamic power law exponent were substantially higher than those observed for the same concentration of KGM in the presence of Na2CO3, supporting the hypothesis that Na2CO3 could promote strong interchain associations between KGM and starch components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of a small amount of sodium carbonate on konjac glucomannan-induced changes in thermal behavior of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Winkworth-Smith, Charles G; Wang, Yu; Liang, Jianfen; Foster, Tim J; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2014-12-19

    The effects of konjac glucomannan (KGM) on thermal behavior of wheat starch have been studied in the presence of low concentrations of Na2CO3 (0.1-0.2 wt% of starch). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows the visualization of the starch gelatinization process and granule remnants in starch pastes. Heating the starch dispersion in KGM-Na2CO3 solution significantly delays granule swelling and inhibits amylose leaching, whereas Na2CO3 alone, at the same concentration, has little effect. Na2CO3 assists KGM in producing the extremely high viscosity of starch paste, attributing to a less remarkable breakdown of viscosity in subsequent heating, and protecting starch granules against crystallite melting. The distinct partially networked film around the surface of starch granules is evident in the CLSM images. We propose that Na2CO3 could trigger the formation of complexes between KGM and starch polymers, which exerts a protective effect on granular structure and modifying gelatinization characteristics of the mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An investigation of konjac glucomannan-keratin hydrogel scaffold loaded with Avena sativa extracts for diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Veerasubramanian, Praveen Krishna; Thangavel, Ponrasu; Kannan, Ramya; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ramachandran, Balaji; Suguna, Lonchin; Muthuvijayan, Vignesh

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a novel hydrogel composed of konjac glucomannan (KGM), human hair proteins (KER), and an ethanolic extract of Avena sativa (OAT) and evaluated its potential as a dressing material for diabetic wounds. KGM is an excellent biocompatible gelling agent that stimulates fibroblast proliferation and immunomodulation. Human hair proteins (KER) are biocompatible, biodegradable, and possess abundant cell adhesion sites. KER also promotes fibroblast attachment and proliferation, keratinocyte migration, and collagen expression, which can accelerate wound healing. OAT consists of oat β-glucans and several anti-inflammatory and antioxidant moieties that can reduce prolonged inflammation in chronic wounds. SEM images confirm the highly porous architecture of the scaffolds. When immersed in PBS, KGM+KER+OAT hydrogels absorb 7.5 times their dry weight. These hydrogels display a measured rate of degradation in lysozyme. KGM+KER+OAT hydrogels showed no significant cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. DAPI and SEM images obtained after 48h of cell culture illustrate the attachment and infiltration of fibroblasts. In vivo studies performed using a diabetic rat excision wound model showed that KGM+KER+OAT hydrogels significantly accelerated wound healing compared to the control and the KGM+KER hydrogels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mussel-Inspired Fabrication of Konjac Glucomannan/Poly (Lactic Acid) Cryogels with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Mu, Ruo-Jun; Gong, Jingni; Ni, Yongsheng; Hong, Xin; Pang, Jie; Wu, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs) with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel NFCs were prepared by the incorporation of the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine (PDA) via a facile and environmentally-friendly electrospinning and freeze-shaping technique. The obtained KGM/PLA/PDA (KPP) NFCs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compressive and tensile test. The results showed that the hierarchical cellular structure and physicochemical properties of KPP NFCs were dependent on the incorporation of PDA content. Moreover, the strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions among KGM, PLA and PDA also gave KPP NFCs high thermostability and mechanically-robust properties. Thus, this study developed a simple approach to fabricate multifunctional NFCs with significant potential for biomedical or food application. PMID:29258196

  14. Preparation and characterization of Chitosan/Konjac glucomannan/CdS nanocomposite film with low infrared emissivity

    SciT

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Zhou, Yu-Ming, E-mail: fchem@seu.edu.cn; Sun, Yan-qing

    Novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite films were prepared with Chitosan (CS), Konjac glucomannan (KGM) and CdS by one-step synthesis. As-prepared films were characterized by IR spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared emissometer (IR). The results indicated that grown CdS dendrites were formed with reaction time of 12 h for Cd{sup 2+} and CS/KGM, and were well dispersed in CS/KGM with an average diameter of 40 nm. The CS/KGM/CdS nanocomposite films had significantly low infrared emissivity. When the mole ratio of CdS to summation of CS and KGM construction units was 1.0 with CdS size of 10-20 nm,more » the film got the lowest infrared emissivity value of 0.011, which could be attributed to the strong synergism effect existing between CS/KGM and CdS dendrites.« less

  15. Mussel-inspired fabrication of konjac glucomannan/microcrystalline cellulose intelligent hydrogel with pH-responsive sustained release behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Du, Yu; Yuan, Yi; Mu, Ruo-Jun; Gong, Jingni; Ni, Yongsheng; Pang, Jie; Wu, Chunhua

    2018-07-01

    Intelligent hydrogels are attractive biomaterials for various applications, however, fabricating a hydrogel with both adequate self-healing ability and mechanical properties remains a challenge. Herein, a series of novel intelligent konjac glucomannan (KGM)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hydrogels were prepared vis the mussel-inspired chemistry. MCC was firstly functionalized by the oxidative polymerization of dopamine, and the intelligent hydrogels were obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of KGM and functionalized MCC (PDMCC). By introducing PDMCC, a more compact interconnected porous structure formed for the resulting hydrogels. The self-healing ability and mechanical properties of intelligent hydrogels were dependence on the PDMCC content. Compared with KGM hydrogels, KGM/PDMCC hydrogels exhibited a more distinct pH sensitivity and a lower initial burst release, which was attributed to the compact structure and strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction between PDMCC and KGM. These results suggest that the KGM/PDMCC intelligent hydrogels may be promising carriers for controlled drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute renal failure from inhalation of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Loi, F; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1993-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin, however, the hypothesis has never been verified. Recently, we observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) undeniably due to inhalation of ochratoxin of Aspergillus ochraceus. After spending 8 h in a granary which had been closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered temporary respiratory distress; 24 h later, the woman developed nonoliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis which healed in 24 days. Toxic substances were not found, but a strain of A. ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  17. Inhaled mycotoxins lead to acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Garosi, G; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1994-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected, but never proved, to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin. We observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) due to inhalation of ochratoxin A produced by a mould of the species Aspergillus ochraceus. After working 8 h in a granary closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered respiratory distress; the woman developed non-oliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis. A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  18. Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Tzai; Hsu, Yuan-Hsin; Wang, Tzu-Sui; Chien, Shi-Wern

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic food contaminants that are naturally produced by certain fungi. They induce negative effects on human health by making food unsafe for consumption. In this study, analyses were performed to determine the levels and incidence of aflatoxins (AFs) in peanut products, tree nuts, spices, and Coix seeds; ochratoxin A (OTA) in wheat and roasted coffee, as well as OTA and AFs in rice; and citrinin (CIT) in red yeast rice (RYR) products. A total of 712 samples from nine different food categories were collected between 2012 and 2013. The samples were analyzed over 2 years for AFs, OTA, and CIT by methods recommended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These official analytical methods were extensively validated in-house and through interlaboratory trials. The analytical values of suspected contaminated specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify the specific mycotoxin present in the sample. We show that 689 samples (96.8%) complied with the regulations set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. AFs were found in four peanut-candy products, one peanut-flour product, one pistachio product, one Sichuan-pepper product, and one Coix seed product. All had exceeded the maximum levels of 15 parts per billion for peanut and 10 parts per billion for other food products. Furthermore, 14 RYR samples contained CIT above 5 parts per million, and one RYR tablet exceeded the maximum amount allowed. Instances of AFs in substandard Sichuan pepper and Coix seeds were first detected in Taiwan. Measures were taken by the relevant authorities to remove substandard products from the market in order to decrease consumer exposure to mycotoxin. Border control measures were applied to importing food commodities with a higher risk of mycotoxin contamination, such as peanut, Sichuan pepper, and RYR products. Declining trends were observed in the noncompliance rate of AFs in peanut products, as well as that of CIT in RYR raw

  19. Territrems, tremorgenic mycotoxins of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Ling, K H; Yang, C K; Peng, F T

    1979-03-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins isolated from Aspergillus terreus were given the trivial names territrem A and B instead of their previous designations of C1 and C2 respectively. High-resolution mass spectral data suggested the molecular formula of territrem A to be C28H30O9 and that of territrem B,C29H34O9. They were partially characterized by ultraviolet, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. The spectroscopic evidence indicated that their chemical structures were very similar. The procedures of purification were also revised for the complete separation of these two chemically related compounds.

  20. Territrems, tremorgenic mycotoxins of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, K H; Yang, C K; Peng, F T

    1979-01-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins isolated from Aspergillus terreus were given the trivial names territrem A and B instead of their previous designations of C1 and C2 respectively. High-resolution mass spectral data suggested the molecular formula of territrem A to be C28H30O9 and that of territrem B,C29H34O9. They were partially characterized by ultraviolet, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. The spectroscopic evidence indicated that their chemical structures were very similar. The procedures of purification were also revised for the complete separation of these two chemically related compounds. PMID:453815

  1. Registration of T-2 mycotoxin with total internal reflection ellipsometry and QCM impedance methods.

    PubMed

    Nabok, A V; Tsargorodskaya, A; Holloway, A; Starodub, N F; Gojster, O

    2007-01-15

    A sensitive optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) in conjunction with immune assay approach was exploited for the registration of T-2 mycotoxin in a wide range of concentrations from 100 microg/ml down to 0.15 ng/ml. Association constants of 1.4x10(6) and 1.9x10(7)mol(-1)s for poly- and monoclonal T-2 antibodies, respectively, were evaluated from TIRE kinetic measurements. According to TIRE data fitting, binding of T-2 molecules to antibodies (at saturation) has resulted in the increase in adsorbed layer thickness of 4-5 nm. The QCM impedance measurements data showed anomalously large mass increase and film softening, most likely, due to the binding of large T-2 aggregates to antibodies.

  2. Effects of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient and energy utilization of ducks fed diets with or without Calibrin-A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z B; Wan, X L; Yang, W R; Jiang, S Z; Zhang, G G; Johnston, S L; Chi, F

    2014-09-01

    One hundred sixty-two 21-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 3 levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn (0, 50, and 100% M) and 2 levels of Calibrin-A (CA, a clay mycotoxin adsorbent, 0 and 0.1%) to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient utilization in ducks fed diets with or without CA. Endogenous losses were obtained from another 27 ducks. Excreta samples were collected to determine DM, OM, CP, amino acids, and gross energy. Gross energy was analyzed for computation of AME and TME. The apparent digestibility (AD) and true digestibility (TD) of the nutrients in all treatments with and without CA had common (P > 0.05) intercepts and slopes except Pro (P < 0.05). The AME, TME, AD, and TD of DM, OM, Phe, and Gly were linearly (P < 0.05) decreased as the concentration of contaminated corn in the diet increased. Ducks fed the 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Gly compared with the 100% M diet, and ducks fed 50 and 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Pro compared with 50% M and 100% M diet, respectively. In the present study, ducks fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn decreased nutrient digestibility in dose-dependent manner, and 0.1% CA supplementation improved AD and TD of Gly and Pro. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Aspergillus Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds. The notable consequence of their presence is contamination of foods and feeds by mycotoxins, among which the most important are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and, at a less extent, fumonisins. Aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 are the most toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, due to their extreme hepatocarcinogenicity; ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin, it is also carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic in rats and possibly in humans; fumonisins are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic with potential carcinogenic effects on rat and mice. In this chapter we summarize the main aspects of morphology, ecology, epidemiology, and toxigenicity of Aspergillus foodborne pathogens which belong to sections Flavi, Circumdati, and Nigri, occurring in several agricultural products and responsible of aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins contamination of food and feed.

  4. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied. PMID:27886128

  5. Mycotoxin metrology: Gravimetric production of zearalenone calibration solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, E. C. P.; Simon, M. E.; Li, Xiuqin; Li, Xiaomin; Daireaux, A.; Choteau, T.; Westwood, S.; Josephs, R. D.; Wielgosz, R. I.; Cunha, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Food safety is a major concern for countries developing metrology and quality assurance systems, including the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins. To improve the mycotoxin analysis and ensure the metrological traceability, CRM of calibration solution should be used. The production of certified mycotoxin solutions is a major challenge due to the limited amount of standard for conducting a proper purity study and due to the cost of standards. The CBKT project was started at BIPM and Inmetro produced gravimetrically one batch of zearelenone in acetronitrile (14.708 ± 0.016 μg/g, k=2) and conducted homogeneity, stability and value assignment studies.

  6. Low dose chromium-polynicotinate or policosanol is effective in hypercholesterolemic children only in combination with glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesco; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Colantoni, Chiara; Martino, Eliana; Niglio, Tarcisio; Zanoni, Cristina; Barillà, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    A low-fat, fiber-rich diet is the first step in the management for hypercholesterolemic children. Glucomannan (GM) is a natural fiber that has been demonstrated to lower total and LDL-cholesterol. The use of high-dose chromium-polynicotinate (CP) and policosanol (PC) has also shown cholesterol-lowering benefits. We aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose CP or PC and their GM combination in hypercholesterolemic children. A double-blind trial was conducted in 120 children (60 M, 60 F, 9 ± 4 years, median 9.6 years, range: 3-16 years) randomly assigned to 5 neutraceutical and 1 placebo (only resistant starch) 8-week treatment groups. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (CholT), triglycerides (TG), HDL and LDL cholesterol were considered. GM combination of low-dose CP or PC reduced CholT and LDL without changing HDL, TG and FBG. The highest post-treatment changes were seen after GM combination with CP (CholT 85 ± 3% and LDL 85 ± 5%, of pretreatment) which was significantly (p < 0.01) less than with low-dose CP or PC and starch. When GM was associated with starch, there was no lipid lowering effect, which was an unexpected finding as compared to previous data with GM and no starch. No adverse effects were reported. This is the first report to show the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of GM combined treatment with low-dose CP or PC. Further studies are needed to investigate the best combinations and doses of nutraceutics to be added to the standard GM treatment. The potential negative association of GM and nutraceutics with starch is clearly shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2016-2017

    This review summarizes developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2016 and mid-2017. Analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone are covered in individual sections. Adv...

  8. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2015-2016

    This review summarises developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2015 and mid-2016. Analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone are covered in individual sections. Ad...

  9. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2014-2015

    This review summarizes developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2014 and mid-2015. In tradition with previous articles of this series, analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, an...

  10. Production of mycotoxins by filamentous fungi in untreated surface water.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Beatriz R; Mata, Ana T; Ferreira, João P; Barreto Crespo, Maria T; Pereira, Vanessa J; Bronze, Maria R

    2018-04-16

    Several research studies reported that mycotoxins and other metabolites can be produced by fungi in certain matrices such as food. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the wide occurrence and identification of fungi in drinking water sources. Due to the large demand of water for drinking, watering, or food production purposes, it is imperative that further research is conducted to investigate if mycotoxins may be produced in water matrices. This paper describes the results obtained when a validated analytical method was applied to detect and quantify the presence of mycotoxins as a result of fungi inoculation and growth in untreated surface water. Aflatoxins B1 and B2, fumonisin B3, and ochratoxin A were detected at concentrations up to 35 ng/L. These results show that fungi can produce mycotoxins in water matrices in a non-negligible quantity and, as such, attention must be given to the presence of fungi in water.

  11. Framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert C; Ford, Randall M; Helander, Mary E; Marecki, Janusz; Natarajan, Ramesh; Ray, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    We propose a methodological framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food processing industry. Mycotoxin contamination is a well-known threat to public health that has economic significance for the food processing industry; it is imperative to address mycotoxin risks holistically, at all points in the procurement, processing, and distribution pipeline, by tracking the relevant data, adopting best practices, and providing suitable adaptive controls. The proposed framework includes (i) an information and data repository, (ii) a collaborative infrastructure with analysis and simulation tools, (iii) standardized testing and acceptance sampling procedures, and (iv) processes that link the risk assessments and testing results to the sourcing, production, and product release steps. The implementation of suitable acceptance sampling protocols for mycotoxin testing is considered in some detail.

  12. Sterigmatocystin: A mycotoxin to be seriously considered.

    PubMed

    Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Granero, Adrian Marcelo; Zon, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor

    2018-05-26

    Sterigmatocystin is a carcinogenic compound that affects several species of crops and several species of experimental animals. The sterigmatocystin biosynthetic pathway is the best known and most studied. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies sterigmatocystin in the Group 2B. Three groups of analytical methods to determine sterigmatocystin in food can be found: chromatographic, ELISA immunoassays and chemical sensors. In addition, sterigmatocystin is a precursor of aflatoxin B 1 in those cases where cereals and/or food are contaminated with fungi capable of producing aflatoxins. Chemical structures of sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B 1 are similar. These mycotoxins are pathogens of animals and cereals, producing a major economic impact on biotechnology and agricultural and food industries. This review summarizes different aspects related to sterigmatocystin such as its biosynthesis, toxicological studies and analytical methods for its determination. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Trichoderma harzianum: Inhibition of mycotoxin producing fungi and toxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Braun, H; Woitsch, L; Hetzer, B; Geisen, R; Zange, B; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2018-04-19

    A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, development of fungicide resistances has greatly impacted pre- and postharvest fungal diseases. Hence there is the need to develop alternative strategies to reduce fungal infestation and thus mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Such a strategy for natural competition of important plant-pathogenic and mycotoxin producing fungi could be Trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus. Especially in direct comparison to certain tested fungicides, the inhibition of different tested fungal species by T. harzianum was comparable, more sustainable and in some cases more effective, too. Besides substantially reduced growth rates, a transcriptional based inhibition of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the competed Aspergillus species could be shown. Furthermore it could be clearly observed by high-resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that T. harzianum actively attaches to the competitor species followed by subsequent enzymatic lysis of those mycelial filaments. The analyzed isolate of T. harzianum MRI349 is not known to produce mycotoxins. In this study it could be successfully proven that T. harzianum as a biological competitor is an effective complement to the use of fungicides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shephard, G S

    2008-02-01

    Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. At the mycotoxin contamination levels generally found in food products traded in these market economies, adverse human health effects have largely been overcome. However, in the developing world, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. The extent to which mycotoxins affect human health is difficult to investigate in countries whose health systems lack capacity and in which resources are limited. Aflatoxin B(1), the toxin on which major resources have been expended, has long been linked to liver cancer, yet its other effects, such as immune suppression and growth faltering previously observed in veterinary studies, are only now being investigated and characterized in human populations. The extent to which factors such as immune suppression contribute to the overall burden of infectious disease is difficult to quantify, but is undoubtedly significant. Thus, food safety remains an important opportunity for addressing current health problems in developing countries.

  16. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    SciT

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Mortimer, Jenny C.

    Humans are unable to synthesize L-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels,more » leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity.« less

  17. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Lao, Jeemeng; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Yu, Xiaolan; Yamanashi, Yukiko; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unable to synthesize l-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels, leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity. PMID:26672069

  18. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins effects on dairy cow health, performance and the efficacy of Anti-Mycotoxin Additive.

    PubMed

    Jovaišienė, J; Bakutis, B; Baliukonienė, V; Gerulis, G

    2016-01-01

    One hundred two samples of feeds made in Lithuania, which included maize silage, grass-legume silage, hay and ensiled crimped maize were investigated during 2008-2012 for contamination with some mycotoxins. The highest concentrations of mycotoxins determined were those of deoxynivalenol (DON)--471.0 μg/kg and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)--21.2 μg/kg in ryegrass silage from bales, and zearalenone (ZEA)--625.0 μg/kg in maize silage from trenches. The present study has been carried out based on these data because animal feeds contaminated with mycotoxins can cause reduced productivity of dairy cows and health disorders in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term exposure of toxic effects of a diet naturally contaminated with low concentrations of mycotoxins on milk composition and biochemical, hematological, immunological parameters of dairy cows and to determine the anti-mycotoxin effect of Mycofix Plus 3.E. Twenty eight clinically healthy, medium productive Lithuanian Red cows were selected. ZEA was a major contaminant found in the corn silage at concentration levels of up to 1000.0 μg/kg of dry matter. DON was the second major found in the hay at concentration levels of up to 600.0 μg/kg of dry matter. The highest concentration AFB1- 10.0 μg/kg was determined in ground barley. The Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (AMA) Mycofix Plus 3.E was given individually to 14 cows at a concentration of 40.0 g daily for 9 weeks. The present results indicate that feeds naturally contaminated with low concentration of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in a diet of dairy cows can have a negative influence on somatic cell count, blood parameters and immunity. The addition of an Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (Mycofix Plus 3.E) to diet of dairy cows can prevent many of these effects.

  19. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  20. Growth and mycotoxin production by Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Fogle, Matthew R; Douglas, David R; Jumper, Cynthia A; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    Chaetomium globosum, the most common species within this genus, produces chaetoglobosins A and C when cultured on building material. Relatively low levels of these compounds have been shown to be lethal to various tissue culture cell lines. This study had two major objectives: (1) to determine the frequency at which Chaetomium species are isolated in water-damaged buildings and (2) to examine the production of chaetoglobosins A and C in isolates of C. globosum obtained from different buildings. Out of 794 water-damaged buildings, Chaetomium species were isolated in 49% of these structures. C. globosum ATCC 16021 was grown on four different media: oatmeal agar (OA), potato dextrose agar (PDA), corn meal agar (CMA), and malt extract agar (MEA). After 4 weeks, fungal growth was evaluated based on colony diameter and the quantity of spores produced on agar plates. In addition, production of chaetoglobosin A and C was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography. Colony diameter, spore production, and mycotoxin production by C. globosum were the highest on OA. Out of 30 C. globosum isolates cultured on OA for 4 weeks, 16 produced detectable amounts of chaetoglobosin A and every isolate produced chaetoglobosin C.

  1. Mycotoxins in Crude Building Materials from Water-Damaged Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Tuomi, Tapani; Reijula, Kari; Johnsson, Tom; Hemminki, Kaisa; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Lindroos, Outi; Kalso, Seija; Koukila-Kähkölä, Pirkko; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Haahtela, Tari

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 79 bulk samples of moldy interior finishes from Finnish buildings with moisture problems for 17 mycotoxins, as well as for fungi that could be isolated using one medium and one set of growth conditions. We found the aflatoxin precursor, sterigmatocystin, in 24% of the samples and trichothecenes in 19% of the samples. Trichothecenes found included satratoxin G or H in five samples; diacetoxyscirpenol in five samples; and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, verrucarol, or T-2-tetraol in an additional five samples. Citrinine was found in three samples. Aspergillus versicolor was present in most sterigmatocystin-containing samples, and Stachybotrys spp. were present in the samples where satratoxins were found. In many cases, however, the presence of fungi thought to produce the mycotoxins was not correlated with the presence of the expected compounds. However, when mycotoxins were found, some toxigenic fungi usually were present, even if the species originally responsible for producing the mycotoxin was not isolated. We conclude that the identification and enumeration of fungal species present in bulk materials are important to verify the severity of mold damage but that chemical analyses are necessary if the goal is to establish the presence of mycotoxins in moldy materials. PMID:10788357

  2. Mycotoxins in crude building materials from water-damaged buildings.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, T; Reijula, K; Johnsson, T; Hemminki, K; Hintikka, E L; Lindroos, O; Kalso, S; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H; Haahtela, T

    2000-05-01

    We analyzed 79 bulk samples of moldy interior finishes from Finnish buildings with moisture problems for 17 mycotoxins, as well as for fungi that could be isolated using one medium and one set of growth conditions. We found the aflatoxin precursor, sterigmatocystin, in 24% of the samples and trichothecenes in 19% of the samples. Trichothecenes found included satratoxin G or H in five samples; diacetoxyscirpenol in five samples; and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, verrucarol, or T-2-tetraol in an additional five samples. Citrinine was found in three samples. Aspergillus versicolor was present in most sterigmatocystin-containing samples, and Stachybotrys spp. were present in the samples where satratoxins were found. In many cases, however, the presence of fungi thought to produce the mycotoxins was not correlated with the presence of the expected compounds. However, when mycotoxins were found, some toxigenic fungi usually were present, even if the species originally responsible for producing the mycotoxin was not isolated. We conclude that the identification and enumeration of fungal species present in bulk materials are important to verify the severity of mold damage but that chemical analyses are necessary if the goal is to establish the presence of mycotoxins in moldy materials.

  3. Qualitative analysis of mycotoxins using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    SciT

    Holland, R.D.; Sepaniak, M.J.

    1993-05-01

    Naturally occurring mycotoxins are separated using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Trends in the retention of these toxins, resulting from changes in mobile-phase composition and pH, are reported and presented as a means of alleviating coelution problems. Two sets of mobile-phase conditions are determined that provide unique separation selectivity. The facile manner by which mobile-phase conditions can be altered, without changes in instrumental configuration, allowed the acquisition of two distinctive, fully resolved chromatograms of 10 mycotoxins in a period of approximately 45 min. By adjusting retention times, using indigenous or added components in mycotoxin samples as normalization standards, it is possiblemore » to obtain coefficients of variation in retention time that average less than 1%. The qualitative capabilities of this methodology are evaluated by separating randomly generated mycotoxin-interferent mixtures. In this study, the utilization of normalized retention times applied to separations obtained with two sets of mobile-phase conditions permitted the identification of all the mycotoxins in five unknown samples without any misidentifications. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  4. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciT

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/submore » A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

  5. Mycotoxin-Containing Diet Causes Oxidative Stress in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Yong-Yan; Xiong, Bo; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xu, Yin-Xue; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins which mainly consist of Aflatoxin (AF), Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are commonly found in many food commodities. Although each component has been shown to cause liver toxicity and oxidative stress in several species, there is no evidence regarding the effect of naturally contained multiple mycotoxins on tissue toxicity and oxidative stress in vivo. In the present study, mycotoxins-contaminated maize (AF 597 µg/kg, ZEN 729 µg/kg, DON 3.1 mg/kg maize) was incorporated into the diet at three different doses (0, 5 and 20%) to feed the mice, and blood and tissue samples were collected to examine the oxidative stress related indexes. The results showed that the indexes of liver, kidney and spleen were all increased and the liver and kidney morphologies changed in the mycotoxin-treated mice. Also, the treatment resulted in the elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the serum and liver, indicating the presence of the oxidative stress. Moreover, the decrease of catalase (CAT) activity in the serum, liver and kidney as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver and kidney tissue further confirmed the occurrence of oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data indicate that the naturally contained mycotoxins are toxic in vivo and able to induce the oxidant stress in the mouse. PMID:23555961

  6. Presence of mycotoxins in sorghum and intake estimation in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Souheib; Blesa, Jesús; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Mañes, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Sorghum samples (n = 60) from Tunisian markets were analysed for the occurrence of 22 of both traditional and emerging mycotoxins. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS-like method and mycotoxins were detected by LC-MS/MS. This method was validated and adequate analytical parameters were obtained. All samples had contamination with mycotoxins and several samples had higher contamination levels than European Union legislative limits (MLs). The most frequently found mycotoxins were ENB (100%), OTA (98%), ENA₁ (63%), ENB₁ (56%), BEA (48%), AFB1 (38%) and STG (33%). Mean contaminations were 30.7, 1.93, 33.2, 51.0, 15.4, 1.49 and 20.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. While two samples were contaminated with FB2 and FB3 at mean values of 16.2 and 45.9 µg kg(-1), respectively, one sample was contaminated with AFB2 and ZEA at levels of 0.82 and 45.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results were used to estimate the daily intake of mycotoxins through sorghum consumption with regard to normal consumers (low-risk population) and high consumers such as babies (high-risk consumers) who are facing an alarming situation.

  7. Influence of mycotoxins on protein and amino acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Smith, T K

    1982-09-01

    The interrelationships between mycotoxins and the utilization of dietary protein are reviewed. Acute aflatoxicosis is characterized by reduced growth and fatty infiltration of the liver. Studies with poultry, swine, and monkeys have shown that supplements of dietary protein beyond normal requirements can overcome these conditions. High-protein diets, however, have been shown to promote hepatoma characteristic of chronic aflatoxicosis in rats. Aflatoxin interferes with utilization of dietary protein by inhibiting synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. High-protein diets promote the metabolism of aflatoxin by the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system. The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone increases membrane permeability and promotes uterine synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Supplements of dietary protein overcome growth reduction due to zearalenone and reduce the metabolic half-life of the toxin by promoting urinary excretion of free, unmetabolized zearalenone in the rat. The trichothecene mycotoxins disrupt normal protein metabolism by inactivating the ribosomal cycle. Protein supplements appear to have little effect on trichothecene mycotoxicoses. Most mycotoxins impair utilization of dietary protein. The effectiveness of protein supplements in overcoming mycotoxicoses will depend on the mycotoxin in question.

  8. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  9. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    PubMed Central

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  10. Synthetic materials to reduce exposure to mycotoxins in fermented foods and beverages

    Mycotoxins are a broad class of toxic fungal metabolites that occasionally contaminate agricultural commodities. Mycotoxin contamination reduces the value of affected commodities and negatively impacts the health of consumers. A popular approach to reduce the effects of exposure to mycotoxins is the...

  11. Nano-Aptasensing in Mycotoxin Analysis: Recent Updates and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Rhouati, Amina; Bulbul, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an overwhelming integration of nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. Nanomaterials have been incorporated with the objective to achieve better analytical figures of merit in terms of limit of detection, linear range, assays stability, low production cost, etc. Nanomaterials can act as immobilization support, signal amplifier, mediator and artificial enzyme label in the construction of aptasensors. We aim in this work to review the recent progress in mycotoxin analysis. This review emphasizes on the function of the different nanomaterials in aptasensors architecture. We subsequently relate their features to the analytical performance of the given aptasensor towards mycotoxins monitoring. In the same context, a critically analysis and level of success for each nano-aptasensing design will be discussed. Finally, current challenges in nano-aptasensing design for mycotoxin analysis will be highlighted. PMID:29143760

  12. Nano-Aptasensing in Mycotoxin Analysis: Recent Updates and Progress.

    PubMed

    Rhouati, Amina; Bulbul, Gonca; Latif, Usman; Hayat, Akhtar; Li, Zhan-Hong; Marty, Jean Louis

    2017-10-28

    Recent years have witnessed an overwhelming integration of nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. Nanomaterials have been incorporated with the objective to achieve better analytical figures of merit in terms of limit of detection, linear range, assays stability, low production cost, etc. Nanomaterials can act as immobilization support, signal amplifier, mediator and artificial enzyme label in the construction of aptasensors. We aim in this work to review the recent progress in mycotoxin analysis. This review emphasizes on the function of the different nanomaterials in aptasensors architecture. We subsequently relate their features to the analytical performance of the given aptasensor towards mycotoxins monitoring. In the same context, a critically analysis and level of success for each nano-aptasensing design will be discussed. Finally, current challenges in nano-aptasensing design for mycotoxin analysis will be highlighted.

  13. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques.

  14. Analysis of selected phytotoxins and mycotoxins in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Schenzel, Judith; Strobel, Bjarne W; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2009-11-01

    Natural toxins such as phytotoxins and mycotoxins have been studied in food and feed for decades, but little attention has yet been paid to their occurrence in the environment. Because of increasing awareness of the presence and potential relevance of micropollutants in the environment, phytotoxins and mycotoxins should be considered and investigated as part of the chemical cocktail in natural samples. Here, we compile chemical analytical methods to determine important phytotoxins (i.e. phenolic acids, quinones, benzoxazinones, terpenoids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, flavonoids, coumestans, lignans, and chalcones) and mycotoxins (i.e. resorcyclic acid lactones, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and aflatoxins) in environmentally relevant matrices such as surface water, waste water-treatment plant influent and effluent, soil, sediment, manure, and sewage sludge. The main problems encountered in many of the reviewed methods were the frequent unavailability of suitable internal standards (especially isotope-labelled analogues) and often absent or fragmentary method optimization and validation.

  15. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  16. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  17. Study of new ways of supplementary and combinatory therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with immunomodulators. Glucomannan and Imunoglukán in adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bauerová, K; Paulovicová, E; Mihalová, D; Svík, K; Ponist, S

    2009-01-01

    We studied the anti-arthritic activity of glucomannan (GM) isolated from Candida utilis and of Imunoglukán, a beta-(1,3/1,6)-D-glucan (IMG) isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus. Adjuvant arthritis (AA) was induced intradermally by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum in incomplete Freund's adjuvant to Lewis rats. Blood for biochemical and immunological analysis was collected on experimental days 1, 14, 21, and 28. A clinical parameter--hind paw volume (HPV)--was also measured. The detection of IL-1 alpha, IL-4, TNF alpha, and MCP-1 was done by immunoflowcytometry. On day 28--the end of the experiment--we determined spectrophotometrically: the total anti-oxidant status (TAS) of plasma samples along with thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels in plasma and we assessed the activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in hind paw joint homogenate. The experiments included healthy animals, arthritic animals without treatment, and arthritic animals with administration of glucomannan (GM-AA) in the oral daily dose of 15 mg/kg b.w. and of IMG (IMG-AA) in the oral daily dose of 2 mg/kg b.w. The progress of AA was manifested by all parameters monitored. Both substances had beneficial effects on HPV, TBARS levels, GGT activity, and TAS levels. For cytokine assessment, only IMG-AA samples were selected, considering the significant HPV improvement accompanied with the observed anti-oxidant action. IMG administration had a positive immunomodulating effect on all cytokine plasma levels measured, changed markedly due to arthritis progression. Thus, IMG may be considered as a candidate for combinatorial therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Mortimer, Jenny C; Lao, Jeemeng; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Yu, Xiaolan; Yamanashi, Yukiko; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Humans are unable to synthesize l-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels, leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of mycotoxin methods, present status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews current requirements for the analysis for mycotoxins in foods and identifies legislative as well as other factors that are driving development and validation of new methods. New regulatory limits for mycotoxins and analytical quality assurance requirements for laboratories to only use validated methods are seen as major factors driving developments. Three major classes of methods are identified which serve different purposes and can be categorized as screening, official and research. In each case the present status and future needs are assessed. In addition to an overview of trends in analytical methods, some other areas of analytical quality assurance such as participation in proficiency testing and reference materials are identified.

  20. Mycotoxins, pesticides and toxic metals in commercial spices and herbs.

    PubMed

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bavrins, Konstantins; Kuckovska, Galina; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2017-03-01

    A total of 300 samples representing six condiments (black pepper, basil, oregano, nutmeg, paprika, and thyme) were analysed for 11 mycotoxins, 134 pesticides and 4 heavy metals by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins were detected in 4%, 10% and 30% of all nutmeg, basil and thyme samples, respectively. The residues of 24 pesticides were detected in 59% of the analysed condiments. The maximum residue levels of pesticides were exceeded in 10% of oregano and 46% of thyme samples. A risk assessment of heavy metals was performed, indicating daily intake levels far below the tolerable intake levels.

  1. Current Status and Future Prospects for Aptamer-Based Mycotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Ruscito, Annamaria; Smith, McKenzie; Goudreau, Daniel N; DeRosa, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides with the ability to bind tightly and selectively to a target analyte. High-affinity and specific aptamers for a variety of mycotoxins have been reported over the past decade. Increasingly, these molecular recognition elements are finding applications in biosensors and assays for the detection of mycotoxins in a variety of complex matrixes. This review article highlights the mycotoxin aptamers that are available for mycotoxin detection and the array of biosensing platforms into which they have been incorporated. Key advantages that aptamers have over analogous technology, and areas in which these advantages may be applied for the benefit of practical mycotoxin detection, are also discussed.

  2. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of two mycotoxin binders to reduce toxicity of broiler diets containing ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin contaminated grain.

    PubMed

    García, A R; Avila, E; Rosiles, R; Petrone, V M

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) binding ability of two commercial sorbents, both in vitro and in vivo trials with broilers were performed. Crude OA and T-2 extracts from contaminated grain were used to assess in vitro binding ability of two sorbents (Zeotek [Zk] and Mycofix [Mx]), by quantifying free mycotoxin through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. For in vivo trial, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used for this experiment, being the factors: adsorbents (none, Zk, and Mx), OA (0 and 567 parts per billion [ppb]) and T-2 (0 and 927 ppb). OA and T-2 contaminated wheat and corn, respectively, were added to sorghum-soybean meal diets to meet 567 ppb of OA and 927 ppb of T-2. Mycotoxins were fed alone or combined in treatments. After 21 days, blood chemistry, gross, and histological evaluations were performed. Relative weights of liver, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius were obtained. Zk had the highest OA and T-2 in vitro binding ability (100% and 8.67%, respectively). Chickens fed OA with or without sorbents had a lower body weight and feed intake reduction. However, those birds fed T-2 were partly protected by a sorbent. Birds fed both toxins showed toxic additive effects, and no protection of any adsorbent was observed. A significant reduction in plasma proteins, albumin, and globulins was a characteristic observed in all birds fed diets with OA both with or without adsorbents. Uric acid level in blood was increased in all chickens fed OA-contaminated diets. Histological findings observed in birds fed OA-contaminated diets were necrosis of kidney tubular cells, swollen and necrotic hepatocytes, bile ducts hyperplasia, and increased diameter of proventriculus glands. In birds that received T-2 alone, only the liver, with the same kind of lesions, was affected. According to these results, it can be concluded that there is not a relation between in vitro and in vivo trials. OA toxic effects could not be counteracted by any

  4. Distribution of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes in 200 Fusarium genomes

    Fusarium is a species-rich genus of fungi that causes disease on most crop plants and produces diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. To determine the potential SM diversity within Fusarium as well as the distribution and ev...

  5. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  6. Identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis

    Research methods to identify and characterize genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways have evolved considerably over the years. Before whole genome sequences were available (e.g. pre-genomics), work focused primarily on chemistry, biosynthetic mutant strains and molecular analysis of sing...

  7. Climate change impacts on mycotoxin risks in US maize

    To ensure future food security, it is crucial to understand how potential climate change scenarios will affect agriculture. One key area of interest is how climatic factors, both in the near- and the long-term future, could affect fungal infection of crops and mycotoxin production by these fungi. ...

  8. Meiotic drive-based strategy to minimize mycotoxins in corn

    Some fungi pose a dual threat to corn production by causing disease (seedling, root, stalk or ear rots) and by producing mycotoxins that pose health risks to humans and domestic animals. For example, the fungus Fusarium verticillioides can cause stalk and ear rot of corn and produce fumonisins, a fa...

  9. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2013 – 2014

    This review highlights developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2013 and mid-2014. It continues in the format of the previous articles of this series, emphasising on analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxi...

  10. Screening mycotoxins for quorum inhibition in a biocontrol bacterial endophyte

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...

  11. Photolysis of Indole-Containing Mycotoxins to Fluorescent Products

    Photochemical reaction of the non-fluorescent mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) to fluorescent products was recently reported. Because CPA contains an indole moiety, believed to contribute to the fluorescence, it was of interest to determine whether the effect might be more generally applicable to ...

  12. Mycotoxin management studies by USDA "Ag Lab" in 2011

    Studies again included several popcorn fields in 2011. The research has been redirected to investigate hybrid based and environmental influences on gene expression directly and indirectly involved in resistance to mycotoxin production, so milk stage undamaged and damaged ears have been saved in t...

  13. Using enzymes and microorganisms to modify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium graminearum that contaminates staple crops such as wheat, barley, and maize when they are infected with this fungus. New strategies are needed to mitigate DON. We screened for microbes that could grow in the presence o...

  14. Mycotoxins in commercial dry pet food in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Manyu; Li, Li; Gu, Zuli; Yao, Ming; Xu, Danning; Fan, Wentao; Yan, Liping; Song, Suquan

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of the most common mycotoxins in commercial dry dog food using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2, beauvericin (BEA), citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) were included in this study. The results showed that all these analytes could be found in the samples. Furthermore, only one sample was found free of mycotoxins contamination. All other samples (96.9%) were contaminated by at least three different types of mycotoxins. Among these mycotoxins, DON, ZEN, AFB1, FB1, CIT and BEA exhibited relatively high incidence, with occurrence rates of 78.1%, 62.5%, 87.5%, 93.8%, 68.8 and 96.9%. Furthermore, it is worth noting that AFB1 concentration in all AFB1 positive samples exceeded the maximum limits set by the EU, with concentrations ranging from 30.3 µg/kg to 242.7 µg/kg.

  15. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg-1 and 8 μg kg-1, respectively.

  16. Applications of nanoporous cyclodextrin polymers to prevent exposure to mycotoxins

    As a continued effort to maintain a safe food supply, new strategies and technologies are developed in order to reduce human and animal exposure to contaminants. Agricultural commodities are occasionally contaminated by certain species of fungi that produce mycotoxins at levels that are health risks...

  17. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-09

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B 1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B 1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg -1 and 8 μg kg -1 , respectively.

  18. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg−1 and 8 μg kg−1, respectively. PMID:28276454

  19. Adsorption of mycotoxins in beverages onto functionalized mesoporous silicas

    Mycotoxins, natural toxins produced by fungi, are a global concern as contaminates of agricultural commodities. Exposure to these toxins can be reduced by the use of binding materials. Templated mesoporous silicas are promising materials with favorable adsorptive properties for dyes, ions, and toxin...

  20. Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E.; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers’ fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg−1). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize. PMID:22069750

  1. [Concentrated adsorbed, cultured antirabies vaccine].

    PubMed

    Dulina, A V; Shafeeva, R S; Morogova, V M; Krutilina, D V; Nigamov, F N

    1980-11-01

    In animal experiments the antigenic activity of adsorbed concentrated tissue-culture rabies vaccine was shown to be significantly higher in comparison with the nonadsorbed concentrated preparation when introduced in 2 intramuscular injections at an interval of 21 and 30 days, as well as in comparison with commercial tissue-culture vaccine when introduced subcutaneously in a 14-day course of daily injections.

  2. Human skin permeation of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins).

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; Roche, Nathalie; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; Delesalle, Catherine; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Currently, dermal exposure data of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins are completely absent. There is a lack of understanding about the local skin and systemic kinetics and effects, despite their widespread skin contact and intrinsic hazard. Therefore, we provide a quantitative characterisation of their dermal kinetics. The emerging mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) and beauvericin (BEA) were used as model compounds and their transdermal kinetics were quantitatively evaluated, using intact and damaged human skin in an in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-MS analytics. We demonstrated that all investigated mycotoxins are able to penetrate through the skin. ENN B showed the highest permeation (kp,v=9.44 × 10(-6) cm/h), whereas BEA showed the lowest (kp,v=2.35 × 10(-6) cm/h) and the other ENNs ranging in between. Combining these values with experimentally determined solubility data, Jmax values ranging from 0.02 to 0.35 μg/(cm(2) h) for intact skin and from 0.07 to 1.11 μg/(cm(2) h) for damaged skin were obtained. These were used to determine the daily dermal exposure (DDE) in a worst-case scenario. On the other hand, DDE's for a typical occupational scenario were calculated based on real-life mycotoxin concentrations for the industrial exposure of food-related workers. In the latter case, for contact with intact human skin, DDE's up to 0.0870 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN A were calculated, whereas for impaired skin barrier this can even rise up to 0.3209 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN B1. This knowledge is needed for the risk assessment after skin exposure of contaminated food, feed, indoor surfaces and airborne particles with mycotoxins.

  3. Occurrence, prevention and remediation of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in silage: a review.

    PubMed

    Wambacq, Eva; Vanhoutte, Ilse; Audenaert, Kris; De Gelder, Leen; Haesaert, Geert

    2016-05-01

    Ruminants are considered to be less sensitive towards mycotoxins than monogastric animals because rumen microbiota have mycotoxin-detoxifying capacities. Therefore the effect of mycotoxins towards ruminants has been studied to a lesser extent compared with monogastric animals. Worldwide, a high proportion of the ruminant diet consists of silages made of forage crops (i.e. all parts of the crop above the stubble are harvested). In practice, silages are often contaminated with multiple mycotoxins. Exposure to a cocktail of mycotoxins can hamper animal production and have severe health consequences. In this article the different aspects associated with mycotoxin contamination of silage are reviewed 'from seed to feed'. An overview is given on the occurrence of toxigenic fungal species and their concomitant mycotoxins in forage crops before and after ensiling. The mycotoxin load of visually non-mouldy samples and mouldy hot spots within the same silo is also compared. Subsequently, this review delves into different problem-solving strategies. A logical first step is prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin production in the field, during harvest and during ensiling. If prevention should fail, several remediation strategies are available. These are listed, mainly focusing on the possibilities of microbial degradation of mycotoxins in vivo in silage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  5. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, J. Joshua; Endicott, Dennis L.; Faulkner, Stephen A.; Verkiel, Maarten

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  6. Detection and Quantitation of T-2 Mycotoxin Using a Simplified Protein Synthesis Inhibition Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-18

    immunosuppressive nature of the mycotoxins. The mouse bioassay (Ueno et al, 1971) and the skin sensitivity test (Ueno et al, 1970; Chung, 1974) are effective... natural occurrence. In Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health WJ. V. Rodricks, C. W. Hasseltine, and M. A. Mehlman, eds.), pp. 229-253. Pathotox: Publishers...363, 14I37-1441. Terac, K., and Ito, E. (1981). The effects of naturally occurring bisdihydrofuran ring-containing mycotoxins on cultured chick

  7. Toxicity of mycotoxins for the rat pulmonary macrophage in vitro

    SciT

    Sorenson, W.G.; Gerberick, G.F.; Lewis, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in grains is well documented. Workers in grain handling occupations are commonly exposed to grain dust aerosols. Work in our laboratory has shown that T-2 toxin is highly toxic to rat alveolar macrophages in vitro, causing loss of viability, release of radiolabeled chromium, inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, inhibition of phagocytosis, and inhibition of macrophage activation. Similarly, patulin caused a significant release of radiolabeled chromium, decrease in ATP levels, significant inhibition of protein and RNA synthesis, and inhibition of phagocytosis. The data show that both T-2 toxin and patulin are highly toxic to rat alveolar macrophages inmore » vitro. The data further suggest that the presence of these mycotoxins in airborne respirable dust might present a hazard to exposed workers.« less

  8. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  9. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  10. Mycotoxins co-contamination: Methodological aspects and biological relevance of combined toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Taranu, Ionelia; Marin, Daniela; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle Paule

    2017-11-02

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. As evidenced by large-scale surveys, humans and animals are simultaneously exposed to several mycotoxins. Simultaneous exposure could result in synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects. However, most toxicity studies addressed the effects of mycotoxins separately. We present the experimental designs and we discuss the conclusions drawn from in vitro experiments exploring toxicological interactions of mycotoxins. We report more than 80 publications related to mycotoxin interactions. The studies explored combinations involving the regulated groups of mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes, but also the "emerging" mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins. Over 50 publications are based on the arithmetic model of additivity. Few studies used the factorial designs or the theoretical biology-based models of additivity. The latter approaches are gaining increased attention. These analyses allow determination of the type of interaction and, optionally, its magnitude. The type of interaction reported for mycotoxin combinations depended on several factors, in particular cell models and the tested dose ranges. However, synergy among Fusarium toxins was highlighted in several studies. This review indicates that well-addressed in vitro studies remain valuable tools for the screening of interactive potential in mycotoxin mixtures.

  11. Mycotoxin in the food supply chain-implications for public health program.

    PubMed

    Milićević, D; Nastasijevic, I; Petrovic, Z

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring toxic chemical substances, produced mainly by microscopic filamentous fungal species. Regarding potential synergisms or even mitigating effects between toxic elements, mycotoxin contamination will continue to be an area of concern for producers, manufacturers, regulatory agencies, researchers, and consumers in the future. In Serbia, recent drought and then flooding confirmed that mycotoxins are one of the foodborne hazards most susceptible to climate change. In this article, we review key aspects of mycotoxin contamination of the food supply chain and implications for public health from the Serbian perspective.

  12. Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional wheat.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S G

    2009-04-01

    Each year (2001-2005), 300 samples of wheat from fields of known agronomy were analysed for ten trichothecenes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, fusarenone X, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol and T-2 triol and zearalenone by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of the eleven mycotoxins analysed from 1624 harvest samples of wheat, only eight were detected, and of these only five-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol, HT-2 and zearalenone-were detected above 100 microg kg(-1). DON was the most frequently detected Fusarium mycotoxin, present above the limit of quantification (10 microg kg(-1)) in 86% of samples, and was usually present at the highest concentration. The percentage of samples that would have exceeded the recently introduced legal limits varied between 0.4% and 11.3% over the five-year period. There was a good correlation between DON and zearalenone concentrations, although the relative concentration of DON and zearalenone fluctuated between years. Year and region had a significant effect on all mycotoxins analysed. There was no significant difference in the DON concentration of organic and conventional samples. There was also no significant difference in the concentration of zearalenone between organic and conventional samples, however organic samples did have a significantly lower concentration of HT2 and T2. Overall, the risk of UK wheat exceeding the newly introduced legal limits for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals intended for human consumption is low, but the percentage of samples above these limits will fluctuate between years.

  13. The induction of mycotoxins by trichothecene producing Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rohan; Jubault, Mélanie; Canning, Gail; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many Fusarium species have emerged which now threaten the productivity and safety of small grain cereal crops worldwide. During floral infection and post-harvest on stored grains the Fusarium hyphae produce various types of harmful mycotoxins which subsequently contaminate food and feed products. This article focuses specifically on the induction and production of the type B sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins. Methods are described which permit in liquid culture the small or large scale production and detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its various acetylated derivatives. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ear inoculation assay is also explained which allows the direct comparison of mycotoxin production by species, chemotypes and strains with different growth rates and/or disease-causing abilities. Each of these methods is robust and can be used for either detailed time-course studies or end-point analyses. Various analytical methods are available to quantify the levels of DON, 3A-DON and 15A-DON. Some criteria to be considered when making selections between the different analytical methods available are briefly discussed.

  14. Effects of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins on the murine immune system

    SciT

    Hughes, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The macrocyclic trichothecenes are a unique group of toxins which have some antileukemic properties. In the first study, verrucarin A and roridin A were examined. Both mycotoxins were administered intraperitoneally at an equitoxic dose of 0.35 mg/kg to CD-1 mice. Lymphocyte proliferation was studied after animals were dosed with verrucarin A. After day 2, no differences in {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation were observed using concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). On day 4, DNA synthesis induced by Con A, PHA, and PWM increased significantly. On day 7, PHA stimulation increased above controls while Con A,more » PWM, and LPS responses were not significantly different. In contrast, roridin A decreased PHA stimulation only on day 7. In the second study the mycotoxins roritoxin B, myrotoxin B, roridin A, verrucarin A, 16-hydroxyverrucarin A, verrucarin J, baccharinoid B12, roridin D, roridin E, baccharinoid B4, and baccharinoid B5 were investigated. In the third study lymphocytes were cultured with each of the mycotoxins for 48 hr to assess their lethality.« less

  15. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zinedine, Abdellah; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Mañes, Jordi; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin contamination of ninety-eight (98) couscous semolina samples collected from various areas in Morocco was investigated in this study. Samples were surveyed for the presence of 22 mycotoxins (four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, diacetoxiscyrpenol (DAS), three fumonisins, beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Results showed that 96 out of 98 total couscous samples (98%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. Enniatin B (ENB), Enniatin B1 (ENB1), Enniatin A1 (ENA1) and zearalenone (ZEA) have shown the highest incidences in contaminated samples. The dietary exposure was estimated to be 1.02, 0.57, 0.06, 0.57 and 0.3μg/kgbw/day for the sum of (DON+3-ADON+15-ADON), fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3), the sum of (T2+HT-2), NIV and ZEA, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Croubels, Siska; Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and animals is needed to update the risk evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. Taking into account new occurrence data for tenuazonic acid, the complete oral bioavailability, the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely excluded. Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well. PMID:28718805

  17. Bottled water: analysis of mycotoxins by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mata, A T; Ferreira, J P; Oliveira, B R; Batoréu, M C; Barreto Crespo, M T; Pereira, V J; Bronze, M R

    2015-06-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in food samples has been widely studied as well as its impact in human health, however, information about its distribution in the environment is scarce. An analytical method comprising a solid phase extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis was implemented and validated for the trace analysis of mycotoxins in drinking bottled waters. Limits of quantification achieved for the method were between 0.2ngL(-1) for aflatoxins and ochratoxin, and 2.0ngL(-1) for fumonisins and neosolaniol. The method was applied to real samples. Aflatoxin B2 was the most frequently detected mycotoxin in water samples, with a maximum concentration of 0.48±0.05ngL(-1) followed by aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1 and ochratoxin A. The genera Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium were the fungi more frequently detected. These results show that the consumption of these waters does not represent a toxicological risk for an adult. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fate of trichothecene mycotoxins during the processing: milling and baking.

    PubMed

    Lancova, K; Hajslova, J; Kostelanska, M; Kohoutkova, J; Nedelnik, J; Moravcova, H; Vanova, M

    2008-05-01

    Toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi representing Fusarium genus are common contaminants in cereals worldwide. To estimate the dietary intake of these trichothecene mycotoxins, information on their fate during cereal processing is needed. Up-to-date techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the analysis of seven trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, 15- and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and fusarenon-X) in bread production chain (wheat grains, intermediate products collected during milling and baking process, breads). Regardless of whether the grains were naturally infected or artificially inoculated by Fusarium spp. in the field, the fractions obtained from the grain-cleaning procedure contained the highest mycotoxin levels. During milling the highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol were found in the bran, the lowest in the reduction flours. Baking at 210 degrees C for 14 min had no significant effect on deoxynivalenol levels. The rheological properties of dough measured by fermentograph, maturograph, oven rise recorder, and laboratory baking test were carried out, and based on the obtained results the influence of mycotoxin content on rheological behaviour was investigated.

  19. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joan W.; Inamdar, Arati A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties. PMID:26402705

  20. Multiplexed detection of mycotoxins in foods with a regenerable array.

    PubMed

    Ngundi, Miriam M; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Moore, Martin H; Ligler, Frances S; Taitt, Chris R

    2006-12-01

    The occurrence of different mycotoxins in cereal products calls for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection method that is capable of analyzing samples for multiple toxins simultaneously. In this study, we report the development and application of a multiplexed competitive assay for the simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in spiked barley, cornmeal, and wheat, as well as in naturally contaminated maize samples. Fluoroimmunoassays were performed with the Naval Research Laboratory array biosensor, by both a manual and an automated version of the system. This system employs evanescent-wave fluorescence excitation to probe binding events as they occur on the surface of a waveguide. Methanolic extracts of the samples were diluted threefold with buffer containing a mixture of fluorescent antibodies and were then passed over the arrays of mycotoxins immobilized on a waveguide. Fluorescent signals of the surface-bound antibody-antigen complexes decreased with increasing concentrations of free mycotoxins in the extract. After sample analysis was completed, surfaces were regenerated with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in 50 mM glycine, pH 2.0. The limits of detection determined by the manual biosensor system were as follows: 1, 180, and 65 ng/g for DON and 1, 60, and 85 ng/g for OTA in cornmeal, wheat, and barley, respectively. The limits of detection in cornmeal determined with the automated array biosensor were 15 and 150 ng/g for OTA and DON, respectively.

  1. T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Manish; Negi, Bhawana; Kaushik, Neha; Adhikari, Anupriya; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems. Sensitivity to this type of toxin varying from dairy cattle to pigs, with the most sensitive endpoints being neural, reproductive, immunological and hematological effects. The mechanism of action mainly consists of the inhibition of protein synthesis and oxidative damage to cells followed by the disruption of nucleic acid synthesis and ensuing apoptosis. In this review, the possible hazards, historical significance, toxicokinetics, and the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects along with regulatory guidelines and recommendations pertaining to the trichothecene mycotoxin are discussed. Furthermore, various techniques utilized for toxin determination, pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment using herbal antioxidant compounds and regulatory guidelines and recommendations are reviewed. The prospects of the trichothecene as potential hazardous agents, decontamination strategies and future perspectives along with plausible therapeutic uses are comprehensively described. PMID:28430618

  2. Occurrence of mycotoxin producing fungi in bee pollen.

    PubMed

    González, G; Hinojo, M J; Mateo, R; Medina, A; Jiménez, M

    2005-11-15

    The natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen is studied in the present report with special attention to analyze the incidence of fungal species that are potential producers of mycotoxins. A total of 90 ready-to-eat bee pollen samples were analyzed. Eighty-seven samples were collected in stores placed in different Spanish areas and three were from Buenos Aires (Argentina). The statistical results (ANOVA) showed that yeasts and Penicillium spp. were the predominant fungi. With regard to the potential mycotoxin producing species, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus niger aggregate, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Alternaria spp. were found. The last genus was isolated very frequently. The potential ability for producing ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) was studied by culturing in vitro the isolates followed by analysis of these mycotoxins in culture extracts by HPLC with fluorescent detection. It was found that 100%, 53.3%, 33.3% and 25% of the isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceus, P. verrucosum and A. niger aggregate, respectively, produced OTA. Moreover, 28.6% of the isolates from the A. flavus plus A. parasiticus group were able to produce aflatoxin B(1). Aflatoxin B(2) was detected in only 10% of the cultures. Aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were not detected in cultures under the assayed conditions. This is the first report carried out on the natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen in general and on the toxigenic capability of these isolates in particular.

  3. Long-term effects of Garcinia cambogia/Glucomannan on weight loss in people with obesity, PLIN4, FTO and Trp64Arg polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Maia-Landim, Andrea; Ramírez, Juan M; Lancho, Carolina; Poblador, María S; Lancho, José L

    2018-01-24

    Overweight and obesity are considered major health problems that contribute to increase mortality and quality of life. Both conditions have a high prevalence across the world reaching epidemic numbers. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of the administration of Garcinia cambogia (GC) and Glucomannan (GNN) on long-term weight loss in people with overweight or obesity. Prospective, not-randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted. We treated 214 subjects with overweight or obesity with GC and GNN (500 mg twice a day, each) for 6 months evaluating weight, fat mass, visceral fat, basal metabolic rate, and lipid and glucose blood profiles comparing them with basal values. Some patients were carriers of polymorphisms PLIN4 -11482G > A-, fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) -rs9939609 A/T- and β-adrenergic receptor 3 (ADRB3) -Trp64Arg. Treatment produced weight loss, reducing fat mass, visceral fat, lipid and blood glucose profiles while increasing basal metabolic rate. Results were independent of sex, age or suffering from hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia and were attenuated in carriers of PLIN4, FTO, Trp64Arg polymorphisms. Administration of GC and GNN reduce weight and improve lipid and glucose blood profiles in people with overweight or obesity, although the presence of polymorphisms PLIN4, FTO and ADRB3 might hinder in some degree these effects. ISRCTN78807585, 19 September 2017, retrospective study.

  4. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  5. The current state of mycotoxin biomarker development in humans and animals and the potential for application to plant systems

    Filamentous fungi that contaminate livestock feeds and human food supply often produce toxigenic secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins. Among the hundreds of known mycotoxins, aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone are considered the most commercially important. In...

  6. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    PubMed

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  7. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucosides; masked mycotoxins in cereal crops

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when the fungus Fusarium infects small grains, especially oats. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called m...

  8. “Masked” mycotoxin detection: What is a poor chemist to do?

    Novel fungal toxins and metabolites of known toxins that have not been amenable to easy detection using established reference methods are routinely termed “masked” mycotoxins in the literature. Typically these are metabolites that are structurally related to mycotoxins of economic importance, but wh...

  9. Quorum quenchers and sensors as possible roles for mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites of fungi

    The assumed role for mycotoxins is to act as defensive metabolites thus serving as protection for fungi from biotic antagonisms and as such do not interact with the daily metabolic requirements of the producing fungus. Preventive strategies are devoted to reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins bas...

  10. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  11. Molds and mycotoxins in indoor environments--a survey in water-damaged buildings.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erica; Nyman, Eva; Must, Aime; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

    2009-11-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic, secondary metabolites frequently produced by molds in water-damaged indoor environments. We studied the prevalence of selected, potent mycotoxins and levels of fungal biomass in samples collected from water-damaged indoor environments in Sweden during a 1-year period. One hundred samples of building materials, 18 samples of settled dust, and 37 samples of cultured dust were analyzed for: (a) mycoflora by microscopy and culture; (b) fungal chemical marker ergosterol and hydrolysis products of macrocyclic trichothecenes and trichodermin (verrucarol and trichodermol) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; and (c) sterigmatocystin, gliotoxin, aflatoxin B(1), and satratoxin G and H by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sixty-six percent of the analyzed building materials samples, 11% of the settled dust samples, and 51% of the cultured dust samples were positive for at least one of the studied mycotoxins. In addition, except in the case of gliotoxin, mycotoxin-positive building material samples contained 2-6 times more ergosterol than mycotoxin-negative samples. We show that (a) molds growing on a range of different materials indoors in water-damaged buildings generally produce mycotoxins, and (b) mycotoxin-containing particles in mold-contaminated environments may settle on surfaces above floor level. The mass spectrometry methods used in this study are valuable tools in further research to survey mycotoxin exposure and investigate potential links with health effects.

  12. Saliva secretory IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins in patients exposed to toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kashanian, Albert; Vojdani, Elroy; Campbell, Andrew W

    2003-11-01

    Upper respiratory exposure to different environmental antigens results first in the activation of mucosal immunity and production of IgA antibodies in different secretions including saliva. Despite this there is no study, which addresses secretory antibodies against molds and mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mold-specific salivary IgA in individuals exposed to molds and mycotoxins in a water-damaged building environment. Saliva IgA antibody levels against seven different molds and two mycotoxins were studied in 40 patients exposed to molds and in 40 control subjects. Mold-exposed patients showed significantly higher levels of salivary IgA antibodies against one or more mold species. A majority of patients with high IgA antibodies against molds exhibited elevation in salivary IgA against mycotoxins, as well. These IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins are specific, since using molds and mycotoxins in immune absorption could reduce antibody levels, significantly. Detection of high counts of molds in water-damaged buildings, strongly suggests the existence of a reservoir of mold spores in the environment. This viable microbial activity with specific mold and mycotoxin IgA in saliva may assist in the diagnosis of mold exposure. Whether mold and mycotoxin specific IgA antibodies detected in saliva are indicative of the role of IgA antibodies in the late phase of type-1 hypersensitivity reaction or in type-2 and type-3 delayed sensitivities is a matter that warrants further investigation.

  13. Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Njobeh, Patrick; Obadina, Adewale

    2017-01-01

    Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p < 0.01, r = 0.308). The extent to which the analyzed mycotoxins contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain. PMID:29117141

  14. Size exclusion chromatographic analysis of refuse-derived fuel for mycotoxins

    SciT

    Bicking, M.K.; Kniseley, R.N.

    1980-11-01

    A Styragel packing material is characterized in several solvent systems by using a series of test solutes and mycotoxins. Differences in interpretation with other work are discussed. Three different separation modes are generated on one stationary phase. An improved separation of mycotoxins from a compilcated matrix results by simultaneously using size exclusion and liquid-liquid partitioning. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Synthesis of radiolabeled mycotoxins. Final report, 1 December 1984-30 November 1986

    SciT

    Kraus, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The synthesis of labelled mycotoxins by chemical modification of readily available simpler mycotoxins was shown to be feasible. T-2 tetraol and T-2 tetraacetate with three deuterium atoms attached to the carbon skeleton were prepared. These compounds will be used in mass spectroscopy to pinpoint fragmentations of their nondueterated counterparts.

  16. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    PubMed

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-14

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms.

  17. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    PubMed Central

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  18. Assessment of mycotoxins in Vitis vinifera wines of the Southeastern United States

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine is prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp., and it was recently discovered that some of these species can also produce the mycotoxin fumonisin B2. Although wine...

  19. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  20. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts

    PubMed Central

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell’Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge. PMID:26891326

  1. Paper-based immune-affinity arrays for detection of multiple mycotoxins in cereals.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Hongpu; Lv, Xiaolan; Wang, Min; Jiang, Xizhi; Jiang, Yifei; Wang, Heye; Zhao, Yongfu; Xia, Liru

    2018-03-01

    Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in cereals and feedstuffs, and could be highly toxic for humans and animals. For quantification of multiple mycotoxins in cereals, we developed a paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array. First, paper-based microzone arrays were fabricated by photolithography. Then, monoclonal mycotoxin antibodies were added in a copolymerization reaction with a cross-linker to form an immune-affinity monolith on the paper-based microzone array. With use of a competitive immune-response format, paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity arrays were successfully applied to detect mycotoxins in samples. The detection limits for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin were 62.7, 10.8, 0.36, and 0.23 μg·kg -1 , respectively, which meet relevant requirements for these compounds in food. The recovery rates were 81-86% for deoxynivalenol, 89-117% for zearalenone, 79-86% for T-2 toxin, and 78-83% for HT-2 toxin, and showed the paper-based immune-affinity arrays had good reproducibility. In summary, the paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array provides a sensitive, rapid, accurate, stable, and convenient platform for detection of multiple mycotoxins in agro-foods. Graphical abstract Paper-based immune-affinity monolithic array. DON deoxynivalenol, HT-2 HT-2 toxin, T-2 T-2 toxin, PEGDA polyethylene glycol diacrylate, ZEN zearalenone.

  2. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations. PMID:23162698

  3. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-02-15

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge.

  4. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  5. Toxicodynamics of Mycotoxins in the Framework of Food Risk Assessment—An In Silico Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxins severely threaten the health of humans and animals. For this reason, many countries have enforced regulations and recommendations to reduce the dietary exposure. However, even though regulatory actions must be based on solid scientific knowledge, many aspects of their toxicological activity are still poorly understood. In particular, deepening knowledge on the primal molecular events triggering the toxic stimulus may be relevant to better understand the mechanisms of action of mycotoxins. The present work presents the use of in silico approaches in studying the mycotoxins toxicodynamics, and discusses how they may contribute in widening the background of knowledge. A particular emphasis has been posed on the methods accounting the molecular initiating events of toxic action. In more details, the key concepts and challenges of mycotoxins toxicology have been introduced. Then, topical case studies have been presented and some possible practical implementations of studying mycotoxins toxicodynamics have been discussed. PMID:29360783

  6. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wagacha, J M; Muthomi, J W

    2008-05-10

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa predisposes them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions

  7. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  8. The uranium from seawater program at PNNL: Overview of marine testing, adsorbent characterization, adsorbent durability, adsorbent toxicity, and deployment studies

    SciT

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Janke, Christopher James

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) located along the coast of Washington State is evaluating the performance of uranium adsorption materials being developed for seawater extraction under realistic marine conditions with natural seawater. Two types of exposure systems were employed in this program: flow-through columns for testing of fixed beds of individual fibers and pellets and a recirculating water flume for testing of braided adsorbent material. Testing consists of measurements of the adsorption of uranium and other elements from seawater as a function of time, typically 42 to 56 day exposures, to determine the adsorbent capacitymore » and adsorption rate (kinetics). Analysis of uranium and other trace elements collected by the adsorbents was conducted following strong acid digestion of the adsorbent with 50% aqua regia using either Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ORNL 38H adsorbent had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.30 ± 0.68 g U/ kg adsorbent (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation adsorption capacity of 4.89 ± 0.83 g U/kg of adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half-saturation time of 28 10 days. The AF1 adsorbent material had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.9 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation capacity of 5.4 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half saturation time of 23 2 days. The ORNL amidoxime-based adsorbent materials are not specific for uranium, but also adsorb other elements from seawater. The major doubly charged cations in seawater (Ca and Mg) account for a majority of the cations adsorbed (61% by mass and 74% by molar percent). For the ORNL AF1 adsorbent material, U is the 4th most abundant element adsorbed by mass and 7th most abundant by molar percentage. Marine testing

  9. The uranium from seawater program at PNNL: Overview of marine testing, adsorbent characterization, adsorbent durability, adsorbent toxicity, and deployment studies

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Janke, Christopher James; ...

    2016-02-07

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) located along the coast of Washington State is evaluating the performance of uranium adsorption materials being developed for seawater extraction under realistic marine conditions with natural seawater. Two types of exposure systems were employed in this program: flow-through columns for testing of fixed beds of individual fibers and pellets and a recirculating water flume for testing of braided adsorbent material. Testing consists of measurements of the adsorption of uranium and other elements from seawater as a function of time, typically 42 to 56 day exposures, to determine the adsorbent capacitymore » and adsorption rate (kinetics). Analysis of uranium and other trace elements collected by the adsorbents was conducted following strong acid digestion of the adsorbent with 50% aqua regia using either Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ORNL 38H adsorbent had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.30 ± 0.68 g U/ kg adsorbent (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation adsorption capacity of 4.89 ± 0.83 g U/kg of adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half-saturation time of 28 10 days. The AF1 adsorbent material had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.9 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation capacity of 5.4 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half saturation time of 23 2 days. The ORNL amidoxime-based adsorbent materials are not specific for uranium, but also adsorb other elements from seawater. The major doubly charged cations in seawater (Ca and Mg) account for a majority of the cations adsorbed (61% by mass and 74% by molar percent). For the ORNL AF1 adsorbent material, U is the 4th most abundant element adsorbed by mass and 7th most abundant by molar percentage. Marine testing

  10. The presence of Penicillium and Penicillium mycotoxins in food wastes.

    PubMed

    Rundberget, Thomas; Skaar, Ida; Flåøyen, Arne

    2004-01-15

    A total of 97 samples (48 summer and 49 winter) of food waste from private households were investigated for Penicillium and for mycotoxins. Twenty-five Penicillium species were isolated and Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium spinulosum, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium solitum were, in decreasing order, the most frequently identified species. Mycotoxins produced by several of these species, including mycophenolic acid, roquefortine C, penitrems A-F and thomitrems A and E, were detected. Of the 48 summer samples, 36 were severely infected and contained more than 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Penicillium/g sample. The levels of mycotoxins in these samples were in the range 75-19000 microg/kg mycophenolic acid, 40-920 microg/kg roquefortine C, 35-7500 microg/kg penitrem A, 20-2100 microg/kg thomitrem A and 20-3300 microg/kg thomitrem E. Of the 49 winter samples, only one was found to contain mycophenolic acid (4800 microg/kg) and roquefortine C (190 microg/kg), and this sample was severely infected with P. roqueforti. Thirty samples of food waste collected from the food manufacturing industry were also investigated. The number of Penicillium in these samples was between 10(5) and 10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/g sample. Seven of these samples contained mycophenolic acid ranging from 50 to 600 microg/kg and three of these samples also contained roquefortine C in the range 100-250 microg/kg.

  11. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    SciT

    Janke, Chris; Yatsandra, Oyola; Mayes, Richard

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  12. Mycotoxins and mycoflora in animal feedstuffs in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, D; Mills, J T; Boycott, B R

    1983-01-01

    Feed samples associated with 51 cases of suspected or potential mycotoxicoses of farm animals in western Canada were examined during a three year study. Ochratoxin A was detected in four cases, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol in one, and sterigmatocystin in one. Samples examined for microflora associated with production of these mycotoxins contained Penicillium spp., Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium spp. and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group. Samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol only if Fusarium spp. were present. The first known incidence of suspected sterigmatocystin poisoning of poultry through feed ingestion has been encountered. PMID:6831303

  13. Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 205 NIST/ARPA-E Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials (Web, free access)   The NIST/ARPA-E Database of Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials is a free, web-based catalog of adsorbent materials and measured adsorption properties of numerous materials obtained from article entries from the scientific literature. Search fields for the database include adsorbent material, adsorbate gas, experimental conditions (pressure, temperature), and bibliographic information (author, title, journal), and results from queries are provided as a list of articles matching the search parameters. The database also contains adsorption isotherms digitized from the cataloged articles, which can be compared visually online in the web application or exported for offline analysis.

  14. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOEpatents

    Endicott, Dennis L [Peoria, IL; Verkiel, Maarten [Metamora, IL; Driscoll, James J [Dunlap, IL

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  15. Evaluation of Alternaria mycotoxins in strawberries: quantification and storage condition.

    PubMed

    Juan, Cristina; Oueslati, Souheib; Mañes, Jordi

    2016-05-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) are Alternaria mycotoxins produced by the most common post-harvest pathogens of fruits. The production of these metabolites depends on several environmental factors, mainly temperature, water activity, pH and the technological treatments that have been applied to the product. In this study, the occurrence of AOH, AME and TEN was evaluated in strawberries samples stored at different temperatures ranges (at 22 ± 2 or 6 ± 2°C) and different periods (up to 1 month) simulating the current practice of consumer's storage conditions. Sample extraction was performed using a liquid-liquid extraction method prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. AOH was the most prevalent mycotoxins with a 42% at strawberries stored at (22 ± 2)°C and 37% stored at (6 ± 2)°C. The highest AOH levels were found in samples conserved at (22 ± 2)°C ranging between 26 and 752 ng g(-1). AME levels ranged between 11 and 137 ng g(-)(1), which were found mainly in stored samples at (6 ± 2)°C for more than 28 days. None sample presented levels of TEN in either of the studied conditions.

  16. Mycotoxins transmitted into beer from contaminated grains during brewing.

    PubMed

    Scott, P M

    1996-01-01

    Studies with aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisins B1 and B2 added at various stages of the brewing process show that these mycotoxins (or metabolites) may be transmitted from contaminated grains into beer. Citrinin does not survive the mashing step. Mycotoxins in beer could originate from the malted grain or from adjuncts. Although high incidences and concentrations of aflatoxins and zearalenone have been found in local beers brewed in Africa, aflatoxins have not been detected in European beers. Zearalenone and alpha- or beta-zearalenol (the metabolite likely to occur) have not been found in Canadian and European beers, except for one sample analyzed by thin-layer chromatography only. Ochratoxin A rarely has been detected at > 1 ng/mL in beer; liquid chromatographic methods with a 0.05-0.1 ng/mL detection limit, however, have shown moderately high incidences of trace levels. Deoxynivalenol, which survives the brewing process, has been found with high incidence in Canadian and European beers, with concentration of > 200 ng/mL reported in several German beers. Fumonisins B1 and B2 occur to a limited extent in beer.

  17. Mechanistic Insight into the Biosynthesis and Detoxification of Fumonisin Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-09-16

    Fumonisins, notably FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4, are economically important mycotoxins produced by a number Fusarium sp. that occur on corn, rice, and sorghum as well as by Aspergillus sp. on grapes. The fumonisin scaffold is comprised of a C18 polyketide backbone functionalized with two tricarballylic esters and an alanine derived amine. These functional groups contribute to fumonisin's ability to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis in animals, plants, and yeasts. We report for the first time the isolation and structure elucidation of two classes of nonaminated fumonisins (FPy and FLa) produced by Aspergillus welwitschiae. Using a Lemna minor (duckweed) bioassay, these new compounds were significantly less toxic in comparison to the fumonisin B mycotoxins, providing new insight into the mechanism of fumonisin toxicity. Time course fermentations monitoring the production of FB4, FPy4, and FLa4, as well as (13)C and (15)N stable isotope incorporation, suggest a novel postbiosynthetic oxidative deamination process for fumonisins. This pathway was further supported by a feeding study with FB1, a fumonisin not produced by Aspergillus sp., which resulted in its transformation to FPy1. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus have the ability to produce enzymes that could be used for fumonisin detoxification.

  18. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Amanda Juan; Jiao, Xiaolin; Hu, Yongjian; Lu, Xiaohong; Gao, Weiwei

    2015-09-24

    The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans.

  20. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Amanda Juan; Jiao, Xiaolin; Hu, Yongjian; Lu, Xiaohong; Gao, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans. PMID:26404373

  1. Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: a review.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nicholas W; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-01-26

    Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  2. The Alternaria alternata Mycotoxin Alternariol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Shivani; Lawrence, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms. AOH/AME-related immune suppression and morphological changes were linked to the ability of these mycotoxins to cause cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This model was also used to investigate the AOH/AME mechanism of immune suppression in relation to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR was not found to be important for the immunosuppressive properties of AOH/AME, but appeared important for the low levels of cell death observed in BEAS-2B cells. PMID:28726766

  3. Analysis of Adsorbate-Adsorbate and Adsorbate-Adsorbent Interactions to Decode Isosteric Heats of Gas Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Madani, S Hadi; Sedghi, Saeid; Biggs, Mark J; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-21

    A qualitative interpretation is proposed to interpret isosteric heats of adsorption by considering contributions from three general classes of interaction energy: fluid-fluid heat, fluid-solid heat, and fluid-high-energy site (HES) heat. Multiple temperature adsorption isotherms are defined for nitrogen, T=(75, 77, 79) K, argon at T=(85, 87, 89) K, and for water and methanol at T=(278, 288, 298) K on a well-characterized polymer-based, activated carbon. Nitrogen and argon are subjected to isosteric heat analyses; their zero filling isosteric heats of adsorption are consistent with slit-pore, adsorption energy enhancement modelling. Water adsorbs entirely via specific interactions, offering decreasing isosteric heat at low pore filling followed by a constant heat slightly in excess of water condensation enthalpy, demonstrating the effects of micropores. Methanol offers both specific adsorption via the alcohol group and non-specific interactions via its methyl group; the isosteric heat increases at low pore filling, indicating the predominance of non-specific interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Real and Perceived Risks for Mycotoxin Contamination in Foods and Feeds: Challenges for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, Dragan R.; Škrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health. PMID:22069600

  5. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control.

    PubMed

    Milićević, Dragan R; Skrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-04-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health.

  6. HPLC-DAD-FLD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Mycotoxins in Wheat Bran.

    PubMed

    Irakli, Maria N; Skendi, Adriana; Papageorgiou, Maria D

    2017-08-01

    Aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone are the most important mycotoxins that everyone on its own, in groups or simultaneously contaminate cereals. The external layers of cereal grains (bran) apart from health promoting ingredients are also the most contaminated part with reference to mycotoxin's presence. Therefore, consumption of a high fiber wheat-based diet represent an increased risk to consumer's health. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of these mycotoxins in wheat bran (WB). A double extraction was applied with phosphate buffered saline/methanol and for the clean-up a multi-immunoaffinity column was utilized. The detection was carried out with diode-array and fluorescence detectors linked with a post-column photochemical reactor. After optimization of the chromatographic conditions, all mycotoxins were eluted within ~26 min. Limits of detection for each mycotoxin (0.12-12.58 µg/kg) were below the maximum levels provisioned by European Union regulations. Good linearity was observed for the analytes (r2 ≥ 0.9980). The recovery of analyzed mycotoxins ranged from 70.2 to 105.8%, with a relative standard deviation <12%. The method was successfully applied to quantify mycotoxins in 34 WB samples obtained after pearling of grains that were collected from different regions of Greece. © Crown copyright 2017.

  7. Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ian James

    2015-12-10

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are now associated with obesity and diabetes and linked to the developing and developed world. Interests in healthy diets have escalated that may prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The global metabolic syndrome involves lipoprotein abnormalities and insulin resistance and is the major disorder for induction of neurological disease. The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on dyslipidemia and NAFLD indicate that the clearance and metabolism of fungal mycotoxins are linked to hypercholesterolemia and amyloid beta oligomers. LPS and mycotoxins are associated with membrane lipid disturbances with effects on cholesterol interacting proteins, lipoprotein metabolism, and membrane apo E/amyloid beta interactions relevant to hypercholesterolemia with close connections to neurological diseases. The influence of diet on mycotoxin metabolism has accelerated with the close association between mycotoxin contamination from agricultural products such as apple juice, grains, alcohol, and coffee. Cholesterol efflux in lipoproteins and membrane cholesterol are determined by LPS with involvement of mycotoxin on amyloid beta metabolism. Nutritional interventions such as diets low in fat/carbohydrate/cholesterol have become of interest with relevance to low absorption of lipophilic LPS and mycotoxin into lipoproteins with rapid metabolism of mycotoxin to the liver with the prevention of neurodegeneration.

  8. Determination of mycotoxins in foods: current state of analytical methods and limitations.

    PubMed

    Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Siegel, David; Merkel, Stefan; Maul, Ronald; Nehls, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants produced by a range of fungal species. Their common occurrence in food and feed poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. This threat is caused either by the direct contamination of agricultural commodities or by a "carry-over" of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk, and eggs after feeding of contaminated hay or corn. As a consequence of their diverse chemical structures and varying physical properties, mycotoxins exhibit a wide range of biological effects. Individual mycotoxins can be genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and oestrogenic. To protect consumer health and to reduce economic losses, surveillance and control of mycotoxins in food and feed has become a major objective for producers, regulatory authorities and researchers worldwide. However, the variety of chemical structures makes it impossible to use one single technique for mycotoxin analysis. Hence, a vast number of analytical methods has been developed and validated. The heterogeneity of food matrices combined with the demand for a fast, simultaneous and accurate determination of multiple mycotoxins creates enormous challenges for routine analysis. The most crucial issues will be discussed in this review. These are (1) the collection of representative samples, (2) the performance of classical and emerging analytical methods based on chromatographic or immunochemical techniques, (3) the validation of official methods for enforcement, and (4) the limitations and future prospects of the current methods.

  9. Studies on the Presence of Mycotoxins in Biological Samples: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Escrivá, Laura; Font, Guillermina; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites with bioaccumulation levels leading to their carry-over into animal fluids, organs, and tissues. As a consequence, mycotoxin determination in biological samples from humans and animals has been reported worldwide. Since most mycotoxins show toxic effects at low concentrations and considering the extremely low levels present in biological samples, the application of reliable detection methods is required. This review summarizes the information regarding the studies involving mycotoxin determination in biological samples over the last 10 years. Relevant data on extraction methodology, detection techniques, sample size, limits of detection, and quantitation are presented herein. Briefly, liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-MS/MS determination was the most common technique. The most analyzed mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, followed by zearalenone and deoxynivalenol—including their metabolites, enniatins, fumonisins, aflatoxins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Moreover, the studies were classified by their purpose, mainly focused on the development of analytical methodologies, mycotoxin biomonitoring, and exposure assessment. The study of tissue distribution, bioaccumulation, carry-over, persistence and transference of mycotoxins, as well as, toxicokinetics and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) were other proposed goals for biological sample analysis. Finally, an overview of risk assessment was discussed. PMID:28820481

  10. Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are now associated with obesity and diabetes and linked to the developing and developed world. Interests in healthy diets have escalated that may prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The global metabolic syndrome involves lipoprotein abnormalities and insulin resistance and is the major disorder for induction of neurological disease. The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on dyslipidemia and NAFLD indicate that the clearance and metabolism of fungal mycotoxins are linked to hypercholesterolemia and amyloid beta oligomers. LPS and mycotoxins are associated with membrane lipid disturbances with effects on cholesterol interacting proteins, lipoprotein metabolism, and membrane apo E/amyloid beta interactions relevant to hypercholesterolemia with close connections to neurological diseases. The influence of diet on mycotoxin metabolism has accelerated with the close association between mycotoxin contamination from agricultural products such as apple juice, grains, alcohol, and coffee. Cholesterol efflux in lipoproteins and membrane cholesterol are determined by LPS with involvement of mycotoxin on amyloid beta metabolism. Nutritional interventions such as diets low in fat/carbohydrate/cholesterol have become of interest with relevance to low absorption of lipophilic LPS and mycotoxin into lipoproteins with rapid metabolism of mycotoxin to the liver with the prevention of neurodegeneration. PMID:26690419

  11. Meta-analytical study of productive and nutritional interactions of mycotoxins in broilers.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Hauschild, L; Vale, M M; Lovatto, P A

    2011-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with performance, productive indices, and organ weights in broilers. Ninety-eight papers published between 1980 and 2009 were used, totaling 1,401 diets and 37,371 animals. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The mycotoxin presence in diets reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake by 12% and weight gain by 14% compared with control group. Ochratoxins and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest effect on feed intake and bird growth, reducing (P < 0.05) feed ingestion by 17 and 11%, respectively, and weight gain by 20 and 11%, respectively. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination for equations to estimate mycotoxin effect on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in young poultry. The residual analysis revealed that 65% of the variation in weight gain was explained by feed intake. The variation in weight gain of challenged broilers in relation to nonchallenged broilers was also influenced by ingestion of nutrients such as protein and methionine. Mortality was 8.8 and 2.8 times greater (P < 0.05) in groups that received diets with deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins, respectively. Mycotoxins also increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of liver by 15%, of kidneys by 11%, of lungs by 9%, and of gizzard by 3%. Mycotoxins influenced broiler performance, productive indices, and organ weights. However, the magnitude of the effects varied with type and concentration of mycotoxin, animal age, and nutritional factors.

  12. Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit?

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Joseph H.; Thrasher, Jack D.; Hooper, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that patients who develop chronic illness after prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold have the presence of mycotoxins, which can be detected in the urine. We hypothesized that the mold may be harbored internally and continue to release and/or produce mycotoxins which contribute to ongoing chronic illness. The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production. In this paper, we review the literature supporting this concept. PMID:24368325

  13. Chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: is naso-sinus fungal biofilm the culprit?

    PubMed

    Brewer, Joseph H; Thrasher, Jack D; Hooper, Dennis

    2013-12-24

    It has recently been demonstrated that patients who develop chronic illness after prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold have the presence of mycotoxins, which can be detected in the urine. We hypothesized that the mold may be harbored internally and continue to release and/or produce mycotoxins which contribute to ongoing chronic illness. The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production. In this paper, we review the literature supporting this concept.

  14. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xialu; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-24

    The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed.

  15. Advanced hyphenated chromatographic-mass spectrometry in mycotoxin determination: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques are essential for advanced research in food safety and environmental monitoring. These fields are important for securing the health of humans and animals, and for ensuring environmental security. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, are major contaminants of agricultural products, food and feed, biological samples, and the environment as a whole. Mycotoxins can cause cancers, nephritic and hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can provoke trade conflicts, resulting in massive economic losses. Risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals generally depends on clear identification and reliable quantitation in diversified matrices. Pioneering work on mycotoxin quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS) was performed in the early 1970s. Now, unambiguous confirmation and quantitation of mycotoxins can be readily achieved with a variety hyphenated techniques that combine chromatographic separation with MS, including liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC). With the advent of atmospheric pressure ionization, LC-MS has become a routine technique. Recently, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same sample has drawn an increasing amount of attention. Thus, modern analyses must be able to detect and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in a single run. Improvements in tandem MS techniques have been made to achieve this purpose. This review describes the advanced research that has been done regarding mycotoxin determination using hyphenated chromatographic-MS techniques, but is not a full-circle survey of all the literature published on this topic. The present work provides an overview of the various hyphenated chromatographic-MS-based strategies that have been applied to mycotoxin analysis, with a focus on recent developments. The use of chromatographic-MS to measure levels of mycotoxins, including

  16. On the Toxicity and Metabolism of the Trichothecene Mycotoxin T-2 Toxin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-20

    on r~atiado d nfto..ayl --The present study deals witL1 toxicolegical effects anid :btoi of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxi.. T-2 toxin was shoeen...AND METABOLISM OF THE TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXIN T-2 TOXIN SUMMARY The present study deals with toxicological effects and metabolism of the trichothecene...directly related to this effect (McLaughlin et al., 1977). 15 1.4 DNA synthesis It is well established that trichothecene mycotoxins block DNA synthesis in

  17. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  18. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  19. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  20. Chitin Adsorbents for Toxic Metals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Bhatnagar, Amit; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Kyzas, George Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants such as agricultural waste, compost, nanomaterials, algae, etc., Chitin (poly-β-(1,4)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) is the second most abundant natural biopolymer and it has attracted scientific attention as an inexpensive adsorbent for toxic metals. This review article provides information about the use of chitin as an adsorbent. A list of chitin adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacity and the best isotherm and kinetic fitting models are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic studies, regeneration studies, the mechanism of adsorption and the experimental conditions are also discussed in depth. PMID:28067848

  1. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  2. Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Liuzzi, Vania C; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2017-03-24

    Worldwide mycotoxins contamination has a significant impact on animal and human health, and leads to economic losses accounted for billions of dollars annually. Since the application of pre- and post- harvest strategies, including chemical or physical removal, are not sufficiently effective, biological transformation is considered the most promising yet challenging approach to reduce mycotoxins accumulation. Although several microorganisms were reported to degrade mycotoxins, only a few enzymes have been identified, purified and characterized for this activity. This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial preparations. Furthermore, we will present some applications for detoxifying enzymes in food, feed, biogas and biofuel industries, describing their limitation and potentialities.

  3. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus “Classic” Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L.; Križaj, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods. PMID:28452957

  4. Designed Strategies for Fluorescence-Based Biosensors for the Detection of Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Atul; Khan, Reem; Catanante, Gaelle; Sherazi, Tauqir A; Bhand, Sunil; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2018-05-11

    Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological toxins are responsible for food poisoning and have the potential to be used as biological warfare agents at the toxic dose. Due to the poisonous nature of mycotoxins, effective analysis techniques for quantifying their toxicity are indispensable. In this context, biosensors have been emerged as a powerful tool to monitors toxins at extremely low level. Recently, biosensors based on fluorescence detection have attained special interest with the incorporation of nanomaterials. This review paper will focus on the development of fluorescence-based biosensors for mycotoxin detection, with particular emphasis on their design as well as properties such as sensitivity and specificity. A number of these fluorescent biosensors have shown promising results in food samples for the detection of mycotoxins, suggesting their future potential for food applications.

  5. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  6. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhendong; Xue, Kathy S.; Sun, Xiulan; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), T-2 toxin (T-2), and zearalenone (ZEA) are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB1 toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB1, FB1, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model. PMID:26633509

  7. Designed Strategies for Fluorescence-Based Biosensors for the Detection of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Khan, Reem; Catanante, Gaelle; Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Bhand, Sunil; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2018-01-01

    Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological toxins are responsible for food poisoning and have the potential to be used as biological warfare agents at the toxic dose. Due to the poisonous nature of mycotoxins, effective analysis techniques for quantifying their toxicity are indispensable. In this context, biosensors have been emerged as a powerful tool to monitors toxins at extremely low level. Recently, biosensors based on fluorescence detection have attained special interest with the incorporation of nanomaterials. This review paper will focus on the development of fluorescence-based biosensors for mycotoxin detection, with particular emphasis on their design as well as properties such as sensitivity and specificity. A number of these fluorescent biosensors have shown promising results in food samples for the detection of mycotoxins, suggesting their future potential for food applications. PMID:29751687

  8. [Applications of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technique to determination of forage mycotoxins].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing-Fang; Han, Jian-Guo; Yu, Zhu; Yue, Wen-Bin

    2010-05-01

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technique (NIRS) has been explored at many fields such as agriculture, food, chemical, medicine, and so on, due to its rapid, effective, non-destructive, and on-line characteristics. Fungi invasion in forage materials during processing and storage would generate mycotoxins, which were harmful for people and animal through food chains. The determination of mycotoxins included the overelaborated pretreatments such as milling, extracting, chromatography and subsequent process such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, high performance liquid chromatography, and thin layer chromatography. The authors hope that high precision and low detection limit spectrum instrument, and software technology and calibration model of mycotoxins determination, will fast measure accurately the quality and quantity of mycotoxins, which will provide basis for reasonable process and utilization of forage and promote the application of NIRS in the safety livestock product.

  9. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  10. Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Liuzzi, Vania C.; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide mycotoxins contamination has a significant impact on animal and human health, and leads to economic losses accounted for billions of dollars annually. Since the application of pre- and post- harvest strategies, including chemical or physical removal, are not sufficiently effective, biological transformation is considered the most promising yet challenging approach to reduce mycotoxins accumulation. Although several microorganisms were reported to degrade mycotoxins, only a few enzymes have been identified, purified and characterized for this activity. This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial preparations. Furthermore, we will present some applications for detoxifying enzymes in food, feed, biogas and biofuel industries, describing their limitation and potentialities. PMID:28338601

  11. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2013-04-01

    Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area. To improve the purification productivity of biological molecules by chromatography, cellulose nanofiber adsorbents were fabricated and assembled into a cartridge and filter holder format with a volume of 0.15 mL, a bed height of 0.3 mm and diameter of 25 mm. The present study investigated the performance of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) derivatized regenerated cellulose nanofiber adsorbents based on criteria including mass transfer and flow properties, binding capacity, and fouling effects. Our results show that nanofibers offer higher flow and mass transfer properties. The non-optimized DEAE-nanofiber adsorbents indicate a binding capacity of 10% that of packed bed systems with BSA as a single component system. However, they operate reproducibly at flowrates of a hundred times that of packed beds, resulting in a potential productivity increase of 10-fold. Lifetime studies showed that this novel adsorbent material operated reproducibly with complex feed material (centrifuged and 0.45 µm filtered yeast homogenate) and harsh cleaning-in-place conditions over multiple cycles. DEAE nanofibers showed superior operating performance in permeability and fouling over conventional adsorbents indicating their potential for bioseparation applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Affinity Biosensors for Detection of Mycotoxins in Food.

    PubMed

    Evtugyn, Gennady; Subjakova, Veronika; Melikishvili, Sopio; Hianik, Tibor

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent achievements in methods of detection of mycotoxins in food. Special focus is on the biosensor technology that utilizes antibodies and nucleic acid aptamers as receptors. Development of biosensors is based on the immobilization of antibodies or aptamers onto various conventional supports like gold layer, but also on nanomaterials such as graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots that provide an effective platform for achieving high sensitivity of detection using various physical methods, including electrochemical, mass sensitive, and optical. The biosensors developed so far demonstrate high sensitivity typically in subnanomolar limit of detection. Several biosensors have been validated in real samples. The sensitivity of biosensors is similar and, in some cases, even better than traditional analytical methods such as ELISA or chromatography. We believe that future trends will be focused on improving biosensor properties toward practical application in food industry. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional oats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S G

    2009-07-01

    Every year between 2002 and 2005 approximately 100 samples of oats from fields of known agronomy were analysed by GC/MS for 10 trichothecenes: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetylDON, 15-acetylDON, fusarenone X, T-2 toxin (T2), HT-2 toxin (HT2), diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol and T-2 triol. Samples were also analysed for moniliformin and zearalenone by HPLC. Of the 10 trichothecenes analysed from 458 harvest samples of oat only three, 15-acetylDON, fusarenone X and diacetoxyscirpenol, were not detected. Moniliformin and zearalenone were absent or rarely detected, respectively. HT2 and T2 were the most frequently detected fusarium mycotoxins, present above the limit of quantification (10 microg kg(-1)) in 92 and 84% of samples, respectively, and were usually present at the highest concentrations. The combined mean and median for HT2 and T2 (HT2 + T2) was 570 and 213 microg kg(-1), respectively. There were good correlations between concentrations of HT2 and all other type A trichothecenes detected (T2, T2 triol and neosolaniol). Year and region had a significant effect on HT2 + T2 concentration. There was also a highly significant difference between HT2 + T2 content in organic and conventional samples, with the predicted mean for organic samples five times lower than that of conventional samples. This is the largest difference reported for any mycotoxin level in organic and conventional cereals. No samples exceeded the legal limits for DON or zearalenone in oats intended for human consumption. Legislative limits for HT2 and T2 are currently under consideration by the European Commission. Depending on the limits set for unprocessed oats intended for human consumption, the levels detected here could have serious consequences for the UK oat-processing industry.

  14. Mycotoxins: diffuse and point source contributions of natural contaminants of emerging concern to streams

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Schenzel, Judith; Meyer, Michael T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mycotoxins in streams, 116 water samples from 32 streams and three wastewater treatment plant effluents were collected in 2010 providing the broadest investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of mycotoxins in streams conducted in the United States to date. Out of the 33 target mycotoxins measured, nine were detected at least once during this study. The detections of mycotoxins were nearly ubiquitous during this study even though the basin size spanned four orders of magnitude. At least one mycotoxin was detected in 94% of the 116 samples collected. Deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (77%), followed by nivalenol (59%), beauvericin (43%), zearalenone (26%), β-zearalenol (20%), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (16%), α-zearalenol (10%), diacetoxyscirpenol (5%), and verrucarin A (1%). In addition, one or more of the three known estrogenic compounds (i.e. zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were detected in 43% of the samples, with maximum concentrations substantially higher than observed in previous research. While concentrations were generally low (i.e. < 50 ng/L) during this study, concentrations exceeding 1000 ng/L were measured during spring snowmelt conditions in agricultural settings and in wastewater treatment plant effluent. Results of this study suggest that both diffuse (e.g. release from infected plants and manure applications from exposed livestock) and point (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and food processing plants) sources are important environmental pathways for mycotoxin transport to streams. The ecotoxicological impacts from the long-term, low-level exposures to mycotoxins alone or in combination with complex chemical mixtures are unknown

  15. Applications of flow cytometry to toxicological mycotoxin effects in cultured mammalian cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Juan-García, Ana; Manyes, Lara; Ruiz, María-José; Font, Guillermina

    2013-06-01

    This review gives an overview of flow cytometry applications to toxicological studies of several physiological target sites of mycotoxins on different mammalian cell lines. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food, feed, air and water. The increasing presence of mycotoxins in crops, their wide distribution in the food chain, and their potential for toxicity demonstrate the need for further knowledge. Flow cytometry has become a valuable tool in mycotoxin studies in recent years for the rapid analysis of single cells in a mixture. In toxicology, the power of these methods lies in the possibility of determining a wide range of cell parameters, providing valuable information to elucidate cell growth and viability, metabolic activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane integrity mechanisms. There are studies using flow cytometry technique on Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium mycotoxins including information about cell type, assay conditions and functional parameters. Most of the studies collected in the literature are on deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxins. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis are the processes more widely investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  17. Are Treated Celiac Patients at Risk for Mycotoxins? An Italian Case-Study

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Mazzeo, Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Lombardo, Vincenza; Elli, Luca; Bardella, Maria T.; Agostoni, Carlo; Doneda, Luisa; Brighenti, Furio; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were evaluated in a group of celiac patients (n = 55) and in a control group of healthy subjects (n = 50) following their habitual diet. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were monitored in 105 urinary samples collected from the two groups. Dietary habits were also recorded through compilation of a seven-day weighed dietary diary. Biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were detected in 21 celiac patients and in 15 control subjects, corresponding to about 34% of total participants. In particular, ZEN was the most detected mycotoxin among all the studied subjects with a total of 19 positive cases. Results did not show a statistically significant difference in mycotoxin exposure between the two groups, and the presence of specific mycotoxins was not related to the intake of any particular food category. Our findings suggest little urgency of specific regulation for gluten free products, although the prevalence of exposure observed in free-living diets of both celiac and healthy subjects underlines the need of a constant surveillance on mycotoxins occurrence at large. PMID:28036017

  18. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Logrieco, Antonio F.; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; Li, Peiwu; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative. PMID:29617309

  19. A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines is an established problem throughout the entire world. The sensitive and accurate analysis of mycotoxin in complicated matrices (e.g., herbs) typically involves challenging sample pretreatment procedures and an efficient detection instrument. However, although numerous reviews have been published regarding the occurrence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines, few of them provided a detailed summary of related analytical methods for mycotoxin determination. This review focuses on analytical techniques including sampling, extraction, cleanup, and detection for mycotoxin determination in herbal medicines established within the past ten years. Dedicated sections of this article address the significant developments in sample preparation, and highlight the importance of this procedure in the analytical technology. This review also summarizes conventional chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin qualification or quantitation, as well as recent studies regarding the development and application of screening assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, lateral flow immunoassays, aptamer-based lateral flow assays, and cytometric bead arrays. The present work provides a good insight regarding the advanced research that has been done and closes with an indication of future demand for the emerging technologies. PMID:29393905

  20. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure assessment approach through mycotoxin/creatinine ratio evaluation in urine by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda

    2014-10-01

    In this pilot survey human urine samples were analyzed for presence of 15 mycotoxins and some of their metabolites using a novel urinary multi-mycotoxin GC-MS/MS method following salting-out liquid-liquid extraction. Fifty-four urine samples from children and adults residents in Valencia were analyzed for presence of urinary mycotoxin and expressed in gram of creatinine. Three out of 15 mycotoxins were detected namely, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON). 37 samples showed quantifiable values of mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of these contaminants was also observed in 20.4% of assayed samples. DON was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (68.5%) with mean levels of 23.3 μg/g creatinine (range: 2.8-69.1 μg/g creatinine). The levels of urinary DON were used to carry out an exposure assessment approach. 8.1% of total subjects were estimated to exceed the DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) (1 μg/kg b.w.). Two out of 9 exposed children exceeded the DON PMTDI thus, making them the most exposed based on the urinary results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does the Host Contribute to Modulation of Mycotoxin Production by Fruit Pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dilip; Barad, Shiri; Sionov, Edward; Prusky, Dov B.

    2017-01-01

    Storage of freshly harvested fruit is a key factor in modulating their supply for several months after harvest; however, their quality can be reduced by pathogen attack. Fruit pathogens may infect their host through damaged surfaces, such as mechanical injuries occurring during growing, harvesting, and packing, leading to increased colonization as the fruit ripens. Of particular concern are fungal pathogens that not only macerate the host tissue but also secrete significant amounts of mycotoxins. Many studies have described the importance of physiological factors, including stage of fruit development, biochemical factors (ripening, C and N content), and environmental factors (humidity, temperature, water deficit) on the occurrence of mycotoxins. However, those factors usually show a correlative effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation. Recent reports have suggested that host factors can induce fungal metabolism, leading to the synthesis and accumulation of mycotoxins. This review describes the new vision of host-factor impact on the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clusters underlying the complex regulation of mycotoxin accumulation in ripening fruit. PMID:28895896

  3. Mycotoxins in ethanol co-products: modeling economic impacts on the livestock industry and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Munkvold, Gary P

    2008-06-11

    The rapidly expanding U.S. ethanol industry is generating a growing supply of co-products, mostly in the form of dried distillers' grain and solubles (DDGS) or wet distillers' grains (WDG). In the United States, 90% of the co-products of maize-based ethanol are fed to livestock. An unintended consequence is that animals are likely to be fed higher levels of mycotoxins, which are concentrated up to three times in DDGS compared to grain. The model developed in this study estimates current losses to the swine industry from weight gain reduction due to fumonisins in added DDGS at $9 million ($2-18 million) annually. If there is complete market penetration of DDGS in swine feed with 20% DDGS inclusion in swine feed and fumonisins are not controlled, losses may increase to $147 million ($29-293 million) annually. These values represent only those losses attributable to one mycotoxin on one adverse outcome on one species. The total loss due to mycotoxins in DDGS could be significantly higher due to additive or multiplicative effects of multiple mycotoxins on animal health. If mycotoxin surveillance is implemented by ethanol producers, losses are shifted among multiple stakeholders. Solutions to this problem include methods to reduce mycotoxin contamination in both pre- and postharvest maize.

  4. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Akashi, Hajime; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are commonly present in cereal grains and are not completely destroyed during their cooking and processing. When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased. The mycotoxins commonly associated with rice and wheat are total aflatoxin (AFL) and ochratoxin A (OTA), respectively. This study examined the retention of AFL and OTA during the cooking of rice and pasta. AFL was retained at 83%–89% the initial level after the cooking of steamed rice. In pasta noodles, more than 60% of the OTA was retained. These results show that AFL and OTA are relatively stable during the cooking process, suggesting that a major reduction in the exposure to these mycotoxins cannot be expected to occur by cooking rice and pasta. The estimated exposure assessment at the high consumer level (95th percentile) and the mycotoxin contamination level determined by taking into account these reductions in the present study should be useful for the establishment of practical regulations for mycotoxins in staple foods. PMID:23698358

  5. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Logrieco, Antonio F; Miller, J David; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Battilani, Paola; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; De Saeger, Sarah; Li, Peiwu; Perrone, Giancarlo; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S; Shephard, Gordon S; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao; Leslie, John F

    2018-04-04

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  6. Modulation of Intestinal Functions Following Mycotoxin Ingestion: Meta-Analysis of Published Experiments in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used. PMID:23430606

  7. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  8. Current situation on regulations for mycotoxins. Overview of tolerances and status of standard methods of sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Egmond, H P

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide enquiry was undertaken in 1986-1987 to obtain up-to-date information about mycotoxin legislation in as many countries of the world as possible. Together with some additional data collected in 1981, information is now available about planned, proposed, existing or absence of legislation in 66 countries. Details about tolerances, legal bases, responsible authorities, prescribed methods of sampling and analysis and disposition of commodities containing inadmissible amounts of mycotoxins, are given. The information concerns aflatoxins in foodstuffs, aflatoxin M1 in dairy products, aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs, and other mycotoxins in food- and feedstuffs. In comparison with the situation in 1981, limits and regulations for mycotoxins have been expanded in 1987 with more countries having legislation (proposed or passed) on the subject, more products, and more mycotoxins covered by this legislation. The differences between tolerances in the various countries are sometimes quite large, which makes harmonization of mycotoxin regulations highly desirable.

  9. Insight into the adsorption of PPCPs by porous adsorbents: Effect of the properties of adsorbents and adsorbates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zengyin; Xie, Jiawen; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption is an efficient method for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Magnetic resins are efficient adsorbents for water treatment and exhibit potential for PPCP removal. In this study, the magnetic hypercrosslinked resin Q100 was used for adsorption of PPCPs. The adsorption behavior of this resin was compared with those of two activated carbons, namely, Norit and F400D. Norit exhibited the fastest adsorption kinetics, followed by Q100. Norit featured a honeycomb shape and long-range ordered pore channels, which facilitated the diffusion of PPCPs. Moreover, the large average pore size of Q100 reduced diffusion resistance. The adsorbed amounts of 11 PPCPs on the three adsorbents increased with increasing adsorbate hydrophobicity. For Q100, a significant linear correlation was observed between the adsorption performance for PPCPs and hydrophobicity (logD value) of adsorbates (R(2) = 0.8951); as such, PPCPs with high logD values (>1.69) could be efficiently removed. Compared with those of Norit and F400D, the adsorption performance of Q100 was less affected by humic acid because of the dominant hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, Q100 showed improved regeneration performance, which renders it promising for PPCP removal in practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interplay of polyelectrolytes with different adsorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Feng

    We study the adsorption of polyelectrolytes from solution onto different adsorbing surfaces, focusing on the electrostatic interactions. Measurements of the surface excess, fractional ionization of chargeable groups, segmental orientation, and adsorption kinetics were made using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mode of attenuated total reflection. Different adsorbing surfaces, from single solid surfaces, solid surfaces modified with adsorbed polymer layer, to fluid-like surfaces-biomembranes were adopted. Both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent techniques were employed to investigate the fluid-like surfaces in the absence and in the presence of polyelectrolytes. The work focuses on three primary issues: (i) the charge regulation of weak polyelectrolytes on both homogeneous and heterogeneous surfaces, (ii) the dynamics of adsorption when the surface possesses reciprocal mobility, i.e., biomembrane surface, and (iii) the structural and dynamical properties of the fluid-like surfaces interacting with polyelectrolytes. We find that the ionization of chargeable groups in weak polyelectrolytes is controlled by the charge balance between the adsorbates and the surfaces. A new interpretation of ionization in the adsorbed layer provides a new insight into the fundamental problem of whether ions of opposite charge associate or remain separate. Bjerrum length is found to be a criterion for the onset of surface ionization suppression, which helps to predict and control the conformation transition of proteins. In addition to the effect of different surfaces on the adsorption behavior of polyelectrolytes, we also focused on the response of the surfaces to the adsorbates. Chains that encountered sparsely-covered surfaces spread to maximize the number of segment-surface contacts at rates independent of the molar mass. Surface reconstruction rather than molar mass of the adsorbing molecules appeared to determine the rate of spreading. This contrasts starkly

  11. Application of Activated Carbon Derived from Seed Shells of Jatropha curcas for Decontamination of Zearalenone Mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kalagatur, Naveen K.; Karthick, Kumarvel; Allen, Joseph A.; Nirmal Ghosh, Oriparambil Sivaraman; Chandranayaka, Siddaiah; Gupta, Vijai K.; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Mudili, Venkataramana

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, activated carbon (AC) was derived from seed shells of Jatropha curcas and applied to decontaminate the zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin. The AC of J. curcas (ACJC) was prepared by ZnCl2 chemical activation method and its crystalline structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline graphitic nature of ACJC was confirmed from the Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope showed the porous surface morphology of the ACJC surface with high pore density and presence of elemental carbon was identified from the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. From Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, SBET, micropore area, and average pore diameter of ACJC were calculated as 822.78 (m2/g), 255.36 (m2/g), and 8.5980 (Å), respectively. The adsorption of ZEA by ACJC was accomplished with varying contact time, concentration of ZEA and ACJC, and pH of media. The ACJC has adsorbed the ZEA over a short period of time and adsorption of ZEA was dependent on the dose of ACJC. The effect of different pH on adsorption of ZEA by ACJC was not much effective. Desorption studies confirmed that adsorption of ZEA by ACJC was stable. The adsorption isotherm of ZEA by ACJC was well fitted with Langmuir model rather than Freundlich and concluded the homogeneous process of sorption. The maximum adsorption of ZEA by ACJC was detected as 23.14 μg/mg. Finally, adsorption property of ACJC was utilized to establish ACJC as an antidote against ZEA-induced toxicity under in vitro in neuro-2a cells. The percentage of live cells was high in cells treated together with a combination of ZEA and ACJC compared to ZEA treated cells. In a similar way, ΔΨM was not dropped in cells exposed to combination of ACJC and ZEA compared to ZEA treated cells. Furthermore, cells treated with a combination of ZEA and ACJC exhibited lower level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 compared to ZEA treated cells. These in vitro studies concluded that ACJC has

  12. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-03-26

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity.

  13. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-01-01

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity. PMID:27023609

  14. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  15. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  16. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  17. The importance of accounting for sex in the search of proteomic signatures of mycotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Soler, L; Oswald, I P

    2018-04-30

    Mycotoxins are natural food and feed contaminants that are toxic to human and animals. Proteomics is an adequate toolbox to investigate the mode of action and the effects of mycotoxins, as these toxicants often alter protein synthesis and degradation, as well as induce changes of important post-translational modifications. For instance, the contaminant deoxynivalenol induces a severe ribosomal stress that affects protein production, whereas the toxin Fumonisin B1 can alter the phosphorylation of a large number of proteins, and patulin is a potent proteotoxic molecule. The response to most mycotoxins is sex-dependent, males being generally more sensitive than females. In addition, for some toxins, the toxic effects observed were different for each sex. Nevertheless, the importance of accounting for a sex-dependent response is often overlooked in toxicology studies involving mycotoxins. Here we review the information that proteomics has provided in pre-clinical studies of mycotoxin exposure as well as the differential response of males and females to these molecules to highlight the need of including male and female individuals when evaluating the impact of mycotoxins in the cell proteome. The current trend in mycotoxicology is the combination of several -omics techniques in order to understand the mechanism of action and effects of these toxic natural food contaminants. One of the goals of these experiments is to determine "potential biomarkers" of mycotoxicoses. Nevertheless, the strategy followed in biomarker research must take into account as many possible factors as possible in order to find robust biomarkers for differential diagnosis. Among the factors that can have an influence in the response to mycotoxins, one of the most important is sex. Traditionally, males are preferentially used in research, as they are more sensitive to mycotoxins and their response is not dependent on hormonal levels, thus less variable. However the intrinsic and hormonal differences

  18. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  19. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  20. Economics of mycotoxins: evaluating costs to society and cost-effectiveness of interventions.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The economic impacts of mycotoxins to human society can be thought of in two ways: (i) the direct market costs associated with lost trade or reduced revenues due to contaminated food or feed, and (ii) the human health losses from adverse effects associated with mycotoxin consumption. Losses related to markets occur within systems in which mycotoxins are being monitored in the food and feed supply. Food that has mycotoxin levels above a particular maximum allowable level is either rejected outright for sale or sold at a lower price for a different use. Such transactions can take place at local levels or at the level of trade among countries. Sometimes this can result in heavy economic losses for food producers, but the benefit of such monitoring systems is a lower risk of mycotoxins in the food supply. Losses related to health occur when mycotoxins are present in food at levels that can cause illness. In developed countries, such losses are often measured in terms of cost of illness; around the world, such losses are more frequently measured in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). It is also useful to assess the economics of interventions to reduce mycotoxins and their attendant health effects; the relative effectiveness of public health interventions can be assessed by estimating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with each intervention. Cost-effectiveness assessment can be conducted to compare the cost of implementing the intervention with the resulting benefits, in terms of either improved markets or improved human health. Aside from cost-effectiveness, however, it is also important to assess the technical feasibility of interventions, particularly in low-income countries, where funds and infrastructures are limited.

  1. Mycotoxin production of selected Fusarium species at different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, Meri; Ojala, Laura; Parikka, Päivi; Jestoi, Marika

    2010-09-30

    The toxin producing capacity of seven Fusarium species (F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. poae, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum, F. graminearum and F. culmorum) and the effect of culture conditions on the toxin production were studied. The strains were isolated from Finnish grains and cultivated on a grain mixture at three different water activity/temperature combinations (i.e. 0.994/15 degrees C; 0.994/25 degrees C; 0.960/25 degrees C). The mycotoxins produced were analyzed with a multi-toxin method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry enabling the simultaneous determination of 18 different Fusarium toxins. The general toxin profiles revealed F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides as producers of diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, HT-2 and T-2-toxins. F. sporotrichioides produced additionally beauvericin. In the F. poae cultures, only beauvericin was detected. F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum were capable of producing enniatins, moniliformin and antibiotic Y, and F. graminearum and F. culmorum produced zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol. Differences existed in the quantitative toxin production between the individual strains representing the same species. Additionally, the culture conditions affected the range and amounts of toxins produced. In general, a(w) 0.994 and temperature of 15 degrees C favoured the type-A trichothecene production of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. The beauvericin production of F. sporotrichioides occurred more favourably at a(w) 0.960 and 25 degrees C. F. poae produced the highest concentrations of beauvericin under two different conditions, namely at a(w) 0.994/15 degrees C and a(w) 0.960/25 degrees C. None of the combinations particularly favoured toxin production of F. avenaceum, with all three toxins being produced extensively at all culture conditions. F. tricinctum produced enniatins most efficiently at a(w) 0.994/25 degrees C. The moniliformin production of both these two species

  2. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol facilitates allergic sensitization to whey in mice.

    PubMed

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M; Braber, S; Akbari, P; de Graaff, P; van Roest, M; Kruijssen, L; Smit, J J; van Esch, B C A M; Jeurink, P V; Garssen, J; Fink-Gremmels, J; Pieters, R H H

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal epithelial stress or damage may contribute to allergic sensitization against certain food antigens. Hence, the present study investigated whether impairment of intestinal barrier integrity by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contributes to the development of whey-induced food allergy in a murine model. C3H/HeOuJ mice, orally exposed to DON plus whey once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, showed whey-specific IgG1 and IgE in serum and an acute allergic skin response upon intradermal whey challenge, although early initiating mechanisms of sensitization in the intestine appeared to be different compared with the widely used mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). Notably, DON exposure modulated tight-junction mRNA and protein levels, and caused an early increase in IL-33, whereas CT exposure affected intestinal γδ T cells. On the other hand, both DON- and CT-sensitized mice induced a time-dependent increase in the soluble IL-33 receptor ST2 (IL-1R1) in serum, and enhanced local innate lymphoid cells type 2 cell numbers. Together, these results demonstrate that DON facilitates allergic sensitization to food proteins and that development of sensitization can be induced by different molecular mechanisms and local immune responses. Our data illustrate the possible contribution of food contaminants in allergic sensitization in humans.

  3. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hamed K; Yoshizawa, Takumi; Shier, W Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to both plants and mammals. Simple trichothecenes, including type A (e.g., T-2 toxin) and type B (e.g., deoxynivalenol), are generally less toxic than macrocyclic trichothecenes. We sought to determine if simple trichothecenes are a potential source of candidates for development as bioherbicides, which require high phytotoxicity and low mammalian toxicity. We examined 28 simple trichothecenes in vitro for phytotoxicity using a small aquatic plant, Lemna pausicostata, and for mammalian toxicity using four cultured mammalian cell lines. Several structure-activity relationships were identified, including the following two, which may be relevant to bioherbicide development: peracetylation of type B trichothecenes and de-epoxidation of type A trichothecenes both substantially reduced mammalian toxicity with little effect on phytotoxicity. It was concluded that simple trichothecenes possessing strong phytotoxicity and minimal mammalian toxicity in vitro can be identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycotoxins: toxicity, carcinogenicity, and the influence of various nutritional conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Newberne, Paul M.

    1974-01-01

    Toxicologic diseases of man and animals, associated with molds growing on foods, have been recognized for centuries. Only in recent years, however, have these mycotoxicoses received the attention of many laboratories and skilled scientists around the world in a broad inter-disciplinary effort. This review covers the literature on mycotoxicoses but centers on those about which most is known, particularly the diseases associated with metabolites elaborated by some strains of Aspergilli, Penicillia, Fusaria, Stachybotrys, and Claviceps. The ubiquitous nature of the aflatoxins, toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus, make them important to public health, especially since it is now known that certain areas of endemic liver disease coincide with consumption of aflatoxins and, often, malnutrition. The older disease of ergotism, the scourge of Europe for centuries, is considered in detail. Alimentary toxic aleukia, which has caused enormous suffering in Russian human and animal populations, is better understood as a result of relatively recent experimental investigations. Stachybotryotoxicosis, a disease previously considered to be of significance only to man has now been identified in domestic animals. Finally, Japanese studies have clearly revealed the hepatotoxicity of certain metabolites of Penicillium molds. Factors that influence susceptibility to mycotoxins and the hazards they present to man are also reviewed. ImagesFIGURE 2. PMID:4620330

  5. Biological Assays for Two Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium tricinctum

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, H. R.; Hesseltine, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    A survey was made to detect microorganisms useful for assaying butenolide [4-acetamido-4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid γ-lactone] and T-2 toxin [4β, 15-diacetoxy-8α-(3-methylbutyryloxy)-12,13-epoxytricothec -9-en-3α-ol]. These mycotoxins produced by strains of Fusarium tricinctum have been implicated in mycotoxicosis of livestock. Although butenolide proved to be a very weak antibiotic, assay discs containing 100 μg of this toxin inhibited Sprillum serpens NRRL B-2052, Vibrio tyrogenus NRRL B-1033, and Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. T-2 toxin had no effect on 54 bacterial strains but inhibited 6 of 11 fungi. Growth of Rhodotorula rubra NRRL Y-7222 and Penicillium digitatum NRRL 1202 was retarded by assay discs containing 4 μg of T-2 toxin. Solutions with less than 1 μg of T-2 per ml toxin were readily detected by a pea seed germination test. Germination was reduced more than 50% when seeds imbibed solutions of 0.5 μg of T-2 toxin per ml. Butenolide had no effect on pea seed germination at concentrations as high as 200 μg/ml. PMID:5485724

  6. Food Chain Mycotoxin Exposure, Gut Health, and Impaired Growth: A Conceptual Framework1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura E.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Prendergast, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Childhood stunting is an important and intractable public health problem that underlies ∼20% of deaths among children aged <5 y in developing countries. Environmental enteropathy (EE), a subclinical condition of the small intestine characterized by reduced absorptive capacity and increased intestinal permeability, is almost universal among children in developing countries and may mediate stunting. However, the etiology of EE is poorly understood. Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi that frequently contaminate the staple foods of children living in developing countries. We review evidence from human and animal studies that exposure to mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin (FUM), and deoxynivaenol (DON), may impair child growth. Although these toxins have distinct actions, they all mediate intestinal damage through: 1) inhibition of protein synthesis (AF, DON); 2) an increase in systemic proinflammatory cytokines (DON); and 3) inhibition of ceramide synthase (FUM). The intestinal pathology that arises from mycotoxin exposure is very similar to that of EE. We propose that future studies should address the role of mycotoxins in the pathogenesis of EE and evaluate interventions to limit mycotoxin exposure and reduce childhood stunting. PMID:22797988

  7. Study on the Association among Mycotoxins and other Variables in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Barbara; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Moretti, Giorgio; Facchiano, Francesco; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Bonfanti, Arianna; Campioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Stefania; Camposeo, Serena; Soricelli, Sabina; Moracci, Gabriele; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Ciceri, Francesca; Milanesi, Luciano; Marabotti, Anna; Brera, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are implicated in the increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin that represent real risk factors for human health and especially for children. Thus, the main hypothesis of this work is that the deterioration of the clinical manifestation of autism in children may result from the exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated food. Within a cross-sectional study, a group of autistic children (n = 172) and a group of controls (n = 61) (siblings and non-parental) were recruited in North and South Italy. All children had blood and urine samples taken, for testing some mycotoxins by a LC–MS/MS validated method. Blood samples were also tested for assessing specific IgG against food and fungal antigens and cytokines. The analyses outputs highlighted statistically significant differences comparing mycotoxins levels between (i) children groups both in urine (deoxynivalenol and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0259, respectively) and serum (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1, p = 0.0072, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0061, respectively); (ii) a group of selected fungal IgGs, and IgGs against wheat and gluten and (iii) cytokines. These results suggest the need for a deeper examination of the role that mycotoxins may have on the etiology of ASD. PMID:28661468

  8. Simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins in broiler feeds using a liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    KONGKAPAN, Jutamart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya; ISARIYODOM, Supaporn; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that are typically present in grain and feed ingredients used for animal feeds. An analytical method using LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed to quantify nine mycotoxins, consisting of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler feeds. In total, 100 samples of broiler feeds were collected from poultry farms in Central Thailand. The survey found that AFB1 and ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins in the feed samples at percentages of 93% and 63%, respectively. The limit of detections (LODs) of investigated mycotoxins was 0.20–0.78 ng/g. AFB2, DON, AFG1, NIV and T-2 toxin were also detectable at low contamination levels with percentages of 20%, 9%, 7%, 5% and 1%, respectively, whereas OTA and AFG2 were not detected in any of the feed samples. These results suggest that there is a very low level of risk of the exposure to mycotoxins in feeds obtained from broiler farms in Central Thailand. PMID:26477362

  9. Oocyte quality in mice is affected by a mycotoxin-contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Bo; Zheng, Wei-Jiang; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Yin-Xue; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and aflatoxin (AF), are commonly found in many food commodities and may impair the growth and reproductive efficiency of animals and humans. We investigated the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on mouse oocyte quality. Maize contaminated with DON (3.875 mg/kg), ZEN (1,897 μg/kg), and AF (806 μg/kg) was incorporated into a mouse diet at three different levels (0, 15, and 30% w/w). After 4 weeks, ovarian and germinal vesicle oocyte indices decreased in mycotoxin-fed mice. Oocytes from these mice exhibited low developmental competence with reduced germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body extrusion rates. Embryo developmental competence also showed a similar pattern, and the majority of embryos could not develop to the morula stage. Actin expression was also reduced in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the actin nucleation factors profilin-1 and mDia1. Moreover, a large percentage of oocytes derived from mice that were fed a mycotoxin-contaminated diet exhibited aberrant spindle morphology, a loss of the cortical granule-free domain, and abnormal mitochondrial distributions, which further supported the decreased oocyte quality. Thus, our results demonstrate that mycotoxins are toxic to the mouse reproductive system by affecting oocyte quality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mycotoxin contamination in laboratory rat feeds and their implications in animal research.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, Laura; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda; Manyes, Lara

    2016-09-01

    Compound feed is particularly vulnerable to multi-mycotoxin contamination. A method for the determination of 12 mycotoxins; enniatins A, A1, B, B1; aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2; OTA; ZEA; T-2 and HT-2 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and applied for the analysis of laboratory rat commercial feeds. The method trueness was checked by recovery assays at three different spiked levels (n = 9). Recoveries ranged from 73% to 112%, and the intra-day and inter-day precision were lower than 9% and 13%, respectively. Limits of quantitation were lower than 15 μg/kg. Twenty-seven laboratory rats feed samples showed multi-contamination by at least three up to six different mycotoxins. ENNs B and B1, followed by ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins. T-2, HT-2, and OTA were not detected. ZEA showed the highest concentration levels reaching 492 μg/kg. The results underline the importance of implementing mycotoxin regular surveillance programs for laboratory animal feeds.

  11. Occurrence of mycotoxins and yeasts and moulds identification in corn silages in tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Krempser, P M; Batista, L R; Pereira, M N; Schwan, R F

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify yeasts and moulds as well as to detect mycotoxin in corn silages in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Corn silages from 36 farms were sampled to analyse dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fibre, nonfibre carbohydrates and mycotoxins contents, yeasts and moulds population, pH and temperature values. The mycotoxins found in high frequency were aflatoxin in 77·7% of analysed samples, ochratoxin (33·3%) and zearalenone (22·2%). There was no significant correlation between the mycotoxin concentration and the presence of moulds. The pH was negatively correlated with ochratoxin concentration. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in all silages that presented growth of moulds. Ten different yeast species were identified using the culture-dependent method: Candida diversa, Candida ethanolica, Candida rugosa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon japonicum. Another six different yeast species were identified using the culture-independent method. A high mycotoxin contamination rate (91·6% of the analysed silages) was observed. The results indicated that conventional culturing and PCR-DGGE should be combined to optimally describe the microbiota associated with corn silage. This study provides information about the corn silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of coffee beans in Benguet province, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Culliao, Audrey Glenn L; Barcelo, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Coffee remains an important agricultural product in Benguet province, Philippines, but is highly susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination in various stages of growth and processing and in different local climates. In this study, pre- and post-harvest coffee bean samples from temperate and warm farming areas were assessed for their fungal and mycotoxin contaminants. One hundred eighty-five fungal isolates belonging to six genera were isolated representing 88.1% of mycotoxigenic fungi. The predominant species belonged to the genus Aspergillus, which are known producers of mycotoxins. Coffee beans from the post-harvest temperate group were found to have the highest percentage mycotoxigenic contamination of 98.4%, suggesting that the risk for fungal contamination is high after drying. Determination of the mycotoxins indicated 28.6% contamination. Ochratoxin A was found to be highest in dried whole cherries which contained 97.3 μg kg(-1), whilst sterigmatocystin was also highest in dried whole cherries at 193.7 μg kg(-1). These results indicate that there are risks of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Benguet coffee at the post-harvest stage.

  13. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  14. [Filamentous fungi and mycotoxins as potential occupational risk factors among farmers harvesting various crops].

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Kostecki, Marian; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Kiecana, Irena

    2003-01-01

    The studies to determine the level of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins were carried out in samples of grain and grain dust during threshing of cereals by a combine harvester. High concentration of fungi was noted in grain and grain dust samples, it ranged from 5.0 to 520.0 cfu/g.10(3) and from 275.0 to 2825.0 cfu/g.10(3), respectively Allergizing and toxigenic fungi of Alternaria, Geotrichum, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium species were observed in the study samples of grain and grain dust. In the samples of wheat grain, mycotoxins were also noted: moniliformin (MON), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA); their concentrations ranged from 0.025 to 0.088 microgram/g; 0.015-0.068 microgram/g; and from 0.0004 to 0.0008 microgram/g, respectively. The level of mycotoxins in the grain dust samples was within the range of 0.025-0.149 microgram/g-MON; 0.015-0.215 microgram/g-DON; 0.015-0.360 microgram/g-NIV; and 0.0004-0.0012 microgram/g-OTA. A significant correlation was observed between the occurrence of fungi of Fusarium species and the concentration of pathologic mycotoxins. The results confirm a considerable occupational risk among farmers engaged in grain threshing due to inhalation of pathogenic species of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins.

  15. Trichothecene mycotoxins and their determinants in settled dust related to grain production.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Karl-Christian; Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Langseth, Wenche; Kristensen, Petter; Eduard, Wijnand

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesise that inhalant exposure to mycotoxins causes developmental outcomes and certain hormone-related cancers that are associated with grain farming in an epidemiological study. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate determinants of measured trichothecene mycotoxins in grain dust as work environmental trichothecene exposure indicators. Settled grain dust was collected in 92 Norwegian farms during seasons of 1999 and 2000. Production characteristics and climatic data were studied as determinants of trichothecenes in settled dust samples obtained during the production of barley (N = 59), oats (N = 32), and spring wheat (N = 13). Median concentrations of trichothecenes in grain dust were <20, 54, and < 50 mg/kg (ranges < 20-340, < 30-2400, and < 50-1200) for deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and T-2 toxin (T-2) respectively. Late blight potato rot (fungal) forecasts have been broadcast in Norway to help prevent this potato disease. Fungal forecasts representing wet, temperate, and humid meteorological conditions were identified as strong determinants of trichothecene mycotoxins in settled grain dust in this study. Differences in cereal species, production properties and districts contributed less to explain mycotoxin concentrations. Fungal forecasts are validated as indicators of mycotoxin exposure of grain farmers and their use in epidemiological studies may be warranted.

  16. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chilaka, Cynthia Adaku; De Boevre, Marthe; Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji; De Saeger, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%), sorghum (18%), and millet (29%), irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:27869703

  17. Study on the Association among Mycotoxins and other Variables in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Barbara; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Moretti, Giorgio; Facchiano, Francesco; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Bonfanti, Arianna; Campioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Stefania; Camposeo, Serena; Soricelli, Sabina; Moracci, Gabriele; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Ciceri, Francesca; Milanesi, Luciano; Marabotti, Anna; Brera, Carlo

    2017-06-29

    Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are implicated in the increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin that represent real risk factors for human health and especially for children. Thus, the main hypothesis of this work is that the deterioration of the clinical manifestation of autism in children may result from the exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated food. Within a cross-sectional study, a group of autistic children ( n = 172) and a group of controls ( n = 61) (siblings and non-parental) were recruited in North and South Italy. All children had blood and urine samples taken, for testing some mycotoxins by a LC-MS/MS validated method. Blood samples were also tested for assessing specific IgG against food and fungal antigens and cytokines. The analyses outputs highlighted statistically significant differences comparing mycotoxins levels between (i) children groups both in urine (deoxynivalenol and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0259, respectively) and serum (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1, p = 0.0072, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0061, respectively); (ii) a group of selected fungal IgGs, and IgGs against wheat and gluten and (iii) cytokines. These results suggest the need for a deeper examination of the role that mycotoxins may have on the etiology of ASD.

  18. Factors influencing antibiotics adsorption onto engineered adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingfang; Li, Aimin; Zhu, Zhaolian; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Weiben

    2013-07-01

    The study evaluated the adsorption of two antibiotics by four engineered adsorbents (hypercrosslinked resin MN-202, macroporous resin XAD-4, activated carbon F-400, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)) from aqueous solutions. The dynamic results demonstrated the dominant influence of pore size in adsorption. The adsorption amounts of antibiotics on XAD-4 were attributed to the hydrophobic effect, whereas steric hindrance or micropore-filling played a main role in the adsorption of antibiotics by F-400 because of its high microporosity. Aside from F-400, similar patterns of pH-dependent adsorption were observed, implying the importance of antibiotic molecular forms to the adsorption process for adsorbents. Increasing the ionic concentration with CaC12 produced particular adsorption characteristics on MWCNT at pH 2.0 and F-400 at pH 8.0, which were attributed to the highly available contact surfaces and molecular sieving, respectively. Its hybrid characteristics incorporating a considerable portion of mesopores and micropores made hypercross linked MN-202 a superior antibiotic adsorbent with high adsorption capacity. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of MWCNT on the basis of surface area was more advantageous than that of the other adsorbents because MWCNT has a much more compact molecular arrangement.

  19. Adsorbate Diffusion on Transition Metal Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    different sizes and shapes using density functional theory calculations. We show that nanoparticles bind adsorbates more strongly than the...structure theoretical methods, a quantitative study with accurate density functional theory (DFT) calculations is still missing. Here, we perform a...functional theory . The projector augmented wave (PAW) potentials29,30 were used for electron- ion interactions and the generalized gradient approximation

  20. Development and Testing of Molecular Adsorber Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin; Hasegawa, Mark; Straka, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The effect of on-orbit molecular contamination has the potential to degrade the performance of spaceflight hardware and diminish the lifetime of the spacecraft. For example, sensitive surfaces, such as optical surfaces, electronics, detectors, and thermal control surfaces, are vulnerable to the damaging effects of contamination from outgassed materials. The current solution to protect these surfaces is through the use of zeolite coated ceramic adsorber pucks. However, these pucks and its additional complex mounting hardware requirements result in several disadvantages, such as size, weight, and cost related concerns, that impact the spacecraft design and the integration and test schedule. As a result, a new innovative molecular adsorber coating was developed as a sprayable alternative to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination. In this study, the formulation for molecular adsorber coatings was optimized using various binders, pigment treatment methods, binder to pigment ratios, thicknesses, and spray application techniques. The formulations that passed coating adhesion and vacuum thermal cycling tests were further tested for its adsorptive capacity. Accelerated molecular capacitance tests were performed in an innovatively designed multi-unit system containing idealized contaminant sources. This novel system significantly increased the productivity of the testing phase for the various formulations that were developed. Work performed during the development and testing phases has demonstrated successful application of molecular adsorber coatings onto metallic substrates, as well as, very promising results for the adhesion performance and the molecular capacitance of the coating. Continued testing will assist in the qualification of molecular adsorber coatings for use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  1. RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential tool for control of mycotoxin contamination in crop plants: concepts and considerations

    Mycotoxin contamination in food and feed crops is a major concern worldwide. Fungal pathogens of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium are a major threat to food and feed crops due to production of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, 4-deoxynivalenol, patulin, and numerous other toxic seconda...

  2. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  3. Influence of agricultural practices on fusarium infection of cereals and subsequent contamination of grain by trichothecene mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Simon G

    2004-10-10

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot in maize are significant diseases across the world. Infection can not only result in reduced yield as a result of shrunken grains but also result in reduced milling and malting quality and the contamination of grains with mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are hazardous to animal and human health. Therefore, guidelines and legislation are in place, or under consideration, in most countries to protect consumers and animal welfare. As fusarium mycotoxins are produced within the growing crop, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect mycotoxin contamination of grain. Such information could then be used to determine guidelines on "Good Agricultural Practice" (GAP) to minimise the mycotoxin contamination of cereal products. Evidence is provided to show the importance of choice of cultivar, crop rotation, soil cultivation, fertiliser and the chemical and biological control of insects, weeds and fungi.

  4. Plant organ cultures as masked mycotoxin biofactories: Deciphering the fate of zearalenone in micropropagated durum wheat roots and leaves

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Laura; Rolli, Enrico; Galaverna, Gianni; Suman, Michele; Bruni, Renato

    2017-01-01

    “Masked mycotoxins” senso strictu are conjugates of mycotoxins resulting from metabolic pathways activated by the interplay between pathogenic fungi and infected plants. Zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp, was the first masked mycotoxin ever described in the literature, but its biotransformation has been studied to a lesser extent if compared to other compounds such as deoxynivalenol. We presented herein the first application of organ and tissue culture techniques to study the metabolic fate of zearalenone in durum wheat, using an untargeted HR-LCMS approach. A complete, quick absorption of zearalenone by uninfected plant organs was noticed, and its biotransformation into a large spectrum of phase I and phase II metabolites has been depicted. Therefore, wheat organ tissue cultures can be effectively used as a biocatalytic tool for the production of masked mycotoxins, as well as a replicable model for the investigation of the interplay between mycotoxins and wheat physiology. PMID:29145415

  5. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Berrada, Houda; Mañes, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk analysis of main mycotoxins occurring in food for children: An overview.

    PubMed

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manyes, Lara; Meca, Giuseppe; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi contaminating the food chain that are toxic to animals and humans. Children up to 12 years old are recognized as a potentially vulnerable subgroup with respect to consumption of these contaminants. Apart from having a higher exposure per kg body weight, they have a different physiology from that of adults. Therefore they may be more sensitive to neurotoxic, endocrine and immunological effects. For these reasons, a specific and up-to-date risk analysis for this category is of great interest. In this review, an accurate analysis of the main mycotoxins occurring in food intended for children (deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins) is presented. In particular, known mechanisms of toxicity and levels of exposure and bioaccessibility in children are shown. In addition, recent discoveries about the strategies of mycotoxins managing are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Updated Overview of Infrared Spectroscopy Methods for Detecting Mycotoxins on Cereals (Corn, Wheat, and Barley)

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Each year, mycotoxins cause economic losses of several billion US dollars worldwide. Consequently, methods must be developed, for producers and cereal manufacturers, to detect these toxins and to comply with regulations. Chromatographic reference methods are time consuming and costly. Thus, alternative methods such as infrared spectroscopy are being increasingly developed to provide simple, rapid, and nondestructive methods to detect mycotoxins. This article reviews research conducted over the last eight years into the use of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopy to monitor mycotoxins in corn, wheat, and barley. More specifically, we focus on the Fusarium species and on the main fusariotoxins of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisin B1 and B2. Quantification models are insufficiently precise to satisfy the legal requirements. Sorting models with cutoff levels are the most promising applications. PMID:29320435

  8. Updated Overview of Infrared Spectroscopy Methods for Detecting Mycotoxins on Cereals (Corn, Wheat, and Barley).

    PubMed

    Levasseur-Garcia, Cecile

    2018-01-10

    Each year, mycotoxins cause economic losses of several billion US dollars worldwide. Consequently, methods must be developed, for producers and cereal manufacturers, to detect these toxins and to comply with regulations. Chromatographic reference methods are time consuming and costly. Thus, alternative methods such as infrared spectroscopy are being increasingly developed to provide simple, rapid, and nondestructive methods to detect mycotoxins. This article reviews research conducted over the last eight years into the use of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopy to monitor mycotoxins in corn, wheat, and barley. More specifically, we focus on the Fusarium species and on the main fusariotoxins of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisin B1 and B2. Quantification models are insufficiently precise to satisfy the legal requirements. Sorting models with cutoff levels are the most promising applications.

  9. Occurrence of Regulated Mycotoxins and Other Microbial Metabolites in Dried Cassava Products from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Adebayo B.; Awoyale, Wasiu; Alamu, Emmanuel O.

    2017-01-01

    Dried cassava products are perceived as one of the potential sources of mycotoxin ingestion in human foods. Processing either contributes to the reduction of toxins or further exposes products to contamination by microorganisms that release metabolic toxins into the products. Thus, the prevalence of microbial metabolites in 373 processed cassava products was investigated in Nigeria. With the use of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the constituent analysis, a few major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1 and G1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and zearalenone) regulated in food crops by the Commission of the European Union were found at concentrations which are toxicologically acceptable in many other crops. Some bioactive compounds were detected at low concentrations in the cassava products. Therefore, the exposure of cassava consumers in Nigeria to regulated mycotoxins was estimated to be minimal. The results provide useful information regarding the probable safety of cassava products in Nigeria. PMID:28661436

  10. Occurrence of Regulated Mycotoxins and Other Microbial Metabolites in Dried Cassava Products from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abass, Adebayo B; Awoyale, Wasiu; Sulyok, Michael; Alamu, Emmanuel O

    2017-06-29

    Dried cassava products are perceived as one of the potential sources of mycotoxin ingestion in human foods. Processing either contributes to the reduction of toxins or further exposes products to contamination by microorganisms that release metabolic toxins into the products. Thus, the prevalence of microbial metabolites in 373 processed cassava products was investigated in Nigeria. With the use of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the constituent analysis, a few major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁ and G₁, fumonisin B₁ and B₂, and zearalenone) regulated in food crops by the Commission of the European Union were found at concentrations which are toxicologically acceptable in many other crops. Some bioactive compounds were detected at low concentrations in the cassava products. Therefore, the exposure of cassava consumers in Nigeria to regulated mycotoxins was estimated to be minimal. The results provide useful information regarding the probable safety of cassava products in Nigeria.

  11. The influence of different nitrogen and carbon sources on mycotoxin production in Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Brzonkalik, Katrin; Herrling, Tanja; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata at 28°C using a semi-synthetic medium (modified Czapek-Dox broth) supplemented with nitrogen and carbon sources. Additionally the effect of shaken and static cultivation on mycotoxin production was tested. Initial experiments showed a clear dependency between nitrogen depletion and mycotoxin production. To assess whether nitrogen limitation in general or the type of nitrogen source triggers the production, various nitrogen sources including several ammonium/nitrate salts and amino acids were tested. In static culture the production of AOH/AME can be enhanced greatly with phenylalanine whereas some nitrogen sources seem to inhibit the AOH/AME production completely. TA was not significantly affected by the choice of nitrogen source. In shaken culture the overall production of all mycotoxins was lower compared to static cultivation. Furthermore tests with a wide variety of carbon sources including monosaccharides, disaccharides, complex saccharides such as starch as well as glycerol and acetate were performed. In shaken culture AOH was produced when glucose, fructose, sucrose, acetate or mixtures of glucose/sucrose and glucose/acetate were used as carbon sources. AME production was not detected. The use of sodium acetate resulted in the highest AOH production. In static culture AOH production was also stimulated by acetate and the amount is comparable to shaken conditions. Under static conditions production of AOH was lower except when cultivated with acetate. In static cultivation 9 of 14 tested carbon sources induced mycotoxin production compared to 4 in shaken culture. This is the first study which analyses the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources in a semi-synthetic medium and assesses the effects of culture conditions on

  12. Aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins in spices marketed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcelo Valle; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2018-04-01

    During their processing, spices usually remain close to the ground for drying, a fact that disposes to fungal contamination, as well as moisture transferred from the tropical environment can allow their multiplication and synthesis of mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of potentially toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in spices marketed in Brazil. The fungal contamination was evaluated by direct plating for samples of clove, black and white peppers. Spread plate was used for the samples of rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano. Analyses were performed in triplicate in DG18 media with incubation at 25°C for 7days. The isolation and identification of fungi followed specific recommendations of culture media and incubation period for each genus. The presence of mycotoxins in spices was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence. The frequency of species potentially toxigenic was high in white and black peppers with presence of both aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi. Only rosemary and fennel showed contamination with aflatoxin B1 and there was a positive correlation (ρ<0.01) between the rosemary contamination with the presence of AFB1 and A. flavus. Even in the presence of ochratoxigenic fungi, ochratoxin A was not detected in the samples. The presence of natural components with antimicrobial activity could justify the low presence of mycotoxins, even in the presence of known toxigenic fungi in the samples. Mycotoxins were not detected in spices covered by Brazilian regulation of mycotoxins. On the other hand, these contaminants were present in other spices consumed by population and not mentioned in the regulation, which could be considered a cause to concern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The role of bentonite binders in single or concomitant mycotoxin contamination of chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A C; Tsiplakou, E; Tsitsigiannis, D I; Georgiadou, M; Iliadi, M K; Sotirakoglou, K; Zervas, G

    2016-08-01

    Concomitant presence of mycotoxins is more likely to appear than a single mycotoxicosis since many mycotoxigenic fungi grow and produce their toxic metabolites under similar conditions. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 4 mycotoxin binders to protect meat-type chickens against single and concomitant administration in the feed of two mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) both at concentration of 0.1 mg/kg. A total of 440 as hatched, d-old, Ross 308 broilers were reared for 42 d. There were 11 dietary treatments. Chickens were fed on either an uncontaminated basal diet, basal diet and AFB1, basal with concomitant presence of AFB1 and OTA, basal diet and three binders A, B and C (1%) with or without AFB1 or basal diet and binder D (0.5%) with or without concomitant presence of AFB1 and OTA. Performance, carcass yield and several biochemical parameters were examined. Mycotoxin concentration in liver and breast muscle samples was determined. Broiler performance under concomitant mycotoxin contamination was poorer than that under single mycotoxicosis. Mycotoxin presence increased relative heart weight compared to that of broilers fed on uncontaminated diets. Only OTA and not AFB1 was detected and only in the liver. OTA concentration was four-fold lower in broilers fed on a diet with binder compared to those fed on contaminated diets without binder. In conclusion, the study revealed that binder composition and presence or not of multiple toxins may be important factors for optimum broiler performance under mycotoxicosis.

  14. Quantitative determination of mycotoxins in urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Jahng, K-Y

    2010-12-01

    Naturally occurring mycotoxins are responsible for a wide array of adverse health effects. The measurement of urinary mycotoxin levels is a useful means of assessing an individual's exposure, but the development of sensitive and accurate analytical methods for detecting mycotoxins and their metabolites in urine samples is challenging. Urinary mycotoxins are present in low pg ml⁻¹ concentrations, and the chromatographic identification of their metabolites can be obscured by other endogenous metabolites. We developed an analytical method focused on the selection of two appropriate multiple-reaction monitoring transition for unambiguous identification and quantification of carcinogenic aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B₁, B₂ (FB₁, FB₂) in urine samples from a small volunteer group in a pilot study. AFM₁, OTA, FB₁ and FB₂ were concentrated selectively, interfering substances were removed using an immunoaffinity column (IAC), and mycotoxins were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination with a stable-isotope standard-dilution assay (SIDA). The method was sensitive enough to measure mycotoxins and their metabolites at pg ml⁻¹ levels in urine. The combination of LC-MS/MS and SIDA was critical to distinguishing pseudo-OTα interference from genuine OTα. Twelve urine samples contained OTA ranging from 0.013 to 0.093 ng ml⁻¹ (mean = 0.031 ng ml⁻¹). AFM₁ were detected in one sample at a 0.002 ng ml⁻¹ level, while FB₁ and FB₂ were undetectable in all 12 samples. None of the samples in this pilot study contained a detectable level of OTα, despite the presence of OTA, and this may suggest the need for further epidemiological investigation of OTA exposure in the Korean population.

  15. Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dizhe; Wang, Yao; Jiang, Dongmei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jun; Wang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg−1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2–4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China. PMID:28672847

  16. Simultaneous and rapid detection of six different mycotoxins using an immunochip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Nan; Ning, Baoan; Liu, Ming; Lv, Zhiqiang; Sun, Zhiyong; Peng, Yuan; Chen, Cuicui; Li, Junwen; Gao, Zhixian

    2012-04-15

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic contaminants in food, animal feed, and commodities. The study has developed an immunochip for quantifying the concentrations of six mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, which were added to drinking water. The complete antigens (Ags) of the mycotoxins were contact printed and immobilized onto agarose-modified glass slides with 12 physically isolated subarrays, based on the reaction of both diffusion and covalent bond. The optimal concentration of each antigen and antibody (Ab) was obtained using an Ag-Ab immunoassay. Based on the indirect competitive immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of six mycotoxins in one single chip, six standard curves with good logistic correlation (R(2)>0.97) were respectively plotted. The working ranges (0.04-1.69, 0.45-3.90, 20.20-69.23, 35.68-363.18, 0.11-1.81, and 0.08-7.47 ng/mL, respectively) were calculated, as well as the median inhibitory concentrations (0.31±0.04, 1.49±0.21, 34.54±1.30, 134.06±11.75, 0.49±0.05, and 1.54±0.22 ng/mL, respectively), when six mycotoxins were detected simultaneously. Finally, the recovery rates in drinking water generally ranged from 80% to 120% on the same chip, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation lower than 15%. We successfully established an immunochip for simultaneous detection of six mycotoxins within 4h, with advantages of using minimal samples and being visually semiquantitative with our naked eyes. In summary, the method could be developed on one single chip for detecting multiple contaminants in actual samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: DEMONSTRATION OF AMBERSORB 563 ADSORBENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of Ambersorb® 5631 carbonaceous adsorbent for remediating groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Ambersorb adsorbent technology demonstration consist...

  19. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices

    SciT

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the samples in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample componentsmore » undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. In a separate study, the spore pigment in Aspergillus flavus was isolated. The mass spectrum indicates a molecular weight in excess of 700. Only aliphatic hydrocarbons have been identified in the mass spectrum of products from a permanganate oxidation.« less

  20. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  1. Metabolism of the Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone and deoxynivalenol by yeast strains of technological relevance.

    PubMed

    Böswald, C; Engelhardt, G; Vogel, H; Wallnöfer, P R

    1995-01-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA), added at a level of 2 micrograms/ml, was reduced stereoselectively by cultures of Candida tropicalis, Torulaspora delbrückii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and 7 Saccharomyces strains to both alpha- and beta-zearalenol. In contrast, only alpha-zearalenol was produced from ZEA by Pichia fermentans and several yeast strains of the genera Candida, Hansenula, Brettanomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and Saccharomycopsis. No glucose conjugates of ZEA (zearalenone-4-beta-D-glucopyranoside) were detected. The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not metabolized by any of the yeast strains that were used for analysis.

  2. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  3. Gas storage using fullerene based adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhael, Michael G. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor); Lu, Xiao-Chun (Inventor); Li, Weijiong (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention is directed to the synthesis of high bulk density high gas absorption capacity adsorbents for gas storage applications. Specifically, this invention is concerned with novel gas absorbents with high gravimetric and volumetric gas adsorption capacities which are made from fullerene-based materials. By pressing fullerene powder into pellet form using a conventional press, then polymerizing it by subjecting the fullerene to high temperature and high inert gas pressure, the resulting fullerene-based materials have high bulk densities and high gas adsorption capacities. By pre-chemical modification or post-polymerization activation processes, the gas adsorption capacities of the fullerene-based adsorbents can be further enhanced. These materials are suitable for low pressure gas storage applications, such as oxygen storage for home oxygen therapy uses or on-board vehicle natural gas storage. They are also suitable for storing gases and vapors such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

  4. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  5. Remediation of AMD using industrial waste adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Nuur Hani Bte; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2016-11-01

    The study investigates the characteristic of industrial waste as adsorbents and its potential as heavy metals absorbents in AMD samples. The AMD sample was collected from active mine pond and the pH was measured in situ. The metal contents were analyzed by ICP-MS. The AMD water was very acidic (pH< 3.5), and the average heavy metals content in AMD were high especially in Fe (822.029 mg/l). Fly ash was found to be the most effective absorbent material containing high percentage of CaO (57.24%) and SiO2 (13.88%), followed by ladle furnace slag containing of high amount of CaO (51.52%) and Al2O3 (21.23%), while biomass ash consists of SiO2 (43.07%) and CaO (12.97%). Tank analysis display a huge changes due to pH value change from acidity to nearly neutral phases. After 50 days, fly ash remediation successfully increase the AMD pH values from pH 2.57-7.09, while slag change from acidity to nearly alkaline phase from pH 2.60-7.3 and biomass has change to pH 2.54-6.8. Fly ash has successfully remove Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Meanwhile, slag sample displays as an effective adsorbent to adsorb more Pb and Cd in acid mine drainage.

  6. Simulations of noble gases adsorbed on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiga, Sidi; Gatica, Silvina

    2014-03-01

    We present results of Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of adsorption of Kr, Ar and Xe on a suspended graphene sheet. We compute the adsorbate-adsorbate interaction by a Lennard-Jones potential. We adopt a hybrid model for the graphene-adsorbate force; in the hybrid model, the potential interaction with the nearest carbon atoms (within a distance rnn) is computed with an atomistic pair potential Ua; for the atoms at r>rnn, we compute the interaction energy as a continuous integration over a carbon uniform sheet with the density of graphene. For the atomistic potential Ua, we assume the anisotropic LJ potential adapted from the graphite-He interaction proposed by Cole et.al. This interaction includes the anisotropy of the C atoms on graphene, which originates in the anisotropic π-bonds. The adsorption isotherms, energy and structure of the layer are obtained and compared with experimental results. We also compare with the adsorption on graphite and carbon nanotubes. This research was supported by NSF/PRDM (Howard University) and NSF (DMR 1006010).

  7. The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control.

    PubMed

    Chilaka, Cynthia Adaku; De Boevre, Marthe; Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-01-05

    Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium . These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may contribute to additional toxic effects, worsens an already precarious situation. This review highlights the status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, the possible food processing mitigation strategies, as well as future perspectives.

  8. The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control

    PubMed Central

    Chilaka, Cynthia Adaku; De Boevre, Marthe; Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may contribute to additional toxic effects, worsens an already precarious situation. This review highlights the status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, the possible food processing mitigation strategies, as well as future perspectives. PMID:28067768

  9. Isolation, purification, toxicity and some physicochemical properties of mycotoxins produced by aspergillus quadrilineatus isolated from acha (Digitaria exilis stapf) in Plateau State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A

    1993-06-01

    Some physico-chemical and toxicological studies were carried out on mycotoxins elaborated by Aspergillus quadrilineatus isolated from a grain foodstuff, acha (Digitaria exilis) in the Plateau State of Nigeria. The mycotoxins produced by A quadrilineatus were extractable from rice culture by chloroform. Column chromatographic separations of the crude extract in silica gel using different elution solvents and biological tests showed that the mycotoxins came off in the diethylether, chloroform and mostly in the ethyl acetate fractions. Use of different available mycotoxin standards on silica gel G coated chromatoplates revealed that 1 of the mycotoxins produced by A quadrilineatus was sterigmatocystin. Two other more toxic mycotoxins were isolated and purified from the crude chloroform extract; their column, preparative thin-layer chromatographic, infrared and UV-spectrophotometric characteristics were established. The infrared spectra of the 2 purified mycotoxins suggested that the carbonyl group of their structures were similar to that of aflatoxin.

  10. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456), exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows. PMID:27447670

  11. JEM Spotlight: Fungi, mycotoxins and microbial volatile organic compounds in mouldy interiors from water-damaged buildings.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Viviana; Delmulle, Barbara; Adams, An; Moretti, Antonio; Susca, Antonia; Picco, Anna Maria; Rosseel, Yves; Kindt, Ruben't; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Kimpe, Norbert; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2009-10-01

    Concerns have been raised about exposure to mycotoxin producing fungi and the microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) they produce in indoor environments. Therefore, the presence of fungi and mycotoxins was investigated in 99 samples (air, dust, wallpaper, mycelium or silicone) collected in the mouldy interiors of seven water-damaged buildings. In addition, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled. The mycotoxins were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (20 target mycotoxins) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Morphological and molecular identifications of fungi were performed. Of the 99 samples analysed, the presence of one or more mycotoxins was shown in 62 samples by means of LC-MS/MS analysis. The mycotoxins found were mainly roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A and sterigmatocystin but also roridin E, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B(1) and aflatoxin B(2) were detected. Q-TOF-MS analysis elucidated the possible occurrence of another 42 different fungal metabolites. In general, the fungi identified matched well with the mycotoxins detected. The most common fungal species found were Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor (group), Chaetomium spp. and Cladosporium spp. In addition, one hundred and seventeen (M)VOCs were identified, especially linear alkanes (C(9)-C(17)), aldehydes, aromatic compounds and monoterpenes.

  12. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  13. Relationship of Mycotoxins Accumulation and Bioactive Components Variation in Ginger after Fungal Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhixin; Wang, Haiwei; Ying, Guangyao; Yang, Meihua; Nian, Yujiao; Liu, Jiajia; Kong, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Ginger has got increasing worldwide interests due to its extensive biological activities, along with high medical and edible values. But fungal contamination and mycotoxin residues have brought challenges to its quality and safety. In the present study, the relationship of content of mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger after infection by toxigenic fungi were investigated for the first time to elucidate the influence of fungal contamination on the inherent quality of ginger. After being infected by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius for different periods, the produced mycotoxins was determined by an immunoaffinity column clean-up based ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the main bioactive components in ginger were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. The results showed that consecutive incubation of ginger with A. flavus and A. carbonarius within 20 days resulted in the production and accumulation of aflatoxins (especially AFB 1 ) and ochratoxin A, as well as the constant content reduction of four bioactive components, which were confirmed through the scanning electron microscope images. Significantly negative correlation was expressed between the mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger, which might influence the quality and safety of it. Furthermore, a new compound was detected after inoculation for 6 days, which was found in our study for the first time.

  14. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  15. Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Su, Yong-Teng; Xie, Wen-Mei; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Dai, Jie-Fan; Wang, Yun; Qi, De-Sheng; Karrow, Niel Alexander; Sun, Lv-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB1, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB1, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0–4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3–729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3–10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB1 over China’s regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB1 during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure. PMID:29518909

  16. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  17. New tricks of an old enemy: Isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  18. Convergent and divergent evolution of the trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the Fusarium

    The Fusarium trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety worldwide. Previous analyses indicate that during early evolution of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (FIESC), the tri...

  19. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. 93.14 Section 93.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Peanuts, Tree...

  20. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of the mycotoxin citrinin with gold nanoparticles

    Citrinin is a nephrotoxic secondary metabolite produced by certain fungal species from the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus genera. Citrinin producing species occasionally contaminate grains, and may pose food safety risks. Analysis of this mycotoxin is frequently carried out by liquid chromat...

  1. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for rapid, accurate and sensitive determination of mycotoxins

    Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a type of homogeneous assay. For low molecular weight antigens, such as mycotoxins, it is based on the competition between an unlabeled antigen and its fluorescent-labeled derivative (tracer) for an antigen-specific antibody. The antigen content is det...

  2. A lipid transfer protein increases the glutathione content and enhances Arabidopsis resistance to a trichothecene mycotoxin

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite cons...

  3. [Hazardous food-borne fungi and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takatori, Kosuke; Aihara, Maki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, various food-related accidents and health scares have dissipated trust in the food industry. Health hazards resulting from food contaminated with fungi is increasing. Food contamination by fungi causes many problems, especially in Japan, which relies on foreign countries for about 60% of its food: the contamination of imported food by fungi and mycotoxins constitutes a serious problem. As the quantity of imported food increases and changes in food distribution have occurred, so too has the number and type of fungi causing food-related damages; osmophilic and thermotolerant fungi, in addition to the mainstream fungi of genera Cladosporium, Pecinillium, and Aspergillus, have become a problem. Although European countries and the U.S. have recently conducted risk assessments for mycotoxins, Japan has not attained an international level in the determination of baseline values. However, in addition to risk management for Aflatoxin M1, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, and Fumonisin, determination of baseline values for mycotoxins is beginning in Japan. In this review, we summarize hazardous food-borne fungi, and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan.

  4. Detection of mycotoxins using imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect mycotoxins. One technology that has been extensively tested is surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In 2003 a multi-toxin method was reported that detected aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 ...

  5. Reducing production of fumonisin mycotoxins in Fusarium verticillioides by RNA interference

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a maize pathogen that can produce fumonisin mycotoxins in ears under certain environmental conditions. Because fumonisins pose health risks to humans and livestock, control strategies with minimal risk to the environment are needed to reduce fumonisin cont...

  6. Current and state-of-the-art approaches for detecting mycotoxins in commodities

    The tools that have been applied to detection of mycotoxins in commodities are numerous and powerful. These include everything from simple to use diagnostic test strips to complex, instrument intensive, methods such as ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). This wi...

  7. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  8. Relationship between mycoparasites lifestyles and biocontrol behaviors against Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Hwa; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Global food security research is seeking eco-friendly solutions to control mycotoxins in grain infected by fungi (molds). In particular, mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. outbreak is a chronic threat for cereal grain production, human, and animal health. In this review paper, we discuss up-to-date biological control strategies in applying mycoparasites as biological control agents (BCA) to prevent plant diseases in crops and mycotoxins in grain, food, and feed. The aim is to increase food safety and to minimize economic losses due to the reduced grain yield and quality. However, recent papers indicate that the study of the BCA specialists with biotrophic lifestyle lags behind our understanding of the BCA generalists with necrotrophic lifestyle. We examine critical behavioral traits of the two BCA groups of mycoparasites. The goal is to highlight their major characteristics in the context of future research towards an efficient biocontrol strategy against mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. The emphasis is put on biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, and F. culmorum causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals and their mycotoxins.

  9. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973

  10. Field Incidence of Mycotoxins in Commercial Popcorn and Potential Environmental Influences

    Insect ear damage and mycotoxin levels were monitored in several commercial popcorn fields in Central Illinois over a four-year period. Aflatoxin was rare, but fumonisin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were commonly encountered each year and occurred at mean levels in fields up to 1.7 ppm (sample max 2.77...

  11. Environmental effects on resistance gene expression in milk stage popcorn kernels and associations with mycotoxin production

    Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease res...

  12. Modification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol using microorganisms isolated from environmental samples

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral ...

  13. Novel FHB control strategy using the volatile trichodiene to reduce mycotoxins

    Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB), reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are deleterious to plant, human and animal health. The first committed step in trichothecene biosynthesis is the formation o...

  14. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and mycotoxin data support reidentification of the Quorn mycoprotein fungus as Fusarium venenatum.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K; Cigelnik, E; Casper, H H

    1998-02-01

    Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and mycotoxin data were obtained in order to investigate the relationships and identity of the Quorn mycoprotein fungus within Fusarium and to examine Quorn strains and commercial Quorn food products for trichothecene mycotoxins. Phylogenetic analyses of aligned DNA sequences obtained via the polymerase chain reaction from the nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, and beta-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Quorn fungus is Fusarium venenatum, rather than F. graminearum as previously reported. All of the Quorn strains examined were morphologically degenerate aconidial colonial mutants except for NRRL 25139, which produced chlamydospores in recurved terminal chains together with mostly 5-septate sporodochial conidia on doliform monophialides diagnostic of F. venenatum. Bootstrap and decay analyses provide strong support for a monophyletic lineage containing F. venenatum and several other type A trichothecene-producing species, while reference strains of F. graminearum were nested in a separate clade of species that produce type B trichothecenes and/or zearalenone. Analysis of mycotoxins from rice cultures inoculated with Quorn strain NRRL 25416 revealed that four type A trichothecenes are produced, but at low levels relative to strain NRRL 22198 of F. venenatum. No trichothecene mycotoxins, however, were detected from the analysis of three commercial Quorn products marketed for human consumption in England.

  15. Production and characterization of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    Deoxynivalenol (DON)is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi that infest cereal grains worldwide. A hybridoma cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (Mab) recognizing DON was used as the starting point in the development of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody. The scFv wa...

  16. Multiple Mycotoxins in Rice: Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment in Children and Adults of Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Saima; Rauf, Waqar; Tawab, Abdul; Fazal-e-Habib; Rahman, Moazur; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this study, the measurement of 23 mycotoxins in rice samples (n = 180) was performed using a validated LC–MS/MS method. A food frequency questionnaire was used to get rice consumption data for the assessment of mycotoxin dietary exposure, before calculating the health risk in adults and children of north and south regions of the Pakistani Punjab province. The prevalence of aflatoxin B1 (56%), aflatoxin B2 (48%), nivalenol (28%), diacetoxyscirpenol (23%), fumonisin B1 (42%), zearalenone (15%), HT-2 toxin (10%), deoxynivalenol (8%), and ochratoxin A (6%) was estimated in samples with a mean concentration range between 0.61 and 22.98 µg/kg. Aflatoxin degradation by traditional Pakistani cooking recipes was evaluated and observed to be 41–63%. The dietary exposure to aflatoxins exceeded the tolerable daily intake at all levels, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone posed health risk at high contamination and high consumption levels. The margin of aflatoxin B1 exposure ranged between 10 and 69 in adults and 10 and 62 in children. The mean cancer risk by aflatoxin B1 exposure was 0.070 (adults) and 0.071 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in South Punjab population, and 0.122 (adults) and 0.127 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in North Punjab population. This study will provide new insights for the planning and management of mycotoxins in Pakistan. PMID:29439433

  17. Distribution and evolution of genes responsible for biosynthesis of mycotoxins in Fusarium

    Fusarium secondary metabolites (SMs) include some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. In fungi, genes directly involved in synthesis of the same SM are typically located adjacent to one another in gene clusters. To better understand the distribution and evolution of mycoto...

  18. An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Cigić, Irena Kralj; Prosen, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results. PMID:19333436

  19. [Applications of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in detecting chitin, ergosterol and mycotoxins].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yong-Yan; Li, De-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Yang, Fu-Yu

    2009-07-01

    The invasion extent and harmfulness of fungi can be determined by chitin, ergosterol and mycotoxins. It is important to monitor chitin, ergosterol and mycotoxins changes to prevent contamination of forage and feed products, and effectively control the sustainable development of the mildew. Predication of these chemical materials was often completed by laboratory analysis, which was time-consuming and cumbersome and could not reflect the results in time in the past. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid, convenient, highly efficient, nondestructive and low-cost analytical technique, which has been widely used in various fields such as food field and feed field for quantitative and qualitative analysis. It has a great potentiality of application in quality analysis. In this paper, the principle and the characteristic of NIRS and its applications in food, forage, feed and other agriculture products quality analysis were introduced. Its applications in fungal biomass (chitin, ergosterol) and mycotoxins were mainly reviewed. NIRS was used to quantify chitin, ergosterol and mycotoxins. Calibration equations and validation equations for these materials were developed. It is also expected that NIRS will play a more and more important role in the field of fungi with the establishment of calibration equation and improvement of model database.

  20. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for rapid, accurate, and sensitive determination of mycotoxins

    Analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins in foods are commonly based on chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC or LC-MS). Although these methods permit a sensitive and accurate determination of the analyte, they require skilled personnel and are time-consuming, expensive, and unsuitable ...

  1. Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Su, Yong-Teng; Xie, Wen-Mei; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Dai, Jie-Fan; Wang, Yun; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, De-Sheng; Karrow, Niel Alexander; Sun, Lv-Hui

    2018-03-07

    The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB₁, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB₁, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0-4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3-729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3-10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB₁ over China's regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB₁ during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy detection of fungal infections and mycotoxins for food safety concerns

    Mycotoxins, which are toxins produced by fungi, can pose great danger to human health with their acute and chronic effects when contaminated foods (grains, fruits, meat, or milk) are ingested. Fungal infections in food crops are extremely common and many developed countries have set standards to mon...

  3. Fusarium Species from Nepalese Rice and Production of Mycotoxins and Gibberellic Acid by Selected Species

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, A. E.; Manandhar, H. K.; Plattner, R. D.; Manandhar, G. G.; Poling, S. M.; Maragos, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    Infection of cereal grains with Fusarium species can cause contamination with mycotoxins that affect human and animal health. To determine the potential for mycotoxin contamination, we isolated Fusarium species from samples of rice seeds that were collected in 1997 on farms in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya. The predominant Fusarium species in surface-disinfested seeds with husks were species of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex, including G. fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides), G. fujikuroi mating population C (anamorph, Fusarium fujikuroi), and G. fujikuroi mating population D (anamorph, Fusarium proliferatum). The widespread occurrence of mating population D suggests that its role in the complex symptoms of bakanae disease of rice may be significant. Other common species were Gibberella zeae (anamorph, Fusarium graminearum) and Fusarium semitectum, with Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium anguioides, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium equiseti, and Fusarium oxysporum occasionally present. Strains of mating population C produced beauvericin, moniliformin, and gibberellic acid, but little or no fumonisin, whereas strains of mating population D produced beauvericin, fumonisin, and, usually, moniliformin, but no gibberellic acid. Some strains of G. zeae produced the 8-ketotrichothecene nivalenol, whereas others produced deoxynivalenol. Despite the occurrence of fumonisin-producing strains of mating population D, and of 8-ketotrichothecene-producing strains of G. zeae, Nepalese rice showed no detectable contamination with these mycotoxins. Effective traditional practices for grain drying and storage may prevent contamination of Nepalese rice with Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:10698766

  4. Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Ladeira, Carina; Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2017-01-01

    The role of mycotoxins—e.g., aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids—has been recognized in the etiology of a number of diseases. In many African countries, the public health impact of chronic (indoor) and/or repeated (dietary) mycotoxin exposure is largely ignored hitherto, with impact on human health, food security, and export of African agricultural food products. Notwithstanding, African scientific research reached milestones that, when linked to findings gained by the international scientific community, make the design and implementation of science-driven governance schemes feasible. Starting from Nigeria as leading African Country, this article (i) overviews available data on mycotoxins exposure in Africa; (ii) discusses new food safety issues, such as the environment–feed–food chain and toxic exposures of food producing animals in risk assessment and management; (iii) identifies milestones for mycotoxins risk management already reached in West Africa; and (iv) points out preliminary operationalization aspects for shielding communities from direct (on health) and indirect (on trade, economies, and livelihoods) effects of mycotoxins. An African science-driven engaging of scientific knowledge by development actors is expected therefore. In particular, One health/One prevention is suggested, as it proved to be a strategic and sustainable development framework. PMID:29085817

  5. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Hassan, Yousef I.; Lepp, Dion; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification. PMID:28387743

  6. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety. PMID:25126610

  7. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  8. Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, Ifeoluwa; Obadina, Adewale; Adaku, Cynthia Chilaka; De Boevre, Marthe; Okoth, Sheila; De Saeger, Sarah; Njobeh, Patrick

    2018-04-02

    Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3.66 × 10 5  CFU/mL. Among the mycotoxigenic fungal species recovered, Aspergillus flavus had the highest incidence of 26%. Previously unreported strains such as P. chrysogenum strain AD25, A. sydowii strain AD 22 and A. tritici strain AD 11 were found. Furthermore, mycotoxin quantitative analysis via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry showed that deoxynivalenol was the dominant mycotoxin occurring in 84% of the samples. This was followed by enniatin B that occurred in 75% of samples ranging from 12 to 44 μg/L and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) (incidence of 53% at a maximum level of 182 μg/L). Generally, there was low occurrence aflatoxins, whereas T-2, HT-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol were not detected. All the samples analysed had safe levels of mycotoxins tested but were contaminated by at least two mycotoxins that could pose some additive or synergistic health effects among consumers. On average: a 60 kg adult consuming 1-6 L/day of the beer was exposed to FB 1  + FB 2 at an estimated 2.20-13.20 μg/kg body weight/day. These values were far above the maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 μg/kg bw/day established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The study demonstrates that consumption of umqombothi can significantly enhance dietary exposure to multiple mycotoxins among consumers, and therefore accentuates the need for

  9. Recent Advances and Future Challenges in Modified Mycotoxin Analysis: Why HRMS Has Become a Key Instrument in Food Contaminant Research

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Laura; Paglia, Giuseppe; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi in crops worldwide. These compounds can undergo modification in plants, leading to the formation of a large number of possible modified forms, whose toxicological relevance and occurrence in food and feed is still largely unexplored. The analysis of modified mycotoxins by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their chemical diversity, the large number of isomeric forms, and the lack of analytical standards. Here, the potential benefits of high-resolution and ion mobility mass spectrometry as a tool for separation and structure confirmation of modified mycotoxins have been investigated/reviewed. PMID:27918432

  10. The Uranium from Seawater Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Overview of Marine Testing, Adsorbent Characterization, Adsorbent Durability, Adsorbent Toxicity, and Deployment Studies

    SciT

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Janke, Chris J.

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) located along the coast of Washington State is evaluating the performance of uranium adsorption materials being developed for seawater extraction under realistic marine conditions with natural seawater. Two types of exposure systems were employed in this program: flow-through columns for testing of fixed beds of individual fibers and pellets and a recirculating water flume for testing of braided adsorbent material. Testing consists of measurements of the adsorption of uranium and other elements from seawater as a function of time, typically 42 to 56 day exposures, to determine the adsorbent capacitymore » and adsorption rate (kinetics). Analysis of uranium and other trace elements collected by the adsorbents was conducted following strong acid digestion of the adsorbent with 50% aqua regia using either Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ORNL 38H adsorbent had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.30 ± 0.68 g U/ kg adsorbent (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation adsorption capacity of 4.89 ± 0.83 g U/kg of adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half-saturation time of 28 ± 10 days. The AF1 adsorbent material had a 56 day adsorption capacity of 3.9 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu), a saturation capacity of 5.4 ± 0.2 g U/kg adsorbent material (normalized to a salinity of 35 psu) and a half saturation time of 23 ± 2 days. The ORNL amidoxime-based adsorbent materials are not specific for uranium, but also adsorb other elements from seawater. The major doubly charged cations in seawater (Ca and Mg) account for a majority of the cations adsorbed (61% by mass and 74% by molar percent). For the ORNL AF1 adsorbent material, U is the 4th most abundant element adsorbed by mass and 7th most abundant by molar percentage« less

  11. The concentration of no toxicologic concern (CoNTC) and airborne mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Bryan D; Robbins, Coreen A; Fallah, Payam; Kelman, Bruce J

    2009-01-01

    The threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC) concept was developed as a method to identify a chemical intake level that is predicted to be without adverse human health effects assuming daily intake over the course of a 70-yr life span. The TTC values are based on known structure-activity relationships and do not require chemical-specific toxicity data. This allows safety assessment (or prioritization for testing) of chemicals with known molecular structure but little or no toxicity data. Recently, the TTC concept was extended to inhaled substances by converting a TTC expressed in micrograms per person per day to an airborne concentration (ng/m(3)), making allowance for intake by routes in addition to inhalation and implicitly assuming 100% bioavailability of inhaled toxicants. The resulting concentration of no toxicologic concern (CoNTC), 30 ng/m(3), represents a generic airborne concentration that is expected to pose no hazard to humans exposed continuously throughout a 70-yr lifetime. Published data on the levels of mycotoxins in agricultural dusts or in fungal spores, along with measured levels of airborne mycotoxins, spores, or dust in various environments, were used to identify conditions under which mycotoxin exposures might reach the CoNTC. Data demonstrate that airborne concentrations of dusts and mold spores sometimes encountered in agricultural environments have the potential to produce mycotoxin concentrations greater than the CoNTC. On the other hand, these data suggest that common exposures to mycotoxins from airborne molds in daily life, including in the built indoor environment, are below the concentration of no toxicologic concern.

  12. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in Iowa streams: An examination of underinvestigated compounds in agricultural basins

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Hoerger, Corinne C.; Meyer, Michael T.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides the first broad-scale investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in streams in the United States. Fifteen stream sites across Iowa were sampled five times throughout the 2008 growing season to capture a range of climatic and crop-growth conditions. Basin size upstream from sampling sites ranged from 7 km2 to >836,000 km2 Atrazine (herbicide) also was measured in all samples as a frame-of-reference agriculturally derived contaminant. Target compounds were frequently detected in stream samples: atrazine (100%), formononetin (80%), equol (45%), deoxynivalenol (43%), daidzein (32%), biochanin A (23%), zearalenone (13%), and genistein (11%). The nearly ubiquitous detection of formononetin (isoflavone) suggests a widespread agricultural source, as one would expect with the intense row crop and livestock production present across Iowa. Conversely, the less spatially widespread detections of deoxynivalenol (mycotoxin) suggest a more variable source due to the required combination of proper host and proper temperature and moisture conditions necessary to promote Fusarium spp. infections. Although atrazine concentrations commonly exceeded 100 ng L-1 (42/75 measurements), only deoxynivalenol (6/56 measurements) had concentrations that occasionally exceeded this level. Temporal patterns in concentrations varied substantially between atrazine, formononetin, and deoxynivalenol, as one would expect for contaminants with different source inputs and processes of formation and degradation. The greatest phytoestrogen and mycotoxin concentrations were observed during spring snowmelt conditions. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins were detected at all sampling sites regardless of basin size. The ecotoxicological effects from long-term, low-level exposures to phytoestrogens and mycotoxins or complex chemicals mixtures including these compounds that commonly take place in surface water are poorly understood and have yet to be

  14. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in Iowa streams: An examination of underinvestigated compounds in agricultural basins

    Kolpin, D.W.; Hoerger, C.C.; Meyer, M.T.; Wettstein, F.E.; Hubbard, L.E.; Bucheli, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides the first broad-scale investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in streams in the United States. Fifteen stream sites across Iowa were sampled five times throughout the 2008 growing season to capture a range of climatic and crop-growth conditions. Basin size upstream from sampling sites ranged from 7 km2 to >836,000 km2. Atrazine (herbicide) also was measured in all samples as a frame-ofreference agriculturally derived contaminant. Target compounds were frequently detected in stream samples: atrazine (100%), formononetin (80%), equol (45%), deoxynivalenol (43%), daidzein (32%), biochanin A (23%), zearalenone (13%), and genistein (11%). Th e nearly ubiquitous detection of formononetin (isoflavone) suggests a widespread agricultural source, as one would expect with the intense row crop and livestock production present across Iowa. Conversely, the less spatially widespread detections of deoxynivalenol (mycotoxin) suggest a more variable source due to the required combination of proper host and proper temperature and moisture conditions necessary to promote Fusarium spp. infections. Although atrazine concentrations commonly exceeded 100 ng L-1 (42/75 measurements), only deoxynivalenol (6/56 measurements) had concentrations that occasionally exceeded this level. Temporal patterns in concentrations varied substantially between atrazine, formononetin, and deoxynivalenol, as one would expect for contaminants with different source inputs and processes of formation and degradation. The greatest phytoestrogen and mycotoxin concentrations were observed during spring snowmelt conditions. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins were detected at all sampling sites regardless of basin size. The ecotoxicological effects from long-term, low-level exposures to phytoestrogens and mycotoxins or complex chemicals mixtures including these compounds that commonly take place in surface water are poorly understood and have yet to be

  15. Characterization and validation of sampling and analytical methods for mycotoxins in workplace air.

    PubMed

    Jargot, Danièle; Melin, Sandrine

    2013-03-01

    Mycotoxins are produced by certain plant or foodstuff moulds under growing, transport or storage conditions. They are toxic for humans and animals, some are carcinogenic. Methods to monitor occupational exposure to seven of the most frequently occurring airborne mycotoxins have been characterized and validated. Experimental aerosols have been generated from naturally contaminated particles for sampler evaluation. Air samples were collected on foam pads, using the CIP 10 personal aerosol sampler with its inhalable health-related aerosol fraction selector. The samples were subsequently solvent extracted from the sampling media, cleaned using immunoaffinity (IA) columns and analyzed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Ochratoxin A (OTA) or fumonisin and aflatoxin derivatives were detected and quantified. The quantification limits were 0.015 ng m(-3) OTA, 1 ng m(-3) fumonisins or 0.5 pg m(-3) aflatoxins, with a minimum dust concentration level of 1 mg m(-3) and a 4800 L air volume sampling. The methods were successfully applied to field measurements, which confirmed that workers could be exposed when handling contaminated materials. It was observed that airborne particles may be more contaminated than the bulk material itself. The validated methods have measuring ranges fully adapted to the concentrations found in the workplace. Their performance meets the general requirements laid down for chemical agent measurement procedures, with an expanded uncertainty less than 50% for most mycotoxins. The analytical uncertainty, comprised between 14 and 24%, was quite satisfactory given the low mycotoxin amounts, when compared to the food benchmarks. The methods are now user-friendly enough to be adopted for personal workplace sampling. They will later allow for mycotoxin occupational risk assessment, as only very few quantitative data have been available till now.

  16. UFLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of multiple mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiaoyang; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Hu, Yichen; Yang, Meihua

    2016-05-01

    A robust, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of eleven mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu, based on one-step extraction without any further clean-up. Separation and quantification were performed in both positive and negative modes under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a single run with zearalanone (ZAN) as internal standard. The chromatographic conditions and MS/MS parameters were carefully optimized. Matrix-matched calibration was recommended to reduce matrix effects and improve accuracy, showing good linearity within wide concentration ranges. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were lower than 50 μg kg(-1), while limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.1-20 μg kg(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was validated for recoveries, ranging from 85% to 115% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤14.87% at low level, from 75% to 119% with RSD ≤ 14.43% at medium level and from 61% to 120% with RSD ≤ 13.18% at high level, respectively. Finally, the developed multi-mycotoxin method was applied for screening of these mycotoxins in 24 commercial samples. Only aflatoxin B2 and zearalenone were found in 2 samples. This is the first report on the application of UFLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS for multi-class mycotoxins in A. catechu. The developed method with many advantages of simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity is a proposed candidate for large-scale detection and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in other complex matrixes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

    2012-02-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P < 0.05) the hematocrit (-5%), hemoglobin (-15%), leukocytes (-25%), heterophils (-2%), lymphocytes (-2%), uric acid (-31%), creatine kinase (-27%), creatinine (-23%), triglycerides (-39%), albumin (-17%), globulin (-1%), total cholesterol (-14%), calcium (-5%), and inorganic phosphorus (-12%). Mycotoxins also altered (P < 0.05) the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. A quadratic effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P < 0.05) in broilers challenged by aflatoxins compared with that of the unchallenged ones. The inclusion of antimycotoxin additives in diets with aflatoxins altered (P < 0.05) some variables (uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase) in relation to the group that received diets with the mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers.

  18. Mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination of Roundup Ready soybean harvested in the Pampean Region, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Carolina E; González, Héctor H L; Salas, María Paula; Resnik, Silvia L; Pacin, Ana M

    2013-08-01

    A total of 89 freshly harvested soybean seed samples (Roundup Ready [transgenic] soybean cultivars) from the 2010/2011 crop season were collected from five locations in the Northern Pampean Region II, Argentina. These samples were analyzed for internal mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and for a range of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was done by HPLC-FLD (high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization), alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether with HPLC-UV (HPLC with UV detection), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were analyzed by GC-ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector). Fungal colonization was more frequently found for samples from América, Saladillo and Trenque Lauquen than for samples from General Villegas and Trenel; a total of 1,401 fungal isolates were obtained from the soybean seeds. The most commonly identified fungal genera were Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phomopsis and Fusarium. Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium verticillioides and F.semitectum were the predominant toxigenic fungal species. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F semitectum and F. verticillioides. In particular, the percentage of mycotoxigenic Alternaria alternata (100%), A.tenuissima (95%) and aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus (57%) were remarkably high. Although none of the mycotoxins, AFs, ZEA, FBs, trichothecenes and OTA, were directly detected in samples of soybean seeds, the frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates the risk of multiple mycotoxin contamination.

  19. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciT

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  20. Quantitative determination of carcinogenic mycotoxins in human and animal biological matrices and animal-derived foods using multi-mycotoxin and analyte-specific high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Jian; Niu, Yunhui; Shi, Lu; Fang, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Tao; Ding, Hong

    2018-01-15

    A sensitive and reliable multi-mycotoxin-based method was developed to identify and quantify several carcinogenic mycotoxins in human blood and urine, as well as edible animal tissues, including muscle and liver tissue from swine and chickens, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For the toxicokinetic studies with individual mycotoxins, highly sensitive analyte-specific LC-MS/MS methods were developed for rat plasma and urine. Sample purification consisted of a rapid 'dilute and shoot' approach in urine samples, a simple 'dilute, evaporate and shoot' approach in plasma samples and a 'QuEChERS' procedure in edible animal tissues. The multi-mycotoxin and analyte-specific methods were validated in-house: The limits of detection (LOD) for the multi-mycotoxin and analyte-specific methods ranged from 0.02 to 0.41 μg/kg (μg/L) and 0.01 to 0.19 μg/L, respectively, and limits of quantification (LOQ) between 0.10 to 1.02 μg/kg (μg/L) and 0.09 to 0.47 μg/L, respectively. Apparent recoveries of the samples spiked with 0.25 to 4 μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 60.1% to 109.8% with relative standard deviations below 15%. The methods were successfully applied to real samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study carried out using a small group of patients from the Chinese population with hepatocellular carcinoma to assess their exposure to carcinogenic mycotoxins using biomarkers. Finally, the multi-mycotoxin method is a useful analytical method for assessing exposure to mycotoxins edible in animal tissues. The analyte-specific methods could be useful during toxicokinetic and toxicological studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D < 6 nm do not change during HA synthesis, while the volume of pores with diameters of 6 nm < D < 9 nm shrinks slightly due to the adsorption of albumin in the pore orifices. It is established that the volume of pores with diameters D > 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  2. Natural adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Meryem; El Hajjaji, souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of natural waters is a current environmental problem and lot of work has been done to find methods for its, prevention and remediation such as ionic exchange, adsorption on active carbon, filtration, electrolysis, biodegradation …etc. Adsorption is one of the most applied methods according to its effectiveness and easy management. Some adsorbents with good properties such as active alumina, zeolites, crop residues … etc, are suitable to substitute usual active carbon. This study aimed at the removal of dyes using oil shale as natural support, and its optimization by factorial experiment. Three factors were considered namly:pollutant concentration, pH and weight of the adsorbent. Tests have been performed with cationic and anionic dyes. Experimental results show that pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption by the oil shale. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to fit experimental data, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by Freundlich isotherm for methylorange and Temkin for methyl blue. Analysis were completed by oil shale characterization educing XRD, IR, XRF techniques, and cationic exchange capacity.

  3. Structure of Irreversibly Adsorbed Star Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, Bulent; Aykan, Meryem Seyma; Canavar, Seda; Satija, Sushil K.; Uhrig, David; Hong, Kunlun

    Formation of irreversibly adsorbed polymer chains on solid substrates have a huge impact on the wetting, glass transition, aging and polymer chain mobility in thin films. In recent years there has been many reports on the formation, kinetics and dynamics of these layers formed by linear homopolymers. Recent studies showed that by varying the number of polymer arms and arm molecular weight one can tune the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films. Using polymer architecture as a tool, the behavior of thin films can be tuned between the behavior of linear chains and soft colloids. We have studied the effect of polymer chain architecture on the structure of dead layer using X-ray reflectivity (XR) and atomic force microscopy. Layer thicknesses and densities of flattened and loosely adsorbed chains has been measured for linear, 4-arm, and 8-arm star polymers with identical total molecular weight as a function of substrate surface energy, annealing temperature and annealing time. Star polymers have been synthesized using anionic polymerization. XR measurements showed that 8-arm star PS molecules form the densest and the thickest dead layers among these three molecules.

  4. Mycotoxins and antifungal drug interactions: implications in the treatment of illnesses due to indoor chronic toxigenic mold exposures.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere C; Campbell, Andrew W; Ehiri, John E

    2004-03-12

    Chronic exposure to toxigenic molds in water-damaged buildings is an indoor environmental health problem to which escalating health and property insurance costs are raising a statewide concern in recent times. This paper reviews the structural and functional properties of mycotoxins produced by toxigenic molds and their interactive health implications with antifungal drugs. Fundamental bases of pathophysiological, neurodevelopmental, and cellular mechanisms of mycotoxic effects are evaluated. It is most likely that the interactions of mycotoxins with antifungal drugs may, at least in part, contribute to the observable persistent illnesses, antifungal drug resistance, and allergic reactions in patients exposed to chronic toxigenic molds. Safe dose level of mycotoxin in humans is not clear. Hence, the safety regulations in place at the moment remain inconclusive, precautionary, and arbitrary. Since some of the antifungal drugs are derived from molds, and since they have structural and functional groups similar to those of mycotoxins, the knowledge of their interactions are important in enhancing preventive measures.

  5. Influence of UV radiation and nitrosamines on the induction of mycotoxins synthesis by nontoxigenic moulds isolated from feed samples.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Nagy H; Smyk, B

    2002-04-01

    The effects of UV radiation and nitrosamines on the induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis by some nontoxigenic moulds isolated from feed samples collected from Egypt and Poland was investigated. Nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus P-63, A. niger EN-200 and A. ochraceus P-157 synthesized mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin, A) after exposure to near UV radiation for 120-210 min. Nitrosamines (DMNA and DENA) at 30 up to 1000 ppm induced the synthesis of aflatoxins by nontoxigenic species of A. flavus ES-255 and P-63 and A. niger EN 200. Near-UV radiation and nitrosamines had no influence on the induction of mycotoxin synthesis by Penicillium and Fusarium isolates. All nontoxigenic strains of Aspergilli which synthesized aflatoxins in the presence of 1000 ppm nitrosamines, also synthesized continuously aflatoxins during the next fifteen generations. Near-UV radiation and nitrosamines had a mutagenic effect on the induction of mycotoxins synthesis by nontoxigenic moulds.

  6. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  8. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  9. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    SciT

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater.more » The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and

  10. Assessment of mycotoxin exposure in the Belgian population using biomarkers: aim, design and methods of the BIOMYCO study.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment of exposure at the individual level can be performed. The BIOMYCO study is designed to assess human mycotoxin exposure using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Over the different seasons of 2013 and 2014, morning urine is gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a designed study protocol, whereby 140 children (3-12 years old) and 278 adults (19-65 years old) are selected based on random cluster sampling stratified for sex, age and geographical areas. Every participant completes a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of relevant foodstuffs (n = 43) of both the day before the urine collection and the previous month. Validated multi-toxin LC-MS/MS methods are used to analyse aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone and their metabolites in morning urine. The study protocol is approved by the ethical committee of the Ghent University Hospital. Within this paper, study design and methods are described. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach is applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large scale. Moreover, it is the first study that will describe the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. In first instance, descriptive analysis will be performed, describing the exposure to mycotoxins for the child and adult group. Exposure of different subgroups will be compared. Furthermore, correlations between the mycotoxin concentrations measured and the food consumption reported will be estimated to explore whether the mycotoxin exposure could be explained by the consumption

  11. Antibodies against molds and mycotoxins following exposure to toxigenic fungi in a water-damaged building.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Campbell, Andrew W; Kashanian, Albert; Vojdani, Elroy

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to molds in water-damaged buildings can cause allergy, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, mucus membrane irritation, and toxicity--alone or in combination. Despite this, significant emphasis has been placed only on Type I allergy and asthma, but not on the other 3 types of allergies. In this study, we sought to evaluate simultaneous measurements of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE antibodies against the most common molds, and their mycotoxins, cultured from water-damaged buildings. Antibodies against 7 different molds and 2 mycotoxins were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the blood of 40 controls and 40 mold-exposed patients. The IgG antibody levels against all 7 of the molds used, as well as the 2 mycotoxins, were significantly greater in patients than in controls. The IgM antibody levels were significantly different in patients for only 6 of 9 determinations. Regarding IgA determinations, antibodies were elevated significantly against all antigens tested, except Epicoccum. However, the differences in IgE levels in controls and mold-exposed patients were significant only for Aspergillus and satratoxin. These differences implied that, overall, the healthy control group was different from the mold-exposed patients for IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies, but not for the IgE anti-mold antibody. Most patients with high levels of antibodies against various mold antigens also exhibited elevated antibodies against purified mycotoxins, indicating that the patients had been exposed to mold spores and mycotoxins. Detection of high levels (colony-forming units per cubic meter) of molds--which, in this study, strongly suggested that there existed a reservoir of spores in the building at the time of sampling--along with a significant elevation in IgG, IgM, or IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins, could be used in future epidemiologic investigations of fungal exposure. In addition to IgE, measurements of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies

  12. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Ruud; van Doorn, Ronald; Katerere, David; Berthiller, Franz; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2017-01-01

    Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FBs), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay. For confirmatory analysis, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and applied. The 6-plex screening showed discrepancies with the LC-MS/MS analysis, possibly due to matrix interference and/or the presence of unknown mycotoxin metabolites. The major mycotoxins detected were DON and its plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (D3G). The 6-plex immunoassay reported the sum of DON and D3G (DON+D3G) contaminations ranging from 10 to 475 μg/L in 406 beers, of which 73% were craft beers. The popular craft beer style imperial stout, had the highest percentage of samples suspected positive (83%) with 29% of all imperial stout beers having DON+D3G contaminations above 100 μg/L. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that industrial pale lagers from Italy and Spain, predominantly contained FBs (3–69 μg/L). Besides FBs, African traditional beers also contained aflatoxins (0.1–1.2 μg/L). The presence of OTA, T-2, HT-2, ZEN, β-zearalenol, 3/15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol and the conjugated mycotoxin zearalenone 14-sulfate were confirmed in some beers. This study shows that in 27 craft beers, DON+D3G concentrations occurred above (or at) the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). Exceeding the TDI, may have a health impact. A better control of brewing malts for craft beer, should be put in place to circumvent this potential

  13. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeroen; van Dam, Ruud; van Doorn, Ronald; Katerere, David; Berthiller, Franz; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2017-01-01

    Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FBs), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay. For confirmatory analysis, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and applied. The 6-plex screening showed discrepancies with the LC-MS/MS analysis, possibly due to matrix interference and/or the presence of unknown mycotoxin metabolites. The major mycotoxins detected were DON and its plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (D3G). The 6-plex immunoassay reported the sum of DON and D3G (DON+D3G) contaminations ranging from 10 to 475 μg/L in 406 beers, of which 73% were craft beers. The popular craft beer style imperial stout, had the highest percentage of samples suspected positive (83%) with 29% of all imperial stout beers having DON+D3G contaminations above 100 μg/L. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that industrial pale lagers from Italy and Spain, predominantly contained FBs (3-69 μg/L). Besides FBs, African traditional beers also contained aflatoxins (0.1-1.2 μg/L). The presence of OTA, T-2, HT-2, ZEN, β-zearalenol, 3/15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol and the conjugated mycotoxin zearalenone 14-sulfate were confirmed in some beers. This study shows that in 27 craft beers, DON+D3G concentrations occurred above (or at) the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). Exceeding the TDI, may have a health impact. A better control of brewing malts for craft beer, should be put in place to circumvent this potential problem.

  14. Proximal sensing of within-field mycotoxin variation - a case study in Northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Marina; Koszinski, Sylvia; Bangs, Donovan E.; Wehrhan, Marc; Ullrich, Andreas; Verch, Gernot; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Fusarium head blight is a global problem in agriculture that results in yield losses and, more seriously, produces harmful toxins that enter the food chain. This study (Müller et al. 2016) builds on previous research identifying within-field humidity as an important factor in infection processes by Fusarium fungi and its mycotoxin production. Environmental variables describing topographic control of humidity (topographic wetness index TWI), soil texture and related moisture by electrical conductivity (ECa), and canopy humidity by density (normalized difference vegetation index NDVI) were explored in their relationship to the fungal infection rates and mycotoxin accumulation. Field studies at four sites in NE German Lowlands were performed in 2009 and 2011. Sites differed slightly in soil textural properties and, more pronounced, mean annual precipitation. Sampling positions were selected by usage of NDVI values range from remote sensing data base. Environmental data included elevation and its derivatives like topographic wetness index (TWI) from a DEM25, electrical conductivity distribution maps (5 x 5 m) based on EM38DD survey and, orthorectified RapidEye imagery (5 x 5 m2) with resulting NDVI distributions across the field sites. Grain yield, fungal infection rate, microbiological characteristics and mycotoxin accumulation were determined at 223 field positions. Statistical analysis incorporated Spearman rank order correlations and three regression methods (censored regression models, linear mixed-effects models and spatial linear mixed-effects models). Kriging was used to visualize the spatial patterns and trends. All analyses were performed by R software. In 2011, a more wet year than 2009, high Fusarium infection rates and a high concentration of mycotoxins were stated, the latter once exceeding EU threshold values. For both years associations between NDVI and microbiological variables were found, but being more pronounced and more often significant for 2011

  15. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  16. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-Mycotoxin Screening Reveals the Occurrence of 139 Different Secondary Metabolites in Feed and Feed Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schwab, Christina; Sulyok, Michael; Naehrer, Karin; Krska, Rudolf; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/mass spectrometry (MS) methods for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a broad spectrum of mycotoxins has facilitated the screening of a larger number of samples for contamination with a wide array of less well-known “emerging” mycotoxins and other metabolites. In this study, 83 samples of feed and feed raw materials were analysed. All of them were found to contain seven to 69 metabolites. The total number of detected metabolites amounts to 139. Fusarium mycotoxins were most common, but a number of Alternaria toxins also occurred very often. Furthermore, two so-called masked mycotoxins (i.e., mycotoxin conjugates), namely deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (75% positives) and zearalenone-4-sulfate (49% positives), were frequently detected. Although the observed median concentrations of the individual analytes were generally in the low μg/kg range, evaluating the toxicological potential of a given sample is difficult. Toxicity data on less well-known mycotoxins and other detected metabolites are notoriously scarce, as an overview on the available information on the most commonly detected metabolites shows. Besides, the possible synergistic effects of co-occurring substances have to be considered. PMID:23529186

  18. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOEpatents

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  19. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOEpatents

    Senum, Gunnar I.; Dietz, Russell N.

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  20. Verification of chloride adsorption effect of mortar with salt adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, T.; Nakajima, N.; Sudo, H.; Date, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the chloride adsorption effect of mortar mixed with chloride adsorbent, electrophoresis test using mortar specimen and immersion dry repeated test were conducted to evaluate chloride adsorption effect. As a result, it was confirmed that soluble salt content that causes corrosion of rebar in the specimen was reduced by the chloride adsorbent and corrosion inhibiting effect of the rebar was also obtained. It was also confirmed that by increasing dosage of the chloride adsorbent, the chloride adsorbing effect becomes larger as well..

  1. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  2. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M E; Silva, J; González, S N

    2010-10-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances.

  3. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Among many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, macrocyclic trichothecenes, fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratochin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce neurotoxicity in rodent models. T-2 toxin induces neuronal cell apoptosis in the fetal and adult brain. Macrocyclic trichothecenes bring about neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammation in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. FB1 induces neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex, concurrent with disruption of de novo ceramide synthesis. OTA causes acute depletion of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, accompanying evidence of neuronal cell apoptosis in the substantia nigra, striatum and hippocampus. This paper reviews the mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-associated pathways. PMID:21954354

  4. [Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in selected raw and processed fruit and vegetable products].

    PubMed

    Giryn, H; Szteke, B

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the assessment of Alternaria-mycotoxins contamination in some raw and processed plant products. The analytical method for detection of alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME) is described. After extraction and purification of sample crude extracts by column chromatography on silica gel, the qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by two-dimensional TLC. There were 110 samples analyzed -44 (included 32 moulded) raw plant samples and 56 processed plant products. Levels of alternaria-mycotoxins found in fruits and tomatoes visibly decayed ranged between 3 to 420 micrograms/kg for AOH and 10 to 100 micrograms/kg for AME. Trace amounts of AOH were detected in 3 samples of processed products.

  5. Development of a proteomic approach to monitor protein synthesis in mycotoxin producing moulds.

    PubMed

    Milles, J; Krämer, J; Prange, A

    2007-12-01

    In general, proteome studies compare different states of metabolism to investigate external or internal influences on protein expression. In the context of mycotoxin production the method could open another view on this complex and could be helpful to gain knowledge about proteins which are involved in metabolism (enzymes, transporters). In this short technical report, we describe a new protocol suitable for protein preparation for whole proteome analysis ofFusarium graminearum. Cell lysis was performed by grinding the mycelium with liquid nitrogen. Proteins were extracted with TCA/acetone and then cleaned; the isolated proteins were separated in a 2D-gel electrophoresis system (BioRad) using different pH gradients. The protocol established seems also generally applicable for other mycotoxin producing fungi.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  7. Ecological Networks in Stored Grain: Key Postharvest Nodes for Emerging Pests, Pathogens, and Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Nopsa, John F; Daglish, Gregory J; Hagstrum, David W; Leslie, John F; Phillips, Thomas W; Scoglio, Caterina; Thomas-Sharma, Sara; Walter, Gimme H; Garrett, Karen A

    2015-10-01

    Wheat is at peak quality soon after harvest. Subsequently, diverse biota use wheat as a resource in storage, including insects and mycotoxin-producing fungi. Transportation networks for stored grain are crucial to food security and provide a model system for an analysis of the population structure, evolution, and dispersal of biota in networks. We evaluated the structure of rail networks for grain transport in the United States and Eastern Australia to identify the shortest paths for the anthropogenic dispersal of pests and mycotoxins, as well as the major sources, sinks, and bridges for movement. We found important differences in the risk profile in these two countries and identified priority control points for sampling, detection, and management. An understanding of these key locations and roles within the network is a new type of basic research result in postharvest science and will provide insights for the integrated pest management of high-risk subpopulations, such as pesticide-resistant insect pests.

  8. Analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins by gas chromatography--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Young, J C; Games, D E

    1994-03-11

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of selected Fusarium mycotoxins of various structure types were determined. Absorptions were observed for the following functionalities: hydroxyl at 3625-65 cm-1 and 3482 cm-1, the latter being associated with a 7 alpha-hydroxyl adjacent to an 8-carbonyl in keto trichothecenes; carbonyl at 1760-6 cm-1 for 5-membered rings and at 1695-8 cm-1 for those conjugated to a single C = C in a six-membered ring; acetate carbonyl at 1765 cm-1 and acetate C-O at 1220-9 cm-1; and C = C at 1680 cm-1. Gas chromatography combined with FTIR and mass spectrometry was applied to the identification of some mycotoxins in a F. roseum liquid culture extract.

  9. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  10. Quantitation of Mycotoxins Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Busman, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Ambient ionization represents a new generation of MS ion sources and is used for the rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. The combination of ambient ionization and MS allows the analysis of multiple food samples with simple or no sample treatment or in conjunction with prevailing sample preparation methods. Two ambient ionization methods, desorptive electrospray ionization (DESI) and direct analysis in real time (DART) have been adapted for food safety application. Both ionization techniques provide unique advantages and capabilities. DART has been used for a variety of qualitative and quantitative applications. In particular, mycotoxin contamination of food and feed materials has been addressed by DART-MS. Applications to mycotoxin analysis by ambient ionization MS and particularly DART-MS are summarized.

  11. Ecological Networks in Stored Grain: Key Postharvest Nodes for Emerging Pests, Pathogens, and Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Nopsa, John F.; Daglish, Gregory J.; Hagstrum, David W.; Leslie, John F.; Phillips, Thomas W.; Scoglio, Caterina; Thomas-Sharma, Sara; Walter, Gimme H.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is at peak quality soon after harvest. Subsequently, diverse biota use wheat as a resource in storage, including insects and mycotoxin-producing fungi. Transportation networks for stored grain are crucial to food security and provide a model system for an analysis of the population structure, evolution, and dispersal of biota in networks. We evaluated the structure of rail networks for grain transport in the United States and Eastern Australia to identify the shortest paths for the anthropogenic dispersal of pests and mycotoxins, as well as the major sources, sinks, and bridges for movement. We found important differences in the risk profile in these two countries and identified priority control points for sampling, detection, and management. An understanding of these key locations and roles within the network is a new type of basic research result in postharvest science and will provide insights for the integrated pest management of high-risk subpopulations, such as pesticide-resistant insect pests. PMID:26955074

  12. Comparison of Biogenic Amines and Mycotoxins in Alfalfa and Red Clover Fodder Depending on Additives

    PubMed Central

    Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Mlejnkova, Veronika; Kalhotka, Libor; Horky, Pavel; Konecna, Klara; Hodulikova, Lucia; Knotova, Daniela; Balabanova, Marie; Slama, Petr; Skarpa, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage. The experimental plot was located in Troubsko and Vatín, in the Czech Republic. Two varieties of Medicago sativa and one variety of Trifolium pratense were compared. Green fodder and subsequently produced silage reaching up to 23% of dry matter were evaluated and prepared using a bio-enzymatic additive and a chemical additive. Green fodder of Medicago sativa was more contaminated by Enterococci than Trifolium pratense fodder. The obvious difference was determined by the quality of silage leachate. The silage prepared from Medicago sativa fodder was more contaminated with butyric acid. Fungi were present in higher counts in the anaerobic environment of green fodder and contaminated it with zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Lower counts of fungi were found in silage, although the zearalenone content did not change. Lower content of deoxynivalenol was detected in silage, compared with green fodder. Silages treated with a chemical additive were found not to contain butyric acid. Lower ethanol content was determined, and the tendency to reduce the risk of biogenic amines occurrence was evident. The additives proved to have no influence on the content of mycotoxins. PMID:28420109

  13. Multiplex Lateral Flow Immunoassays Based on Amorphous Carbon Nanoparticles for Detecting Three Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiya; Yu, Xuezhi; Wen, Kai; Li, Chenglong; Mujtaba Mari, Ghulam; Jiang, Haiyang; Shi, Weimin; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2017-09-13

    The detecting labels used for lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) have been traditionally gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and, more recently, luminescent nanoparticles, such as quantum dots (QDs). However, these labels have low sensitivity and are costly, in particular, for trace detection of mycotoxins in cereals. Here, we provided a simple preparation procedure for amorphous carbon nanoparticles (ACNPs) and described multiplex LFAs employing ACNPs as labels (ACNP-LFAs) for detecting three Fusarium mycotoxins. The analytical performance of ACNPs in LFA was compared to GNPs and QDs using the same immunoreagents, except for the labels, allowing for their analytical characteristics to be objectively compared. The visual limit of detection for ACNP-LFAs in buffer was 8-fold better than GNPs and 2-fold better than QDs. Under optimized conditions, the quantitative limit of detection of ACNP-LFAs in maize was as low as 20 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 13 μg/kg for T-2 toxin, and 1 μg/kg for zearalenone. These measurements were much lower than the action level of these mycotoxins in maize. The accuracy and precision of the ACNP-LFAs were evaluated by analysis of spiked and incurred maize samples with recoveries of 84.6-109% and coefficients of variation below 13%. The results of ACNP-LFAs using naturally incurred maize samples showed good agreement with results from high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, indicating that ACNPs were more sensitive labels than and a promising alternative to GNPs used in LFAs for detecting mycotoxins in cereals.

  14. Ultra-sensitive, stable isotope assisted quantification of multiple urinary mycotoxin exposure biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Šarkanj, Bojan; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Abia, Wilfred A; Rychlik, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt

    2018-08-17

    There is a critical need to better understand the patterns, levels and combinatory effects of exposures we are facing through our diet and environment. Mycotoxin mixtures are of particular concern due to chronic low dose exposures caused by naturally contaminated food. To facilitate new insights into their role in chronic disease, mycotoxins and their metabolites are quantified in bio-fluids as biomarkers of exposure. Here, we describe a highly sensitive urinary assay based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS) and 13 C-labelled or deuterated internal standards covering the most relevant regulated and emerging mycotoxins. Utilizing enzymatic pre-treatment, solid phase extraction and UHPLC separation, the sensitivity of the method was significantly higher (10-160x lower LODs) than in a previously described method used for comparison purpose, and stable isotopes provided compensation for challenging matrix effects. This method was in-house validated and applied to re-assess mycotoxin exposure in urine samples obtained from Nigerian children, adolescent and adults, naturally exposed through their regular diet. Owing to the methods high sensitivity, biomarkers were detected in all samples. The mycoestrogen zearalenone was the most frequently detected contaminant (82%) but also ochratoxin A (76%), aflatoxin M 1 (73%) and fumonisin B 1 (71%) were quantified in a large share of urines. Overall, 57% of 120 urines were contaminated with both, aflatoxin M 1 and fumonisin B 1 , and other co-exposures were frequent. These results clearly demonstrate the advanced performance of the method to assess lowest background exposures (pg mL -1 range) using a single, highly robust assay that will allow for the systematic investigation of low dose effects on human health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Field incidence of mycotoxins in commercial popcorn and potential environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2010-02-01

    Popcorn ear damage by insects and mycotoxin levels in kernels were monitored in several commercial popcorn fields in central Illinois over a 4-year period. Aflatoxin was rare, but fumonisin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were commonly encountered each year, and occurred at mean levels in fields up to 1.7 mg/kg (sample max. 2.77 mg/kg) and 1.9 mg/kg (sample max. 2.66 mg/kg), respectively. Neither fumonisin nor DON levels were significantly correlated with the percent of ears with visibly moldy insect-damaged kernels. Significant correlations were noted for the percent of ears with early caterpillar damage and both fumonisin and DON levels overall for some years and at specific sites in other years. Fumonisin levels were generally more highly correlated with insect damage than DON levels. Insect damaged kernels had 100- to 500-fold or greater levels of fumonisin compared to noninsect-damaged kernels, while DON levels were closer to 10- to 30-fold higher in insect damaged versus nondamaged kernels. A high percentage of DON-contaminated kernels were not insect damaged in 2007 and 2008. In some cases, differing mycotoxin levels for the same hybrid and same year planted at different locations appeared to be due to the prior crop. Higher DON levels in 2008 than other years were most likely associated with higher levels of rainfall and cooler temperatures than average during ear fill. While kernel sorters are reported to remove mycotoxin-contaminated popcorn kernels to acceptible levels, consideration of environmental factors that promote mycotoxins in popcorn should result in more effective control measures in the field.

  16. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ezz El-Arab, Aly M; Girgis, Shenouda M; Hegazy, Eman M; Abd El-Khalek, Azzat B

    2006-01-01

    Background Bee honey is a functional food which has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can inhibit the toxic effect of mycotoxins, the present study was undertaken. Methods Production of biomass and toxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus were followed in media without and with honey. Although aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. were administrated to male Swiss albino mice up to 1 μg and 10 ng/kg body weight/day respectively. The experimental animals were fed diets without our with 10% honey for two months. The changes in colonic probiotic bacteria, determintal colon enzyme glucuronidases, and genotoxicity were followed. Results Addition of 32% in its media increased the biomass of A parasiticus, while the biomass of A. ochraceus decreased and Ochratoxin A. was not produced. When the honey was added at the ratio of 32 and 48% in the medium. No relationship was found between mycelium weight and production of mycotoxins. Oral administration of aflatoxins (mixture of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A. induced structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and germ cells of male mice, whereas, honey treatment reduced the genotoxicity of mycotoxins. Also both toxins induced histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Feeding on diet supplemented with honey improved the histopathological changes in case of aflatoxin group, but not in the case of ochratoxin A. group (except of kidney in two cases). No significant differences were found in the activity of colon β-glucuronidase between group fed diet with or without honey. On the other hand, the colon bifido bacteria and lactobacilli counts were increased markedly in group receiving diet supplemented with honey. Conclusion Substituting sugars with honey in processed food can inhibit the harmful and genotoxic effects of mycotoxins, and improve the gut microflora. PMID:16533410

  17. Comparison of Biogenic Amines and Mycotoxins in Alfalfa and Red Clover Fodder Depending on Additives.

    PubMed

    Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Mlejnkova, Veronika; Kalhotka, Libor; Horky, Pavel; Konecna, Klara; Hodulikova, Lucia; Knotova, Daniela; Balabanova, Marie; Slama, Petr; Skarpa, Petr

    2017-04-14

    In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage. The experimental plot was located in Troubsko and Vatín, in the Czech Republic. Two varieties of Medicago sativa and one variety of Trifolium pratense were compared. Green fodder and subsequently produced silage reaching up to 23% of dry matter were evaluated and prepared using a bio-enzymatic additive and a chemical additive. Green fodder of Medicago sativa was more contaminated by Enterococci than Trifolium pratense fodder. The obvious difference was determined by the quality of silage leachate. The silage prepared from Medicago sativa fodder was more contaminated with butyric acid. Fungi were present in higher counts in the anaerobic environment of green fodder and contaminated it with zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Lower counts of fungi were found in silage, although the zearalenone content did not change. Lower content of deoxynivalenol was detected in silage, compared with green fodder. Silages treated with a chemical additive were found not to contain butyric acid. Lower ethanol content was determined, and the tendency to reduce the risk of biogenic amines occurrence was evident. The additives proved to have no influence on the content of mycotoxins.

  18. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, Aly M; Girgis, Shenouda M; Hegazy, Eman M; Abd El-Khalek, Azzat B

    2006-03-14

    Bee honey is a functional food which has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can inhibit the toxic effect of mycotoxins, the present study was undertaken. Production of biomass and toxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus were followed in media without and with honey. Although aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. were administrated to male Swiss albino mice up to 1 mug and 10 ng/kg body weight/day respectively. The experimental animals were fed diets without our with 10% honey for two months. The changes in colonic probiotic bacteria, determintal colon enzyme glucuronidases, and genotoxicity were followed. Addition of 32% in its media increased the biomass of A parasiticus, while the biomass of A. ochraceus decreased and Ochratoxin A. was not produced. When the honey was added at the ratio of 32 and 48% in the medium. No relationship was found between mycelium weight and production of mycotoxins. Oral administration of aflatoxins (mixture of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A. induced structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and germ cells of male mice, whereas, honey treatment reduced the genotoxicity of mycotoxins. Also both toxins induced histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Feeding on diet supplemented with honey improved the histopathological changes in case of aflatoxin group, but not in the case of ochratoxin A. group (except of kidney in two cases). No significant differences were found in the activity of colon beta-glucuronidase between group fed diet with or without honey. On the other hand, the colon bifido bacteria and lactobacilli counts were increased markedly in group receiving diet supplemented with honey. Substituting sugars with honey in processed food can inhibit the harmful and genotoxic effects of mycotoxins, and improve the gut microflora.

  19. Influence of Temperature and Water Activity on Deleterious Fungi and Mycotoxin Production during Grain Storage

    PubMed Central

    Mannaa, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Cereal grains are the most important food source for humans. As the global population continues to grow exponentially, the need for the enhanced yield and minimal loss of agricultural crops, mainly cereal grains, is increasing. In general, harvested grains are stored for specific time periods to guarantee their continuous supply throughout the year. During storage, economic losses due to reduction in quality and quantity of grains can become very significant. Grain loss is usually the result of its deterioration due to fungal contamination that can occur from preharvest to postharvest stages. The deleterious fungi can be classified based on predominance at different stages of crop growth and harvest that are affected by environmental factors such as water activity (aw) and eco-physiological requirements. These fungi include species such as those belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium that can produce mycotoxins harmful to animals and humans. The grain type and condition, environment, and biological factors can also influence the occurrence and predominance of mycotoxigenic fungi in stored grains. The main environmental factors influencing grain fungi and mycotoxins are temperature and aw. This review discusses the effects of temperature and aw on fungal growth and mycotoxin production in stored grains. The focus is on the occurrence and optimum and minimum growth requirements for grain fungi and mycotoxin production. The environmental influence on aflatoxin production and hypothesized mechanisms of its molecular suppression in response to environmental changes are also discussed. In addition, the use of controlled or modified atmosphere as an environmentally safe alternative to harmful agricultural chemicals is discussed and recommended future research issues are highlighted. PMID:29371792

  20. Environmental Mold and Mycotoxin Exposures Elicit Specific Cytokine and Chemokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum Lichtenstein, Jamie H.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Gavin, Igor M.; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Molina, Ramon M.; Thompson, Khristy J.; Chi, Chih-Lin; Gillis, Bruce S.; Brain, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release. Methods and Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation

  1. Effect of mycotoxins on in vitro movement of tracheal cilia from one-day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Jesenská, Z; Bernát, D

    1994-01-01

    The effect of 11 mycotoxins on the ciliary movement of tracheal epithelium from one-day-old chicks in vitro was examined. Sterigmatocystin and diacetoxyscirpenol were most ciliostatically active in vitro; the ciliostatic effect was observed after 2 d if the amount concentration was 30 micrograms/L. In contrast, patulin stopped the movement of cilia after 2 d only if its concentration was 20 mg/L.

  2. Effects of feeding diets contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Faixová, Zita; Faix, Stefan; Borutová, Radka; Leng, Lubomír

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on some biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Twenty-four Ross 308 hybrid broiler chickens of both sexes were fed diets containing maize contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. The diets included a control diet (DON 0.60 mg/kg feed; ZEA 0.07 mg/kg feed), an experimental 1 diet (DON 3.4 mg kg⁻¹ feed; ZEA 3.4 mg kg⁻¹ feed), and an experimental 2 diet (DON 8.2 mg kg⁻¹ feed; ZEA 8.3 mg kg⁻¹ feed). Contaminated diets were fed from 14 days of age for 14 days. Blood samples were collected from 4-week-old birds. Chicks fed a diet containing a low level of contaminated maize (experimental 1) had decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased cholesterol and calcium levels as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities as compared to the control. Feeding a diet contaminated with high levels of mycotoxins (experimental 2) resulted in decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased plasma ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST enzyme activities. The effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets on ALP activity was dose dependent. Chloride concentration was not affected by the diets. It can be concluded that feeding diets contaminated with both levels of Fusarium mycotoxins significantly affected protein, lipid and mineral metabolism as well as AST and ALP enzyme activities in broiler chickens.

  3. Effects of feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Korosteleva, S N; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J

    2009-04-01

    A previous study in dairy cows showed some effect of feed contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity. A subsequent experiment investigated the effect of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on some immune functions in more detail. A total mixed ration (TMR) containing a blend of feedstuffs naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins was fed for 63 d to 12 mid-lactation Holstein cows with an average milk production of 36 kg/d in a completely randomized design with repeated measures including 1) control TMR and 2) contaminated TMR. Wheat, corn, hay, and corn silage were the contaminated feedstuffs. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant and was found in TMR at 3.5 mg/kg of dry matter. The parameters measured were 1) performance: body weight, body condition score, dry matter intake, milk production, composition and somatic cell count; 2) health: blood serum chemistry, hematology, coagulation profile, and rumen fluid ammonia levels; 3) immune function: total serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), specific antibody response to ovalbumin, and neutrophil phagocytosis. Dry matter intake, body weight, milk production, and milk composition were not affected by diet. Neutrophil phagocytosis was depressed throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Serum sodium concentrations and osmolality were significantly elevated throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Primary antibody response to ovalbumin immunization was higher in cows fed the contaminated diet compared with controls. It was concluded that feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can affect metabolic parameters and immune function of dairy cows.

  4. Toxicity assessment of mycotoxins extracted from contaminated commercial dog pelleted feed on canine blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanil D; Sheik Abdul, Naeem; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Tiloke, Charlette; Nagiah, Savania; Baijnath, Sooraj; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2018-04-01

    Raw ingredients of pet food are often contaminated with mycotoxins. This is a serious health problem to pets and causes emotional and economical stress to the pet owners. The aim of this study was to determine the immunotoxicity of the most common mycotoxins (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) by examining 20 samples of extruded dry dog food found on the South African market [10 samples from standard grocery store lines (SB), 10 from premium veterinarian lines (PB)]. Pelleted dog food was subjected to extraction protocols optimized for the above mentioned mycotoxins. Dog lymphocytes were treated with the extracts (24 h incubation and final concentration 40 μg/ml) to determine cell viability, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and markers of cell death using spectrophotometry, luminometry and flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress showed no significant difference between SB and PB, however, GSH was significantly depleted in SB extract treatments. Markers of apoptosis (phosphatidylserine externalization) and necrosis (propidium iodide incorporation) were elevated in both food lines when compared to untreated control cells, interestingly SB extracts were significantly higher than PB. We also observed decreased ATP levels and increased mitochondrial depolarization in cells treated with both lines of feed with SB showing the greatest differences when compared to the control. This study provides evidence that irrespective of price, quality or marketing channels, pet foods present a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. Though in this study PB fared better than SB in regards to cell toxicity, there is a multitude of other factors that need to be studied which may have an influence on other negative outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycotoxin production by pure fungal isolates analysed by means of an uhplc-ms/ms multi-mycotoxin method with possible pitfalls and solutions for patulin-producing isolates.

    PubMed

    Van Pamel, Els; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Herman, Lieve; Verbeken, Annemieke; Daeseleire, Els

    2011-02-01

    This study is the first report of applying an ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) multi-mycotoxin method to identify and quantify the mycotoxins produced by pure fungal isolates grown on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar. The method developed concerns a triple extraction procedure based on methanol, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The total extract was chromatographically separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column and analyzed with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Performance characteristics (specificity, linearity, possible matrix effects, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection) were evaluated by spiking experiments with blank agar plugs and the analytes. Verrucarol was used as internal standard. Recovery percentages varied between 56 and 125%, whereas the limit of detection ranged from 1 to 1,500 ng g(-1) with the exception of NIV, PAT and ZEA. The method was successfully applied for examining the in vitro mycotoxin production by Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger. The mobile phases used for chromatographic separation were slightly modified when studying patulin-producing molds due to signal interference between this mycotoxin and an unknown metabolite. This modified method was successfully applied for Penicillium roqueforti, P. paneum and P. carneum grown on YES agar medium. Application of the multi-mycotoxin UHPLC-MS/MS method developed may be of great importance for studying the mycotoxin capacity of fungal isolates under varying growth conditions, in order to obtain a better insight into the conditions which induce or suppress mycotoxin production by pure fungal isolates or from a chemotaxonomic point of view.

  6. Positive and negative aspects of green coffee consumption - antioxidant activity versus mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Stanisz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    The quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms that can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage. The antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed higher activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica beans. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in green coffee beans was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, the content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was the dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples, with the highest level at 17.45 ng g -1 . Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples at levels ranging from 1.27 to 4.34 ng g -1 , and fungi potentially producing this toxin, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated. Steaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to legal limits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Data Analyses and Modelling for Risk Based Monitoring of Mycotoxins in Animal Feed

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine); Adamse, Paulien; Punt, Ans; van Asselt, Esther D.

    2018-01-01

    Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007–2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B1 monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products) and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority. For deoxynivalenol, maize by-products had a high priority, complete and complementary feed for pigs had a medium priority and all other feed and feed materials a low priority. Also including health consequence estimations showed that feed materials that ranked highest for aflatoxin B1 included sunflower seed and palmkernel expeller/extracts and maize. For deoxynivalenol, maize products were ranked highest, followed by various small grain cereals (products); all other feed materials were of lower concern. Results of this study have proven to be useful in setting up the annual risk based control program for mycotoxins in animal feed and feed materials. PMID:29373559

  8. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  9. Fusarium and mycotoxin spectra in Swiss barley are affected by various cropping techniques.

    PubMed

    Schöneberg, Torsten; Martin, Charlotte; Wettstein, Felix E; Bucheli, Thomas D; Mascher, Fabio; Bertossa, Mario; Musa, Tomke; Keller, Beat; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium head blight is one of the most important cereal diseases worldwide. Cereals differ in terms of the main occurring Fusarium species and the infection is influenced by various factors, such as weather and cropping measures. Little is known about Fusarium species in barley in Switzerland, hence harvest samples from growers were collected in 2013 and 2014, along with information on respective cropping factors. The incidence of different Fusarium species was obtained by using a seed health test and mycotoxins were quantified by LC-MS/MS. With these techniques, the most dominant species, F. graminearum, and the most prominent mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), were identified. Between the three main Swiss cropping systems, Organic, Extenso and Proof of ecological performance, we observed differences with the lowest incidence and toxin accumulation in organically cultivated barley. Hence, we hypothesise that this finding was based on an array of growing techniques within a given cropping system. We observed that barley samples from fields with maize as previous crop had a substantially higher F. graminearum incidence and elevated DON accumulation compared with other previous crops. Furthermore, the use of reduced tillage led to a higher disease incidence and toxin content compared with samples from ploughed fields. Further factors increasing Fusarium infection were high nitrogen fertilisation as well as the application of fungicides and growth regulators. Results from the current study can be used to develop optimised cropping systems that reduce the risks of mycotoxin contamination.

  10. Fusarium and mycotoxin spectra in Swiss barley are affected by various cropping techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Torsten; Martin, Charlotte; Wettstein, Felix E.; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Mascher, Fabio; Bertossa, Mario; Musa, Tomke; Keller, Beat; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium head blight is one of the most important cereal diseases worldwide. Cereals differ in terms of the main occurring Fusarium species and the infection is influenced by various factors, such as weather and cropping measures. Little is known about Fusarium species in barley in Switzerland, hence harvest samples from growers were collected in 2013 and 2014, along with information on respective cropping factors. The incidence of different Fusarium species was obtained by using a seed health test and mycotoxins were quantified by LC-MS/MS. With these techniques, the most dominant species, F. graminearum, and the most prominent mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), were identified. Between the three main Swiss cropping systems, Organic, Extenso and Proof of ecological performance, we observed differences with the lowest incidence and toxin accumulation in organically cultivated barley. Hence, we hypothesise that this finding was based on an array of growing techniques within a given cropping system. We observed that barley samples from fields with maize as previous crop had a substantially higher F. graminearum incidence and elevated DON accumulation compared with other previous crops. Furthermore, the use of reduced tillage led to a higher disease incidence and toxin content compared with samples from ploughed fields. Further factors increasing Fusarium infection were high nitrogen fertilisation as well as the application of fungicides and growth regulators. Results from the current study can be used to develop optimised cropping systems that reduce the risks of mycotoxin contamination. PMID:27491813

  11. Environmental effects on resistance gene expression in milk stage popcorn kernels and associations with mycotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2015-05-01

    Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease resistance-associated genes in milk stage kernels from commercial popcorn fields over 3 years. Relatively lower expression of resistance gene types was noted in years with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, which was consistent with prior results for many previously identified resistance response-associated genes. The lower rates of expression occurred for genes such as chitinases, protease inhibitors, and peroxidases; enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall barriers and secondary metabolites; and regulatory proteins. However, expression of several specific resistance genes previously associated with mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin in dent maize, was not affected. Insect damage altered the spectrum of resistance gene expression differences compared to undamaged ears. Correlation analyses showed expression differences of some previously reported resistance genes that were highly associated with mycotoxin levels and included glucanases, protease inhibitors, peroxidases, and thionins.

  12. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize flour and grits during extrusion cooking.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, Keith A; Guy, Robin C E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan J

    2008-11-01

    Extrusion technology is used widely in the manufacture of a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. To minimise consumer exposure to mycotoxins, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals/cereal products and fumonisins B(1) and B(2) (FB(1) and FB(2)) in maize are controlled by European Union legislation. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the loss of Fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The behaviour of FB(1), FB(2) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)), DON and ZON during extrusion of naturally contaminated maize flour and maize grits is examined using pilot-scale equipment. DON and ZON are relatively stable during extrusion cooking but the fumonisins are lost to varying degrees. There is some loss of ZON when present in low concentrations and extruded at higher moisture contents. The presence of additives, such as reducing sugars and sodium chloride, can also affect mycotoxin levels. Moisture content of the cereal feed during extrusion is important and has a greater effect than temperature, particularly on the loss of fumonisins at the lower moistures. The effects are complex and not easy to explain, although more energy input to the extruder is required for drier materials. However, on the basis of these studies, the relationship between the concentration of Fusarium toxins in the raw and finished product is toxin- and process-dependent.

  13. Nanobody Technology for Mycotoxin Detection in the Field of Food Safety: Current Status and Prospects.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zhu, Jiang; Nie, Yao; Hu, Rui; Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yunhuang

    2018-04-29

    Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae. They are found to be expressed easily in prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems, more robust in extreme conditions, and facile to be used as surrogates for artificial antigens. These properties make them the promising and environmentally friendly immunoreagents in the next generation of immunoassays. This review briefly describes the latest developments in the area of nanobodies used in mycotoxin detection. Moreover, by integrating the introduction of the principle of nanobodies production and the critical assessment of their performance, this paper also proposes the prospect of nanobodies in the field of food safety in the foreseeable future.

  14. Expert study to select indicators of the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards.

    PubMed

    Kandhai, M C; Booij, C J H; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the most important indicators for different chain stages (growth, transport and storage, and processing) and their relative importance. After three e-mailing rounds, the experts reached consensus on the most important indicators for each of the three stages: wheat growth, transport and storage, and processing. For wheat growth, these indicators include: relative humidity/rainfall, crop rotation, temperature, tillage practice, water activity of the kernels, and crop variety/cultivar. For the transport and storage stage, they include water activity in the kernels, relative humidity, ventilation, temperature, storage capacity, and logistics. For wheat processing, indicators include quality data, fraction of the cereal used, water activity in the kernels, quality management and traceability systems, and carryover of contamination. The indicators selected in this study can be used in an identification system for the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards in wheat supply chains. Such a system can be used by risk managers within governmental (related) organizations and/or the food and feed industry in order to react proactively to the occurrence of these emerging mycotoxins. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Multi-mycotoxin stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for Fusarium toxins in beer.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Gotthardt, Marina; Schüler, Jan; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-03-01

    A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method was developed for 12 different Fusarium toxins including modified mycotoxins in beer (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, HT2-toxin, T2-toxin, enniatin B, B1, A1, A, beauvericin and zearalenone). As sample preparation and purification of beer a combined solid phase extraction for trichothecenes, enniatins, beauvericin and zearalenone was firstly developed. The validation of the new method gave satisfying results: intra-day and inter-day precision and recoveries were 1-5%, 2-8% and 72-117%, respectively. In total, 61 different organic and conventional beer samples from Germany and all over the world were analyzed by using the newly developed multi-mycotoxin method. In summary, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivaleneol and enniatin B were quantified in rather low contents in the investigated beer samples. None of the other monitored Fusarium toxins like 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, HT2- and T2-toxin, zearalenone, enniatin B1, A1, A or beauvericin were detectable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Explaining combinatorial effects of mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in mice with urinary metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Blaženović, Ivana; Cui, Fangchao; Gholami, Morteza; Sun, Jiadi; Habimana, Jean; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2018-02-28

    Urine metabolic profiling of mice was conducted utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the combinatory effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the metabolism of the mice. Experiments were conducted by means of five-week-old mice which were individually exposed to 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN and the mixture of DON and ZEN (2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The intragastric administration was applied for three weeks and urine samples were collected for metabolic analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to data matrix processing along with respective pathway analysis by MetaMapp and CytoScape. The results showed that the combined DON and ZEN administration resulted in lower significant changes, compared to the individual mycotoxin treated groups verified by heatmap. Metabolic pathways network mapping indicated that the combined mycotoxins treated groups showed a little effect on the metabolites in most pathways, especially in glucose metabolism and its downstream amino acid metabolism. In glucose metabolism, the content of galactose, mannitol, galactonic acid, myo-inositol, tagatose was drastically down-regulated. Furthermore, the organic acids, pyruvate, and amino acids metabolism displayed the same phenomenon. In conclusion, the combined DON/ZEN administration might lead to an "antagonistic effect" in mice metabolism.

  17. Screening and confirmatory methods for the analysis of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins by CE with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Téllez, Helena; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel; Chicharro, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    A simple analytical scheme for the screening and quantification of zearalenone and its metabolites, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol, is reported. Extracts from maize flour samples were collected by supercritical fluid extraction and afterwards, they were analyzed by CE with amperometric detection. This scheme allowed a rapid and reliable identification of contaminated flour samples according to the reference value established for zearalenone by directive 2005/38/EC (200 microg/kg). The sample screening method was carried out by CZE using 25 mM borate separation buffer at pH 9.2 and 25.0 kV as separation voltage, monitoring the amperometric signal at +700 mV with a carbon paste electrode. In this way, total amount of mycotoxins was determined and samples were processed in 4 min with a detection limit of 12 microg/L, enough to discriminate between positive (more than 200 microg/L total mycotoxins) and negative samples (less than 200 microg/L total mycotoxins). Positive samples were then subjected to CZE separation and quantification of each analyte was done with 50 mM borate running buffer modified with 30% methanol at pH 9.7 and 17.5 kV as separation voltage. Under these conditions, separation was achieved in 15 min with detection limits from 20 to 35 microg/L for each analyte.

  18. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. PMID:26556374

  19. Effects of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on steroidogenesis and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Netro, Hilda M; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins can reduce fertility and development in livestock, notably in pigs and poultry, although the effect of most mycotoxins on reproductive function in cattle has not been established. One major mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), not only targets immune cells and activates the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) involving MAPK activation, but also inhibits oocyte maturation in pigs. In this study, we determined the effect of DON on bovine granulosa cell function using a serum-free culture system. Addition of DON inhibited estradiol and progesterone secretion, and reduced levels of mRNA encoding estrogenic (CYP19A1) but not progestogenic (CYP11A1 and STAR) proteins. Cell apoptosis was increased by DON, which also increased FASLG mRNA levels. The mechanism of action of DON was assessed by western blotting and PCR experiments. Addition of DON rapidly and transiently increased phosphorylation of MAPK3/1, and resulted in a more prolonged phosphorylation of MAPK14 (p38) and MAPK8 (JNK). Activation of these pathways by DON resulted in time- and dose-dependent increases in abundance of mRNA encoding the transcription factors FOS, FOSL1, EGR1, and EGR3. We conclude that DON is deleterious to granulosa cell function and acts through a RSR pathway. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-05

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  1. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure.

  2. Internal Reflection Spectra of Surface Compounds and Adsorbed Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotarev, V. M.; Lygin, V. I.; Tarasevich, B. N.

    1981-01-01

    The application of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy in surface studies of inorganic adsorbents and catalysts, polymers, and optically transparent electrodes is discussed. The basic principles of ATR spectroscopy as applied to surface phenomena are considered, with special reference to thin films, industrial adsorbents and catalysts, and polymer degradation processes. 276 references.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hoang Vi Thanh; Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Sievenpiper, John L; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Duvnjak, Lea; Leiter, Lawrence; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central databases were searched. We included RCTs with a follow-up of ≥3 wk that assessed the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or apolipoprotein B. Data were pooled by using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Results: Twelve studies ( n = 370), 8 in adults and 4 in children, met the inclusion criteria. KJM significantly lowered LDL cholesterol (MD: -0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.25 mmol/L) and non-HDL cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.19 mmol/L). Data from 6 trials suggested no impact of KJM on apolipoprotein B. Conclusions: Our findings support the intake of ∼3 g KJM/d for reductions in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of 10% and 7%, respectively. The information may be of interest to health agencies in crafting future dietary recommendations related to reduction in CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02068248. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Analysis and comparison of inertinite-derived adsorbent with conventional adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gangupomu, Roja Haritha; Kositkanawuth, Ketwalee; Sattler, Melanie L; Ramirez, David; Dennis, Brian H; MacDonnell, Frederick M; Billo, Richard; Priest, John W

    2012-05-01

    To increase U.S. petroleum energy-independence, the University of Texas at Arlington (UT Arlington) has developed a coal liquefaction process that uses a hydrogenated solvent and a proprietary catalyst to convert lignite coal to crude oil. This paper reports on part of the environmental evaluation of the liquefaction process: the evaluation of the solid residual from liquefying the coal, called inertinite, as a potential adsorbent for air and water purification. Inertinite samples derived from Arkansas and Texas lignite coals were used as test samples. In the activated carbon creation process, inertinite samples were heated in a tube furnace (Lindberg, Type 55035, Arlington, UT) at temperatures ranging between 300 and 850 degrees C for time spans of 60, 90, and 120 min, using steam and carbon dioxide as oxidizing gases. Activated inertinite samples were then characterized by ultra-high-purity nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K using a high-speed surface area and pore size analyzer (Quantachrome, Nova 2200e, Kingsville, TX). Surface area and total pore volume were determined using the Brunauer Emmet, and Teller method, for the inertinite samples, as well as for four commercially available activated carbons (gas-phase adsorbents Calgon Fluepac-B and BPL 4 x 6; liquid-phase adsorbents Filtrasorb 200 and Carbsorb 30). In addition, adsorption isotherms were developed for inertinite and the two commercially available gas-phase carbons, using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) as an example compound. Adsorption capacity was measured gravimetrically with a symmetric vapor sorption analyzer (VTI, Inc., Model SGA-100, Kingsville, TX). Also, liquid-phase adsorption experiments were conducted using methyl orange as an example organic compound. The study showed that using inertinite from coal can be beneficially reused as an adsorbent for air or water pollution control, although its surface area and adsorption capacity are not as high as those for commercially available activated

  5. Flow boundary conditions for chain-end adsorbing polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Andrienko, Denis; Delle Site, Luigi; Kremer, Kurt

    2005-09-08

    Using the phenol-terminated polycarbonate blend as an example, we demonstrate that the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for a flow of an adsorbing polymer melt are extremely sensitive to the structure of the epitaxial layer. Under shear, the adsorbed parts (chain ends) of the polymer melt move along the equipotential lines of the surface potential whereas the adsorbed additives serve as the surface defects. In response to the increase of the number of the adsorbed additives the surface layer becomes thinner and solidifies. This results in a gradual transition from the slip to the no-slip boundary condition for the melt flow, with a nonmonotonic dependence of the slip length on the surface concentration of the adsorbed ends.

  6. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  7. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-02

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: The toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic

    SciT

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INP, UMR 1331 Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse; Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées, Cotonou, Bénin

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake,more » respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADON < 15-ADON ≈ DON < NIV ≪ FX. Binary or ternary mixtures also showed a dose-dependent effect. At low concentrations (cytotoxic effect between 10 and 30–40%), mycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON–NIV–FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account. - Highlights: • We assessed the individual and combined cytotoxicity of five trichothecenes. • The tested concentrations correspond to the French consumer exposure levels. • The type of interaction in combined cytotoxicity varied with the effect level. • Low doses of Type B trichothecenes induced

  10. Toxigenic Fusarium spp. as determinants of trichothecene mycotoxins in settled grain dust.

    PubMed

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Eduard, Wijnand

    2006-12-01

    Trichothecenes are immunosuppressive mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium spp. and often are detected as natural contaminants of grain and other agricultural products. Exposure to trichothecenes through inhalation during grain work may represent possible health risks for grain farmers. We aimed, therefore, to investigate the level of Fusarium spp. and trichothecenes in settled grain dust collected during work on 92 Norwegian farms. Mycotoxins were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas the Fusarium spp. were identified and quantified both by species-specific semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by cultivation. All potential trichothecene-producing molds in the grain dust were quantified using a PCR assay specific for tri5, the gene coding for trichodiene synthase that catalyzes the first step in the trichothecene biosynthesis. We performed correlation analysis between mold-DNA and mycotoxins to assess whether the PCR-detected DNA could be used as indicators of the mycotoxins. The methodological problem of detecting small amounts of airborne mycotoxins during grain work may then be avoided. Whereas the trichothecene-producing Fusarium species in grain dust could not be identified or quantified to a sufficient extent by cultivation, all investigated Fusarium spp. could be specifically detected by PCR and quantified from the DNA agarose gel band intensities. Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation between the trichothecenes HT-2 toxin (HT-2) or T-2 toxin (T-2) and DNA specific for tri5 (r = 0.68 for HT-2 and r = 0.50 for T-2; p < 0.001), F. langsethiae (r = 0.77 for HT-2 and r = 0.59 for T-2; p < 0.001), or F. poae (r = 0.41 for HT-2 and r = 0.35 for T-2; p < 0.001). However, only a moderate correlation was observed between the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and the combination of its producers, F. culmorum and F. graminearum (r = 0.24, p = 0.02), and no significant correlation was observed between DON and tri5. PCR

  11. Bioavailability of Carbon Nanomaterial-Adsorbed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Pimphales promelas: Influence of Adsorbate Molecular Size and Configuration.

    PubMed

    Linard, Erica N; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; van den Hurk, Peter; Klaine, Stephen J

    2017-08-15

    Despite carbon nanomaterials' (CNMs) potential to alter the bioavailability of adsorbed contaminants, information characterizing the relationship between adsorption behavior and bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed contaminants is still limited. To investigate the influence of CNM morphology and organic contaminant (OC) physicochemical properties on this relationship, adsorption isotherms were generated for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and exfoliated graphene (GN) in conjunction with determining the bioavailability of the adsorbed PAHs to Pimphales promelas using bile analysis via fluorescence spectroscopy. Although it appeared that GN adsorbed PAHs indiscriminately compared to MWCNTs, the subsequent bioavailability of GN-adsorbed PAHs was more sensitive to PAH morphology than MWCNTs. GN was effective at reducing bioavailability of linear PAHs by ∼70%, but had little impact on angular PAHs. MWCNTs were sensitive to molecular size, where bioavailability of two-ringed naphthalene was reduced by ∼80%, while bioavailability of the larger PAHs was reduced by less than 50%. Furthermore, the reduction in bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed PAHs was negatively correlated with the amount of CNM surface area covered by the adsorbed-PAHs. This study shows that the variability in bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed PAHs is largely driven by PAH size, configuration and surface area coverage.

  12. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciT

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent wasmore » synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.« less

  13. The use of immunoaffinity columns connected in tandem for selective and cost-effective mycotoxin clean-up prior to multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis in food matrices.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Joyce; Donnelly, Carol; Leeman, David; Marley, Elaine

    2015-06-26

    This paper describes the use of two immunoaffinity columns (IACs) coupled in tandem, providing selective clean-up, based on targeted mycotoxins known to co-occur in specific matrices. An IAC for aflatoxins+ochratoxin A+fumonisins (AOF) was combined with an IAC for deoxynivalenol+zearalenone+T-2/HT-2 toxins (DZT); an IAC for ochratoxin A (O) was combined with a DZT column; and an aflatoxin+ochratoxin (AO) column was combined with a DZT column. By combining pairs of columns it was demonstrated that specific clean-up can be achieved as required for different matrices. Samples of rye flour, maize, breakfast cereal and wholemeal bread were analysed for mycotoxins regulated in the EU, by spiking at levels close to EU limits for adult and infant foods. After IAC clean-up extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS with quantification using multiple reaction monitoring. Recoveries were found to be in range from 60 to 108%, RSDs below 10% depending on the matrix and mycotoxin combination and LOQs ranged from 0.1n g/g for aflatoxin B1 to 13.0 ng/g for deoxynivalenol. Surplus cereal proficiency test materials (FAPAS(®)) were also analysed with found levels of mycotoxins falling within the satisfactory range of concentrations (Z score ≤ ± 2), demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed multi-mycotoxin IAC methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA Applications of Molecular Adsorber Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    The Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) is a new, innovative technology that was developed to reduce the risk of molecular contamination on spaceflight applications. Outgassing from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, silicones, epoxies, and potting compounds, pose a significant threat to the spacecraft and the lifetime of missions. As a coating made of highly porous inorganic materials, MAC offers impressive adsorptive capabilities that help capture and trap contaminants. Past research efforts have demonstrated the coating's promising adhesion performance, optical properties, acoustic durability, and thermal stability. These results advocate its use near or on surfaces that are targeted by outgassed materials, such as internal optics, electronics, detectors, baffles, sensitive instruments, thermal control coatings, and vacuum chamber test environments. The MAC technology has significantly progressed in development over the recent years. This presentation summarizes the many NASA spaceflight applications of MAC and how the coatings technology has been integrated as a mitigation tool for outgassed contaminants. For example, this sprayable paint technology has been beneficial for use in various vacuum chambers for contamination control and hardware bake-outs. The coating has also been used in small instrument cavities within spaceflight instrument for NASA missions.

  15. Imaging the wave functions of adsorbed molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F. Stefan; Ramsey, Michael G.; Puschnig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The basis for a quantum-mechanical description of matter is electron wave functions. For atoms and molecules, their spatial distributions and phases are known as orbitals. Although orbitals are very powerful concepts, experimentally only the electron densities and -energy levels are directly observable. Regardless whether orbitals are observed in real space with scanning probe experiments, or in reciprocal space by photoemission, the phase information of the orbital is lost. Here, we show that the experimental momentum maps of angle-resolved photoemission from molecular orbitals can be transformed to real-space orbitals via an iterative procedure which also retrieves the lost phase information. This is demonstrated with images obtained of a number of orbitals of the molecules pentacene (C22H14) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (C24H8O6), adsorbed on silver, which are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. The procedure requires no a priori knowledge of the orbitals and is shown to be simple and robust. PMID:24344291

  16. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of F usarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Hametner, Christian; Ward, Todd J.; Dong, Yanhong; Schöfbeck, Denise; McCormick, Susan; Broz, Karen; Stückler, Romana; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Kistler, H. Corby; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitous filamentous fungus F usarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F . graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX‐2) was characterized by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX‐2 as 3α‐acetoxy‐7α,15‐dihydroxy‐12,13‐epoxytrichothec‐9‐ene. Compared with the well‐known 3‐acetyl‐deoxynivalenol (3‐ADON), it lacks the keto group at C‐8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10‐fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX‐3, (up to 540 mg kg−1) compared with NX‐2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga C hlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX‐3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX‐2 is far less toxic, similar to 3‐ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI 1 allele in the N‐isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C‐8. PMID:25403493

  17. Assessment of toxic potential of mycotoxin contaminated bread during in vitro human digestion on human B lymphoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Monaci, Linda; Garbetta, Antonella; Angelis, Elisabetta De; Visconti, Angelo; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2015-01-05

    Ingestion of food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants including mycotoxins. The amount of mycotoxin resisting to the digestion process and potentially absorbable by the systemic circulation is only a smaller part of that ingested. In vitro digestion models turn useful for evaluating mycotoxins bioaccessibility during the intestinal transit and can be intended as a valuable tool for the assessment of mycotoxin bioavailability in food. In this paper we describe a study aimed at investigating toxicity of in vitro gastro-duodenal digests of mycotoxin contaminated bread collected along the digestion time-course. Toxicity tests were carried out on a sensitive RPMI lymphoid B cell line chosen as the most suitable lineage to assess toxicity retained by gastro-duodenal digests. In parallel, a chemical quantification of T-2 and HT-2 toxins contaminating the bread digests was accomplished during the gastric and duodenal transit. The digestive fluids undergoing chemical and toxicological analysis were collected at the beginning and end of gastric phase, and after completion of the duodenal phase. Results proved that a correlation between HT-2 content and toxicity did exist although a more persistent toxic activity was displayed in the later stage of the duodenal phase. This persistent toxicity might be explained by the co-occurrence of unknown HT-2-related conjugates or metabolites formed during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a multiple immunoaffinity column for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in feeds using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Rui; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Min

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive and specific immunoaffinity column to clean up and isolate multiple mycotoxins was developed along with a rapid one-step sample preparation procedure for ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, and T-2 toxin were coupled to microbeads for mycotoxin purification. We optimized a homogenization and extraction procedure as well as column loading and elution conditions to maximize recoveries from complex feed matrices. This method allowed rapid, simple, and simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in feeds with a single chromatographic run. Detection limits for these toxins ranged from 0.006 to 0.12 ng mL(-1), and quantitation limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.75 ng mL(-1). Concentration curves were linear from 0.12 to 40 μg kg(-1) with correlation coefficients of R (2) > 0.99. Intra-assay and inter-assay comparisons indicated excellent repeatability and reproducibility of the multiple immunoaffinity columns. As a proof of principle, 80 feed samples were tested and several contained multiple mycotoxins. This method is sensitive, rapid, and durable enough for multiple mycotoxin determinations that fulfill European Union and Chinese testing criteria.

  19. Mycotoxin food and feed regulation and the specific case of ochratoxin A: a review of the worldwide status.

    PubMed

    Duarte, S C; Lino, C M; Pena, A

    2010-10-01

    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring contaminants whose presence in food- and feedstuffs cannot be completely avoided. The safety and economic impact arising from the commercialization of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed supply chain is considerable and acknowledged. To protect consumers from mycotoxin-derived health risks, many countries have adopted regulations or guidelines to limit exposure. Similar to regulation for other mycotoxins, the regulatory status of ochratoxin A (OTA) lacks consensus. Although this was one of the first fungal toxins to be subjected to compliance control due to its toxic properties, the conflict between the prime objective of consumer health safeguard and the economic interests of producers and traders remains. One of the key challenges facing policymakers is to balance these conflicting demands and reach consensual regulatory actions or limits. The noteworthy transboundary implications are recognized, both in the case of absence as the unsubstantiated tightening of regulatory limits. This paper scrutinizes the rationales and implications of mycotoxin regulation, with special attention devoted to OTA. In view of the ongoing debate concerning this complex issue, a review of the arguments and suggested strategies proposed by different parties is also made. The specific case of OTA regulation in food and feed is updated and analysed at a European Union and global level.

  20. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.