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Sample records for glucose study phase

  1. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghanbarian, Arash; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Hadaegh, Farzad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Zahedi-Asl, Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Background The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD) by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk factors. The study begun in 1999, is ongoing, to be continued for at least 20 years. A primary survey was done to collect baseline data in 15005 individuals, over 3 years of age, selected from cohorts of three medical heath centers. A questionnaire for past medical history and data was completed during interviews; blood pressure, pulse rate, and anthropometrical measurements and a limited physical examination were performed and lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar and 2-hours-postload-glucose challenge were measured. A DNA bank was also collected. For those subjects aged over 30 years, Rose questionnaire was completed and an electrocardiogram was taken. Data collected were directly stored in computers as database software- computer assisted system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing or postponing the development of NCD risk factors and outcomes in the TLGS population. Design and methods In phase II of the TLGS, lifestyle interventions were implemented in 5630 people and 9375 individuals served as controls. Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions were designed based on specific target groups including schoolchildren, housewives, and high-risk persons. Officials of various sectors such as health, education, municipality, police, media, traders and community leaders were actively engaged as decision makers and collaborators. Interventional strategies were based on lifestyle modifications in diet, smoking and physical activity through face-to-face education, leaflets & brochures, school program alterations, training volunteers as health team and treating patients with NCD risk factors. Collection of demographic, clinical and laboratory data will be repeated every 3 years to

  2. The effect of defective early phase insulin secretion on postload glucose intolerance in impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Mehmet; Ikiişik, Murat; Sargin, Haluk; Orçun, Asuman; Kaya, Müjgan; Gözü, Hülya; Dabak, Reşat; Bayramiçli, Oya Uygur; Yayla, Ali

    2005-10-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are two risk groups for type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by both impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance but their relative contribution to the development of hyperglycemia may differ due to heterogeneity of the disease. Combined glucose intolerance (CGI), on the other hand, seems to represent a more advanced stage of prediabetes that bears a distinctly higher risk of progression to diabetes and its comorbidities. This study has the aim to compare isolated IFG and CGI categories with respect to the degree of early phase insulin secretion abnormalities and insulin resistance. Subjects who had IFG (fasting glucose: 110-126 mg/dl) were included in the study. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with insulin response was done and subjects were classified according to the WHO criteria. Six subjects were excluded because they had diabetic glucose tolerance. A total of 66 patients (53.4 +/- 11.1 years, female/male: 48/18) were divided into two groups according to their glucose tolerance in OGGT (Group 1: isolated IFG and group 2: CGI). Early phase insulin secretion was measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and OGTT. Insulin resistance was assessed by the R value of the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). We did not find any statistically significant difference between groups according to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin-AUC (0-180 min) and HOMA-R values. In OGGT there was no statistically significant difference between 0', 30', 60' and 90' insulin levels of the groups; only 120' and 180' insulin levels were higher in CGI than in IFG group (p<0.05). In IVGTT, there was no statistically significant difference between glucose levels of the groups. Furthermore, insulin response to intravenous glucose was higher in IFG than in CGI (p<0.05). Our data demonstrate that isolated IFG and CGI are similar with respect to

  3. Phase modulation of insulin pulses enhances glucose regulation and enables inter-islet synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boah; Song, Taegeun; Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Jaeyoon; Han, Seungmin; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho; Jo, Junghyo

    2017-01-01

    Insulin is secreted in a pulsatile manner from multiple micro-organs called the islets of Langerhans. The amplitude and phase (shape) of insulin secretion are modulated by numerous factors including glucose. The role of phase modulation in glucose homeostasis is not well understood compared to the obvious contribution of amplitude modulation. In the present study, we measured Ca2+ oscillations in islets as a proxy for insulin pulses, and we observed their frequency and shape changes under constant/alternating glucose stimuli. Here we asked how the phase modulation of insulin pulses contributes to glucose regulation. To directly answer this question, we developed a phenomenological oscillator model that drastically simplifies insulin secretion, but precisely incorporates the observed phase modulation of insulin pulses in response to glucose stimuli. Then, we mathematically modeled how insulin pulses regulate the glucose concentration in the body. The model of insulin oscillation and glucose regulation describes the glucose-insulin feedback loop. The data-based model demonstrates that the existence of phase modulation narrows the range within which the glucose concentration is maintained through the suppression/enhancement of insulin secretion in conjunction with the amplitude modulation of this secretion. The phase modulation is the response of islets to glucose perturbations. When multiple islets are exposed to the same glucose stimuli, they can be entrained to generate synchronous insulin pulses. Thus, we conclude that the phase modulation of insulin pulses is essential for glucose regulation and inter-islet synchronization. PMID:28235104

  4. Phase modulation of insulin pulses enhances glucose regulation and enables inter-islet synchronization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boah; Song, Taegeun; Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Jaeyoon; Han, Seungmin; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho; Jo, Junghyo

    2017-01-01

    Insulin is secreted in a pulsatile manner from multiple micro-organs called the islets of Langerhans. The amplitude and phase (shape) of insulin secretion are modulated by numerous factors including glucose. The role of phase modulation in glucose homeostasis is not well understood compared to the obvious contribution of amplitude modulation. In the present study, we measured Ca2+ oscillations in islets as a proxy for insulin pulses, and we observed their frequency and shape changes under constant/alternating glucose stimuli. Here we asked how the phase modulation of insulin pulses contributes to glucose regulation. To directly answer this question, we developed a phenomenological oscillator model that drastically simplifies insulin secretion, but precisely incorporates the observed phase modulation of insulin pulses in response to glucose stimuli. Then, we mathematically modeled how insulin pulses regulate the glucose concentration in the body. The model of insulin oscillation and glucose regulation describes the glucose-insulin feedback loop. The data-based model demonstrates that the existence of phase modulation narrows the range within which the glucose concentration is maintained through the suppression/enhancement of insulin secretion in conjunction with the amplitude modulation of this secretion. The phase modulation is the response of islets to glucose perturbations. When multiple islets are exposed to the same glucose stimuli, they can be entrained to generate synchronous insulin pulses. Thus, we conclude that the phase modulation of insulin pulses is essential for glucose regulation and inter-islet synchronization.

  5. Reforming and decomposition of glucose in an aqueous phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, S.; Reid, R. C.; Modell, M.

    1975-01-01

    Exploratory experiments have been carried out to study the decomposition of glucose, a typical carbohydrate, in a high temperature-high pressure water reactor. The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility of such a process to decompose cellulosic waste materials in long-term space missions. At temperatures below the critical point of water, glucose decomposed to form liquid products and char. Little gas was noted with or without reforming catalysts present. The rate of the primary glucose reaction increased significantly with temperature. Partial identification of the liquid phase was made and the C:H:O ratios determined for both the liquid and solid products. One of the more interesting results from this study was the finding that when glucose was injected into a reactor held at the critical temperature (and pressure) of water, no solid products formed. Gas production increased, but the majority of the carbon was found in soluble furans (and furan derivatives). This significant result is now being investigated further.

  6. Reforming and decomposition of glucose in an aqueous phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, S.; Reid, R. C.; Modell, M.

    1975-01-01

    Exploratory experiments have been carried out to study the decomposition of glucose, a typical carbohydrate, in a high temperature-high pressure water reactor. The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility of such a process to decompose cellulosic waste materials in long-term space missions. At temperatures below the critical point of water, glucose decomposed to form liquid products and char. Little gas was noted with or without reforming catalysts present. The rate of the primary glucose reaction increased significantly with temperature. Partial identification of the liquid phase was made and the C:H:O ratios determined for both the liquid and solid products. One of the more interesting results from this study was the finding that when glucose was injected into a reactor held at the critical temperature (and pressure) of water, no solid products formed. Gas production increased, but the majority of the carbon was found in soluble furans (and furan derivatives). This significant result is now being investigated further.

  7. Familial Aggregation of Metabolic Syndrome With Different Socio-Behavioral Characteristics: The Fourth Phase of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Amiri, Parisa; Hosseinzadeh, Nima; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-08-01

    Since genetic and most environmental factors shape the context of families, some studies have been initiated to investigate the role of familial relationships in metabolic syndrome (MetS). To estimate the familial aggregation of MetS and its components by identifying both case and control probands among Tehranian adults with different socio-behavioral and reproductive characteristics. This case-controlled/family-based study was conducted on 1,777 families (635 case probands) who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Socio-demographic and reproductive information including levels of education, marital status, occupation status, age at menarche, number of abortions, number of children, and lifestyle habits such as smoking, physical activity and regular diet were obtained from the TLGS data bank. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. To estimate the regression co-efficient for familial aggregation and environmental factors, the generalized estimation equation method was used. The risk of having MetS among family members for case versus control probands was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.68 - 2.84), which, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, educational level, marital status, occupation, age at menarche and energy, soft drink and starchy vegetable intake, increased to 2.31 (95% CI: 1.81 - 2.94; P < 0.05). Compared to control probands, the risk of having MetS components increased significantly from OR = 1.28 for both high waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) to OR = 1.72 for high triglycerides in cases. Familial aggregation inherited from the father was significantly observed in all MetS components, from adjusted OR = 1.63 for hyperglycemia to adjusted OR = 2.69 for high WC, except for low HDL, after controlling for potential confounders. Considering spouses and siblings, there was a higher risk for MetS components among families whose fathers and offspring had MetS components

  8. Familial Aggregation of Metabolic Syndrome With Different Socio-Behavioral Characteristics: The Fourth Phase of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Amiri, Parisa; Hosseinzadeh, Nima; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Since genetic and most environmental factors shape the context of families, some studies have been initiated to investigate the role of familial relationships in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objectives To estimate the familial aggregation of MetS and its components by identifying both case and control probands among Tehranian adults with different socio-behavioral and reproductive characteristics. Patients and Methods This case-controlled/family-based study was conducted on 1,777 families (635 case probands) who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Socio-demographic and reproductive information including levels of education, marital status, occupation status, age at menarche, number of abortions, number of children, and lifestyle habits such as smoking, physical activity and regular diet were obtained from the TLGS data bank. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. To estimate the regression co-efficient for familial aggregation and environmental factors, the generalized estimation equation method was used. Results The risk of having MetS among family members for case versus control probands was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.68 - 2.84), which, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, educational level, marital status, occupation, age at menarche and energy, soft drink and starchy vegetable intake, increased to 2.31 (95% CI: 1.81 - 2.94; P < 0.05). Compared to control probands, the risk of having MetS components increased significantly from OR = 1.28 for both high waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) to OR = 1.72 for high triglycerides in cases. Familial aggregation inherited from the father was significantly observed in all MetS components, from adjusted OR = 1.63 for hyperglycemia to adjusted OR = 2.69 for high WC, except for low HDL, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Considering spouses and siblings, there was a higher risk for MetS components

  9. In vivo glucose utilization in rat tissues during the three phases of starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Cherel, Y.; Burnol, A.F.; Leturque, A.; Le Maho, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Three phases of starvation have been described from changes in protein and lipid utilization in birds and mammals. In the present study, tissue glucose utilization was measured in vivo during these three phases, using a 2-deoxy-(1-3H)glucose technique in the anesthetized rat. According to this technique, the term glucose utilization therefore refers to transport and phosphorylation of glucose in tissues, ie, whatever is the fate of glucose. Whole-body glucose turnover rate, which was determined by a continuous infusion of (3-3H)glucose, decreased by 40% during the first two days of starvation (phase 1); it did not change thereafter, neither in the protein-sparing phase 2 nor in phase 3, which is marked by an increase in net protein breakdown. Two days of starvation caused a marked decrease in the glucose utilization in skeletal muscles; this decrease was higher in oxidative muscles (65% in diaphragm, 66% in soleus) than in glycolytic muscles (31% in extensor digitorum longus, 34% in epitrochlearis). Glucose utilization also decreased in heart atria (75%), heart ventricles (93%), and white adipose tissue (54%); by contrast, there was a two-fold increase in glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue and no change in brain and skin. No variations were observed in glucose utilization in any of the tissues from phase 1 to phase 2. However, phase 3 was marked by a decrease in glucose utilization in extensor digitorum longus (45%), brown adipose tissue (76%), brain (29%), and skin (40%), whereas there was a 2.3- and 3.4-fold increase in glucose utilization in diaphragm and heart ventricles, respectively.

  10. Aspects on mediated glucose oxidation at a supported cubic phase.

    PubMed

    Aghbolagh, Mahdi Shahmohammadi; Khani Meynaq, Mohammad Yaser; Shimizu, Kenichi; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta

    2017-12-01

    A supported liquid crystalline cubic phase housing glucose oxidase on an electrode surface has been suggested as bio-anode in a biofuel. The purpose of this investigation is to clarify some aspect on the mediated enzymatic oxidation of glucose in such a bio-anode where the mediator ferrocene-carboxylic acid and glucose were dissolved in the solution. The enzyme glucose oxidase was housed in the water channels of the mono-olein cubic phase. The system was investigated with cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates and the temperature was varied between 15°C and 30°C. The diffusion coefficient of the mediator and also the film resistance was estimated showing a large decrease in the mass-transport properties as the temperature was decreased. The current from mediated oxidation of glucose at the electrode surface increased with decreasing film thickness. The transport of the mediator in the cubic phase was the rate-limiting step in the overall reaction, where the oxidation of glucose took place at the outer surface of the cubic phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Random plasma glucose in serendipitous screening for glucose intolerance: screening for impaired glucose tolerance study 2.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Varughese, Rincy M; Tsui, Circe W; Koch, David D; Twombly, Jennifer G; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. This is a cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose(110) (IFG(110); fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose < 140 mg/dl). Screening performance was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC). Mean age was 48 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 30.4 kg/m(2); 66% were women, and 52% were black; 5.1% had previously unrecognized diabetes, and 24.0% had any "high-risk" glucose intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG(110)). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74-0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68-0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p < 0.001). Screening performance was generally consistent at different times of the day, regardless of meal status, and across a range of risk factors such as age, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such "serendipitous screening" could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

  12. Random Plasma Glucose in Serendipitous Screening for Glucose Intolerance: Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study 2

    PubMed Central

    Ziemer, David C.; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K.; Weintraub, William S.; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K.; Varughese, Rincy M.; Tsui, Circe W.; Koch, David D.; Twombly, Jennifer G.; Venkat Narayan, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. Measurements RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose110 (IFG110; fasting glucose, 110–125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose < 140 mg/dl). Screening performance was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC). Results Mean age was 48 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 30.4 kg/m2; 66% were women, and 52% were black; 5.1% had previously unrecognized diabetes, and 24.0% had any “high-risk” glucose intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG110). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74–0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68–0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p < 0.001). Screening performance was generally consistent at different times of the day, regardless of meal status, and across a range of risk factors such as age, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. Conclusions RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such “serendipitous screening” could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:18335280

  13. Thermodynamically controlled crystallization of glucose pentaacetates from amorphous phase

    SciTech Connect

    Wlodarczyk, P. Hawelek, L.; Hudecki, A.; Kolano-Burian, A.; Wlodarczyk, A.

    2016-08-15

    The α and β glucose pentaacetates are known sugar derivatives, which can be potentially used as stabilizers of amorphous phase of active ingredients of drugs (API). In the present work, crystallization behavior of equimolar mixture of α and β form in comparison to both pure anomers is revealed. It was shown that despite the same molecular interactions and similar molecular dynamics, crystallization from amorphous phase is significantly suppressed in equimolar mixture. Time dependent X-ray diffraction studies confirmed higher stability of the quenched amorphous equimolar mixture. Its tendency to crystallization is about 10 times lower than for pure anomers. Calorimetric studies revealed that the α and β anomers don’t form solid solutions and have eutectic point for x{sub α} = 0.625. Suppressed crystallization tendency in the mixture is probably caused by the altered thermodynamics of the system. The factors such as difference of free energy between crystalline and amorphous state or altered configurational entropy are probably responsible for the inhibitory effect.

  14. Thermodynamically controlled crystallization of glucose pentaacetates from amorphous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, P.; Hawelek, L.; Hudecki, A.; Wlodarczyk, A.; Kolano-Burian, A.

    2016-08-01

    The α and β glucose pentaacetates are known sugar derivatives, which can be potentially used as stabilizers of amorphous phase of active ingredients of drugs (API). In the present work, crystallization behavior of equimolar mixture of α and β form in comparison to both pure anomers is revealed. It was shown that despite the same molecular interactions and similar molecular dynamics, crystallization from amorphous phase is significantly suppressed in equimolar mixture. Time dependent X-ray diffraction studies confirmed higher stability of the quenched amorphous equimolar mixture. Its tendency to crystallization is about 10 times lower than for pure anomers. Calorimetric studies revealed that the α and β anomers don't form solid solutions and have eutectic point for xα = 0.625. Suppressed crystallization tendency in the mixture is probably caused by the altered thermodynamics of the system. The factors such as difference of free energy between crystalline and amorphous state or altered configurational entropy are probably responsible for the inhibitory effect.

  15. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose and glucoregulatory endocrine responses to prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert R; Francois, Michelle; Webb, Nancy Dardis; Worley, Jennifer R; Rogers, Sharon N; Norman, Reid L; Shah, Urvi; Castracane, V Daniel; Daniel Castracane, V

    2013-09-01

    Prolonged exercise requires increased utilization of blood glucose and adjustment of glucoregulatory hormones. Estrogen can reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis which could affect insulin concentrations. Amylin is co-secreted with insulin and controls influx of glucose into the blood. To determine the effect of menstrual cycle stage on glucose, leptin, and pancreatic hormone responses to prolonged (90 min) exercise. Five healthy, eumenorrheic women (24.6 ± 5.1 years; 67.4 ± 1 kg) were monitored for 3 months to determine menstrual cycle length. Subjects completed a preliminary session to determine exercise workloads and, in a fasted condition, completed two randomized 90-min treadmill exercise trials at 60 % VO2max during the early follicular (EFX) and mid-luteal phase (MLX) of their menstrual cycle. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, amylin, glucagon, leptin, and cortisol concentrations at rest (-30 and 0 min), during exercise (18, 36, 54, 72, and 90 min) and after 20 min of recovery. No changes in amylin, leptin, or cortisol occurred for EFX and MLX trials. A significant (p < 0.05) time effect occurred for glucose, insulin, and glucagon with reduced insulin across the exercise trial and increases in glucose and glucagon later in the trial, but there were no differences between the EFX and MLX trials. Menstrual cycle stage does not affect glucose, insulin, C-peptide, amylin, glucagon, cortisol, and leptin responses to prolonged exercise; however, the exercise reduces insulin and increases glucose and glucagon concentrations. This is the first study to determine acute effects of exercise on amylin and other glucoregulatory hormone responses in women.

  16. Glucose concentrations in blood and tissue - a pilot study on variable time lag.

    PubMed

    Chlup, Rudolf; Krejci, Jan; O'Connell, Mark; Sebestova, Blanka; Plicka, Robert; Jezova, Lucie; Brozova, Tereza; Doubravova, Blanka; Zalesakova, Hana; Durajkova, Emilia; Vojtek, Jiri; Bartek, Josef

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to acquire insight into the parameters of glycaemic control, especially, (1) the time delay (lag phase) between plasma and tissue glucose concentrations in relation to rise and fall in glucose levels and (2) the rate of glucose increase and decrease. Four healthy people (HP), 4 people with type 1diabetes (DM1) and 4 with type 2 diabetes (DM2) underwent concurrent glucose measurements by means of (1) the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS-Medtronic), Medtronic-Minimed, CA, USA, calibrated by the glucometer Calla, Wellion, Austria, and, (2) the Beckman II analyser to measure glucose concentrations in venous plasma. Samples were taken on 4 consecutive days in the fasting state and 4 times after consumption of 50 g glucose. Carelink Personal, MS Excel, Maple and Mat lab were applied to plot the evolution of glucose concentration and analyse the results. The time difference between increase and decrease was calculated for HP, DM 1 and DM 2. In DM1and DM2, glucose tolerance testing (GTT) resulted in slower transport of glucose into subcutaneous tissue than in HP where the lag phase lasted up to 12 min. The maximum increase/decrease rates in DM1 and DM2 vs HP were 0.25 vs < 0.1 mmol/L/min. CGMS is shown to provide reliable plasma glucose concentrations provided the system is calibrated during a steady state. The analysis of glucose change rates improves understanding of metabolic processes better than standard GTT.

  17. Adrenergic mechanisms contribute to the late phase of hypoglycemic glucose counterregulation in humans by stimulating lipolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, C G; De Feo, P; Porcellati, F; Perriello, G; Torlone, E; Santeusanio, F; Brunetti, P; Bolli, G B

    1992-01-01

    Three studies were performed on nine normal volunteers to assess whether catecholamine-mediated lipolysis contributes to counterregulation to hypoglycemia. In these three studies, insulin was intravenously infused for 8 h (0.30 mU.kg-1.min-1 from 0 to 180 min, and 0.40 mU.kg-1.min-1 until 480 min). In study I (control study), only insulin was infused; in study II (direct + indirect effects of catecholamines), propranolol and phentolamine were superimposed to insulin and exogenous glucose was infused to reproduce the same plasma glucose (PG) concentration of study I. Study III (indirect effect of catecholamines) was the same as study II, except heparin (0.2 U.kg-1.min-1 after 80 min), 10% Intralipid (1 ml.min-1 after 160 min) and variable glucose to match PG of study II, were also infused. Glucose production (HGO), glucose utilization (Rd) [3-3H]glucose, and glucose oxidation and lipid oxidation (LO) (indirect calorimetry) were determined. In all three studies, PG decreased from approximately 4.8 to approximately 2.9 mmol/liter (P = NS between studies), and plasma glycerol and FFA decreased to a nadir at 120 min. Afterwards, in study I plasma glycerol and FFA increased by approximately 75% at 480 min, but in study II they remained approximately 40% lower than in study I, whereas in study III they rebounded as in study I (P = NS). In study II, LO was lower than in study I (1.69 +/- 0.13 vs. 3.53 +/- 0.19 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than 0.05); HGO was also lower between 60 and 480 min (7.48 +/- 0.57 vs. 11.6 +/- 0.35 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than 0.05), whereas Rd was greater between 210 and 480 min (19 +/- 0.38 vs. 11.4 +/- 0.34 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, P less than 0.05). In study III, LO increased to the values of study I; between 4 and 8 h, HGO increased by approximately 2.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1, and Rd decreased by approximately 7 mumol.kg-1.min-1 vs. study II. We conclude that, in a late phase of hypoglycemia, the indirect effects of catecholamines (lipolysis

  18. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC50 = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU50 = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU50 = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  19. First obtaining of glass solutions and phase diagram of glucose with fully tunable anomeric concentration.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, N; Willart, J F; Dudognon, E; Danède, F; Descamps, M

    2010-03-01

    In this article we show the possibility to form amorphous alpha-glucose/beta-glucose molecular alloys directly in the solid state by comilling crystalline alpha-glucose and crystalline beta-glucose. Contrary to the usual melt quenching process, milling does not induce any mutarotation so that alloys can be obtained for the whole range of anomeric concentration. This offers the unique possibility to explore the phase diagram of this binary system which appears to be a eutectic mixture. The structural and thermodynamic investigations have been performed by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  20. Phosphoinositides Are Involved in Control of the Glucose-Dependent Growth Resumption That Follows the Transition Phase in Streptomyces lividans▿

    PubMed Central

    Chouayekh, H.; Nothaft, H.; Delaunay, S.; Linder, M.; Payrastre, B.; Seghezzi, N.; Titgemeyer, F.; Virolle, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    The interruption of the sblA gene of Streptomyces lividans was previously shown to lead to relief of glucose repression of the normally strongly glucose-repressed α-amylase gene. In addition to this relief, an early entry into stationary phase was observed when cells were grown in a minimal medium containing glucose as the main carbon source. In this study, we established that this mutant does not resume growth after the transition phase when cultured in the complex glucose-rich liquid medium R2YE and sporulates much earlier than the wild-type strain when plated on solid R2YE. These phenotypic differences, which were abolished when glucose was omitted from the R2YE medium, correlated with a reduced glucose uptake ability of the sblA mutant strain. sblA was shown to encode a bifunctional enzyme possessing phospholipase C-like and phosphoinositide phosphatase activities. The cleavage of phosphoinositides by SblA seems necessary to trigger the glucose-dependent renewed growth that follows the transition phase. The transient expression of sblA that takes place just before the transition phase is consistent with a regulatory role for this gene during the late stages of growth. The tight temporal control of sblA expression was shown to depend on two operator sites. One, located just upstream of the −35 promoter region, likely constitutes a repressor binding site. The other, located 170 bp downstream of the GTG sblA translational start codon, may be involved in the regulation of the degradation of the sblA transcript. This study suggests that phosphoinositides constitute important regulatory molecules in Streptomyces, as they do in eukaryotes. PMID:17122350

  1. Menstrual cycle phase and sex influence muscle glycogen utilization and glucose turnover during moderate-intensity endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Devries, Michaela C; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Phillips, Stuart M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2006-10-01

    Numerous studies from our and other laboratories have shown that women have a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during exercise than equally trained men, indicating a greater reliance on fat oxidation. Differences in estrogen concentration between men and women likely play a role in this sex difference. Differing estrogen and progesterone concentrations during the follicular (FP) and luteal (LP) phases of the female menstrual cycle suggest that fuel use may also vary between phases. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of menstrual cycle phase and sex upon glucose turnover and muscle glycogen utilization during endurance exercise. Healthy, recreationally active young women (n = 13) and men (n = 11) underwent a primed constant infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose with muscle biopsies taken before and after a 90-min cycling bout at 65% peak O2 consumption. LP women had lower glucose rate of appearance (Ra, P = 0.03), rate of disappearance (Rd, P = 0.03), and metabolic clearance rate (MCR, P = 0.04) at 90 min of exercise and lower proglycogen (P = 0.04), macroglycogen (P = 0.04), and total glycogen (P = 0.02) utilization during exercise compared with FP women. Men had a higher RER (P = 0.02), glucose Ra (P = 0.03), Rd (P = 0.03), and MCR (P = 0.01) during exercise compared with FP women, and men had a higher RER at 75 and 90 min of exercise (P = 0.04), glucose Ra (P = 0.01), Rd (P = 0.01), and MCR (P = 0.001) and a greater PG utilization (P = 0.05) compared with LP women. We conclude that sex, and to a lesser extent menstrual cycle, influence glucose turnover and glycogen utilization during moderate-intensity endurance exercise.

  2. Immediate enhancement of first-phase insulin secretion and unchanged glucose effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Christoffer; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Siv H; Jørgensen, Nils B; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-03-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) in patients with type 2 diabetes often leads to early disease remission, and it is unknown to what extent this involves improved pancreatic β-cell function per se and/or enhanced insulin- and non-insulin-mediated glucose disposal (glucose effectiveness). We studied 30 obese patients, including 10 with type 2 diabetes, 8 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 12 with normal glucose tolerance before, 1 wk, and 3 mo after RYGB, using an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) to estimate first-phase insulin response, insulin sensitivity (Si), and glucose effectiveness with Bergman's minimal model. In the fasting state, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-S and β-cell function by HOMA-β. Moreover, mixed-meal tests and oral GTTs were performed. In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucose levels normalized after RYGB, first-phase insulin secretion in response to iv glucose increased twofold, and HOMA-β already improved 1 wk postoperatively, with further enhancements at 3 mo. Insulin sensitivity increased in the liver (HOMA-S) at 1 wk and at 3 mo in peripheral tissues (Si), whereas glucose effectiveness did not improve significantly. During oral testing, GLP-1 responses and insulin secretion increased regardless of glucose tolerance. Therefore, in addition to increased insulin sensitivity and exaggerated postprandial GLP-1 levels, diabetes remission after RYGB involves early improvement of pancreatic β-cell function per se, reflected in enhanced first-phase insulin secretion to iv glucose and increased HOMA-β. A major role for improved glucose effectiveness after RYGB was not supported by this study. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Glucose elicits cephalic-phase insulin release in mice by activating KATP channels in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Frim, Yonina G; Hochman, Ayelet; Lubitz, Gabrielle S; Basile, Anthony J; Sclafani, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the gustatory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647, or a nonmetabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose). When we mixed an α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose) with the latter three saccharides, the mice no longer exhibited CPIR. This revealed that the carbohydrates were hydrolyzed in the mouth, and that the liberated glucose triggered CPIR. We also found that increasing the intensity or duration of oral glucose stimulation caused a corresponding increase in CPIR magnitude. To identify the components of the glucose-specific taste-signaling pathway, we examined the necessity of Calhm1, P2X2+P2X3, SGLT1, and Sur1. Among these proteins, only Sur1 was necessary for CPIR. Sur1 was not necessary, however, for taste-mediated attraction to sugars. Given that Sur1 is a subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP) channel and that this channel functions as a part of a glucose-sensing pathway in pancreatic β-cells, we asked whether the KATP channel serves an analogous role in taste cells. We discovered that oral stimulation with drugs known to increase (glyburide) or decrease (diazoxide) KATP signaling produced corresponding changes in glucose-stimulated CPIR. We propose that the KATP channel is part of a novel signaling pathway in taste cells that mediates glucose-induced CPIR. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns, Future Diabetes, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism in the Whitehall II Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, evidence for an association between cortisol and future glucose disturbance is sparse. The aim was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol secretion with future T2D and impaired glucose metabolism in a community-dwelling population. This is a prospective cohort study of salivary cortisol measured at the 2002-2004 clinical examination of the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured cortisol (nmol/l) from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a day: at waking, +30 minutes, +2.5 hours, +8 hours, +12 hours, and bedtime. Participants who were normoglycemic in 2002-2004 (phase 7) were reexamined in 2012-2013 (phase 11). The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985-1988. A total of 3270 men and women with an average age of 60.85 years at phase 7 (2002-2004). Incident T2D and impaired fasting glucose in 2012-2013 were measured. Raised evening cortisol at phase 7 was predictive of new-onset T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.37) with a trend for a flatter slope in participants with incident T2D (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.33). When expanding this analysis to a broader category of glucose disturbance we found that a flattened diurnal cortisol slope at phase 7 was predictive of future impaired fasting glucose or T2D at phase 11 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.22), as was high bedtime cortisol (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20). In this nonclinical population, alterations in diurnal cortisol patterns were predictive of future glucose disturbance.

  5. Proposal for study on IR light and glucose phantom interaction for human glucose quantification applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Cárdenas, Gerardo S.; Sanchez-Lopez, Juan D.; Nieto-Hipolito, Juan I.; Cosio-León, María.; Luque-Morales, Priscy; Vazquez-Briseno, Mabel

    2016-09-01

    It has been established the importance of a constant glucose monitoring in order to keep a regular control for diabetes patients. Several medical studies accept the necessity of exploring alternatives for the traditional digital glucometer, given the pain and discomfort related to this technique, which can lead to a compromised control of the disease. Several efforts based on the application of IR spectroscopy had been done with favorable, yet not conclusive results. Therefore it's necessary to apply a comprehensive and interdisciplinary study based on the biochemical and optical properties of the glucose in the human body, in order to understand the interaction between this substance, its surroundings and IR light. These study propose a comprehensive approach of the glucose and IR light interaction, considering and combining important biochemical, physiological and optical properties, as well as some machine learning techniques for the data analysis. The results of this work would help to define the right parameters aiming to obtain an optical glucose quantification system and protocol.

  6. Change dynamics of RBC morphology after injection glucose for diabetes by diffraction phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaykova, N. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.; Malinova, L. I.

    2013-11-01

    Experimental setup of diffraction phase microscope (DPM) with double low-coherence lighting system is presented in the paper. Algorithm of interference picture processing and optical thickness, height, volume and mean cells volume (MCV) of RBC calculating is shown. We demonstrate results of experiments with blood smears and ability of the method to calculate 3D model of the biological cells shape. Investigation change dynamics of RBC morphology after injection glucose for diabetes by DPM is shown in the paper.

  7. Gas Phase Spectra and Structural Determination of Glucose 6 Phosphate Using Cryogenic Ion Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kregel, Steven J.; Voss, Jonathan; Marsh, Brett; Garand, Etienne

    2014-06-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate (G6P) is one member of a class of simple phosphorylated sugars that are relevant in biological processes. We have acquired a gas phase infrared spectrum of G6P- using cryogenic ion vibrational spectroscopy (CIVS) in a home-built spectrometer. The experimental spectrum was compared with calculated vibrational spectra from a systematic conformer search. For both of the α and β anomers, results show that only the lowest energy conformers are present in the gas phase. If spectral signatures for similar sugars could be cataloged, it would allow for conformer-specific determination of mixture composition, for example, for glycolyzation processes.

  8. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide confers early phase insulin release to oral glucose in rats: demonstration by a receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J T; Dayanandan, B; Habener, J F; Kieffer, T J

    2000-10-01

    A novel GIP receptor antagonist was developed to evaluate the acute role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the insulin response to oral glucose in rats. Antisera to an extracellular epitope of the GIP receptor (GIPR) detected immunoreactive GIPR on rat pancreatic beta-cells. Purified GIPR antibody (GIPR Ab) specifically displaced GIP binding to the receptor and blocked GIP-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. When delivered to rats by ip injection, GIPR Ab had a half-life of approximately 4 days. Treatment with GIPR Ab (1 microg/g BW) blocked the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP (60 pmol) but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, 60 pmol) in anesthetized rats. The insulin response to oral glucose was delayed in conscious unrestrained rats that were pretreated with GIPR Ab. Plasma insulin levels were approximately 35% lower at 10 min in GIPR Ab treated animals compared with controls. As a result, the glucose excursion was greater in the GIPR Ab treated group. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not altered by GIPR Ab. We conclude that release of GIP following oral glucose may act as an anticipatory signal to pancreatic beta-cells to promote rapid release of insulin for glucose disposal.

  9. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chess, James; Do, Jun-Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Lee, Hi-Bahl; Kim, Yong-Lim; Summers, Angela; Williams, Paul Ford; Davison, Sara; Dorval, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism. Methods and Materials We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a prospective, observational cohort study initiated in 2002. A subset of 10 centres from 3 countries with high data quality were selected (368 incident and 272 prevalent non-diabetic patients), with multilevel, multivariable analysis of the reciprocal of random glucose levels, and a stratified-by-centre Cox survival analysis. Results The median follow up was 5.6 and 6.4 years respectively in incident and prevalent patients. On multivariate analysis, serum glucose increased with age (β = -0.007, 95%CI -0.010, -0.004) and decreased with higher serum sodium (β = 0.002, 95%CI 0.0005, 0.003) in incident patients and increased with dialysate glucose (β = -0.0002, 95%CI -0.0004, -0.00006) in prevalent patients. Levels suggested undiagnosed diabetes in 5.4% of prevalent patients. Glucose levels predicted death in unadjusted analyses of both incident and prevalent groups but in an adjusted survival analysis they did not (for random glucose 6–10 compared with <6, Incident group HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.58, 1.46, Prevalent group HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.86, 2.34). Conclusions In prevalent non-diabetic patients, random glucose levels at a diabetic level are under-recognised and increase with dialysate glucose load. Random glucose levels predict mortality in unadjusted analyses, but this association has not been proven in adjusted analyses. PMID:27249020

  10. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhaimin, Sudiono, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose has been done. The aim of this research was to study of the effect of time and temperature to the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The various temperature of the hydrolysis process were 30 °C, 48 °C, 72 °C and 95 °C and the various time of the hydrolysis process were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 minutes. A quantitative analysis was done by measured the concentration of the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The result showed that the rate constant from the various temperature were 3.10-4 minute-1; 8.10-4 minutees-1; 84.10-4 minute-1, and 205.10-4 minute-1, and the energy activation was 7,69. 103 kJ/mol.

  11. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Kohei; Watada, Hirotaka; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Terauchi, Yasuo; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tanizawa, Yukio; Araki, Eiichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Suganami, Hideki; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-03-28

    In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was -0.028% (-0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with -0.797% (-0.960 to -0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, -1.017% (-1.178 to -0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and -0.870% (-1.031 to -0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were classified as mild or moderate in severity

  12. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Results Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was −0.028% (−0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with −0.797% (−0.960 to −0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, −1.017% (−1.178 to −0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and −0.870% (−1.031 to −0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were

  13. Restricted feeding phase shifts clock gene and sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T; Ashley, Stanley W; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali; Rhoads, David B

    2010-05-01

    The intestine exhibits striking diurnal rhythmicity in glucose uptake, mediated by the sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT1); however, regulatory pathways for these rhythms remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that SGLT1 rhythmicity is linked to the circadian clock. To investigate this, we examined rhythmicity of Sglt1 and individual clock genes in rats that consumed food ad libitum (AL). We further compared phase shifts of Sglt1 and clock genes in a second group of rats following restricted feeding to either the dark (DF) or light (LF) phase. Rats fed during the DF were pair-fed to rats fed during the LF. Jejunal mucosa was harvested across the diurnal period to generate expression profiles of Sglt1 and clock genes Clock, Bmal1 (brain-muscle Arnt-like 1), ReverbA/B, Per(Period) 1/2, and Cry (Cryptochrome) 1/2. All clock genes were rhythmic in AL rats (P < 0.05). Sglt1 also exhibited diurnal rhythmicity, with peak expression preceding nutrient arrival (P < 0.05). Light-restricted feeding shifted the expression rhythms of Sglt1 and most clock genes (Bmal1, ReverbA and B, Per1, Per2, and Cry1) compared with dark-restricted feeding (P < 0.05). The Sglt1 rhythm shifted in parallel with rhythms of Per1 and ReverbB. These effects of restricted feeding highlight luminal nutrients as a key Zeitgeber in the intestine, capable of simultaneously shifting the phases of transporter and clock gene expression, and suggest a role for clock genes in regulating Sglt1 and therefore glucose uptake. Understanding the regulatory cues governing rhythms in intestinal function may allow new therapeutic options for conditions of dysregulated absorption such as diabetes and obesity.

  14. Rosiglitazone improves glucose metabolism in obese adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cali, Anna M G; Pierpont, Bridget M; Taksali, Sara E; Allen, Karin; Shaw, Melissa M; Savoye, Mary; Caprio, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a prediabetic state fueling the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adolescents with marked obesity. Given the importance of insulin resistance, the poor β-cell compensation and the altered fat partitioning as underlying defects associated with this condition, it is crucial to determine the extent to which these underlying abnormalities can be reversed in obese adolescents. We tested, in a pilot study, whether rosiglitazone (ROSI) restores normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in obese adolescents with IGT by improving insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. In a small randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled study, lasting 4 months, 21 obese adolescents with IGT received either ROSI (8 mg daily) (n = 12, 5M/7F, BMI z-score 2.44 ± 0.11) or PLA (n = 9, 4M/5F, BMI z-score 2.41 ± 0.09). Before and after treatment, all subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, magnetic resonance imaging, and (1)H NMR assessment. After ROSI treatment, 58% of the subjects converted to NGT compared to 44% in the PLA group (P = 0.528). Restoration of NGT was associated with a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (P < 0.04) and a doubling in the disposition index (DI) (P < 0.04), whereas in the PLA group, these changes were not significant. The short-term use of ROSI appears to be safe in obese adolescents with IGT. ROSI restores NGT by increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, two principal pathophysiological abnormalities of IGT.

  15. Density Functional Study of the Infrared Spectrum of Glucose and Glucose Monohydrates in the OH Stretch Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the structures and infrared spectra of glucose and glucose monohydrates. Both the alpha and beta anomers were studied, with all possible combinations of hydroxymethyl rotamer (gg, gt, or tg) and hydroxyl orientation (clockwise or counter-cl...

  16. The Development of a Glucose Dehydrogenase 3D-Printed Glucose Sensor: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Anngela; Malkoc, Aldin; La Belle, Jeffrey T

    2017-06-01

    This work represents a preliminary proof-of-concept design and verification of a 3D-printed glucose biosensor. The proof of concept presented is the first example of glucose dehydrogenase sensor fabricated by a 3D-printer while maintaining similar features to current lab-industry standards. The sensor was verified to detect physiological glucose concentrations between 0 and 400 mg/dL with a linear coefficient as high as .97. This study showed that it was possible to use 3D-printed technology to create a biosensor sensitive to glucose detection. As availability and functionality of 3D-printers expands, this technology has the potential to be an option for diabetes management. This preliminary study shows that the 3D-printed sensor platform holds promise for sensitive glucose detection.

  17. Canagliflozin lowers postprandial glucose and insulin by delaying intestinal glucose absorption in addition to increasing urinary glucose excretion: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R

    2013-08-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, (3)H-glucose, (14)C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0-2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0-6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition.

  18. Mechanistic Study of Human Glucose Transport Mediated by GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xuegang; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Ran; Wei, Jing; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Jian, Xiaodong; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-03-28

    The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and is responsible for the constant uptake of glucose. However, the molecular mechanism of sugar transport remains obscure. In this study, homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in lipid bilayers were performed to investigate the combination of the alternate and multisite transport mechanism of glucose with GLUT1 in atomic detail. To explore the substrate recognition mechanism, the outward-open state human GLUT1 homology model was generated based on the template of xylose transporter XylE (PDB ID: 4GBZ), which shares up to 29% sequence identity and 49% similarity with GLUT1. Through the MD simulation study of glucose across lipid bilayer with both the outward-open GLUT1 and the GLUT1 inward-open crystal structure, we investigated six different conformational states and identified four key binding sites in both exofacial and endofacial loops that are essential for glucose recognition and transport. The study further revealed that four flexible gates consisting of W65/Y292/Y293-M420/TM10b-W388 might play important roles in the transport cycle. The study showed that some side chains close to the central ligand binding site underwent larger position changes. These conformational interchanges formed gated networks within an S-shaped central channel that permitted staged ligand diffusion across the transporter. This study provides new inroads for the understanding of GLUT1 ligand recognition paradigm and configurational features which are important for molecular, structural, and physiological research of the MFS members, especially for GLUT1-targeted drug design and discovery.

  19. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  20. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  1. Effect of Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) on Nocturnal Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Catalogna, Merav; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Sagi, Roi; Abu-Hamad, Ramzia; Nevo, Uri; Efrati, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulation of hepatic glucose production has been a target for antidiabetic drug development, due to its major contribution to glucose homeostasis. Previous pre-clinical study demonstrated that peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) may stimulate glucose utilization and improve hepatic insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and the glucose-lowering effect of this approach in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Twelve patients with T2DM were recruited for an open label, interventional, randomized trial. Eleven patients underwent, in a crossover design, an active, and a no-intervention control periods, separated with a two-week washout phase. During the active period, the patients received a daily lower extremity PES treatment (1.33Hz/16Hz burst mode), for 14 days. Study endpoints included changes in glucose levels, number of hypoglycemic episodes, and other potential side effects. Endpoints were analyzed based on continuous glucose meter readings, and laboratory evaluation. Results We found that during the active period, the most significant effect was on nocturnal glucose control (P < 0.0004), as well as on pre-meal mean glucose levels (P < 0.02). The mean daily glucose levels were also decreased although it did not reach clinical significance (P = 0.07). A reduction in serum cortisol (P < 0.01) but not in insulin was also detected after 2 weeks of treatment. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions These results indicate that repeated PES treatment, even for a very short duration, can improve blood glucose control, possibly by suppressing hepatic glucose production. This effect may be mediated via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02727790 PMID:27997608

  2. Effect of Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) on Nocturnal Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Catalogna, Merav; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Sagi, Roi; Abu-Hamad, Ramzia; Nevo, Uri; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Efrati, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of hepatic glucose production has been a target for antidiabetic drug development, due to its major contribution to glucose homeostasis. Previous pre-clinical study demonstrated that peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) may stimulate glucose utilization and improve hepatic insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and the glucose-lowering effect of this approach in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Twelve patients with T2DM were recruited for an open label, interventional, randomized trial. Eleven patients underwent, in a crossover design, an active, and a no-intervention control periods, separated with a two-week washout phase. During the active period, the patients received a daily lower extremity PES treatment (1.33Hz/16Hz burst mode), for 14 days. Study endpoints included changes in glucose levels, number of hypoglycemic episodes, and other potential side effects. Endpoints were analyzed based on continuous glucose meter readings, and laboratory evaluation. We found that during the active period, the most significant effect was on nocturnal glucose control (P < 0.0004), as well as on pre-meal mean glucose levels (P < 0.02). The mean daily glucose levels were also decreased although it did not reach clinical significance (P = 0.07). A reduction in serum cortisol (P < 0.01) but not in insulin was also detected after 2 weeks of treatment. No adverse events were recorded. These results indicate that repeated PES treatment, even for a very short duration, can improve blood glucose control, possibly by suppressing hepatic glucose production. This effect may be mediated via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02727790.

  3. Glucose triggers ATP secretion from bacteria in a growth-phase-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, Ippei; Iwase, Tadayuki; Sugimoto, Shinya; Okuda, Ken-ichi; Tajima, Akiko; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-04-01

    ATP modulates immune cell functions, and ATP derived from gut commensal bacteria promotes the differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in the intestinal lamina propria. We recently reported that Enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from mice and humans, secretes ATP. We have since found and characterized several ATP-secreting bacteria. Of the tested enterococci, Enterococcus mundtii secreted the greatest amount of ATP (>2 μM/10(8) cells) after overnight culture. Glucose, not amino acids and vitamins, was essential for ATP secretion from E. mundtii. Analyses of energy-deprived cells demonstrated that glycolysis is the most important pathway for bacterial ATP secretion. Furthermore, exponential-phase E. mundtii and Enterococcus faecalis cells secrete ATP more efficiently than stationary-phase cells. Other bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, also secrete ATP in exponential but not stationary phase. These results suggest that various gut bacteria, including commensals and pathogens, might secrete ATP at any growth phase and modulate immune cell function.

  4. Simulation of oral glucose tolerance tests and the corresponding isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion studies for calculation of the incretin effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeungseon; Oh, Tae Jung; Lee, Jung Chan; Choi, Karam; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hee Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Sungwan

    2014-03-01

    The incretin effect, which is a unique stimulus of insulin secretion in response to oral ingestion of nutrients, is calculated by the difference in insulin secretory responses from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a corresponding isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) study. The OGTT model of this study, which is individualized by fitting the glucose profiles during an OGTT, was developed to predict the glucose profile during an IIGI study in the same subject. Also, the model predicts the insulin and incretin profiles during both studies. The incretin effect, estimated by simulation, was compared with that measured by physiologic studies from eight human subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and the result exhibited a good correlation (r > 0.8); the incretin effect from the simulation was 56.5% ± 10.6% while the one from the measured data was 52.5% ± 19.6%. In conclusion, the parameters of the OGTT model have been successfully estimated to predict the profiles of both OGTTs and IIGI studies. Therefore, with glucose data from the OGTT alone, this model could control and predict the physiologic responses, including insulin secretion during OGTTs and IIGI studies, which could eventually eliminate the need for complex and cumbersome IIGI studies in incretin research.

  5. Study of glucose uptake activity of Helicteres isora Linn. fruits in L-6 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, R. N.; Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S.; Basniwal, Pawan K.; Jain, Deepti

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hot water extract of fruits of Helicteres isora on glucose uptake was studied in rodent skeletal muscle cells (L-6 cells) involved in glucose utilization. H. isora is an antidiabetic medicinal plant being used in Indian traditional medicine. Hot water extracts were analysed for glucose uptake activity and found to be significantly active at 200 μg/ml dose comparable with insulin and metformin. Elevation of glucose uptake by H. isora in association with glucose transport supported the upregulation of glucose uptake. It was concluded that hot water extract of H. isora activate glucose uptake in L-6 cell line of mouse skeletal muscles. PMID:20336200

  6. Study of glucose uptake activity of Helicteres isora Linn. fruits in L-6 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R N; Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S; Basniwal, Pawan K; Jain, Deepti

    2009-10-01

    The effect of hot water extract of fruits of Helicteres isora on glucose uptake was studied in rodent skeletal muscle cells (L-6 cells) involved in glucose utilization. H. isora is an antidiabetic medicinal plant being used in Indian traditional medicine. Hot water extracts were analysed for glucose uptake activity and found to be significantly active at 200 mug/ml dose comparable with insulin and metformin. Elevation of glucose uptake by H. isora in association with glucose transport supported the upregulation of glucose uptake. It was concluded that hot water extract of H. isora activate glucose uptake in L-6 cell line of mouse skeletal muscles.

  7. Insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obese Chinese with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Gu, Wei-qiong; Zhang, Yu-wen; Su, Yu-xia; Chi, Zhen-ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-ying; Ning, Guang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obesity with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l, post-loading hyperglycemia, PLH) in Chinese population. A total of 196 nondiabetic subjects were included in the present study, among them 99 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, subdivided into 32 lean NGT and 67 obese NGT), 74 had obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 23 had obesity with PLH. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) was assessed by the Bergman's minimal model method with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT), insulin secretion was determined by acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg). The disposition index (DI), the product of AIRg and S(I) was used to determine whether AIRg was adequate to compensate for insulin resistance. S(I) was significantly equally lower in three obese subgroups. AIRg was significantly increased in obese NGT as compared with lean NGT controls, and reduced to the same extent in IGT and PLH subjects. There was no significant difference among lean NGT, IGT and PLH subjects. DI value was reduced from obese NGT individuals, IGT and PLH subjects had a similar lower level of DI. In conclusion, our present results demonstrated that the pathophysiological basis of obese subjects with PLH were clearly insulin resistance and defective in first-phase insulin secretion as that in IGT subjects in Chinese population.

  8. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics and fuel oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise

    PubMed Central

    HORTON, TRACY J.; MILLER, EMILY K.; GLUECK, DEBORAH; TENCH, KATHLEEN

    2009-01-01

    Resting and exercise fuel metabolism was assessed in three different phases of the menstrual cycle, characterized by different levels of estrogen relative to progesterone: early follicular (EF, low estrogen and progesterone), midfollicular (MF, elevated estrogen, low progesterone), and midluteal (ML, elevated estrogen and progesterone). It was hypothesized that exercise glucose utilization and whole body carbohydrate oxidation would decrease sequentially from the EF to the MF to the ML phase. Normal-weight healthy females, experiencing a regular menstrual cycle, were recruited. Subjects were moderately active but not highly trained. Testing occurred after 3 days of diet control and after an overnight fast (12-13 h). Resting (2 h) and exercise (50% maximal O2 uptake, 90 min) measurements of whole body substrate oxidation, tracer-determined glucose flux, and substrate and hormone concentrations were made. No significant difference was observed in whole body fuel oxidation during exercise in the three phases (nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio: EF 0.84 ± 0.01, MF 0.85 ± 0.01, ML 0.85 ± 0.01) or in rates of glucose appearance or disappearance. There were, however, significantly higher glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin (P < 0.001) concentrations during the first 45 min of exercise in the ML phase vs. EF and MF phases. In conclusion, whole body substrate oxidation and glucose utilization did not vary significantly across the menstrual cycle in moderately active women, either at rest or during 90 min of moderate-intensity exercise. During the ML phase, however, this similar pattern of substrate utilization was associated with greater glucose and insulin concentrations. Both estrogen and progesterone are elevated during the ML phase of the menstrual cycle, suggesting that one or both of these sex steroids may play a role in this response. PMID:11882494

  9. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics and fuel oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Horton, Tracy J; Miller, Emily K; Glueck, Deborah; Tench, Kathleen

    2002-04-01

    Resting and exercise fuel metabolism was assessed in three different phases of the menstrual cycle, characterized by different levels of estrogen relative to progesterone: early follicular (EF, low estrogen and progesterone), midfollicular (MF, elevated estrogen, low progesterone), and midluteal (ML, elevated estrogen and progesterone). It was hypothesized that exercise glucose utilization and whole body carbohydrate oxidation would decrease sequentially from the EF to the MF to the ML phase. Normal-weight healthy females, experiencing a regular menstrual cycle, were recruited. Subjects were moderately active but not highly trained. Testing occurred after 3 days of diet control and after an overnight fast (12-13 h). Resting (2 h) and exercise (50% maximal O(2) uptake, 90 min) measurements of whole body substrate oxidation, tracer-determined glucose flux, and substrate and hormone concentrations were made. No significant difference was observed in whole body fuel oxidation during exercise in the three phases (nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio: EF 0.84 +/- 0.01, MF 0.85 +/- 0.01, ML 0.85 +/- 0.01) or in rates of glucose appearance or disappearance. There were, however, significantly higher glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin (P < 0.001) concentrations during the first 45 min of exercise in the ML phase vs. EF and MF phases. In conclusion, whole body substrate oxidation and glucose utilization did not vary significantly across the menstrual cycle in moderately active women, either at rest or during 90 min of moderate-intensity exercise. During the ML phase, however, this similar pattern of substrate utilization was associated with greater glucose and insulin concentrations. Both estrogen and progesterone are elevated during the ML phase of the menstrual cycle, suggesting that one or both of these sex steroids may play a role in this response.

  10. Iron, glucose and intrinsic factors alter sphingolipid composition as yeast cells enter stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Lester, Robert L; Withers, Bradley R; Schultz, Megan A; Dickson, Robert C

    2013-04-01

    Survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, like most microorganisms, requires switching from a rapidly dividing to a non-dividing or stationary state. To further understand how cells navigate this switch, we examined sphingolipids since they are key structural elements of membranes and also regulate signaling pathways vital for survival. During and after the switch to a non-dividing state there is a large increase in total free and sphingolipid-bound long chain-bases and an even larger increase in free and bound C20-long-chain bases, which are nearly undetectable in dividing cells. These changes are due to intrinsic factors including Orm1 and Orm2, ceramide synthase, Lcb4 kinase and the Tsc3 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase as well as extrinsic factors including glucose and iron. Lowering the concentration of glucose, a form of calorie restriction, decreases the level of LCBs, which is consistent with the idea that reducing the level of some sphingolipids enhances lifespan. In contrast, iron deprivation increases LCB levels and decreases long term survival; however, these phenomena may not be related because iron deprivation disrupts many metabolic pathways. The correlation between increased LCBs and shorter lifespan is unsupported at this time. The physiological rise in LCBs that we observe may serve to modulate nutrient transporters and possibly other membrane phenomena that contribute to enhanced stress resistance and survival in stationary phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron, Glucose and Intrinsic Factors Alter Sphingolipid Composition as Yeast Cells Enter Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Robert L.; Withers, Bradley R.; Schultz, Megan A.; Dickson, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, like most microorganisms, requires switching from a rapidly dividing to a non-dividing or stationary state. To further understand how cells navigate this switch, we examined sphingolipids since they are key structural elements of membranes and also regulate signaling pathways vital for survival. During and after the switch to a non-dividing state there is a large increase in total free and sphingolipid-bound long chain-bases and an even larger increase in free and bound C20-long-chain bases, which are nearly undetectable in dividing cells. These changes are due to intrinsic factors including Orm1 and Orm2, ceramide synthase, Lcb4 kinase and the Tsc3 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase as well as extrinsic factors including glucose and iron. Lowering the concentration of glucose, a form of calorie restriction, decreases the level of LCBs, which is consistent with the idea that reducing the level of some sphingolipids enhances lifespan. In contrast, iron deprivation increases LCB levels and decreases long term survival; however, these phenomena may not be related because iron deprivation disrupts many metabolic pathways. The correlation between increased LCBs and shorter lifespan is unsupported at this time. The physiological rise in LCBs that we observe may serve to modulate nutrient transporters and possibly other membrane phenomena that contribute to enhanced stress resistance and survival in stationary phase. PMID:23286903

  12. Studies on Electrical behavior of Glucose using Impedance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juansah, Jajang; Yulianti, Wina

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report the electrical characteristics of glucose at different frequencies. We show the correlation between electrical properties (impedance, reactance, resistance and conductance) of glucose and glucose concentration. Electrical property measurements on glucose solution were performed in order to formulate the correlation. The measurements were conducted for frequencies between 50 Hz and 1 MHz. From the measurements, we developed a single-pole Cole-Cole graph as a function of glucose concentration.

  13. Kinetics studies of d-glucose hydrogenation over activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Muthanna J.

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic hydrogenation of d-glucose to produce d-sorbitol was studied in a three-phase laboratory scale reactor. The hydrogenation reactions were performed on activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst in the temperature range 25-65°C and in a constant pressure of 1 atm. The kinetic data were modeled by zero, first and second-order reaction equations. In the operating regimes studied, the results show that the hydrogenation reaction was of a first order with respect to d-glucose concentration. Also the activation energy of the reaction was determined, and found to be 12.33 kJ mole-1. A set of experiment was carried out to test the deactivation of the catalyst, and the results show that the deactivation is slow with the ability of using the catalyst for several times with a small decrease in product yield.

  14. 77 FR 30016 - Clinical Study Design and Performance of Hospital Glucose Sensors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Study Design and Performance of Hospital Glucose... Study Design and Performance of Hospital Glucose Sensors.'' The purpose of this public meeting is to discuss clinical study design considerations and performance metrics for innovative glucose sensors...

  15. Impaired facilitation of self-control cognition by glucose in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chung-Ming; Stone, William S; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Seidman, Larry J; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Studies in healthy individuals show that exerting self-control consumes cognitive resources, which reduces subsequent self-control performance. Restoring the availability of blood glucose eliminates this impairment. Patients with schizophrenia are found to have self-regulatory dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate whether patient's (a) glucose facilitation effects will be impaired, and (b) will have exaggerated depletion in a self-control task. 40 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 40 normal controls were recruited. A two drinks (glucose vs. placebo)×two depleting phases (self-control depleted vs. non-depleted) between-groups design was used. We examined the blood glucose levels before and after the selfcontrol depletion phase and the subsequent performances in two self-control tasks (handgrip and Stroop tests) after the drink condition. The four groups (depleting×glucose, depleting×placebo, non-depleting×glucose and nondepleting×placebo) of both patients and normal controls were comparable on a number of characteristics. The change in blood glucose level in the depleting group was significantly different from those in the non-depleting group. Two×two between-subjects ANOVAs were carried out to test the performances in the handgrip and Stroop tasks. Significant interactions were found in healthy controls regarding both tasks. However, a significant interaction was only found in patients regarding the handgrip task but not the Stroop task. This study demonstrated an abnormal glucose facilitation effect in patients during a cognitive self-control task but not during a physical self-control task. The findings also suggested for the first time that a self-control depletion effect is intact in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A high performance three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenlong; Song, Zhiqian; Xiang, Qun; Jin, Jian; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-04-14

    We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution.

  17. Molecular Dynamic Studies of the Complex Polyethylenimine and Glucose Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Szefler, Beata; Diudea, Mircea V.; Putz, Mihai V.; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P.

    2016-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is an enzyme produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and other fungi species. It catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose (by the molecular oxygen or other molecules, like quinones, in a higher oxidation state) to form d-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyses spontaneously to produce gluconic acid. A coproduct of this enzymatic reaction is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). GOx has found several commercial applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries including novel biosensors that use the immobilized enzyme on different nanomaterials and/or polymers such as polyethylenimine (PEI). The problem of GOx immobilization on PEI is retaining the enzyme native activity despite its immobilization onto the polymer surface. Therefore, the molecular dynamic (MD) study of the PEI ligand (C14N8_07_B22) and the GOx enzyme (3QVR) was performed to examine the final complex PEI-GOx stabilization and the affinity of the PEI ligand to the docking sites of the GOx enzyme. The docking procedure showed two places/regions of major interaction of the protein with the polymer PEI: (LIG1) of −5.8 kcal/mol and (LIG2) of −4.5 kcal/mol located inside the enzyme and on its surface, respectively. The values of enthalpy for the PEI-enzyme complex, located inside of the protein (LIG1) and on its surface (LIG2) were computed. Docking also discovered domains of the GOx protein that exhibit no interactions with the ligand or have even repulsive characteristics. The structural data clearly indicate some differences in the ligand PEI behavior bound at the two places/regions of glucose oxidase. PMID:27801788

  18. Molecular Dynamic Studies of the Complex Polyethylenimine and Glucose Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Szefler, Beata; Diudea, Mircea V; Putz, Mihai V; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P

    2016-10-27

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is an enzyme produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and other fungi species. It catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose (by the molecular oxygen or other molecules, like quinones, in a higher oxidation state) to form d-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyses spontaneously to produce gluconic acid. A coproduct of this enzymatic reaction is hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). GOx has found several commercial applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries including novel biosensors that use the immobilized enzyme on different nanomaterials and/or polymers such as polyethylenimine (PEI). The problem of GOx immobilization on PEI is retaining the enzyme native activity despite its immobilization onto the polymer surface. Therefore, the molecular dynamic (MD) study of the PEI ligand (C14N8_07_B22) and the GOx enzyme (3QVR) was performed to examine the final complex PEI-GOx stabilization and the affinity of the PEI ligand to the docking sites of the GOx enzyme. The docking procedure showed two places/regions of major interaction of the protein with the polymer PEI: (LIG1) of -5.8 kcal/mol and (LIG2) of -4.5 kcal/mol located inside the enzyme and on its surface, respectively. The values of enthalpy for the PEI-enzyme complex, located inside of the protein (LIG1) and on its surface (LIG2) were computed. Docking also discovered domains of the GOx protein that exhibit no interactions with the ligand or have even repulsive characteristics. The structural data clearly indicate some differences in the ligand PEI behavior bound at the two places/regions of glucose oxidase.

  19. Psychosocial stress predicts abnormal glucose metabolism: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily D; Magliano, Dianna J; Tapp, Robyn J; Oldenburg, Brian F; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2013-08-01

    The evidence supporting a relationship between stress and diabetes has been inconsistent. This study examined the effects of stress on abnormal glucose metabolism, using a population-based sample of 3,759, with normoglycemia at baseline, from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Perceived stress and stressful life events were measured at baseline, with health behavior and anthropometric information also collected. Oral glucose tolerance tests were undertaken at baseline and 5-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), according to WHO 1999 criteria. Perceived stress predicted incident abnormal glucose metabolism in women but not men, after multivariate adjustment. Life events showed an inconsistent relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism. Perceived stress predicted abnormal glucose metabolism in women. Healthcare professionals should consider psychosocial adversity when assessing risk factor profiles for the development of diabetes.

  20. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  1. First-phase insulin secretion has limited impact on postprandial glycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes: correlations between hyperglycemic glucose clamp and meal test.

    PubMed

    Rave, Klaus; Sidharta, Patricia N; Dingemanse, Jasper; Heinemann, Lutz; Roggen, Kerstin

    2010-02-01

    Lack of first-phase insulin (INS) secretion is regarded as causative for high postprandial glucose excursions in subjects with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine the impact of early INS secretion on postprandial glycemia. Twenty subjects with type 2 diabetes (age 54 +/- 8 years, body mass index 28.7 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]) underwent a hyperglycemic glucose clamp and a meal test twice separated by a washout period of 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify determinants of postprandial glycemia. During hyperglycemic glucose clamps eight subjects showed a preserved first-phase INS secretion (P1+), whereas 12 subjects showed none (P1-). Both subject groups differed in fasting blood glucose (BG) (116 +/- 7 vs. 147 +/- 31 mg/dL, P = 0.011) and glycosylated hemoglobin (6.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.8, P = 0.041). Total INS secretory response during glucose clamps was higher in P1+ than P1- (INS-area under the concentration vs. time curve [AUC](0-120 min) 6.7 +/- 2.7 vs. 3.2 +/- 2.1 mU.min/mL; P = 0.006). During meal tests, however, INS-AUC(0-120 min) was similar between P1+ and P1-, whereas early INS secretion was still different (INS-AUC(0-60 min) 3.9 +/- 1.8 vs. 2.1 +/- 1.0 mU.min/mL; P = 0.031). Despite higher INS-AUC(0-60 min) in P1+, early postprandial BG was comparable between groups (BG-AUC(0-60 min) 1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.6 g.min/dL; difference not significant). Multiple regression analyses showed no impact of first-phase INS secretion on postprandial glycemia, either in P1+ or in P1-. Nevertheless, in P1-, but not in P1+, postprandial glycemia was negatively correlated with INS sensitivity (R(2) = 0.83, P < 0.001). This study, correlating results of hyperglycemic glucose clamps with meal tests, shows that a preserved first-phase INS secretion has only a limited impact on postprandial glucose excursions in a group of subjects in early-stage type 2 diabetes.

  2. Studies of glucose turnover and renal function in an unusual case of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Steiner, G; Wilson, D; Vranic, M

    1977-01-01

    Examination of glucose kinetics, pancreatic alpha and beta cell function, plasma lipids, urinary acidification and calcium excretion has been undertaken in a patient with hereditary fructose intolerance. This case was unusual as it was associated with insulin-requiring diabetes, type IV hyperlipemia, hypercalciuria and renal calculi. He also demonstrated the previously described fructose-induced defect of urine acidification. Glucagon and C-peptide assays showed that the pancreatic alpha cells were stimulated by fructose and that the beta cells did not respond to fructose. It is not known whether the latter was due to his diabetes or to the lack of a beta cell response to this sugar. Primed 14C-glucose infusions were used for the first time to study nonsteady state glucose kinetics in man. They showed that, 24 hours after the last insulin injection and under basal conditions, the glucose concentrations increased because glucose production exceeded glucose utilization. However, after the administration of sorbitol the plasma glucose concentration decreased because glucose production decreased. After the administration of sorbitol there was no change in the metabolic clearance of glucose. This reflects the lack of a peripheral insulin effect and is consistent with the lack of any measurable C-peptide. Glucose utilization also decreased, but this decrease was less than the decrease in glucose production. Because the metabolic clearance of glucose remained unchanged, it was concluded that the change in glucose utilization was solely due to the decrease in glucose concentration. The absence of C-peptide in the plasma indicated that changes in glucose turnover were not related to any changes in endogenous plasma insulin. Furthermore, the plasma glucagon concentration increased and, hence, changes in this hormone could not account for the decrease in glucose production. Therefore, it was concluded that the sorbitol-induced decline in glucose production was due to a direct

  3. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  4. Effect of Oxygen on Glucose Metabolism: Utilization of Lactate in Staphylococcus Aureus as Revealed by In Vivo NMR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Pinho, Mariana G.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully adapt to changing host conditions is crucial for full virulence of bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus has to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations during the course of infection. Hence, we studied the effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism in non-growing S. aureus COL-S cells by in vivo 13C-NMR. Glucose catabolism was probed at different oxygen concentrations in suspensions of cells grown aerobically (direct effects on metabolism) or anaerobically (transcriptional adjustment to oxygen deprivation). In aerobically-grown cells, the rate of glucose consumption diminished progressively with decreasing oxygen concentrations. Additionally, oxygen deprivation resulted in biphasic glucose consumption, with the second phase presenting a higher rate. The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate pool peaked while glucose was still abundant, but the transient maximum varied with the oxygen concentration. As oxygen became limiting mannitol/mannitol-1-phosphate were detected as products of glucose catabolism. Under anoxic conditions, accumulation of mannitol-1-phosphate ceased with the switch to higher glucose consumption rates, which implies the activation of a more efficient means by which NAD+ can be regenerated. The distribution of end-products deriving from glucose catabolism was dramatically affected by oxygen: acetate increased and lactate decreased with the oxygen concentration; ethanol was formed only anaerobically. Moreover, oxygen promoted the energetically favourable conversion of lactate into acetate, which was particularly noticeable under fully oxygenated conditions. Interestingly, under aerobiosis growing S. aureus cells also converted lactate to acetate, used simultaneously glucose and lactate as substrates for growth, and grew considerably well on lactate-medium. We propose that the efficient lactate catabolism may endow S. aureus with a metabolic advantage in its ecological niche. PMID:23472168

  5. Studies of endogenous UDP-glucose: glycoprotein glucose-1-phosphotransferase acceptors in embryonic chick neural tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, A.M.S.

    1986-01-01

    UPD-glucose: glycoprotein glucose-1-phosphotransferase (GlcPTase) catalyzes the transfer of a Glc-1-P from UDP-Glc to high mannose-type oligosaccharides on a class of embryonic chick neutral retinal glycoproteins. The primary acceptors for this glycosylphosphotransferase were determined by incubating embryonic chick tissue sonicates with (B-/sup 32/P)UDP-Glc followed by SDS-polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The primary GlcPT ase acceptors in brain tissue have apparent subunit molecular weights of 66 and 62 kilodaltons (kd). /sup 32/P incorporation into these peptides was eliminated by excess levels of unlabeled UDP-Glc and unaffected by the inclusion of other phosphate-containing compounds, with the exception of UDP-galactose which can be converted to UDP-Glc by an endogenous epimerase.

  6. Distributed phased array architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Variations in amplifiers and phase shifters can cause degraded antenna performance, depending also on the environmental conditions and antenna array architecture. The implementation of distributed phased array hardware was studied with the aid of the DISTAR computer program as a simulation tool. This simulation provides guidance in hardware simulation. Both hard and soft failures of the amplifiers in the T/R modules are modeled. Hard failures are catastrophic: no power is transmitted to the antenna elements. Noncatastrophic or soft failures are modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution. The resulting amplitude characteristics then determine the array excitation coefficients. The phase characteristics take on a uniform distribution. Pattern characteristics such as antenna gain, half power beamwidth, mainbeam phase errors, sidelobe levels, and beam pointing errors were studied as functions of amplifier and phase shifter variations. General specifications for amplifier and phase shifter tolerances in various architecture configurations for C band and S band were determined.

  7. Study of dynamics of glucose-glucose oxidase-ferricyanide reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, A.; Schreiberová, L.; Schreiber, I.

    2011-12-01

    This work is focused on dynamics of the glucose-glucose oxidase-ferricyanide enzymatic reaction with or without sodium hydroxide in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a batch reactor. This reaction exhibits pH-variations having autocatalytic character and is reported to provide nonlinear dynamic behavior (bistability, excitability). The dynamical behavior of the reaction was examined within a wide range of inlet parameters. The main inlet parameters were the ratio of concentrations of sodium hydroxide and ferricyanide and the flow rate. In a batch reactor we observed an autocatalytic drop of pH from slightly basic to medium acidic values. In a CSTR our aim was to find bistability in the presence of sodium hydroxide. However, only a basic steady state was found. In order to reach an acidic steady state, we investigated the system in the absence of sodium hydroxide. Under these conditions the transition from the basic to the acidic steady state was observed when inlet glucose concentration was increased.

  8. Is Type 2 Diabetes Really Resolved after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy? Glucose Variability Studied by Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Capoccia, D.; Coccia, F.; Guida, A.; Rizzello, M.; De Angelis, F.; Silecchia, G.; Leonetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out on type 2 diabetic obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Patients underwent regular glycemic controls throughout 3 years and all patients were defined cured from diabetes according to conventional criteria defined as normalization of fasting glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin in absence of antidiabetic therapy. After 3 years of follow-up, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) was performed in each patient to better clarify the remission of diabetes. In this study, we found that the diabetes resolution after LSG occurred in 40% of patients; in the other 60%, even if they showed a normal fasting glycemia and A1c, patients spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia. During the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), we found that 2 h postload glucose determinations revealed overt diabetes only in a small group of patients and might be insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of diabetes in the other patients who spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia, even if they showed a normal glycemia (<140 mg/dL) at 120 minutes OGTT. These interesting data could help clinicians to better individualize patients in which diabetes is not resolved and who could need more attention in order to prevent chronic complications of diabetes. PMID:25954762

  9. Diminished glucose transport in Alzheimer's disease: Dynamic PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jagust, W.J.; Seab, J.P.; Huesman, R.H.; Valk, P.E.; Mathis, C.A.; Reed, B.R.; Coxson, P.G.; Budinger, T.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography with (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose was used in six patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and seven healthy age-matched control subjects to estimate the kinetic parameters K1*, k2*, and k3* that describe glucose transport and phosphorylation. A high-resolution tomograph was used to acquire brain uptake data in one tomographic plane, and a radial artery catheter connected to a plastic scintillator was used to acquire arterial input data. A nonlinear iterative least-squares fitting procedure that included terms for the vascular fraction and time delay to the peripheral sampling site was used to fit a three-compartment model to the brain data. Regions studied included frontal, temporal, occipital, and the entire cortex and subcortical white matter. The values obtained for the individual rate constants and regional CMRglc (rCMRglc; calculated using regional values of the rate constants) were higher than those reported previously. A significant (p less than 0.05) decrease was found in K1* in frontal and temporal cortex in the AD patients compared with the controls, with values of 0.157 and 0.161 ml/g/min in frontal and temporal cortex, respectively, of controls and 0.127 and 0.126 ml/g/min in frontal and temporal cortex of the AD patients. rCMRglc was also significantly (p less than 0.02) lower in the AD patients than controls in all cortical brain regions. Lower values of k3* were found in all brain regions in the AD patients, although these were not statistically significant. These findings provide evidence of an in vivo abnormality of forward glucose transport in AD.

  10. High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Harati, Hadi; Saadat, Navid; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years. Methods The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4). Conclusion In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient. PMID:18501007

  11. Numerical Studies of Topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraedts, Scott

    The topological phases of matter have been a major part of condensed matter physics research since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect in the 1980s. Recently, much of this research has focused on the study of systems of free fermions, such as the integer quantum Hall effect, quantum spin Hall effect, and topological insulator. Though these free fermion systems can play host to a variety of interesting phenomena, the physics of interacting topological phases is even richer. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of theoretical tools that can be used to approach interacting problems. In this thesis I will discuss progress in using two different numerical techniques to study topological phases. Recently much research in topological phases has focused on phases made up of bosons. Unlike fermions, free bosons form a condensate and so interactions are vital if the bosons are to realize a topological phase. Since these phases are difficult to study, much of our understanding comes from exactly solvable models, such as Kitaev's toric code, as well as Levin-Wen and Walker-Wang models. We may want to study systems for which such exactly solvable models are not available. In this thesis I present a series of models which are not solvable exactly, but which can be studied in sign-free Monte Carlo simulations. The models work by binding charges to point topological defects. They can be used to realize bosonic interacting versions of the quantum Hall effect in 2D and topological insulator in 3D. Effective field theories of ''integer'' (non-fractionalized) versions of these phases were available in the literature, but our models also allow for the construction of fractional phases. We can measure a number of properties of the bulk and surface of these phases. Few interacting topological phases have been realized experimentally, but there is one very important exception: the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). Though the fractional quantum Hall effect we discovered over 30

  12. Two phase detonation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, J. A.; Pierce, T. H.; Miyajima, H.; Oza, R.; Patil, P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental study of the passage of a shock wave over a burning fuel drop is described. This includes high speed framing photographs of the interaction taken at 500,000 frames per second. A theoretical prediction of the ignition of a fuel drop by a shock wave is presented and the results compared with earlier experimental work. Experimental attempts to generate a detonation in a liquid fuel drop (kerosene)-liquid oxidizer drop (hydrogen peroxide)-inert gas-environment are described. An appendix is included which gives the analytical prediction of power requirements for the drop generator to produce certain size drops at a certain mass rate. A bibliography is also included which lists all of the publications resulting from this research grant.

  13. The 13C/12C fractionation by microbial cells immobilized on a solid-phase carrier during the growth on glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyakun, Anatoly; Kochetkov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Problem. In microbiological ecology, the level of basal СО2 respiration and the potential of microbial activity defined as substrate-induced respiration (SIR) are used as criteria of the metabolic state of soil microbiota. The peculiar feature of glucose metabolism in soil is its utilization by microbial cells immobilized on soil particles as a solid-phase carrier. The efficiency of substrate utilization and СО2 production in such cases depend on the rate of microorganisms' growth and colonization of the solid-phase carrier surface, where the substrate is located. The products of microbial metabolism are supposed to inherit the substrate isotope composition correct to the isotopic effects accompanying substrate utilization and metabolic transformations. However, all experiments in carbon isotope fractionation during microbial utilization of glucose as a substrate have been carried out with microorganisms growing in liquid media. Objective: Study of the kinetics of glucose utilization as a test substrate during the growth of soil microorganisms immobilized on a solid-phase carrier and ascertainment of peculiarities of the formation of carbon isotope composition of produced metabolic СО2. The objects of research were Pseudomonas aureofaciens BS1393(pBS216) (culture A) and Rhodococcus sp. 3-30 (culture B) as representatives of pseudomonades and rhodococci, which occur in the soils of different genesis and are of defining value in development and implementation of biotechnological schemes for degradation of toxic organic pollutants in the environment. Results and discussion. The cultures under study had different rates of growth on glucose. Specific rates of СО2 production during the growth of cultures A and B on glucose were 0.34 (± 0.05) and 0.078 (± 0.01) μg С-СО2 h-1, respectively. The lag periods of culture (A and B) growth were about 4.3 and 26 h, respectively. Comparison of the lag periods of these representatives of pseudomonades and rhodococci

  14. The grading effect of abnormal glucose status on arterial stiffness and a new threshold of 2-hour post-load glucose based on a Chinese community study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Ke; Wu, Ke-Ye; Dai, Xiao-Tong; Che, Qian-Zi; Chen, Si; Jia, Jia; Li, Jian-Ping; Huo, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Da-Fang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relation between various glucose metabolic status and arterial stiffness, and further explore the threshold of blood glucose indices for the risk of arterial stiffness. The cross-sectional study included 4851 individuals from a Chinese community. Overnight fasting blood glucose and 2-hour post-load glucose sampled. Arterial stiffness measured as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. The association examined using generalized linear regression models. The threshold effect explored using two piecewise linear regression model by the smoothing plot. After adjustment for covariates, isolated impaired fasting glucose, isolated impaired glucose tolerance, combined glucose intolerance, newly diabetes mellitus associated with greater risk of arterial stiffness compared with normal glucose tolerance (B = 18.09, 95%CI: 0.42 ~ 35.76, P = 0.045; B = 28.51, 95%CI: 3.40 ~ 53.62, P = 0.026; B =60.70, 95%CI: 38.37 ~ 83.04, P < 0.001; B = 95.06, 95%CI: 71.88 ~ 118.25, P < 0.001; respectively). Moreover, there was a nonlinear relation between 2-hour post-load glucose and arterial stiffness. A threshold for 2-hour post-load glucose of 6.14 mmol/L observed for risk of arterial stiffness. Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, combined glucose intolerance, and newly diabetes mellitus related to greater risk of arterial stiffness compared with normal glucose levels. A threshold for 2-hour post-load glucose of 6.14 mmol/L probably exists for risk of arterial stiffness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  16. Noninvasive Polarimetric-Based Glucose Monitoring: An in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Purvinis, Georgeanne; Cameron, Brent D; Altrogge, Douglas M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Since 1990, there has been significant research devoted toward development of a noninvasive physiological glucose sensor. In this article, we report on the use of optical polarimetry for the noninvasive measurement of physiological glucose concentration in the anterior chamber of the eye of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Method: Measurements were acquired using a custom-designed laser-based optical polarimetry system in a total of seven NZW rabbits anesthetized using an isoflurane-only anesthesia protocol. Aqueous humor-based polarimetric measurements were obtained by coupling light through the anterior chamber of the eye. Blood glucose levels were first stabilized and then altered with intravenous dextrose and insulin administration and measured every 3–5 min with a standard glucometer and intermittently with a YSI 2300 glucose analyzer. Acquired polarimetric glucose signals are calibrated to measured blood glucose concentration. Results: Based on a total of 41 data points, Clarke error grid analysis indicated 93% in zone A, 7% in zone B, and 0% in zones C and D, with reference concentrations between 93 and 521 mg/dl. Errors in prediction are shown to be related to gross movement of the rabbit during the procedures, incurring time-varying corneal birefringence effects that directly affect the measured polarimetric signal. These effects can be compensated for with appropriate design modifications. Conclusions: An optical polarimetry technique was used for in vivo physiological glucose monitoring. The technique demonstrated provides a basis for the development of a noninvasive polarimetric glucose monitor for home, personal, or hospital use. PMID:21527109

  17. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  18. Effect of a glucose-triazole-hydrogenated cardanol conjugate on lipid bilayer membrane organization and thermotropic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Jitendriya; Kamalraj, M.; Surya Prakash Rao, H.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the membrane perturbation, solubilisation and thermotropic phase transition process of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) MLVs induced by a glucose-triazole-hydrogenated cardanol conjugate (GTHCC). GTHCC is a recently introduced non toxic sugar derivative. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fluorescence molecular probe based techniques have been used to understand the concentration dependent membrane perturbation, solubilisation and thermotropic phase transition process of DPPC MLVs. The phase transition temperature of DPPC MLVs decreases with increase in mol% of GTHCC. At higher concentration above 10 mol%, GTHCC was significantly perturbed the membrane organization. The intrinsic fluorescence of GTHCC is also found to be sensitive towards phase behaviour and changes in membrane organization of DPPC MLVs.

  19. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves first-phase insulin secretion and insulinogenic index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, P C M; van Asseldonk, E J P; Holst, J J; Vilsbøll, T; Netea, M G; Tack, C J

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation at the level of the β cell appears to be involved in progressive β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We assessed the effect of blocking interleukin-1 (IL-1) by anakinra [recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)] on β-cell function. Sixteen participants with impaired glucose tolerance were treated with 150 mg anakinra daily for 4 weeks in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study with a wash-out period of 4 weeks. At the end of each treatment period, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and hyperglycaemic clamps were performed. First-phase insulin secretion improved after anakinra treatment compared with placebo, 148 ± 20 versus 123 ± 14 mU/l, respectively (p = 0.03), and the insulinogenic index was higher after anakinra treatment. These results support the concept of involvement of IL-1β in the (progressive) decrease of insulin secretion capacity associated with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend <0.001). After adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, creatinine, fatty liver, family history of diabetes, alcohol consumption, and current smoking, uric acid levels were positively associated with onset of impaired fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  1. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Le Floch, Jean-Pierre; Kessler, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose variability has been suspected to be a major factor of diabetic complications. Several indices have been proposed for measuring glucose variability, but their interest remains discussed. Our aim was to compare different indices. Methods: Glucose variability was studied in 150 insulin-treated diabetic patients (46% men, 42% type 1 diabetes, age 52 ± 11 years) using a continuous glucose monitoring system (668 ± 564 glucose values; mean glucose value 173 ± 38 mg/dL). Results from the mean, the median, different indices (SD, MAGE, MAG, glucose fluctuation index (GFI), and percentages of low [<60 mg/dL] and high [>180 mg/dL] glucose values), and ratios (CV = SD/m, MAGE/m, MAG/m, and GCF = GFI/m) were compared using Pearson linear correlations and a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). Results: CV, MAGE/m (ns), GCF and GFI (P < .05), MAG and MAG/m (P < .01) were not strongly correlated with the mean. The percentage of high glucose values was mainly correlated with indices. The percentage of low glucose values was mainly correlated with ratios. PCA showed 3 main axes; the first was associated with descriptive data (mean, SD, CV, MAGE, MAGE/m, and percentage of high glucose values); the second with ratios MAG/m and GCF and with the percentage of low glucose values; and the third with MAG, GFI, and the percentage of high glucose values. Conclusions: Indices and ratios provide complementary pieces of information associated with high and low glucose values, respectively. The pairs MAG+MAG/m and GFI+GCF appear to be the most reliable markers of glucose variability in diabetic patients. PMID:26880391

  2. Phosphoinositide hydrolysis and insulin release from isolated perifused rat islets. Studies with glucose.

    PubMed

    Zawalich, W S; Zawalich, K C

    1988-09-01

    The ability of glucose to promote the hydrolysis of prelabeled [2-3H]inositol-containing phosphoinositides (PI) was assessed by measuring the efflux of 3H in response to glucose and the accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates. The inclusion of nonradioactive inositol (1 mM) in the perifusion medium dramatically improved our ability to monitor glucose-induced increases in 3H efflux. Efflux studies with this method revealed the following. 1) 3H efflux is significantly greater at 7 than at 2.75 mM glucose, and this parallels a small but significant increase in insulin secretion. 2) D-manno-Heptulose reduces 3H efflux with 7 mM glucose to a level approximating that seen in the presence of 2.75 mM glucose and has no effect on 3H efflux with 2.75 mM glucose. 3) In the presence of 20 mM glucose plus 1 mM inositol, 3H efflux is rapid and biphasic, a response that parallels the timing and amplitude of the biphasic pattern of insulin secretion. Direct measurements of labeled inositol and inositol phosphate levels in islets revealed the following. 4) After 50 min of perifusion with 2.75 or 7 mM glucose, labeled inositol phosphates were significantly greater with 7 mM glucose. 5) In response to 20 mM glucose alone, islet levels of free inositol, inositol monophosphate (IP1), and inositol bisphosphate (IP2) increased. 6) In response to 20 mM glucose plus 1 mM cold inositol, islet levels of free inositol increased, whereas islet levels of IP1, IP2, and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) were reduced compared with values obtained with 20 mM glucose alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. [Activation of the expression of the microcin C51 operon upon glucose starvation of cells at the exponential growth phase].

    PubMed

    Veselovskiĭ, A M; Metlitskaia, A Z; Lipasova, V A; Bass, I A; Khmel', I A

    2005-01-01

    It was earlier shown that expression of the microcin C51 operon in Escherichia coli cells is activated upon decelerated growth of cells during their transition to the stationary growth phase and depends on the sigmaS subunit of RNA polymerase. Using a single-copy construct containing the cloned promoter region of the microcin C51 operon and a promoterless lac operon (P(mcc)-lac), it was shown that the promoter of the microcin operon was also induced by stress caused by the transition of cells at the exponential growth phase into the medium without glucose as a sole carbon source. Activation of P(mcc)-lac expression upon severe glucose starvation occurred in rpoS+ and rpoS- strains. In cells carrying the rpoD800 mutation that renders the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase temperature-sensitive, an activation of P(mcc)-lac expression was observed at nonpermissive temperature, in contrast to its complete inhibition in E. coli cells at the phase of delayed growth. Other stressors-nitrogen starvation, high temperatures, osmotic shock, tetracycline and chloramphenicol-did not activate P(mcc)-lac expression in cells at the exponential growth phase.

  4. Interplay between the static ordering and dynamical heterogeneities determining the dynamics of rotation and ordinary liquid phases in 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Madejczyk, O.; Kaminski, K.; Kaminska, E.; Jurkiewicz, K.; Tarnacka, M.; Burian, A.; Paluch, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we reported thorough the structural and molecular dynamics studies on 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucose, the second compound reported so far that is capable to form rotator and supercooled liquid phases. In contrast to the data presented for ethanol, temperature dependences of structural dynamics in both phases are very comparable. On the other hand, X ray measurements revealed unusually long range ordering/correlations between molecules in the ODIC (d ≈ 95 Å) and supercooled phases (d ≈ 30–40 Å) of this carbohydrate. Our consideration clearly demonstrated that the interplay between length scales of static range ordering and dynamical heterogeneities as well as internal molecular arrangement seem to be the key to understanding the molecular dynamics of different materials characterized by varying degree of disorder in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature. PMID:28165065

  5. Interplay between the static ordering and dynamical heterogeneities determining the dynamics of rotation and ordinary liquid phases in 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madejczyk, O.; Kaminski, K.; Kaminska, E.; Jurkiewicz, K.; Tarnacka, M.; Burian, A.; Paluch, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we reported thorough the structural and molecular dynamics studies on 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucose, the second compound reported so far that is capable to form rotator and supercooled liquid phases. In contrast to the data presented for ethanol, temperature dependences of structural dynamics in both phases are very comparable. On the other hand, X ray measurements revealed unusually long range ordering/correlations between molecules in the ODIC (d ≈ 95 Å) and supercooled phases (d ≈ 30–40 Å) of this carbohydrate. Our consideration clearly demonstrated that the interplay between length scales of static range ordering and dynamical heterogeneities as well as internal molecular arrangement seem to be the key to understanding the molecular dynamics of different materials characterized by varying degree of disorder in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature.

  6. Single Fasting Plasma Glucose Versus 75-g Oral Glucose-Tolerance Test in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Songying; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Lifang; He, Jianrong; Li, Weidong; Chen, Niannian; Wen, Xingxuan; Xiao, Wanqing; Yuan, Mingyang; Qiu, Lan; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Huimin; Mol, Ben Willem J; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    There remains uncertainty regarding whether a single fasting glucose measurement is sufficient to predict risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. We included 12,594 pregnant women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 22-28weeks' gestation in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China. Outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA) baby, cesarean section, and spontaneous preterm birth. We calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUCs) to assess the capacity of OGTT glucose values to predict adverse outcomes, and compared the AUCs of different components of OGTT. 1325 women had a LGA baby (10.5%). Glucose measurements were linearly associated with LGA, with strongest associations for fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45). Weaker associations were observed for cesarean section and spontaneous preterm birth. Fasting glucose have a comparable discriminative power for prediction of LGA to the combination of fasting, 1h, and 2h glucose values during OGTT (AUCs, 0.611 vs. 0.614, P=0.166). The LGA risk was consistently increased in women with abnormal fasting glucose (≥5.1mmol/l), irrespective of 1h or 2h glucose levels. A single fasting glucose measurement performs comparably to 75-g OGTT in predicting risk of having a LGA baby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P < 0.05) but not in young lean subjects. We concluded that a short-term Bikram yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults.

  8. Glucose Levels in Newborns with Special Reference to Hypoglycemia: A Study from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Edwin; Gada, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is one of the common metabolic problems in neonatal medicine. There is association between blood glucose levels and neurological development. The study involved 100 mothers and neonates blood glucose levels were measured using a standard glucometer in mother delivering babies within half an hour of delivery and in newborns at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h of life. Blood glucose levels were low at 0th and 6th h and maximum at 24th h. Neonates born to mothers with high maternal blood glucose levels were hypoglycemic showing a negative correlation. The mean blood glucose levels were low in pre-term and post-term compared with term babies and range of blood glucose levels were wide in preterm and post term babies. PMID:24741538

  9. A deuterium NMR and dielectric study of glucose/water glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Gerald Robert

    This thesis is an investigation of the correlation times for the molecular motion in a glucose/water glass forming system. Using separate samples containing deuterated glucose and D2O, the motions of the glucose and the water molecules in the viscous liquid and in the amorphous glass phase of glucose/water mixtures are examined. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements and spectra obtained in the solid confirm the existence of both a crystalline ice phase and an amorphous glass phase. Measurements of the DC conductivity and the NMR spectra confirm the behaviour of this system as predicted by the glucose state diagram. Diffusion measurements performed using the large gradient in the fringe field of a superconducting magnet determine the rates of translational motion of both the sugar and the water molecules over a limited range of temperature in the viscous liquid region. From the deuterium NMR spin- lattice relaxation time, T1, the spin-spin relaxation time, T2, and spin alignment measurements, correlation times for the motion of these molecules are obtained. Correlation times determined from dielectric spectroscopy are in agreement with those obtained by NMR. The correlation time for the a process increases dramatically at Tg, while the βprocess continues into the low temperature glass phase, following an approximately Arrhenius relationship.

  10. First-phase insulin secretion restoration and differential response to glucose load depending on the route of administration in type 2 diabetic subjects after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Salinari, Serenella; Bertuzzi, Alessandro; Asnaghi, Simone; Guidone, Caterina; Manco, Melania; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of diabetes reversibility after malabsorptive bariatric surgery. Peripheral insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after either intravenous (IVGTT) or oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) tests and minimal model analysis were assessed in nine obese, type 2 diabetic subjects before and 1 month after biliopancreatic diversion and compared with those in six normal-weight control subjects. Insulin-dependent whole-body glucose disposal was measured by the euglycemic clamp, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were also measured. The first phase of insulin secretion after the IVGTT was fully normalized after the operation. The disposition index from OGTT data was increased about 10-fold and became similar to the values found in control subjects, and the disposition index from IVGTT data increased about 3.5-fold, similarly to what happened after the euglycemic clamp. The area under the curve (AUC) for GIP decreased about four times (from 3,000 +/- 816 to 577 +/- 155 pmol x l(-1) x min, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the AUC for GLP1 almost tripled (from 150.4 +/- 24.4 to 424.4 +/- 64.3 pmol x l(-1) . min, P < 0.001). No significant correlation was found between GIP or GLP1 percent changes and modification of the sensitivity indexes independently of the route of glucose administration. Restoration of the first-phase insulin secretion and normalization of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic subjects after malabsorptive bariatric surgery seem to be related to the reduction of the effect of some intestinal factor(s) resulting from intestinal bypass.

  11. Use of icodextrin during nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis allows sustained ultrafiltration while reducing the peritoneal glucose load: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Pérez Fontán, Miguel; García López, Elvia; García Falcón, Teresa; Díaz Cambre, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of ultrafiltration and preservation of the peritoneal membrane are desirable objectives in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Mixtures of glucose- and non-glucose-based solutions may help to meet both targets simultaneously. To analyze the effects, in terms of ultrafiltration and peritoneal glucose load, of including icodextrin-based dialysate in the nocturnal schedule of patients undergoing automated PD (APD). Following a randomized crossover design, 17 APD patients underwent two 10-day study periods under identical prescription (including amino acid-based solution for the night schedule), except for the substitution of 2 L glucose-based dialysate in the nocturnal mixture (control) by a similar amount of icodextrin-based dialysate (icodextrin phase) in one period. Dependent variables included ultrafiltration, sodium removal, peritoneal glucose load, and residual renal function. We measured serum and urine levels of icodextrin metabolites at the end of each phase. Ultrafiltration was marginally higher during the icodextrin phase (median 815 vs 763 mL/day, p = 0.07), while peritoneal sodium removal was similar in both phases (74 vs 71 mmol/L/day). Peritoneal glucose load (median 67.5 vs 104.0 g/day, p < 0.005) and absorption (14.0 vs 35.6 g/day, p < 0.005) were lower during the icodextrin phase. Diuresis was also modestly lower during the icodextrin phase (500 vs 600 mL/day, p < 0.05). Serum levels of icodextrin metabolites were moderately higher in the icodextrin phase (p < 0.005) in patients both on and off diurnal icodextrin. Inclusion of amino acid- and icodextrin-based solutions in the nocturnal schedule of APD patients may allow sustained ultrafiltration and sodium removal while significantly reducing the peritoneal glucose load in these patients.

  12. Combination of Peptide YY3–36 with GLP-17–36 amide Causes an Increase in First-Phase Insulin Secretion after IV Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tricia M.; Salem, Victoria; Troke, Rachel C.; Alsafi, Ali; Field, Benjamin C. T.; De Silva, Akila; Misra, Shivani; Baynes, Kevin C. R.; Donaldson, Mandy; Minnion, James; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Godsland, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The combination of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a potential treatment for diabetes and obesity. However, the combined effects of these hormones, PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide, on glucose homeostasis are unknown. Objective: This study sought to investigate the acute effects of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide, individually and in combination, on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Setting and Design: Using a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) and minimal modeling, this study measured the effects of PYY3–36 alone, GLP-17–36 amide alone, and a combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide on acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and insulin sensitivity index (SI) in 14 overweight human volunteers, studied in a clinical research facility. Results: PYY3–36 alone caused a small but nonsignificant increase in AIRg. GLP-17–36 amide alone and the combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide did increase AIRg significantly. No significant differences in SI were observed with any intervention. Conclusions: PYY3–36 lacks any significant acute effects on first-phase insulin secretion or SI when tested using an FSIVGTT. Both GLP-17–36 amide alone and the combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide increase first-phase insulin secretion. There does not seem to be any additive or synergistic effect between PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide on first-phase insulin secretion. Neither hormone alone nor the combination had any significant effects on SI. PMID:25144632

  13. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  14. [Specific features of studies of glucose in biological fluids (review)].

    PubMed

    Ruvinova, L G; Kirpich, I A; Sidorov, P I; Solov'ev, A G

    1996-01-01

    The review is devoted to the main questions of investigations of the main index of carbohydrate metabolism--glucose in biological liquids of an organism. Detailed analysis of technological principles and interpretation of biochemical results with due regard to the influence of the complex of inner and external physico-chemical, biological and climatic factors is presented.

  15. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  16. Synthesis of novel glucose-based polymers and their applications as chiral stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ikai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Two novel polymers containing glucose units as the main-chain that only differ in terms of their regioregularity were synthesized to evaluate their chiral recognition abilities as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The regioregular polymer (poly-5) shows clear resolution ability for the racemate of cobalt (III) acetylacetonate (Co(acac)3), whereas the corresponding regioirregular polymer (poly-3) does not show any chiral recognition for Co (acac)3. The regioregular polymer main-chain seems to play an important role not only in providing an efficient interaction with the racemate but also in expressing the chiral recognition ability as a CSP for HPLC.

  17. Dissociable Behavioral, Physiological and Neural Effects of Acute Glucose and Fructose Ingestion: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Zimak, Nina; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that glucose and fructose ingestion differentially modulate release of satiation hormones. Recent studies have begun to elucidate brain-gut interactions with neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the neural mechanism underlying different behavioral and physiological effects of glucose and fructose are unclear. In this paper, we have used resting state functional MRI to explore whether acute glucose and fructose ingestion also induced dissociable effects in the neural system. Using a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we compared resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network in 12 healthy lean males. Each subject was administered fructose, glucose and placebo on three separate occasions. Subsequent correlation analysis was used to examine relations between rsFC findings and plasma concentrations of satiation hormones and subjective feelings of appetite. Glucose ingestion induced significantly greater elevations in plasma glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP, while feelings of fullness increased and prospective food consumption decreased relative to fructose. Furthermore, glucose increased rsFC of the left caudatus and putamen, precuneus and lingual gyrus more than fructose, whereas within the basal ganglia/limbic network, fructose increased rsFC of the left amygdala, left hippocampus, right parahippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and precentral gyrus more than glucose. Moreover, compared to fructose, the increased rsFC after glucose positively correlated with the glucose-induced increase in insulin. Our findings suggest that glucose and fructose induce dissociable effects on rsFC within the basal ganglia/limbic network, which are probably mediated by different insulin levels. A larger study would be recommended in order to confirm these findings. PMID:26107810

  18. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subscapular skinfold thickness distinguishes between transient and persistent impaired glucose tolerance: Study on Lifestyle-Intervention and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Maastricht (SLIM).

    PubMed

    Mensink, M; Feskens, E J M; Kruijshoop, M; de Bruin, T W A; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2003-07-01

    To assess whether adding anthropometric measurements to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can help to distinguish between transient and persistent impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). From the SLIM project (Study on Lifestyle-Intervention and IGT Maastricht), a study designed to evaluate whether diet and physical activity intervention can improve glucose tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetes, 108 subjects with IGT underwent a repeated OGTT 2-4 months after the initial OGTT. Following the second test, subjects were classified as transient IGT, or persistent IGT. Anthropometric measurements, including body mass index, waist and hip circumference, sagittal and transverse abdominal diameters and skinfold thickness measurements, were done during the second OGTT. Persistent IGT was diagnosed in 47 subjects (44%), transient IGT in 40 (37%), impaired fasting glucose in eight subjects (7%), and diabetes in 13 cases (12%). Two-hour blood glucose levels at the initial OGTT and subscapular skinfold thickness were significantly higher in subjects with persistent IGT (2-h blood glucose 9.8+/-0.1 mmol/l vs. 10.2+/-0.1 mmol/l for transient IGT and persistent IGT, respectively; subscapular skinfold thickness 25.4+/-1.4 mm vs. 29.8+/-1.2 mm for transient IGT and persistent IGT, respectively). After adjustment for age, sex and family history of diabetes mellitus, logistic regression indicated that 2-h blood glucose level during the initial OGTT represented the strongest predictor of persistent IGT (P<0.02), followed by subscapular skinfold thickness (P<0.05). After adjustment for 2-h blood glucose levels during the first OGTT, subscapular skinfold thickness remained significantly associated with persistent IGT (odds ratio 1.84; P<0.05). In addition to the 2-h blood glucose level, subscapular skinfold thickness was the best predictor of persistent IGT, suggesting that adding simple anthropometric measures to oral glucose tolerance testing may improve the distinction between

  20. Coffee consumption and incidence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study.

    PubMed

    van Dam, R M; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G; Stehouwer, C D A; Bouter, L M; Heine, R J

    2004-12-01

    Coffee contains several substances that may affect glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between habitual coffee consumption and the incidence of IFG, IGT and type 2 diabetes. We used cross-sectional and prospective data from the population-based Hoorn Study, which included Dutch men and women aged 50-74 years. An OGTT was performed at baseline and after a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders including BMI, cigarette smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary factors. At baseline, a 5 cup per day higher coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower fasting insulin concentrations (-5.6%, 95% CI -9.3 to -1.6%) and 2-h glucose concentrations (-8.8%, 95% CI -11.8 to -5.6%), but was not associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations (-0.8%, 95% CI -2.1 to 0.6%). In the prospective analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for IGT was 0.59 (95% CI 0.36-0.97) for 3-4 cups per day, 0.46 (95% CI 0.26-0.81) for 5-6 cups per day, and 0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.84) for 7 or more cups per day, as compared with the corresponding values for the consumption of 2 or fewer cups of coffee per day (p=0.001 for trend). Higher coffee consumption also tended to be associated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.69, CI 0.31-1.51 for >/=7 vs /=7 vs glucose metabolism.

  1. A prospective study of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in China: The Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anand; Cui, Liufu; Sun, Lixia; Lu, Bing; Chen, Shuohua; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xiurong; Xie, Xiaobing; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. This is particularly relevant for China, where an extremely large population is growing, aging, and urbanizing. We thus conducted a prospective study to examine the prevalence and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, the rate at which fasting blood glucose rises, and the major modifiable risk factors associated with these outcomes in a large Chinese population from the Kailuan prospective study.A prospective cohort included 100,279 Chinese participants, aged 18 years or more, who had available information on fasting blood glucose concentrations at the start of the study (2006). Examination surveys were conducted every 2 years in 2008 and 2010. For the analyses of incident diabetes, we included 76,869 participants who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline and participants in the 2008 and/or 2010 follow-up. Diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7 mmol/L, self-reported history, or active treatment with insulin or any oral hypoglycemic agent. IFG was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L.During the 4-year study, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG rose from 6.6% to 7.7%, and 17.3% to 22.6%, respectively. There were 17,811 incident cases of IFG and 4867 incident cases of diabetes. The age-standardized incident rate of IFG and diabetes were 62.6/1000 person-years (51.2/1000 person-years in women and 73.8/1000 person-years in men) and 10.0/1000 person-years (7.8/1000 person-years in women and 12.1/1000 person-years in men), respectively. We observed steady increases in fasting blood glucose with body anthropometrics and in every defined category of body mass index, including in those traditionally considered to be well within the "normal" range.In this large longitudinal study of Chinese adults, we observed a high prevalence and incidence of IFG

  2. A selectivity study of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2/sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1 inhibitors by molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinxing; Yuan, Haoliang; Ran, Ting; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Haichun; Lu, Shuai; Xiong, Xiao; Xu, Anyang; Jiang, Yulei; Lu, Tao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-08-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) play an important role in glucose reabsorption in the kidney and have been identified as promising targets to treat diabetes. Because of the side effects like glucose and galactose malabsorption by targeting SGLT1, highly selective SGLT2 inhibitors are more promising in the treatment of diabetes. To understand the mechanism of selectivity, we conducted selectivity-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies to highlight the structure requirements for highly selective SGLT2 inhibitors. The best comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models showed the noncross-validated coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.967 and 0.943, respectively. The predicted correlation coefficients (r(2) pred ) of 0.974 and 0.938 validated the reliability and predictability of these models. Besides, homology models of SGLT2 and SGLT1 were also constructed to investigate the selective mechanism from structure-based perspective. Molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculation were performed on the systems of a potent and selective compound interacting with SGLT2 and SGLT1 to compare the different binding modes. The simulation results showed that the stretch of the methylthio group on Met241 had an essential effect on the different binding modes between SGLT1 and SGLT2, which was consistent with the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. Hydrogen bond analysis and binding free energy calculation revealed that SGLT2 binding complex was more stable and favorable than SGLT1 complex, which was highly correlated with the experimental results. Our obtained results give useful information for the investigation of the inhibitors' selectivity between SGLT2 and SGLT1 and will help for further development of highly selective SGLT2 inhibitors.

  3. Comparison of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin in predicting the neurological outcome of acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Chen, Chin-I; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yih-Ru; Wu, Hsin-Chiao; Chan, Lung; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Hu, Han-Hwa; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia is a known predictor of negative outcomes in stroke. Several glycemic measures, including admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), have been associated with bad neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke, particularly in nondiabetic patients. However, the predictive power of these glycemic measures is yet to be investigated. Methods This retrospective study enrolled 484 patients with acute ischemic stroke from January 2009 to March 2013, and complete records of initial stroke severity, neurological outcomes at three months, and glycemic measures were evaluated. We examined the predictive power of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and HbA1c for neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and patients with diabetes were performed separately. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that admission random glucose and fasting glucose were significant predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas HbA1c was not (areas under the ROC curve (AUCs): admission random glucose = 0.564, p = 0.026; fasting glucose = 0.598, p = 0.001; HbA1c = 0.510, p = 0.742). Subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes revealed that only fasting glucose predicts neurological outcomes in patients with diabetes, and the AUCs of these three glycemic measures did not differ between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the study patients indicated that only age, initial stroke severity, and fasting glucose were independent predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas admission random glucose and HbA1c were not (adjusted odds ratio: admission random glucose = 1.002, p = 0.228; fasting glucose = 1.005, p = 0.039; HbA1c = 1.160, p = 0.076). Furthermore, subgroup multivariate logistic regression analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes indicated that none of the three glycemic

  4. A dynamic and stationary rheological study of erythrocytes incubated in a glucose medium.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Bibiana; Foresto, Patricia; D'Arrigo, Mabel; Valverde, Juana; Rasia, Rodolfo

    2005-02-28

    A higher than normal glucose concentration in a suspending medium may produce non-enzymatic glycosylation of erythrocyte proteins. This process can modify the viscoelastic properties of erythrocytes. In this paper, we studied the possible relationship between glucose concentration in a suspending medium and erythrocyte rheological parameters. Human venous blood was obtained from the antecubital veins of 10 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were anticoagulated with EDTA and centrifuged. Red blood cells (RBCs) were washed and subsequently divided in aliquots, which were incubated in vitro with glucose solutions of different concentrations. Dynamic and stationary viscoelastic parameters of RBCs were determined by laser diffractometry in an Erythrodeformeter. Aggregate shape parameter (ASP) of the RBCs was determined by digital image processing. Significant changes were observed both in ASP and in rheological parameters when the glucose concentration in the medium was increased, demonstrating that a glucose concentration as low as 1% induces alterations in the mechanical properties of RBCs.

  5. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  6. Reduced early and late phase insulin response to glucose in isolated spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) islets: a defective link between glycolysis and adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Nesher, R; Abramovitch, E; Cerasi, E

    1989-09-01

    The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) exhibits low insulin responsiveness to glucose with a nearly absent early phase release. The alternative fuel-secretagogue glyceraldehyde (10 mmol/l) produced a maximal early insulin response in rat islets but failed to affect early response in Acomys; however, it potentiated the late insulin response in both species alike. Glucagon (1.5 mumol/l) potentiated the early insulin response to intermediate (8.3 mmol/l) glucose in rat and Acomys islets by two- and four-fold, respectively. Glucose doubled cyclic AMP levels in rat islets but no significant response was noted in Acomys islets. Isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mmol/l) and forskolin (25 mumol/l) caused a significant rise in islet cyclic AMP levels in both types of islets; however, neither agent restored the glucose stimulation of cyclic AMP in spiny mouse islets. Forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine potentiated early and late phase insulin release in both species; however, neither augmented the early response in the Acomys to the degree observed in rat islets. Thus: (1) A deficient link exists in Acomys between glycolysis and subsequent signals. (2) These islets contain a glucose-insensitive adenylate cyclase. (3) The early insulin response may be potentiated by direct activation of adenylate cyclase. (4) The glucose effects on early and late phase insulin release are probably mediated by distinct pathways. (5) In the spiny mouse the signals mediating the early response are deranged to a greater extent than those activating the late phase insulin release.

  7. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  8. The infusion of glucose in ewes during the luteal phase increases the number of follicles but reduces oestradiol production and some correlates of metabolic function in the large follicles.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Claire; Dupont, Joëlle; Campbell, Bruce K; Monniaux, Danielle; Guillaume, Daniel; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2011-09-01

    Short-term nutritional supplementation stimulates folliculogenesis in ewes probably by insulin-mediated actions of glucose in the follicle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glucose on follicle number and granulosa levels of Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK. Twelve Ile-de-France ewes were allocated to two groups; one (n=7) infused with saline and the other (n=5) with glucose (10mM/h) for 72h in the luteal phase. At the end of infusion, ovaries were collected and all follicles >1mm in diameter were dissected to recover granulosa cells. Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK were analysed by Western blotting of granulosa cell lysates. Blood plasmas collected before and during the infusions were analysed for progesterone, oestradiol, LH, FSH, glucose, insulin and IGF-I. The infusion of glucose significantly increased follicle number but, significantly reduced Aromatase P450 and phosphorylated Akt and AMPK in granulosa cells. The circulating concentration of glucose rose significantly 3h after the start of the glucose infusion and remained elevated until 27h then fell; the circulating concentration of insulin rose significantly by 3h and remained elevated. The circulating concentration of oestradiol fell significantly by 32h and remained low; the circulating concentrations of LH and FSH were unaffected. These data show that short-term infusion of glucose stimulated follicular growth but decreased Aromatase P450 in granulosa cells. The reduced levels of phosphorylated Akt and AMPK suggest that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway has been inhibited by high concentrations of glucose. These data also suggest that there may be functional cross-talk between FSH and insulin signalling in granulosa cells.

  9. ZBLAN Fiber Phase B Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1997-01-01

    A Phase B feasibility study will be performed for the study of the effects of microgravity on the preform processing and fiber pulling of ZBLAN optical glass. Continuing from the positive results achieved in the fiber annealing experiments in 20 second intervals at 0.001 g on the KC-135 and the 5 minute experiments on the SPAR rocket, experiments will continue to work towards design of a fiber sting to initiate fiber pulling operations in space. Anticipated results include less homogeneous nucleation than ground-based annealed fibers. Infrared Fiber Systems and Galileo are the participating industrial investigators.

  10. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A.; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Genieser, Hans-G.; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  11. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Genieser, Hans-G; Herberg, Friedrich W; Holz, George G

    2015-07-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells.

  12. Impact of repeated measures and sample selection on genome-wide association studies of fasting glucose

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Alonso, Alvaro; Li, Man; Kao, Wen; Köttgen, Anna; Yan, Yuer; Couper, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Pankow, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Although GWAS have been performed in longitudinal studies, most used only a single trait measure. GWAS of fasting glucose have generally included only normoglycemic individuals. We examined the impact of both repeated measures and sample selection on GWAS in ARIC, a study which obtained four longitudinal measures of fasting glucose and included both individuals with and without prevalent diabetes. The sample included Caucasians and the Affymetrix 6.0 chip was used for genotyping. Sample sizes for GWAS analyses ranged from 8372 (first study visit) to 5782 (average fasting glucose). Candidate SNP analyses with SNPs identified through fasting glucose or diabetes GWAS were conducted in 9133 individuals, including 761 with prevalent diabetes. For a constant sample size, smaller p-values were obtained for the average measure of fasting glucose compared to values at any single visit, and two additional significant GWAS signals were detected. For four candidate SNPs (rs780094, rs10830963, rs7903146, and rs4607517), the strength of association between genotype and glucose was significantly (p-interaction < .05) different in those with and without prevalent diabetes and for all five fasting glucose candidate SNPs (rs780094, rs10830963, rs560887, rs4607517, rs13266634) the association with measured fasting glucose was more significant in the smaller sample without prevalent diabetes than in the larger combined sample of those with and without diabetes. This analysis demonstrates the potential utility of averaging trait values in GWAS studies and explores the advantage of using only individuals without prevalent diabetes in GWAS of fasting glucose. PMID:20839289

  13. An Investigation of the Glucose Monitoring Practices of Nurses in Stroke Care: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Elizabeth Ann; Coates, Vivien E.; Ryan, Assumpta A.; McCarron, Mark O.; Lyttle, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Glucose derangement is commonly observed among adults admitted to hospital with acute stroke. This paper presents the findings from a descriptive cohort study that investigated the glucose monitoring practices of nurses caring for adults admitted to hospital with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. We found that a history of diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with initiation of glucose monitoring and higher frequency of that monitoring. Glucose monitoring was continued for a significantly longer duration of days for adults with a history of diabetes mellitus, when compared to the remainder of the cohort. As glucose monitoring was not routine practice for adults with no history of diabetes mellitus, the detection and treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia events could be delayed. There was a significant positive association between the admission hospital that is most likely to offer stroke unit care and the opportunity for glucose monitoring. We concluded that adults with acute stroke, irrespective of their diabetes mellitus status prior to admission to hospital, are vulnerable to both hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic events. This study suggests that the full potential of nurses in the monitoring of glucose among hospitalised adults with stroke has yet to be realised. PMID:24062947

  14. Glucose transporters and in vivo glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscle: fasting, insulin stimulation and immunoisolation studies of GLUT1 and GLUT4.

    PubMed Central

    Kraegen, E W; Sowden, J A; Halstead, M B; Clark, P W; Rodnick, K J; Chisholm, D J; James, D E

    1993-01-01

    Our aim was to study glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in relation to in vivo glucose uptake in rat cardiac and skeletal muscle. The levels of both transporters were of a similar order of magnitude in whole muscle tissue (GLUT1/GLUT4 ratio varied from 0.1 to 0.6), suggesting that both may have an important physiological role in regulating muscle glucose metabolism. GLUT4 correlated very strongly (r2 = 0.97) with maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (Rg' max., estimated using the glucose clamp plus 2-deoxy[3H]glucose bolus technique) in six skeletal muscles and heart. A distinct difference in regulation of the two transporters was evident in heart: in 5 h-fasted rats, basal glucose uptake and GLUT1 levels in heart were very high and both were reduced, by 90 and 60% respectively, by 48 h fasting. However, in heart (and in red skeletal muscle), neither GLUT4 levels nor Rg' max. were reduced by 48 h fasting. GLUT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in cardiac myocytes, because intracellular vesicles enriched in GLUT4 contained significant levels of GLUT1. In conclusion, the high association of muscle GLUT4 content with insulin responsiveness in different muscles, and the preservation of both with fasting, supports a predominant role of GLUT4 in insulin-mediated glucose uptake. GLUT1 may play an important role in mediating cardiac muscle glucose uptake in the basal metabolic state. Marked changes in GLUT1 expression with alterations in the metabolic state, such as prolonged fasting, may play an important role in cardiac glucose metabolism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8216230

  15. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were −11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  16. The Development of Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in C57Bl/6 Mice on a High-Fat Diet Consists of Distinct Phases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynda M.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Drew, Janice E.; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D.; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R.; Tups, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    High–fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12 - 16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable. PMID:25170916

  17. The development of diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet consists of distinct phases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lynda M; Campbell, Fiona M; Drew, Janice E; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R; Tups, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12-16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable.

  18. Dielectric spectroscopy study of specific glucose influence on human erythrocyte membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Livshits, Leonid; Caduff, Andreas; Feldman, Yuri

    2003-02-01

    Time domain dielectric spectroscopy has been used to study spherical erythrocytes, suspended in diluted phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffers at varying concentrations of D- and L-glucose at 25°C. The osmolarity for each glucose solution was adapted, equalling that of a 63% PBS (183 mOsm). The strong effect of the electrode polarization was corrected using the fractal approach in time domain. For analysis of the dielectric properties of suspensions of erythrocytes, the Maxwell-Wagner model is used for small volume fractions. Values of the permittivity and conductivity of the cell membrane were obtained from a fitting procedure according to the one-shell model. The non-monotonic and specific response of membrane electric properties on D-glucose concentrations were observed, with a dramatic decrease around 12 mM. No changes of membrane properties have been observed in the presence of increasing concentrations of L-glucose, the biologically inactive enantiomer of D-glucose. The effect is thus specific to D-glucose. The possible mechanism of specific cell reaction to D-glucose is discussed in this paper.

  19. Anaesthesia and changes in parameters that reflect glucose metabolism in pigs - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Manell, Elin; Jensen-Waern, Marianne; Hedenqvist, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    Pigs are commonly used in diabetes research due to their many physiological similarities to humans. They are especially useful in imaging procedures because of their large size. However, to achieve imaging procedures the pig must lie completely still, and thus needs to be anaesthetized. Most anaesthetic drugs used in laboratory animals affect carbohydrate metabolism by the inhibition of insulin release. The aim of this pilot study was primarily to develop an anaesthetic protocol for pigs that did not have an effect on blood glucose levels throughout the 3 h of anaesthesia; and secondly, to evaluate the most promising protocol in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Two anaesthetic protocols were used in four growing pigs. Intravenous propofol infusion caused hyperglycaemia in three out of four pigs within 5-10 min after induction and was therefore excluded. Intravenous infusion with tiletamine, zolazepam and butorphanol (TZB) for 3 h did not affect blood glucose levels. The pigs underwent OGTT twice, once without anaesthesia and once with TZB induction after glucose intake. Anaesthesia during OGTT resulted in a lower area under the curve (AUC) of glucose ( P < 0.05), higher AUC of glucagon ( P < 0.05) and an insulin response less than 10% of that during OGTT without anaesthesia. In conclusion, long-term infusion anaesthesia with TZB does not affect glucose homeostasis in pigs. However, the protocol is not effective when combined with OGTT, as glucose, insulin and glucagon levels are affected.

  20. Effects of alcohol abstinence on glucose metabolism in Japanese men with elevated fasting glucose: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Funayama, Takashi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Kawaguchi, Minako; Kakehi, Saori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Furukawa, Yasuhiko; Kaga, Hideyoshi; Yamamoto, Risako; Kanazawa, Akio; Fujitani, Yoshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption provides protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, several other reports suggested that moderate alcohol intake may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in non-obese Japanese. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 1-week alcohol abstinence on hepatic insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in non-obese Japanese men. We recruited 8 non-obese Japanese men with mildly elevated FPG and drinking habits alcohol (mean frequency; 5.6 ± 2.5 times/week, mean alcohol consumption; 32.1 ± 20.0 g/day). Before and after the 1-week alcohol abstinence, we used the 2-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP) and insulin sensitivity (IS) in muscle and liver. One-week alcohol abstinence significantly reduced both FPG by 7% (from 105.5 ± 11.7 to 98.2 ± 7.8 mg/dl, P < 0.01) and fasting EGP by 6% (from 84.1 ± 4.2 to 77.6 ± 1.6 mg/m2 per min, P < 0.01), respectively. Two–step clamp study showed that alcohol abstinence significantly improved hepatic-IS, but not muscle-IS. In conclusion, one week alcohol abstinence improved hepatic IS and FPG in non-obese Japanese men with mildly elevated FPG and drinking habits alcohol. PMID:28067302

  1. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  2. A study of the molecular motion in glucose/water mixtures using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, G. R.; Jeffrey, K. R.

    1999-02-01

    Using separate samples containing deuterated glucose and D2O, the motions of the glucose and the water molecules in the viscous liquid and in the amorphous glass phase of glucose/water mixtures are examined. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements and spectra obtained in the solid confirm the existence of both a crystalline ice phase and an amorphous glass phase. Diffusion measurements performed using the large gradient in the fringe field of a superconducting magnet determine the rates of translational motion of both the sugar and the water molecules over a limited range of temperature in the viscous liquid region. From the deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, the spin-spin relaxation time, T2, and spin-alignment measurements, correlation times for the motion of these molecules are obtained. The correlation time for the α process increases dramatically at Tg, while the β process continues into the low temperature glass phase, following an approximately Arrhenius relationship.

  3. The complex isotopologue space of glucose as a framework for the study of human intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Silke; Bacher, Adelbert; Ettenhuber, Christian; Gräwert, Tobias; Mückter, Harald; Seidel, Dietrich; Vogeser, Michael; Laupitz, Ralf; Fischer, Markus; Bacher, Ulrike; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The positional distributions of stable isotopes in metabolites provide specific fingerprints of the pathways and fluxes that have occurred in the organisms under study. In particular, modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy enables the detailed assignment of isotope patterns in natural products, for example, in metabolites obtained from labelling experiments using (13)C-enriched precursors, such as glucose, acetate or CO2. In this study, the transient (13)C-isotopologue composition of blood glucose from an adult human volunteer after intravenous supply of [U-(13)C6]glucose was determined by high-resolution (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The non-linear progression curves displaying the relative amounts of eight (13)C-glucose isotopologues reflected the contributions of glucose metabolism by glycolytic cycling, the pentose phosphate pathway and anaplerotic reactions involving the citric acid cycle. The pilot study suggests that the experimental setting can be useful in analysing under non-invasive conditions the impact of physiological and pharmacological constraints on glucose turnover in humans.

  4. Impact of blood sample collection and processing methods on glucose levels in community outreach studies.

    PubMed

    Turchiano, Michael; Nguyen, Cuong; Fierman, Arthur; Lifshitz, Mark; Convit, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Glucose obtained from unprocessed blood samples can decrease by 5%-7% per hour due to glycolysis. This study compared the impact of glucose degradation on measured glucose values by examining two different collection methods. For the first method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing sodium fluoride (NaF), a glycolysis inhibitor. For the second method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing a clot activator and serum gel separator and were centrifuged to separate the serum and plasma 20 minutes after sample collection. The samples used in the two methods were collected during the same blood draw and were assayed by the clinical laboratory 2-4 hours after the samples were obtained. A total of 256 pairs of samples were analyzed. The average glucose reading for the centrifuged tubes was significantly higher than the NaF tubes by 0.196 ± 0.159 mmol/L (P < 0.01) or 4.2%. This study demonstrates the important role collection methods play in accurately assessing glucose levels of blood samples collected in the field, where working environment may be suboptimal. Therefore, blood samples collected in the field should be promptly centrifuged before being transported to clinical labs to ensure accurate glucose level measurements.

  5. Studies of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chickens: dynamics of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Balnave, D; Wolfenden, J; Ball, F M; Cumming, R B; Leng, R A

    1977-11-01

    1. Fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS) was induced in a proportion of a group of 4-week-old chickens by giving a diet of meat meal and wheat; inclusion in the diet of animal tallow for 54 h substantially reduced the occurrence of FLKS. 2. Measurements of dynamic aspects of glucose metabolism were made with single injections of [2-3H]glucose which indicated that birds given the 'FLKS-inducing' diet and showing physical symptoms of FLKS had significantly lower rates of synthesis of glucose than birds given either the same diet supplemented with tallow or a commercial diet. 3. In a second series of experiments glucose metabolism was studied in birds (1) with or without physical symptoms that were given the 'FLKS-inducing' diet and (2) birds given the same diet supplemented with tallow or biotin. Affected birds fed the 'FLKS-inducing' diet had significantly lower plasma glucose concentrations, pool sizes and synthesis rates than birds fed the same diet and not showing symptoms, or birds fed the supplemented diets. 4. It is suggested that the cause of death in birds with FLKS is a low rate of gluconeogenesis during periods without feed which results in a lack of glucose to meet essential functions.

  6. Global cerebral glucose utilization is independent of brain size: a PET Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hatazawa, J.; Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Campbell, G.

    1987-07-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolic rates were measured in 80 normal volunteers by studying the uptake of (/sup 18/F)deoxyglucose with positron emission tomography (PET), using three PET scanners. A brain size index was determined from the PET images using either length-width or area measurements of the brain at a standard level. There was a significant negative correlation between glucose metabolism per unit volume and brain size that was well described by an inverse functional relationship, implying that the total glucose consumption of the brain is approximately constant. Analyses of men versus women revealed no sex differences in total brain glucose consumption, although there were differences in brain size and in glucose metabolism per unit volume. Similarly there was no significant correlation of total brain glucose consumption with age. The variation with brain size accounted for 46% of the logarithmic intersubject metabolic variance. When comparing global metabolic rates in different subjects, multiplying the rates by a brain size index has the dual advantage of correcting for differences related to brain size and correcting for differences in cerebrospinal fluid volume.

  7. Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2003-05-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients would significantly reduce complications and mortality associated with this disease. In this paper, we experimentally and theoretically studied specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. OCT images and signals were obtained from skin of Yucatan micropigs and New Zealand rabbits. Obtained results demonstrate that: (1) several body osmolytes may change the refractive index mismatch between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and scattering centres in tissue, however the effect of the glucose is approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher; (2) an increase of the ISF glucose concentration in the physiological range (3-30 mM) may decrease the scattering coefficient by 0.22% mM-1 due to cell volume change; (3) stability of the OCT signal slope is dependent on tissue heterogeneity and motion artefacts; and (4) moderate skin temperature fluctuations (+/-1 °C) do not decrease accuracy and specificity of the OCT-based glucose sensor, however substantial skin heating or cooling (several °C) significantly change the OCT signal slope. These results suggest that the OCT technique may provide blood glucose concentration monitoring with sufficient specificity under normal physiological conditions.

  8. Glucose metabolism in completed suicide: a forensic-pathological pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Forsman, Jonas; Keltanen, Terhi; Liberg, Benny; Sajantila, Antti; Masterman, Thomas; Lindroos, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine whether antemortem blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose predict completed suicide and, by extension, whether markers of glucose metabolism might be associated with a prosuicidal trait or state. Method From consecutively performed autopsies, samples of blood and vitreous humor from 17 suicide victims and 27 non-suicide controls were compared with regard to levels of glucose, lactate, and HbA1c. Results Mean HbA1c was higher and mean estimated blood glucose was lower among suicide victims, although tests revealed no significant differences (P = 0.171 and P = 0.395, respectively). HbA1c levels exceeding 48.0 mmol/mol, which were indicative of persistent hyperglycemia, were twice as common in suicide victims (59% vs 30%; P = 0.068). Conclusion The finding of this pilot study suggest that deranged glucose metabolism may reflect biological events antecedent to, or concomitant with, completed suicide, with the following clinical implications: recurring hyperglycemia due to defective glucose transport, which may give rise to depression and suicidal ideation, and elevated HbA1c levels, which may represent an assayable correlate to neurobiological conditions predisposing to suicide. PMID:28252873

  9. Multisite Study of an Implanted Continuous Glucose Sensor Over 90 Days in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dehennis, Andrew; Mortellaro, Mark A.; Ioacara, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which enables real-time glucose display and trend information as well as real-time alarms, can improve glycemic control and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus. Previous reports have described strategies to extend the useable lifetime of a single sensor from 1-2 weeks to 28 days. The present multisite study describes the characterization of a sensing platform achieving 90 days of continuous use for a single, fully implanted sensor. Method: The Senseonics CGM system is composed of a long-term implantable glucose sensor and a wearable smart transmitter. Study subjects underwent subcutaneous implantation of sensors in the upper arm. Eight-hour clinic sessions were performed every 14 days, during which sensor glucose values were compared against venous blood lab reference measurements collected every 15 minutes using mean absolute relative differences (MARDs). Results: All subjects (mean ± standard deviation age: 43.5 ± 11.0 years; with 10 sensors inserted in men and 14 in women) had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Most (22 of 24) sensors reported glucose values for the entire 90 days. The MARD value was 11.4 ± 2.7% (range, 8.1-19.5%) for reference glucose values between 40-400 mg/dl. There was no significant difference in MARD throughout the 90-day study (P = .31). No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: The Senseonics CGM, composed of an implantable sensor, external smart transmitter, and smartphone app, is the first system that uses a single sensor for continuous display of accurate glucose values for 3 months. PMID:26224762

  10. Fasting glucose GWAS candidate region analysis across ethnic groups in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Guo, Xiuqing; Bowden, Donald W; Bertoni, Alain G; Sale, Michele M; Yao, Jie; Bluemke, David A; Goodarzi, Mark O; Chen, Y Ida; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Raffel, Leslie J; Papanicolaou, George J; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S

    2012-05-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across multiple ethnicities in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Nondiabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the baseline exam and with GWAS genotyping were included; 2,349 Caucasians, 664 individuals of Chinese descent, 1,366 African Americans, and 1,171 Hispanics. Genotype data were generated from the Affymetrix 6.0 array and imputation in IMPUTE. Fasting glucose was regressed on SNP dosage data in each ethnic group adjusting for age, gender, MESA study center, and ethnic-specific principal components. SNPs from the three gene regions with the strongest associations to fasting glucose in previous Caucasian GWAS (MTNR1B / GCK / G6PC2) were examined in depth. There was limited power to replicate associations in other ethnic groups due to smaller allele frequencies and limited sample size; SNP associations may also have differed across ethnic groups due to differing linkage disequilibrium patterns with causal variants. rs10830963 in MTNR1B and rs4607517 in GCK demonstrated consistent magnitude and direction of association with fasting glucose across ethnic groups, although the associations were often not nominally significant. In conclusion, certain SNPs in MTNR1B and GCK demonstrate consistent effects across four racial and ethnic groups, narrowing the putative region for these causal variants. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A new application of electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring glucose metabolism: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism relates to biochemical processes in living organisms and plays an important role in diabetes and cancer-metastasis. Although many methods are available for measuring glucose metabolism-activities, from simple blood tests to positron emission tomography, currently there is no robust and affordable device that enables monitoring of glucose levels in real-time. In this study we tested feasibility of applying a unique resonance-frequency based electronic impedance spectroscopy (REIS) device that has been, recently developed to measure and monitor glucose metabolism levels using a phantom study. In this new testing model, a multi-frequency electrical signal sequence is applied and scanned through the subject. When the positive reactance of an inductor inside the device cancels out the negative reactance of the capacitance of the subject, the electrical impedance reaches a minimum value and this frequency is defined as the resonance frequency. The REIS system has a 24-bit analog-to-digital signal convertor and a frequency-resolution of 100Hz. In the experiment, two probes are placed inside a 100cc container initially filled with distilled water. As we gradually added liquid-glucose in increments of 1cc (250mg), we measured resonance frequencies and minimum electrical signal values (where A/D was normalized to a full scale of 1V). The results showed that resonance frequencies monotonously decreased from 243kHz to 178kHz, while the minimum voltages increased from 405mV to 793mV as the added amount of glucose increased from 0 to 5cc. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying this new REIS technology to measure and/or monitor glucose levels in real-time in future.

  12. Trends of contraception use among married reproductive age women: Tehran lipid and glucose cohort study 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Cheraghi, Leila; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the trends of contraception use among married reproductive age women in Tehran Lipid and Glucose study between 2002 and 2011. This analysis investigated a proportion of women users and non-users of family planning, using data from 10year population-based Tehran Lipid Glucose Study from surveys conducted in 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011. Of the 6813, 6993, 7077, and 6789 women in the four phases mentioned, 34.1%, 33.9%, 33.5% and 35% of participants in each phase preferred to use contraception. Number of participants studied were 2506 women in 2002, 2529 women in 2005, 2594 women in 2008 and 2525 women in 2011. Types of methods and patterns of change in contraception differed across time. The percentage of women using traditional methods increased significantly from 25.7% in 2002 to 34.6% in 2011 (p value for trend=0.001). Accordingly, modern contraception use showed a reverse trend. From 2002 to 2011, 61.4%, 61%, 57.7%, and 51% of married women reported currently using various modern contraceptives, respectively (p value for trend=0.001). The proportion of users relying on condoms showed a significant increase during this decade, being 10.9% in 2002, 15.2% in 2005, 20% in 2008 and 21.9% in 2011. The prevalence of non-users for contraception was generally low; 12.7%, 8.2%, 8% and 14.3%, respectively from 2002 to 2011, but increased significantly across time (p=0.005) CONCLUSION: Relying on less effective contraceptive methods has increased rapidly among women in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose cohort study, a trend that could be a warning to policy makers about the possibility of higher unsafe abortion and maternal mortality/morbidity rates in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Obesity Paradox and Recurrent Coronary Heart Disease in a Population-Based Study: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Samaneh; Barzin, Maryam; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Hadaegh, Farzad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Khalili, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Although current data shows a positive association between obesity and development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in general population, there is limited data on the important protective role of central or general obesity in patients with prevalent CHD or the “obesity paradox”, from this region. Objectives The objective of the present investigation was to describe the relationship between BMI categories and the recurrence of CHD in patients with a history of CHD using data from a large population-based study, the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). Patients and Methods The study was conducted on 440 adults, aged ≥ 30 years, with a history of CHD at baseline who attended the first (1999 - 2001) or second (2001 - 2003) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and had at least one year of follow-up until March 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association among various BMI groups and recurrent CHD incidence. Results During a median follow-up of 8.44 years, 169 new cases of CHD occurred (incidence density of: 54.53 per 1000 person-years). The incidence of recurrent CHD was higher in the normal BMI compared with overweight and obese categories (68.71, 47.56 and 54.46 per 1000 person-years, respectively). In multivariable models, using the forward stepwise selection approach, compared to the overweight group (0.48 95% CI, 0.30-0.80), the obese group (0.55 95% CI, 0.28-1.06) lost its significant protective effect. Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated an apparently protective effect for overweight in comparison with normal weight against long-term recurrent CHD in patients with history of CHD. PMID:27761144

  14. Study on Different Molecular Weights of Chitosan as an Immobilization Matrix for a Glucose Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Lee Fung; Por, Lip Yee; Yam, Mun Fei

    2013-01-01

    Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant () was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave

  15. The effect of glucose when added to a fat load on the response of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and apolipoprotein B-48 in the postprandial phase.

    PubMed

    Zemánková, K; Mrázková, J; Piťha, J; Kovář, J

    2015-01-01

    Increased and prolonged postprandial lipemia has been identified as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on how to test postprandial lipemia, especially with respect to the composition of an experimental meal. To address this question of how glucose, when added to a fat load, affects the selected parameters of postprandial lipemia, we carried out a study in 30 healthy male volunteers. Men consumed an experimental meal containing either 75 g of fat + 25 g of glucose (F+G meal) or 75 g of fat (F meal) in a control experiment. Blood was taken before the meal and at selected time points within the following 8 h. Glucose, when added to a fat load, induced an increase of glycemia and insulinemia and, surprisingly, a 20 % reduction in the response of both total and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentration. The addition of glucose did not affect the magnitude of postprandial triglyceridemia and TRL-C and TRL-TG concentrations but stimulated a faster response of chylomicrons to the test meal, evaluated by changes in apolipoprotein B-48 concentrations. The addition of glucose induced the physiological response of insulin and the lower response of GLP-1 to the test meal during the early postprandial phase, but had no effect on changes of TRL-cholesterol and TRL-TG within 8 h after the meal.

  16. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  17. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  18. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Zeltchan, R. Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il’ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-02

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  19. Glucose starvation as a selective tool for the study of adaptive mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Erich; Steinboeck, Ferdinand

    2017-01-01

    Mutations not only arise in proliferating cells but also in resting - thus non-replicating - cells. Such stationary-phase mutations may occasionally enable an escape from growth repression and e.g. contribute to cancerogenesis or development of drug resistance. The most widely used condition for the study of such adaptive mutations in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the starvation for a single amino acid. To overcome some limitations of this experimental setup we developed a new adaptive mutation assay that allows a screening for mutagenic processes during a more regular cell cycle arrest induced by the lack of a fermentable carbon source. We blocked one essential step of gluconeogenesis by inactivation of the FBP1 gene. This drives the cells into a cell cycle arrest when glucose is not available in the medium although a non-fermentable carbon source is present. As another component of the new mutation assay, we established a custom-designed test allele that contains a microsatellite sequence as a target for mutations. We demonstrated the feasibility and validity of this novel experimental setup by the observation and characterization of adaptive mutants.

  20. Computational studies of the thermochemistry for conversion of glucose to levulinic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Redfern, P. C.; Hammond, J. R.; Greeley, J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-07-15

    The thermochemistry of the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid through fructofuranosyl intermediates is investigated using the high-level ab initio methods G4 and G4MP2. The calculated gas phase reaction enthalpies indicate that the first two steps involving water molecule elimination are highly endothermic, while the other steps, including additional water elimination and rehydration to form levulinic acid, are exothermic. The calculated gas phase free energies indicate that inclusion of entropic effects makes the dehydration steps more favorable, although the elimination of the first water is still endothermic. Elevated temperatures and aqueous reaction environments are also predicted to make the dehydration reaction steps thermodynamically more favorable. On the basis of these enthalpy and free energy calculations, the first dehydration step in conversion of glucose to levulinic acid is likely a key step in controlling the overall progress of the reaction. An assessment of density functional theories and other theoretical methods for the calculation of the dehydration and hydration reactions in the decomposition of glucose is also presented.

  1. Computational Studies of the Thermochemistry for Conversion of Glucose to Levulinic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Redfern, Paul C; Hammond, Jeffrey; Greeley, Jeffrey P; Curtiss, Larry A

    2010-07-15

    The thermochemistry of the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid through fructofuranosyl intermediates is investigated using the high-level ab initio methods G4 and G4MP2. The calculated gas phase reaction enthalpies indicate that the first two steps involving water molecule elimination are highly endothermic, while the other steps, including additional water elimination and rehydration to form levulinic acid, are exothermic. The calculated gas phase free energies indicate that inclusion of entropic effects makes the dehydration steps more favorable, although the elimination of the first water is still endothermic. Elevated temperatures and aqueous reaction environments are also predicted to make the dehydration reaction steps thermodynamically more favorable. On the basis of these enthalpy and free energy calculations, the first dehydration step in conversion of glucose to levulinic acid is likely a key step in controlling the overall progress of the reaction. An assessment of density functional theories and other theoretical methods for the calculation of the dehydration and hydration reactions in the decomposition of glucose is also presented.

  2. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  3. Sputum glucose and glycemic control in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Cowley, Elise S; Newman, Dianne K; Kato, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes affects up to half of cystic fibrosis patients and is associated with increased mortality and more frequent pulmonary exacerbations. However, it is unclear to what degree good glycemic control might mitigate these risks and clinical outcomes have not previously been studied in relation to glucose from the lower airways, the site of infection and CF disease progression. We initially hypothesized that diabetic cystic fibrosis patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) > 6.5% have worse pulmonary function, longer and more frequent exacerbations and also higher sputum glucose levels than patients with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% or cystic fibrosis patients without diabetes. To test this, we analyzed spontaneously expectorated sputum samples from 88 cystic fibrosis patients. The median sputum glucose concentration was 0.70 mM (mean, 4.75 mM; range, 0-64.6 mM). Sputum glucose was not correlated with age, sex, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, exacerbation frequency or length, or pulmonary function. Surprisingly, sputum glucose was highest in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, suggesting the dynamics of glycemic control, sputum glucose and pulmonary infections are more complex than previously thought. Two-year mean HbA(1c) was positively correlated with the length of exacerbation admission (p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with measures of pulmonary function (p < 0.01). While total number of hospitalizations for exacerbations were not significantly different, subjects with an HbA(1c) > 6.5% were hospitalized on average 6 days longer than those with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% (p < 0.01). Current clinical care guidelines for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes target HbA(1c) ≤ 7% to limit long-term microvascular damage, but more stringent glycemic control (HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5%) may further reduce the short-term pulmonary complications.

  4. A Mendelian Randomization Study of Metabolite Profiles, Fasting Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Bert van Klinken, Jan; Semiz, Sabina; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Verhoeven, Aswin; Hankemeier, Thomas; Harms, Amy C; Sijbrands, Eric; Sheehan, Nuala A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Demirkan, Ayşe

    2017-08-28

    Mendelian randomization (MR) provides us the opportunity to investigate the causal paths of metabolites in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis. We developed and tested an MR approach based on genetic risk scoring for plasma metabolite levels, utilizing a pathway-based sensitivity analysis to control for non-specific effects. We focused on 124 circulating metabolites which correlate with fasting glucose in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study (n = 2,564) and tested the possible causal effect of each metabolite with glucose and type 2 diabetes and vice versa. We detected fourteen paths with potential causal effects by MR, following pathway based sensitivity analysis. Our results suggest that elevated plasma triglycerides might be partially responsible for increased glucose level and type 2 diabetes risk, which is consistent with previous reports. Additionally, elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) components i.e. S-HDL-triglycerides might have a causal role of elevating glucose levels. In contrast, large (L) and extra-large (XL) HDL lipid components i.e. XL-HDL-cholesterol, XL-HDL-free cholesterol, XL-HDL-phospholipids, L-HDL-cholesterol and L-HDL-free cholesterol as well as HDL-cholesterol seem to be protective against increasing fasting glucose, but not against type 2 diabetes. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes associates with increased levels of alanine, and decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C42:5 and phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C44:4. Our MR results provide novel insight into promising causal paths to and from glucose and type 2 diabetes and underline the value of additional information from high resolution metabolomics over classical biochemistry. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E; Nilsson, P M; Golay, A; Laakso, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Mari, A

    2011-06-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area. We analysed the data from a population-based cohort of 1,048 non-diabetic, normotensive men and women (aged 30-60 years) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the glucose clamp technique (M/I index; average glucose infusion rate/steady-state insulin concentration) and beta cell function was estimated by mathematical modelling of the oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and 3 years later. Seventy-seven per cent of the participants had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 5% were glucose intolerant both at baseline and follow up; glucose tolerance worsened in 13% (progressors) and improved in 6% (regressors). The metabolic phenotype of the latter three groups was similar (higher prevalence of familial diabetes, older age, higher waist-to-hip ratio, higher fasting and 2 h plasma glucose, higher fasting and 2 h plasma insulin, lower insulin sensitivity and reduced beta cell glucose sensitivity with increased absolute insulin secretion). Adjusting for these factors in a logistic model, progression was predicted by insulin resistance (bottom M/I quartile, OR 2.52 [95% CI 1.51-4.21]) and beta cell glucose insensitivity (bottom quartile, OR 2.39 [95% CI 1.6-3.93]) independently of waist-to-hip ratio (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.13-1.84] for one SD). At follow up, insulin sensitivity and beta cell glucose sensitivity were unchanged in the stable NGT and stable non-NGT groups, worsened in progressors and improved in regressors. Glucose tolerance deteriorates over time in young, healthy Europids. Progressors, regressors and glucose-intolerant participants share a common baseline phenotype. Insulin sensitivity and beta cell glucose sensitivity predict and track changes in glucose tolerance independently of sex, age and obesity.

  6. Relationship between neuronal loss and interictal glucose metabolism during the chronic phase of the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in the immature and adult rat.

    PubMed

    Dubé, C; Boyet, S; Marescaux, C; Nehlig, A

    2001-02-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model of epilepsy reproduces most of the features of human temporal lobe epilepsy. After having studied the metabolic changes occurring during the silent phase, in the present study, we explored the relationship between interictal metabolic changes and neuronal loss during the chronic phase following status epilepticus (SE) induced by Li-Pilo in 10-day-old (P10), 21-day-old (P21), and adult rats. Rats were observed and their EEG was recorded to detect the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured during the interictal period of the chronic phase, between 2 and 7 months after SE, by the [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose method in rats subjected to SE at P10, P21, or as adults. Neuronal damage was assessed by cell counting on adjacent cresyl violet stained sections. When SE was induced at P10, rats did not become epileptic, did not develop lesions and cerebral glucose utilization was in the normal range 7 months later. When SE was induced in adult rats, they all became epileptic after a mean duration of 25 days and developed lesions in the forebrain limbic areas, which were hypometabolic during the interictal period of the chronic phase, 2 months after SE. When SE was induced in P21 rats, 24% developed SRS, and in 43% seizures could be triggered (TS) by handling, after a mean delay of 74 days in both cases. The remaining 33% did not become epileptic (NS). The three groups of P21 rats developed quite comparable lesions mainly in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, lateral thalamus, and entorhinal cortex; at 6 months after SE, the forebrain was hypometabolic in NS and TS rats while it was normo- to slightly hypermetabolic in SRS rats. These data show that interictal metabolic changes are age-dependent. Moreover, there is no obvious correlation, in this model, between interictal hypometabolism and neuronal loss, as reported previously in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright 2000 Academic

  7. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus internet-based blood glucose monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes: a study of treatment satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tricia S; Digby, Erica M; Wright, Anthony M; Chan, Jeremy H M; Mazanderani, Adel B; Ross, Stuart A; Tildesley, Hamish G; Lee, Augustine M; White, Adam S; Tildesley, Hugh D

    2014-12-01

    To compare treatment satisfaction between real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) and internet-blood glucose monitoring (IBGM) in adults with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. This study recruited 40 patients who completed a parallel randomized controlled trial comparing a RT-CGM to an IBGM. Patients in the RT-CGM group monitored their blood-glucose levels bi-weekly and emailed results to their endocrinologist. Patients in the IBGM group also monitored their blood-glucose levels bi-weekly, but entered their data into an IBGM. Both groups used a secure website to submit blood-glucose readings and to receive feedback from their endocrinologist. Feedback included changes in therapy, suggestions on testing frequency, lifestyle modifications and/or encouragement to continue with no changes. At the end of 6 months, treatment satisfaction was measured using the 8-item Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. In this study, "treatment" refers to the blood glucose monitoring system to which patients were randomized. Thirty-two of the 40 patients completed the treatment satisfaction questionnaire (80%). Compared to the RT-CGM group, the IBGM group reported a significantly higher level of overall treatment satisfaction (24.80 vs. 33.41, p<0.000). Ratings of individual satisfaction components including convenience, flexibility, likelihood of recommending treatment to others, and willingness to continue with treatment were also found to be significantly higher in the IBGM group. Patients using IBGM are more satisfied with their blood glucose monitoring system compared to those using RT-CGM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance after brief heat exposure: a randomized crossover study in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C). Each session ended with an ad libitum meal, resulting in similar energy intake across sessions. In study B, 12 healthy young men underwent two 3 h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in warm and control environmental temperatures. Venous blood was sampled at several time points. In study A, repeated measure ANOVAs revealed higher postprandial serum glucose and insulin levels with heat exposure. Glycaemia following the OGTT was higher in the warm temperature compared with control. The kinetics of the serum glucose response to the glucose load was also affected by the environmental temperature (temperature-by-time interaction, P=0.030), with differences between the warm and control conditions observed up to 90 min after the glucose load (all P<0.033). These studies provide evidence that heat exposure alters short-term glucoregulation. The implication of this environmental factor in the physiopathology of Type 2 diabetes has yet to be investigated.

  9. Kinetics and isotope patterns of ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from yeast fermentations of glucose and glucose-6,6-d2 using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry: a case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Wang, Tianshu; Spanel, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    As a prelude to investigations of the emission of metabolites from human cell lines in vitro, we have conducted a study using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) of the acetaldehyde and ethanol that appear in the headspace above a fermenting yeast/glucose/water mixture in sealed glass bottles at a temperature of 30 degrees C. A fixed quantity of yeast (10 mg) and varying amounts (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg) of both non-deuterated glucose and glucose-6,6-d2 in 5 mL of water were used and the emission of the acetaldehyde and the ethanol were observed as a function of time. The ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in the headspace were obtained from the magnitudes of their characteristic ions on the accumulated SIFT mass spectra and, when the deuterated glucose was used, characteristic singly and doubly deuterated ions were obvious. This study indicates, as expected, that ethanol is the major species generated and that acetaldehyde is a relatively minor component of the headspace and a very minor component of the liquid phase. We estimate that about 10(8) ethanol molecules are produced per minute per cell in this yeast fermentation process. The distribution of the non-deuterated and partially deuterated ethanol under these fermentation conditions is observed to be C2H5OH (66 +/- 4)%, C2H4DOH(6 +/- 1)%, C2H3D2OH(28 +/- 4)%, and the analogous distribution for the acetaldehyde is the same, within error. These results indicate that the D atoms in the glucose-6,6-d2 are mostly retained by the 6-C atom, but the appearance of the singly deuterated ethanol and acetaldehyde indicates that some D/H mixing must be occurring in the enzymatic reactions. The results of this study illustrate the potential and power of on-line SIFT-MS analysis in this area of research.

  10. Studies of blood glucose and plasma insulin in "normal" women using mechanical contraception for 6 months.

    PubMed

    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A

    1975-12-15

    A prospective study of carbohydrate metabolism was done with 56 "normal" women who were 4 to 11 weeks post partum. Each had a 3 hour oral glucose tolerance test performed before and after 6 months of using an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The results showed only slight changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels between the two tests. There were elevations of the fasting and 0.5 hour glucose values and the 2 hour plasma insulin value at the 6 month test. These data provide a further understanding of the changing metabolic parameters associated with pregnancy and they also give the "control" baseline information for comparison with other postpartum studies on the metabolic effects of contraceptive steriods.

  11. Sleep Disturbances and Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Carnethon, Mercedes; Biggs, Mary Lou; Djoussé, Luc; Kaplan, Robert C.; Siscovick, David S.; Robbins, John A.; Redline, Susan; Patel, Sanjay R.; Janszky, Imre; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the associations of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which was defined as loud snoring, stopping breathing for a while during sleep, and daytime sleepiness, and insomnia with glucose metabolism and incident type 2 diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1989 and 1993, the Cardiovascular Health Study recruited 5,888 participants ≥65 years of age from four U.S. communities. Participants reported SDB and insomnia symptoms yearly through 1989–1994. In 1989–1990, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, from which insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were estimated. Fasting glucose levels were measured in 1989–1990 and again in 1992–1993, 1994–1995, 1996–1997, and 1998–1999, and medication use was ascertained yearly. We determined the cross-sectional associations of sleep symptoms with fasting glucose levels, 2-h glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion using generalized estimated equations and linear regression models. We determined the associations of updated and averaged sleep symptoms with incident diabetes in Cox proportional hazards models. We adjusted for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and medical history. RESULTS Observed apnea, snoring, and daytime sleepiness were associated with higher fasting glucose levels, higher 2-h glucose levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and higher insulin secretion. The risk of the development of type 2 diabetes was positively associated with observed apnea (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84 [95% CI 1.19–2.86]), snoring (HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.95–1.71]), and daytime sleepiness (HR 1.54 [95% CI 1.13–2.12]). In contrast, we did not find consistent associations between insomnia symptoms and glucose metabolism or incident type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Easily collected symptoms of SDB are strongly associated with insulin resistance and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Monitoring glucose metabolism in such patients may

  12. Membrane Potential Dye Imaging of Ventromedial Hypothalamus Neurons From Adult Mice to Study Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Vazirani, Reema P.; Fioramonti, Xavier; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of neuronal activity are often performed using neurons from rodents less than 2 months of age due to the technical difficulties associated with increasing connective tissue and decreased neuronal viability that occur with age. Here, we describe a methodology for the dissociation of healthy hypothalamic neurons from adult-aged mice. The ability to study neurons from adult-aged mice allows the use of disease models that manifest at a later age and might be more developmentally accurate for certain studies. Fluorescence imaging of dissociated neurons can be used to study the activity of a population of neurons, as opposed to using electrophysiology to study a single neuron. This is particularly useful when studying a heterogeneous neuronal population in which the desired neuronal type is rare such as for hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons. We utilized membrane potential dye imaging of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons to study their responses to changes in extracellular glucose. Glucose sensing neurons are believed to play a role in central regulation of energy balance. The ability to study glucose sensing in adult rodents is particularly useful since the predominance of diseases related to dysfunctional energy balance (e.g. obesity) increase with age. PMID:24326343

  13. Membrane potential dye imaging of ventromedial hypothalamus neurons from adult mice to study glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Vazirani, Reema P; Fioramonti, Xavier; Routh, Vanessa H

    2013-11-27

    Studies of neuronal activity are often performed using neurons from rodents less than 2 months of age due to the technical difficulties associated with increasing connective tissue and decreased neuronal viability that occur with age. Here, we describe a methodology for the dissociation of healthy hypothalamic neurons from adult-aged mice. The ability to study neurons from adult-aged mice allows the use of disease models that manifest at a later age and might be more developmentally accurate for certain studies. Fluorescence imaging of dissociated neurons can be used to study the activity of a population of neurons, as opposed to using electrophysiology to study a single neuron. This is particularly useful when studying a heterogeneous neuronal population in which the desired neuronal type is rare such as for hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons. We utilized membrane potential dye imaging of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons to study their responses to changes in extracellular glucose. Glucose sensing neurons are believed to play a role in central regulation of energy balance. The ability to study glucose sensing in adult rodents is particularly useful since the predominance of diseases related to dysfunctional energy balance (e.g. obesity) increase with age.

  14. Tattoo-based noninvasive glucose monitoring: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Jia, Wenzhao; Yardımcı, Ceren; Wang, Xuan; Ramirez, Julian; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-06

    We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an all-printed temporary tattoo-based glucose sensor for noninvasive glycemic monitoring. The sensor represents the first example of an easy-to-wear flexible tattoo-based epidermal diagnostic device combining reverse iontophoretic extraction of interstitial glucose and an enzyme-based amperometric biosensor. In-vitro studies reveal the tattoo sensor's linear response toward physiologically relevant glucose levels with negligible interferences from common coexisting electroactive species. The iontophoretic-biosensing tattoo platform is reduced to practice by applying the device on human subjects and monitoring variations in glycemic levels due to food consumption. Correlation of the sensor response with that of a commercial glucose meter underscores the promise of the tattoo sensor to detect glucose levels in a noninvasive fashion. Control on-body experiments demonstrate the importance of the reverse iontophoresis operation and validate the sensor specificity. This preliminary investigation indicates that the tattoo-based iontophoresis-sensor platform holds considerable promise for efficient diabetes management and can be extended toward noninvasive monitoring of other physiologically relevant analytes present in the interstitial fluid.

  15. Connexin-36 Gap Junctions Regulate In Vivo First- and Second-Phase Insulin Secretion Dynamics and Glucose Tolerance in the Conscious Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Head, W. Steven; Orseth, Meredith L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Satin, Leslie S.; Piston, David W.; Benninger, Richard K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin release in isolated islets, however a role in vivo has not been shown. We test whether loss of gap-junction coupling disrupts plasma insulin oscillations and whether this impacts glucose tolerance. We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36−/−) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36−/− and control mice. Our results show that Cx36−/− mice are glucose intolerant, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. However, Cx36−/− mice exhibit reduced insulin pulse amplitudes and a reduction in first-phase insulin secretion. These changes are similarly found in isolated Cx36−/− islets. We conclude that Cx36 gap junctions regulate the in vivo dynamics of insulin secretion, which in turn is important for glucose homeostasis. Coordinated pulsatility of individual islets enhances the first-phase elevation and second-phase pulses of insulin. Because these dynamics are disrupted in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, dysregulation of gap-junction coupling could be an important factor in the development of this disease. PMID:22511206

  16. Connexin-36 gap junctions regulate in vivo first- and second-phase insulin secretion dynamics and glucose tolerance in the conscious mouse.

    PubMed

    Head, W Steven; Orseth, Meredith L; Nunemaker, Craig S; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W; Benninger, Richard K P

    2012-07-01

    Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin release in isolated islets, however a role in vivo has not been shown. We test whether loss of gap-junction coupling disrupts plasma insulin oscillations and whether this impacts glucose tolerance. We characterized the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36(-/-)) mouse phenotype and performed hyperglycemic clamps with rapid sampling of insulin in Cx36(-/-) and control mice. Our results show that Cx36(-/-) mice are glucose intolerant, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. However, Cx36(-/-) mice exhibit reduced insulin pulse amplitudes and a reduction in first-phase insulin secretion. These changes are similarly found in isolated Cx36(-/-) islets. We conclude that Cx36 gap junctions regulate the in vivo dynamics of insulin secretion, which in turn is important for glucose homeostasis. Coordinated pulsatility of individual islets enhances the first-phase elevation and second-phase pulses of insulin. Because these dynamics are disrupted in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, dysregulation of gap-junction coupling could be an important factor in the development of this disease.

  17. Association between Advanced Glycation End Products and Impaired Fasting Glucose: Results from the SALIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Tom; Hellwig, Anne; Peßler, Annette; Hellwig, Michael; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Sugiri, Dorothea; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schulte, Thomas; Freund, Juliane; Roden, Michael; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schikowski, Tamara; Luckhaus, Christian; Krämer, Ursula; Henle, Thomas; Herder, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and related complications, whereas their role in the early deterioration of glycaemia is unknown. While previous studies used antibody-based methods to quantify AGEs, data from tandem mass spectrometry coupled liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS)-based measurements are limited to patients with known diabetes. Here, we used the LC-MS/MS method to test the hypothesis that plasma AGE levels are higher in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) than in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG). Secondary aims were to assess correlations of plasma AGEs with quantitative markers of glucose metabolism and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. This study included on 60 women with NFG or IFG (n = 30 each, mean age 74 years) from the German SALIA cohort. Plasma levels of free metabolites (3-deoxyfructose, 3-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentulose), two hydroimidazolones, oxidised adducts (carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine, methionine sulfoxide) and Nε-fructosyllysine were measured using LC-MS/MS. Plasma concentrations of all tested AGEs did not differ between the NFG and IFG groups (all p>0.05). Associations between plasma levels of AGEs and fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR as a measure of insulin resistance were weak (r between -0.2 and 0.2, all p>0.05). The association between 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolone with several proinflammatory biomarkers disappeared upon adjustment for multiple testing. In conclusion, plasma AGEs assessed by LC-MS/MS were neither increased in IFG nor associated with parameters of glucose metabolism and subclinical inflammation in our study. Thus, these data argue against strong effects of AGEs in the early stages of deterioration of glucose metabolism. PMID:26018950

  18. Effect of prickly pear (Opuntia robusta) on glucose- and lipid-metabolism in non-diabetics with hyperlipidemia--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Roswitha M; Kritz, Harald; Efthimiou, Yannis; Stomatopoulos, Jorgos; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2002-10-31

    Besides others pectin, a soluble fibre, has been reported to be effective in lowering cholesterol levels in both animals and man with hyperlipidemia as well as being able to slow carbohydrate absorption and hence reduce the postprandial rise in blood glucose and serum insulin in patients with type-II diabetes. Aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of prickly pear consumption on glucose- and lipid metabolism. In 24 non-diabetic, non-obese males (aged 37-55 years) suffering from primary isolated hypercholesterolemia (n = 12; group A) or combined hyperlipidemia (n = 12; group B) respectively, the influence of prickly pear pectin (Opuntia robusta)-intake on glucose- and lipid metabolism was examined. After an 8 week pre-running phase with a 7506 KJ step-I diet (phase I), 625 KJ were replaced by prickly pear edible pulp (250 g/day) for 8 further weeks (phase II). Prickly pear leads to a decrease of total cholesterol (12%), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (15%), apolipoprotein B (9%), triglycerides (12%), fibrinogen (11%), blood glucose (11%), insulin (11%) and uric acid (10%), while body weight, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and lipoprotein(a) remained unchanged. The hypocholesterolemic action of prickly pear may be partly explained by the fibre (pectin) content, but the hypoglycaemic actions (improvement of insulin sensitivity) in the non-obese, non-diabetic need further investigation to get more insights on the potential advantage of treating the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  20. A kinetics modeling study on the inhibition of glucose on cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Wang, Buyun; Xiao, Qunfang; Wu, Shan

    2015-08-01

    A simplified kinetics model was built to study the inhibition of glucose on cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum. Suitable reaction conditions were adopted to evaluate the model. The model was evaluated at different temperatures and further with various activated carbon additions as adsorbent for glucose. Investigation results revealed that the model could describe the hydrolysis kinetics of cellulose by cellulosome quite well. Glucose was found to be an inhibitor for cellulosome based on the kinetics analysis. Inhibition increased with the increase in temperature. Activated carbon as adsorbent could lower the inhibition. Parameters in the model were further discussed based on the experiment. The model might also be used to describe the strong inhibition of cellobiose on cellulosome. Saccharification of cellulose by both cellulosome and C. thermocellum could be enhanced efficiently by activated carbon addition.

  1. OCT Study of Optical Clearing of Muscle Tissue in vitro with 40% Glucose Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The technique of -optical clearing of biological tissues- is aimed at improving the quality of visualization of structures hidden deep in tissue. In this study, we measured the diffusion coefficient of glucose in bovine skeletal muscle tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vitro and determined changes that took place in the imaging contrast of muscle fibers, the optical depth of coherent probing, and detection under the influence of aqueous 40% solution of glucose. It was shown that, within 90 min, when the depth of coherent probing increased by 14%, the contrast of OCT images increased fourfold and the depth of coherent detection of structural elements of the tissue increased by 2.4 times. The diffusion coefficient of glucose in the muscle tissue was (2.98 ± 0.94) × 10-6 cm2/s.

  2. Let's prevent diabetes: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of an educational intervention in a multi-ethnic UK population with screen detected impaired glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Laura J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Williams, Sian; Goldby, Stephanie; Troughton, Jacqui; Yates, Thomas; Gray, Alastair; Davies, Melanie J

    2012-05-20

    The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a globally recognised health care priority, but there is a lack of rigorous research investigating optimal methods of translating diabetes prevention programmes, based on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, into routine primary care. The aim of the study is to establish whether a pragmatic structured education programme targeting lifestyle and behaviour change in conjunction with motivational maintenance via the telephone can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose regulation (a composite of impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired fasting glucose) identified through a validated risk score screening programme in primary care. Cluster randomised controlled trial undertaken at the level of primary care practices. Follow-up will be conducted at 12, 24 and 36 months. The primary outcome is the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, blood glucose levels, cardiovascular risk, the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The study consists of screening and intervention phases within 44 general practices coordinated from a single academic research centre. Those at high risk of impaired glucose regulation or type 2 diabetes are identified using a risk score and invited for screening using a 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test. Those with screen detected impaired glucose regulation will be invited to take part in the trial. Practices will be randomised to standard care or the intensive arm. Participants from intensive arm practices will receive a structured education programme with motivational maintenance via the telephone and annual refresher sessions. The study will run from 2009-2014. This study will provide new evidence surrounding the long-term effectiveness of a diabetes prevention programme conducted within routine primary care in the United Kingdom. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00677937.

  3. TDRSS telecommunications study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahn, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Providing an extension to parametric analysis of the telecommunications support capability of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), this phase considers candidate modulation waveforms which could meet the shuttle telecommunications requirements and also be compatible with the TDRSS single access S-band service. In addition, it considers the feasibility of modifying a single access S-band user transponder for operation with conventional STDN signals emanating from remotely located ground stations.

  4. [HbA1c is not enough in screening for impaired glucose metabolism. Glucose tolerance tests are also needed, as shown in Swedish prospective epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Margareta; Daka, Bledar; Larsson, Charlotte

    2015-09-29

    An HbA1c threshold of ≥ 42 mmol/mol has been proposed to diagnose prediabetes. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the proposed threshold for detection of individuals with prediabetes was examined in a study of 573 randomly selected individuals from Vara and Skövde. In addition, the utility of the FINDRISC questionnaire and of a fasting glucose test in combination with three short questions concerning BMI, heredity for type 2 diabetes and known hypertension was examined. Results from an oral glucose tolerance test were used as reference. The sensitivity of HbA1c and FINDRISC to detect individuals with IGT was 16 and 26 per cent respectively. Questions regarding BMI, heredity and hypertension together with a fasting glucose test yielded a sensitivity of 50%, but a lower specificity and positive predictive value. We conclude that HbA1c inefficiently detected individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and that oral glucose tolerance tests can still preferably be recommended.

  5. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7 days each, or vice versa. After 7 days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5) mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0) mg/dl; p < 0.001]. The proportion of time spent with glucose levels ≥70 to ≤180 mg/dl was significantly greater with luseogliflozin than with placebo [median (interquartile range) 83.2 (67.7-96.5)% vs 71.9 (46.9-83.3)%; p < 0.001] without inducing hypoglycaemia. The decrease in glucose levels was accompanied by reductions in serum insulin levels throughout the day. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Human Pilot Study of the Fluorescence Affinity Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dutt-Ballerstadt, Ralph; Evans, Colton; Pillai, Arun P.; Orzeck, Eric; Drabek, Rafal; Gowda, Ashok; McNichols, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective We report results of a pilot clinical study of a subcutaneous fluorescence affinity sensor (FAS) for continuous glucose monitoring conducted in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The device was assessed based on performance, safety, and comfort level under acute conditions (4 h). Research Design and Methods A second-generation FAS (BioTex Inc., Houston, TX) was subcutaneously implanted in the abdomens of 12 people with diabetes, and its acute performance to excursions in blood glucose was monitored over 4 h. After 30–60 min the subjects, who all had fasting blood glucose levels of less than 200 mg/dl, received a glucose bolus of 75 g/liter dextrose by oral administration. Capillary blood glucose samples were obtained from the finger tip. The FAS data were retrospectively evaluated by linear least squares regression analysis and by the Clarke error grid method. Comfort levels during insertion, operation, and sensor removal were scored by the subjects using an analog pain scale. Results After retrospective calibration of 17 sensors implanted in 12 subjects, error grid analysis showed 97% of the paired values in zones A and B and 1.5% in zones C and D, respectively. The mean absolute relative error between sensor signal and capillary blood glucose was 13% [±15% standard deviation (SD), 100–350 mg/dl] with an average correlation coefficient of 0.84 (±0.24 SD). The actual average “warm-up” time for the FAS readings, at which highest correlation with glucose readings was determined, was 65 (±32 SD) min. Mean time lag was 4 (±5 SD) min during the initial operational hours. Pain levels during insertion and operation were modest. Conclusions The in vivo performance of the FAS demonstrates feasibility of the fluorescence affinity technology to determine blood glucose excursions accurately and safely under acute dynamic conditions in humans with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Specific engineering challenges to sensor and instrumentation robustness

  7. [Life style interventions study on the effects of impaired glucose regulations in Shanghai urban communities].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianjun

    2011-05-01

    To access the effects of life style interventions on impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in Shanghai urban communities, China. Two communities were randomly cluster-sampled to be carried out epidemiological intervention trial. Totally, 232 subjects with IGR were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control group,sports intervention group, diet intervention group, and sports and diet intervention group with the physical examinations in the baseline and end of this study respectively. Tests for fasting blood glucose, OGTT, HbA1c, total cholesterol,etc. were done. Data statistical analysis was occupied in SPSS 16.0. Compared to subjects of control group,fasting blood glucose, OGTT, HbAlc,total cholesterol,BMI,waist hip ratio and blood pressures were significantly decreased among subjects with three interventions (P < 0.05). Triglyceride were significantly decreased among subjects with sports intervention and sports and diet intervention (P < 0.05). High density lipids was significantly increased among subjects with sports and diet intervention (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in 6 months cumulative incidence of diabetes mellitus between control group and interventions groups (8.6% vs. 0, Fisher' s exact P = 0.002), and the rate of transferring into normal blood glucose levels (fasting blood glucose < 5.6 mmol/L and 2 hours OGTT < 7.8 mmol/L) in control group was lower than those in three interventions group (3.4% vs. 8.6%, 14.0% and 16.9%, respectively) but only significant difference was observed between control group and sports and diet intervention group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI 1. 19-27. 64, P = 0.029). The life style interventions could decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, help their transferring into normal blood glucose, and improve diabetic measures for the IGR population in Shanghai urban communities.

  8. Direct Evidence of Acetaminophen Interference with Subcutaneous Glucose Sensing in Humans: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ananda; Veettil, Sona; Dyer, Roy; Peyser, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent advances in accuracy and reliability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices have focused renewed interest on the use of such technology for therapeutic dosing of insulin without the need for independent confirmatory blood glucose meter measurements. An important issue that remains is the susceptibility of CGM devices to erroneous readings in the presence of common pharmacologic interferences. We report on a new method of assessing CGM sensor error to pharmacologic interferences using the example of oral administration of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: We examined the responses of several different Food and Drug Administration–approved and commercially available CGM systems (Dexcom [San Diego, CA] Seven® Plus™, Medtronic Diabetes [Northridge, CA] Guardian®, and Dexcom G4® Platinum) to oral acetaminophen in 10 healthy volunteers without diabetes. Microdialysis catheters were placed in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue. Blood and microdialysate samples were collected periodically and analyzed for glucose and acetaminophen concentrations before and after oral ingestion of 1 g of acetaminophen. We compared the response of CGM sensors with the measured acetaminophen concentrations in the blood and interstitial fluid. Results: Although plasma glucose concentrations remained constant at approximately 90 mg/dL (approximately 5 mM) throughout the study, CGM glucose measurements varied between approximately 85 to 400 mg/dL (from approximately 5 to 22 mM) due to interference from the acetaminophen. The temporal profile of CGM interference followed acetaminophen concentrations measured in interstitial fluid (ISF). Conclusions: This is the first direct measurement of ISF concentrations of putative CGM interferences with simultaneous measurements of CGM performance in the presence of the interferences. The observed interference with glucose measurements in the tested CGM devices coincided temporally with appearance of

  9. Direct Evidence of Acetaminophen Interference with Subcutaneous Glucose Sensing in Humans: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ananda; Veettil, Sona; Dyer, Roy; Peyser, Thomas; Basu, Rita

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in accuracy and reliability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices have focused renewed interest on the use of such technology for therapeutic dosing of insulin without the need for independent confirmatory blood glucose meter measurements. An important issue that remains is the susceptibility of CGM devices to erroneous readings in the presence of common pharmacologic interferences. We report on a new method of assessing CGM sensor error to pharmacologic interferences using the example of oral administration of acetaminophen. We examined the responses of several different Food and Drug Administration-approved and commercially available CGM systems (Dexcom [San Diego, CA] Seven(®) Plus™, Medtronic Diabetes [Northridge, CA] Guardian(®), and Dexcom G4(®) Platinum) to oral acetaminophen in 10 healthy volunteers without diabetes. Microdialysis catheters were placed in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue. Blood and microdialysate samples were collected periodically and analyzed for glucose and acetaminophen concentrations before and after oral ingestion of 1 g of acetaminophen. We compared the response of CGM sensors with the measured acetaminophen concentrations in the blood and interstitial fluid. Although plasma glucose concentrations remained constant at approximately 90 mg/dL (approximately 5 mM) throughout the study, CGM glucose measurements varied between approximately 85 to 400 mg/dL (from approximately 5 to 22 mM) due to interference from the acetaminophen. The temporal profile of CGM interference followed acetaminophen concentrations measured in interstitial fluid (ISF). This is the first direct measurement of ISF concentrations of putative CGM interferences with simultaneous measurements of CGM performance in the presence of the interferences. The observed interference with glucose measurements in the tested CGM devices coincided temporally with appearance of acetaminophen in the ISF. The method applied here can be used to determine

  10. Studies of two phase flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.

    1994-01-01

    The development of instrumentation for the support of research in two-phase flow in simulated microgravity conditions was performed. The funds were expended in the development of a technique for characterizing the motion and size distribution of small liquid droplets dispersed in a flowing gas. Phenomena like this occur in both microgravity and normal earth gravity situations inside of conduits that are carrying liquid-vapor mixtures at high flow rates. Some effort to develop a conductance probe for the measurement of liquid film thickness was also expended.

  11. A Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Using a Proportional Integral Derivative with Double Phase Lead Controller Based on a New Nonlinear Model of Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Ilham Ben; Richard, Pierre-Yves; Lefebvre, Marie-Anne; Guilhem, Isabelle; Poirier, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Background Most closed-loop insulin delivery systems rely on model-based controllers to control the blood glucose (BG) level. Simple models of glucose metabolism, which allow easy design of the control law, are limited in their parametric identification from raw data. New control models and controllers issued from them are needed. Methods A proportional integral derivative with double phase lead controller was proposed. Its design was based on a linearization of a new nonlinear control model of the glucose–insulin system in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients validated with the University of Virginia/Padova T1DM metabolic simulator. A 36 h scenario, including six unannounced meals, was tested in nine virtual adults. A previous trial database has been used to compare the performance of our controller with their previous results. The scenario was repeated 25 times for each adult in order to take continuous glucose monitoring noise into account. The primary outcome was the time BG levels were in target (70–180 mg/dl). Results Blood glucose values were in the target range for 77% of the time and below 50 mg/dl and above 250 mg/dl for 0.8% and 0.3% of the time, respectively. The low blood glucose index and high blood glucose index were 1.65 and 3.33, respectively. Conclusion The linear controller presented, based on the linearization of a new easily identifiable nonlinear model, achieves good glucose control with low exposure to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:23759403

  12. Whole body glucose kinetics in type I diabetes studied with (6,6-/sup 2/H) and (U-/sup 13/C)-glucose and the artificial B-cell

    SciTech Connect

    Darmaun, D.; Cirillo, D.; Koziet, J.; Chauvet, D.; Young, V.R.; Robert, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Dynamic aspects of whole body glucose metabolism were assessed in ten young adult insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic men. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of (6,6-/sup 2/H)glucose and (U-/sup 13/C)glucose, endogenous production, tissue uptake, carbon recycling, and oxidation of glucose were measured in the postabsorptive state. These studies were undertaken after blood glucose had been maintained overnight at 5.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 10), and on another night at 10.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 4) or 15.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (n = 6). In the normoglycemic state, endogenous glucose production averaged 2.15 +/- 0.13 mg x kg-1 x min-1. This value, as well as the rate of glucose carbon recycling (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg x kg-1 x min-1) and glucose oxidation (1.52 +/- 0.16 mg x kg-1 x min-1) are comparable to those found in nondiabetic controls. In the hyperglycemic states at 10 or 15 mmol/L, endogenous glucose production was increased by 11% (P less than .01) and 60% (P less than .01) compared to the normoglycemic states, respectively. Glucose carbon recycling contributed only a small percentage to this variation in glucose production (15% at the 15 mmol/L glucose level). This suggests that if gluconeogenesis participates in the increased glucose output, it is not dependent on a greater systemic supply of three-carbon precursors. The increased rate of glucose production in the hyperglycemic state was quantitatively offset by a rise in urinary glucose excretion. Glucose tissue uptake, as well as glucose oxidation, did not vary between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic states.

  13. Age, BMI, and race are less important than random plasma glucose in identifying risk of glucose intolerance: the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study (SIGT 5).

    PubMed

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Caudle, Jane M; Irving, Jade M; Koch, David D; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    Age, BMI, and race/ethnicity are used in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines to prompt screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes, but cutoffs have not been evaluated rigorously. Random plasma glucose (RPG) was measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 1,139 individuals without known diabetes. Screening performance was assessed by logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). NIDDK/ADA indicators age >45 years and BMI >25 kg/m(2) provided significant detection of both diabetes and dysglycemia (both AROCs 0.63), but screening was better with continuous-variable models of age, BMI, and race and better still with models of age, BMI, race, sex, and family history (AROC 0.78 and 0.72). However, screening was even better with RPG alone (AROCs 0.81 and 0.72). RPG >125 mg/dl could be used to prompt further evaluation with an OGTT. Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good predictive utility.

  14. Isolation of two cell populations from yeast during high-level alcoholic fermentation that resemble quiescent and nonquiescent cells from the stationary phase on glucose.

    PubMed

    Benbadis, Laurent; Cot, Marlène; Rigoulet, Michel; Francois, Jean

    2009-12-01

    High-level production of bioethanol (140 g L(-1) in 45 h) in aerated fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be linked to the length of a production phase uncoupled to the growth. The induction of this phase was characterized by metabolic and morphologic changes reminiscent of those occurring in the stationary phase of growth on glucose. Global transcriptomic analysis of ethanol-stressed yeast cells in the uncoupling phase harboured features similar to those from stationary-phase cells on glucose. Two distinct cellular populations were isolated by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation in this uncoupling phase. The lower fraction was enriched by yeast cells that were mostly uniform in size and opalescent, containing a large amount of glycogen and trehalose, and exhibiting high respiratory activity. In contrast, the upper fraction was characterized by cells heterogeneous in size, with one to several small buds, which did not contain storage carbohydrates and which exhibited a poor respiratory competence while retaining a high relative glycolytic activity. These results are discussed in terms of a possible induction of a state similar to the quiescence state previously observed from yeast stationary-phase cultures, in response to ethanol toxicity, whose acquisition may be critical for performing high-level alcoholic fermentation.

  15. Acute effect of red meat and dairy on glucose and insulin: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kirsty M; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with some epidemiologic evidence, our previous research showed that a 4-wk diet that was high in low-fat dairy reduced insulin sensitivity compared with the effect of a diet that was high in red meat. We investigated whether a dairy meal would produce a greater insulin response than a carbohydrate-matched red meat meal would, which might account for the change in insulin sensitivity. One meal contained lean red meat, bread, and orange juice, and the other meal contained skim milk, low-fat yogurt, cheese, and bread. Meals were isoenergetic, equal in macronutrient profile, and consumed 1 wk apart. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured before and 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after meal consumption. Differences between meals were tested with the use of a repeated-measures ANOVA and paired sample t tests. Nineteen men and 24 women [mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 16.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30.0 ± 3.5] completed the study. Twenty-two participants had normal glucose tolerance, and 21 participants had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. The red meat meal resulted in a higher glucose response at 30 min after consumption (P < 0.001); however, the glucose total AUC was not different between meals (P = NS). The mean ± SEM incremental AUC (iAUC) for glucose was significantly higher after the dairy meal than after the red meat meal (2.23 ± 0.49 compared with 0.88 ± 0.57 mmol/L · 3 h, respectively; P = 0.004). The insulin total AUC and iAUC were not different between meals (iAUC: 159.65 ± 20.0 mU/L · 3 h for red meat compared with 167.49 ± 24.1 mU/L · 3 h for dairy; P = NS). Lean red meat and low-fat dairy produced a similar glycemic response. The higher glucose response 30 min after consumption of the red meat meal was likely attributable to differences in the glycemic load between orange juice and milk and yogurt. An insulinotropic effect of dairy was not observed. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as

  16. A prospective study of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in China

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Anand; Cui, Liufu; Sun, Lixia; Lu, Bing; Chen, Shuohua; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xiurong; Xie, Xiaobing; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. This is particularly relevant for China, where an extremely large population is growing, aging, and urbanizing. We thus conducted a prospective study to examine the prevalence and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, the rate at which fasting blood glucose rises, and the major modifiable risk factors associated with these outcomes in a large Chinese population from the Kailuan prospective study. A prospective cohort included 100,279 Chinese participants, aged 18 years or more, who had available information on fasting blood glucose concentrations at the start of the study (2006). Examination surveys were conducted every 2 years in 2008 and 2010. For the analyses of incident diabetes, we included 76,869 participants who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline and participants in the 2008 and/or 2010 follow-up. Diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7 mmol/L, self-reported history, or active treatment with insulin or any oral hypoglycemic agent. IFG was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L. During the 4-year study, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG rose from 6.6% to 7.7%, and 17.3% to 22.6%, respectively. There were 17,811 incident cases of IFG and 4867 incident cases of diabetes. The age-standardized incident rate of IFG and diabetes were 62.6/1000 person-years (51.2/1000 person-years in women and 73.8/1000 person-years in men) and 10.0/1000 person-years (7.8/1000 person-years in women and 12.1/1000 person-years in men), respectively. We observed steady increases in fasting blood glucose with body anthropometrics and in every defined category of body mass index, including in those traditionally considered to be well within the “normal” range. In this large longitudinal study of Chinese adults, we observed a high prevalence and

  17. Palmitate potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release: a study using 2-bromopalmitate.

    PubMed

    Parker, S M; Moore, P C; Johnson, L M; Poitout, V

    2003-10-01

    The mechanisms whereby fatty acids (FA) potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell are incompletely understood. In this study, the effects of palmitate on insulin secretion were investigated in isolated rat islets. Palmitate did not initiate insulin secretion at nonstimulatory glucose concentrations, but markedly stimulated insulin release at concentrations of glucose > or = 5.6 mmol/L. At concentrations of palmitate > or =0.5 mmol/L, the important determinant of the potency of the FA was its unbound concentration. At total concentrations < or = 0.5 mmol/L, both the total and unbound concentrations appeared important. Surprisingly, 2-bromopalmitate did not affect palmitate oxidation, but significantly diminished palmitate esterification into cellular lipids. Neither methyl palmitate, which is not activated into a long-chain acyl-CoA ester, nor 2-bromopalmitate affected glucose-stimulated insulin release. Further, 2-bromopalmitate partly inhibited the potentiating effect of palmitate. These results support the concept that FA potentiation of insulin release is mediated by FA-derived signals generated in the esterification pathway.

  18. Study of the effects of tissue reactions on the function of implanted glucose sensors.

    PubMed

    Dungel, Paul; Long, Nathan; Yu, Bazhang; Moussy, Yvonne; Moussy, Francis

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between tissue reactions to a subcutaneously implanted glucose sensor and the function of the sensor was evaluated over a period of 4-weeks using tubular, porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges implanted subcutaneously in rats. The PVA sponges were used as scaffolds in which the foreign body response could develop. Coil-type glucose sensors were then placed in the center of the PVA sponges and tested on day 3, and weekly thereafter. In the first approach, the sensors were placed in the sponges still implanted in the rats and tested. In vivo glucose sensor sensitivity peaked at day 7 and steadily decreased until day 35. In the second approach, the sensors were placed in the explanted sponges and then tested. This test showed no sensor function after day 7, indicating that functional blood vessels are critical in maintaining any function whatsoever. In both cases the sensors themselves were never implanted to eliminate any potential in vivo degradation of the sensors that could have affected the outcome of this study. Sensors were then tested in absence of sponges and found to be working properly with no change from preimplantation sensitivity. Once sensor testing was concluded, the PVA sponge/tissue samples were prepared for quantitative histological analysis. It was determined that the increase in collagen deposition within the sponge correlated with the decrease in sensor sensitivity. It was also observed that natural angiogenesis (peak at day 14) did not overcome the barrier to glucose diffusion created by the fibrous capsule.

  19. Prospective study on the role of glucose metabolism in breast cancer occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sieri, Sabina; Muti, Paola; Claudia, Agnoli; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Grioni, Sara; Abagnato, Carlo Alberto; Blandino, Giovanni; Contiero, Paolo; Schunemann, Holger J; Krogh, Vittorio

    2012-02-15

    High circulating glucose, insulin resistance and obesity appear to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC). We sought further insight into the relation of these variables to BC. We assessed associations of BC risk with serum fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and sex-binding hormone globulin (SHBG) in women recruited to the ORDET cohort who gave blood samples in 1987-1992. After a median 13.5 years of follow-up, 356 women developed BC. Four matched controls per case were selected by incidence density sampling, and rate ratios (RR) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Women in the highest glucose quartile had a significantly greater risk of BC than those in the lowest glucose quartile (RR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.14-2.32; p for trend of 0.003). The association was significant in pre and post menopausal women separately and in women diagnosed after 55 years. Women in the highest HOMA-IR quartile had higher BC risk than the lowest quartile (RR 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03-2.02). Significantly increased BC risk in women diagnosed after 55 years was also present in the highest HOMA-IR quartile; in the same group decreased BC risk was significantly associated with high SHBG. The results of this study add to the existing epidemiological evidence that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance increase BC risk. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  20. Frequency and risk of metabolic syndrome in prediabetics versus normal glucose tolerant subjects -- a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Shahid; Ahmed, Syed Danish Haseen; Jamali, Shah Nawaz; Imran, Muhammad; Haque, Muhammad Saiful; Qasim, Rashida

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency and risk of metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetics against normal glucose-tolerant subjects attending diabetes screening camps in an urban centre. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January to August, 2008, and comprised subjects recruited through diabetes screening camps. They were >30 years of age, without prior history of diabetes and were screened through fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical measurements were done. Frequency of different components and their constellation as metabolic syndrome were determined according to the Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. Relative risk was estimated to find the risk of metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetics versus normal glucose-tolerant subjects. The study sample comprised 80 subjects; 40(50%) normal glucose-tolerant in Group A and 40(50%) pre-diabetics in Group B. In Group A, there were 25(62.5%) men and 15(37.5%) women, while Group B had 22(55%) men and 18(45%) women. The mean age in Group A was 38.08±5.35 years, while in Group B it was 39.09±6.12 years. The frequency of various cardiovascular risk factors was higher in pre-diabetics (p< 0.05). Central obesity was the most prevalent risk factor (85%, CI: 75.74-96.06), followed by low levels of high density lipoprotein (82.5%, CI: 72.64-94.27), raised triglycerides (67.5%, CI: 55.35-82.01), hypertension (57.5%, CI: 44.68-72.82), and fasting plasma glucose >100mg/dl (42.5%, CI: 29.68-57.82). Metabolic syndrome was found in 23(57.5%) in Group B compared to 9(22.5%) Group B, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. Calculated relative risk indicated that Group B was 1.9 times more prone to be suffering from metabolic syndrome compared to Group A. Pre-diabetics were more prone to developing cardiovascular disorders than normal glucose-tolerant subjects.

  1. Dose-response study of sajabalssuk ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini on blood glucose in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or mild type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Shin, Su-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Previously we reported that an ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini lowered blood glucose in db/db mice. Here we report a preliminary study in which the blood glucose-lowering effects of two different doses of sajabalssuk ethanol extract (SBE), containing eupatilin and jaseocidin, were examined in hyperglycemic subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of 100-150 mg/dL. Subjects were randomized into four groups: negative control (2,000 mg of lactose /day), positive control (1,140 mg of pinitol/day), low-dose SBE (2,000 mg of SBE/day), and high-dose SBE (4,000 mg of SBE/day). After 8 weeks of supplementation, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly lowered in low-and high-dose SBE groups compared to the baseline values; high-dose SBE also resulted in significantly lower plasma free fatty acid levels and systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrated that supplementation of 2 g or 4 g of SBE daily can significantly reduce blood glucose in hyperglycemic subjects, although high-dose SBE seemed to be more effective than low-dose SBE for lowering plasma free fatty acid level and systolic blood pressure.

  2. Effect of insulin feedback on closed-loop glucose control: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jessica L; Sherr, Jennifer L; Cengiz, Eda; Carria, Lori; Roy, Anirban; Voskanyan, Gayane; Tamborlane, William V; Weinzimer, Stuart A

    2012-09-01

    Closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery systems utilizing proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers have demonstrated susceptibility to late postprandial hypoglycemia because of delays between insulin delivery and blood glucose (BG) response. An insulin feedback (IFB) modification to the PID algorithm has been introduced to mitigate this risk. We examined the effect of IFB on CL BG control. Using the Medtronic ePID CL system, four subjects were studied for 24 h on PID control and 24 h during a separate admission with the IFB modification (PID + IFB). Target glucose was 120 mg/dl; meals were served at 8:00 AM, 1:00 PM, and 6:00 PM and were identical for both admissions. No premeal manual boluses were given. Reference BG excursions, defined as incremental glucose rise from premeal to peak, and postprandial BG area under the curve (AUC; 0-5 h) were compared. Results are reported as mean ± standard deviation. The PID + IFB control resulted in higher mean BG levels compared with PID alone (153 ± 54 versus 133 ± 56 mg/dl; p < .0001). Postmeal BG excursions (114 ± 28 versus 114 ± 47 mg/dl) and AUCs (285 ± 102 versus 255 ± 129 mg/dl/h) were similar under both conditions. Total insulin delivery averaged 57 ± 20 U with PID versus 45 ± 13 U with PID + IFB (p = .18). Notably, eight hypoglycemic events (BG < 60 mg/dl) occurred during PID control versus none during PID + IFB. Addition of IFB to the PID controller markedly reduced the occurrence of hypoglycemia without increasing meal-related glucose excursions. Higher average BG levels may be attributable to differences in the determination of system gain (Kp) in this study. The prevention of postprandial hypoglycemia suggests that the PID + IFB algorithm may allow for lower target glucose selection and improved overall glycemic control. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Effect of Insulin Feedback on Closed-Loop Glucose Control: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jessica L.; Sherr, Jennifer L.; Cengiz, Eda; Carria, Lori; Roy, Anirban; Voskanyan, Gayane; Tamborlane, William V.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery systems utilizing proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers have demonstrated susceptibility to late postprandial hypoglycemia because of delays between insulin delivery and blood glucose (BG) response. An insulin feedback (IFB) modification to the PID algorithm has been introduced to mitigate this risk. We examined the effect of IFB on CL BG control. Methods Using the Medtronic ePID CL system, four subjects were studied for 24 h on PID control and 24 h during a separate admission with the IFB modification (PID + IFB). Target glucose was 120 mg/dl; meals were served at 8:00 AM, 1:00 PM, and 6:00 PM and were identical for both admissions. No premeal manual boluses were given. Reference BG excursions, defined as incremental glucose rise from premeal to peak, and postprandial BG area under the curve (AUC; 0–5 h) were compared. Results are reported as mean ± standard deviation. Results The PID + IFB control resulted in higher mean BG levels compared with PID alone (153 ± 54 versus 133 ± 56 mg/dl; p < .0001). Postmeal BG excursions (114 ± 28 versus 114 ± 47 mg/dl) and AUCs (285 ± 102 versus 255 ± 129 mg/dl/h) were similar under both conditions. Total insulin delivery averaged 57 ± 20 U with PID versus 45 ± 13 U with PID + IFB (p = .18). Notably, eight hypoglycemic events (BG < 60 mg/dl) occurred during PID control versus none during PID + IFB. Conclusions Addition of IFB to the PID controller markedly reduced the occurrence of hypoglycemia without increasing meal-related glucose excursions. Higher average BG levels may be attributable to differences in the determination of system gain (Kp) in this study. The prevention of postprandial hypoglycemia suggests that the PID + IFB algorithm may allow for lower target glucose selection and improved overall glycemic control. PMID:23063039

  4. Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Release: Parallel Perifusion Studies of Free and Hydrogel Encapsulated Human Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Peter; Tamayo-Garcia, Alejandro; Manzoli, Vita; Tomei, Alice A; Stabler, Cherie L

    2017-09-02

    To explore the effects immune-isolating encapsulation has on the insulin secretion of pancreatic islets and to improve our ability to quantitatively describe the glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) of pancreatic islets, we conducted dynamic perifusion experiments with isolated human islets. Free (unencapsulated) and hydrogel encapsulated islets were perifused, in parallel, using an automated multi-channel system that allows sample collection with high temporal resolution. Results indicated that free human islets secrete less insulin per unit mass or islet equivalent (IEQ) than murine islets and with a less pronounced first-phase peak. While small microcapsules (d ≈ 700 µm) caused only a slightly delayed and blunted first-phase insulin response compared to unencapsulated islets, larger capsules (d ≈ 1800 µm) completely blunted the first-phase peak and decreased the total amount of insulin released. Experimentally obtained insulin time-profiles were fitted with our complex insulin secretion computational model. This allowed further fine-tuning of the hormone-release parameters of this model, which was implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics to couple hormone secretion and nutrient consumption kinetics with diffusive and convective transport. The results of these GSIR experiments, which were also supported by computational modeling, indicate that larger capsules unavoidably lead to dampening of the first-phase insulin response and to a sustained-release type insulin secretion that can only slowly respond to changes in glucose concentration. Bioartificial pancreas type devices can provide long-term and physiologically desirable solutions only if immunoisolation and biocompatibility considerations are integrated with optimized nutrient diffusion and insulin release characteristics by design. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. EPR and UV spectral study of gamma-irradiated white and burned sugar, fructose and glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Georgieva, Elka

    2004-05-01

    The EPR and UV spectral properties of γ-irradiated white and burned sugar, fructose and glucose are studied with the accent on their suitability as dosimetric materials. It is shown that γ-irradiation of solid samples of white sugar and fructose yields stable EPR spectra whereas glucose signal remains time-dependent even 11 months later. Sugar and glucose exhibit linear EPR dose response in the region 0.44-21 kGy and fructose only up to ca. 10 kGy. The relative radiation sensitivity obtained for sugar and fructose is up to 10 kGy and slightly lower for glucose. Burned saccharides provide 2-3 orders of magnitude lower EPR radiation sensitivity making them not suitable for the proposed designation. According to the UV spectra water solutions of γ-irradiated solid white saccharides show well pronounced absorption bands at 267 and 286 nm for sugar and fructose with time-dependent intensities reaching steady values ca. 11 days after dissolution. The intensities of these absorption bands are in linear relation with the absorbed dose of γ-radiation. Glucose shows low sensitively because irradiation with 5.5 kGy yields only a shoulder at about 260-280 nm with decreasing to ca. 40% intensity in the first few days after dissolution. Excellent correlation between the intensities of the EPR- and UV-absorbed dose response is found for sugar and fructose in the region 0.44-10 kGy. This opens new possibilities for independent calibration the EPR dose response. Finally, the comparison suggests sugar as the best, universal material for EPR- and/or UV-dosimetry in the region 0.44-160 kGy.

  6. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

    PubMed Central

    Mokta, Jitender; Kumar, Subash; Ganju, Neeraj; Mokta, Kiran; Panda, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Swatantra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women) with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]), and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5%) or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%). A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38%) had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38%) had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT) and 60 (24%) had diabetes; 48 (19.2%) were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8%) had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT) is

  7. Effect of a high glucose diet on insulin binding and insulin action in rat adipocytes. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Oka, Y; Akanuma, Y; Kasuga, M; Kosaka, K

    1980-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms whereby changes in dietary composition affect the action of insulin on glucose metabolism, insulin binding and glucose uptake and oxidation have been studied in epididymal fat pad adipocytes from rats fed high glucose diets for 5 and 10 days. After 5 days, insulin binding was increased, the mainly to an increased number of receptors (3.4 X 10(5) vs. 2.4 X 10(5) sites per cell) in spite of increased plasma insulin levels (3.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.1 microgram/l; P < 0.05). The maximal response of glucose oxidation to insulin was increased (925 +/- 55 vs. 510 +/- 58 n moles/2 X 10(5) cells/2h; P < 0.01) and the dose-response curve of glucose uptake was shifted to the left. After 10 days, receptor number decreased to the control level and the effect of insulin on glucose uptake and oxidation (% basal) were similar to controls. Thus, in the early stage of high glucose feeding, insulin receptor number, and insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake, and insulin responsiveness of glucose oxidation were increased.

  8. Fasting Glucose and the Risk of Depressive Symptoms: Instrumental-Variable Regression in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Pitkänen, Niina; Lipsanen, Jari; Tukiainen, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2017-08-04

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms. Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose. Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.

  9. Effect of an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Sedentary Men: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    GREENWALD, SAMANTHA; SEGER, EDWARD; NICHOLS, DAVID; RAY, ANDREW D.; RIDEOUT, TODD C.; GOSSELIN, LUC E.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercises, 15 repetitions per exercise with 30 seconds rest between each exercise); or 3) high-intensity interval running (10 one-minute intervals at a workload corresponding to 90% VO2max interspersed with one-minute active recovery periods). Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (0 minutes), and 60 and 120 minutes after glucose ingestion. Both kettlebell and high-intensity interval running exercise significantly lowered blood glucose 60 minutes after glucose ingestion compared with control. However, there was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two exercise conditions at any time point. In addition, there were no significant differences in insulin concentration between high intensity interval running, kettlebell, and control conditions at all time points. Results indicate that an acute bout of kettlebell exercise is as effective as high intensity interval running at improving glucose tolerance in sedentary young men. PMID:27766136

  10. Effect of an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Sedentary Men: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Samantha; Seger, Edward; Nichols, David; Ray, Andrew D; Rideout, Todd C; Gosselin, Luc E

    2016-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercises, 15 repetitions per exercise with 30 seconds rest between each exercise); or 3) high-intensity interval running (10 one-minute intervals at a workload corresponding to 90% VO2max interspersed with one-minute active recovery periods). Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (0 minutes), and 60 and 120 minutes after glucose ingestion. Both kettlebell and high-intensity interval running exercise significantly lowered blood glucose 60 minutes after glucose ingestion compared with control. However, there was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two exercise conditions at any time point. In addition, there were no significant differences in insulin concentration between high intensity interval running, kettlebell, and control conditions at all time points. Results indicate that an acute bout of kettlebell exercise is as effective as high intensity interval running at improving glucose tolerance in sedentary young men.

  11. Response of incretins (GIP and GLP-1) to an oral glucose load in female and male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Ikawa, Takashi; Akagami, Takafumi; Murai, Kazuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the blood glucose profile and the response of incretins in healthy young subjects by the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We first reported that plasma glucose and GIP levels were higher in males during the early phase of the OGTT.

  12. DFTr optimization and DFTr-MD studies of glucose, ten explicit water molecules enclosed by an implicit solvent, COSMO

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DFTr optimization studies are carried out on alpha/beta-glucose surrounded by ten explicit water molecules and the glucose/water super-molecule completely enclosed by an implicit solvation model, COSMO. Twenty one starting configurations of the explicit waters were first optimized empirically with t...

  13. School Safety Study: Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Alka

    This report summarizes findings from a study concerned with Arizona school safety. The survey component highlights safety-related policy information across 300 schools; the interview component highlights school-safety perceptions of 64 staff across 16 schools. Various policies and programs that respond to internal and external threats to school…

  14. Nursing Predictors Study, Phase One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Janet H.; Fischer, Susanne E.

    In an effort to identify the minimum qualifications necessary for an entering student to succeed in a selective admission Nursing Program at Saint Petersburg Junior College in Florida, a study was conducted of 424 generic nursing students who started the program in January 1988, August 1988, January 1989, and August 1989. A successful student was…

  15. Nursing Predictors Study, Phase One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Janet H.; Fischer, Susanne E.

    In an effort to identify the minimum qualifications necessary for an entering student to succeed in a selective admission Nursing Program at Saint Petersburg Junior College in Florida, a study was conducted of 424 generic nursing students who started the program in January 1988, August 1988, January 1989, and August 1989. A successful student was…

  16. Effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance, increased risk of type II diabetes, and cardiovascular pathology. Recently, investigators hypothesized that decreased vagus nerve activity may be the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome including obesity, elevated glucose levels, and high blood pressure. Methods In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we compared the efficacy of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) and sham taVNS on patients with IGT. 72 participants with IGT were single-blinded and were randomly allocated by computer-generated envelope to either taVNS or sham taVNS treatment groups. In addition, 30 IGT adults were recruited as a control population and not assigned treatment so as to monitor the natural fluctuation of glucose tolerance in IGT patients. All treatments were self-administered by the patients at home after training at the hospital. Patients were instructed to fill in a patient diary booklet each day to describe any side effects after each treatment. The treatment period was 12 weeks in duration. Baseline comparison between treatment and control group showed no difference in weight, BMI, or measures of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG), or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Results 100 participants completed the study and were included in data analysis. Two female patients (one in the taVNS group, one in the sham taVNS group) dropped out of the study due to stimulation-evoked dizziness. The symptoms were relieved after stopping treatment. Compared with sham taVNS, taVNS significantly reduced the two-hour glucose tolerance (F(2) = 5.79, p = 0.004). In addition, we found that taVNS significantly decreased (F(1) = 4.21, p = 0.044) systolic blood pressure over time compared with sham taVNS. Compared with the no-treatment control group, patients

  17. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 3.0x10-3). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10-9). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits

  18. Altered cerebral glucose metabolism in an animal model of diabetes insipidus: a micro-PET study.

    PubMed

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Burlet, Arlette; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Boisgard, Raphaël; Coulon, Christine; Paris, Sophie; Marie, Yannick; Donadieu, Jean; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Ribeiro, Maria-Joao

    2007-07-16

    The Brattleboro rat is an animal model of genetically induced central diabetes insipidus. These rats show cognitive and behavioral disorders, but no neurodegenerative disease has been observed. We studied brain glucose uptake, a marker of neuronal activity, in 6 Brattleboro rats, in comparison with 6 matched Long-Evans (LE) control rats. A group of 3 Brattleboro rats and 3 Long-Evans rats was studied in vivo and another group of animals was studied ex vivo. In vivo studies were performed using fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18 ((18)F-FDG) and a dedicated small-animal PET device. At 30 min and 60 min p.i., (18)F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellum of Brattleboro rats than in LE rats when measured by PET in vivo (p<0.05), but only a trend towards higher values was found ex vivo. Our results show for the first time that brain glucose metabolism is modified in Brattleboro rats. This altered brain glucose metabolism in Brattleboro rats may be related to the observed cognitive and behavioral disorders. Functional analyses of brain metabolism are promising to investigate cognitive behavioral disturbances observed in Brattleboro rats and their link to diabetes insipidus.

  19. Betaxolol and glucose-insulin relationships: studies in normal subjects taking glibenclamide or metformin.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A J; Davies, I B; Warrington, S J

    1990-01-01

    1. The potential interaction between selective beta 1-adrenoceptor blockers and sulphonylureas or biguanides was studied by comparing the beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist betaxolol with placebo in 12 normal subjects taking glibenclamide or metformin in a single-blind crossover group study. 2. After a 4 day run-in period on no treatment, six subjects took glibenclamide 2.5 mg twice daily, and six subjects took metformin 850 mg twice daily from day 5 to day 19. All subjects took betaxolol 20 mg daily from day 10 to day 13, and placebo from day 5 to day 10 and from day 13 to day 19. 3. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured fasting and 60 min after a standard breakfast for 3 successive days during each study treatment; plasma potassium, sodium and betaxolol concentrations were also measured. 4. Fasting glucose, insulin and potassium concentrations did not differ significantly between betaxolol and placebo treatment periods in either glibenclamide- or metformin-treated groups. Post-prandial glucose and insulin concentrations were lower and higher, respectively, relative to fasting concentrations but there was no significant difference between any of the treatment periods. Glibenclamide produced significant increases in insulin concentrations compared with drug-free periods (P less than 0.01). Plasma potassium and sodium concentrations were not affected by any of the treatments. 5. Plasma betaxolol concentrations were adequate for beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade. 6. This study suggests that selective beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade with betaxolol does not change fasting or post-prandial glucose-insulin relationships during simultaneous treatment with either the sulphonylurea glibenclamide or the biguanide metformin. PMID:2125460

  20. Prevalence of diabetes in Catalonia (Spain): an oral glucose tolerance test-based population study.

    PubMed

    Castell, C; Tresserras, R; Serra, J; Goday, A; Lloveras, G; Salleras, L

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult population of Catalonia and study their association with obesity, central obesity, hypertension and smoking habit. A random sample of 3839 subjects aged 30-89 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 2214 subjects underwent a health examination with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 1625 were interviewed by phone. Diabetes prevalence (known and unknown) in the 30-89-year-old population was 10.3%, (95% CI: 9.1-11.6). In this age group, the prevalence rates of known diabetes, unknown diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were 6.4, 3.9 and 11.9% in men and 6.9, 3.4 and 11.9% in women. The age adjusted prevalence to the world population for the 30-64-year-old age group was 6.1% (7.1% in men and 5.2% in women).The factors significantly associated with diabetes were age, obesity, hypertension and family history of diabetes. The high ratio of previously known diabetic cases to newly discovered ones, specially in the oldest age group, suggests good levels of awareness and medical services. The prevalence in Catalonia is similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries.

  1. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Sohrab, Golbon; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moslehi, Nazanin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-07-01

    Data available on the effect of quality (glycemic index [GI]) and quantity (glycemic load [GL]) of carbohydrates on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary GI, GL, and CVD risk factors among Tehranian adults, the participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This population- based cross-sectional study was conducted on 2457 subjects (46% men and 54% women), aged 19 to 84 years. Dietary GI and GL were measured using a validated 168- item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured. The mean intakes of GI and GL were 68.3 and 244.8, respectively. Rice (26.6%) and bread (19.0%) were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL, respectively. Higher dietary GI and GL were associated with high intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, refined grain, fruits, simple sugar, snack, and desserts. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary variables, a higher dietary GI was positively associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations among obese subjects. Dietary GL was positively associated with fasting and 2-h blood glucose among nonobese subjects, after adjustment for confounders.   Dietary GI and GL were associated with a few CVD risk factors, and body mass index levels may modulate these associations.

  2. Density Functional Theory (DFT) Study of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) Methacrylic Acid (MAA) with D-Glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wungu, T. D. K.; Marsha, S. E.; Widayani; Suprijadi

    2017-07-01

    In order to find an alternative biosensor material which enables to detect the glucose level, therefore in this study, the interaction between Methacrylic Acid (MAA) based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) with D-Glucose is investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The aim of this study is to determine whether a molecule of the MAA can be functioned as a bio-sensing of glucose. In this calculation, the Gaussian 09 with B3LYP and 631+G(d) basis sets is used to calculate all electronic properties. It is found that the interaction between a molecule of MAA and a molecule of D-Glucose was observed through the shortened distance between the two molecules. The binding energy of MAA/D-glucose and the Mulliken population analysis are investigated for checking possible interaction. From analysis, the MAA based MIP can be used as a bio-sensing material.

  3. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Security Research Center Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase I Kelly R. Buck Defense Personnel Security Research Center Andrée E. Rose Northrop Grumman...Mission Systems Technical Report 05-1 November 2004 Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase I Kelly R...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  4. Laser Studies of Gas Phase Radical Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum , was prepared according to the published procedure [6]. This fungal enzyme had a specific activity of 0.023 IUmg1, and was estimated to...Dist-lbitionj Avdielbiity Codes jAvail atidjor Dist 6a A-I . p -1- Laser Studies of Gas Phase Radical Reactions G. Hancock Physical Chemistry...some additional experiments concerning the formation of carbene radicals in liquid phase enzyme cleavage studies are described. Keywords Laser

  5. Glucose Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  6. Medial temporal and prefrontal lobe activation during verbal encoding following glucose ingestion in schizophrenia: A pilot fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Stone, William S; Thermenos, Heidi W; Tarbox, Sarah I; Poldrack, Russell A; Seidman, Larry J

    2005-01-01

    Verbal declarative memory is one of the most reliably impaired cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Important issues are whether the problem is reversible, and which brain regions underlie improvement. We showed previously that glucose administration improved declarative memory in patients with schizophrenia, and sought in this pilot study to identify whether glucose affects the location or degree of activation of brain regions involved in a verbal encoding task. Seven clinically stable and medicated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, who showed deficits on a clinical test of memory, participated in the study. Subjects served as their own controls in a double-blind, crossover protocol that consisted of two sessions about a week apart. In each session, subjects ingested a beverage flavored with lemonade that contained 50 g of glucose on one occasion, and saccharin on the other. Blood glucose was measured before and 15, 50, and 75 min after ingestion. After ingesting the beverage, they performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed significantly greater activation of the left parahippocampus during novel sentence encoding in the glucose condition, compared to the saccharin condition, despite no change in memory performance. A trend towards greater activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (p<.07) was also evident in the glucose condition. These pilot findings emphasize the sensitivity of both the medial temporal and prefrontal regions to effects of glucose administration during encoding, and are consistent with the hypothesis that these regions also participate in declarative memory improvements following glucose administration.

  7. Blood glucose self-monitoring in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of patients' perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret; Lawton, Julia

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is controversial in the management of type 2 diabetes. Some research suggests that self-monitoring improves glycaemic control, whereas other research is sceptical about its value for people with type 2 diabetes who are not on insulin. Although blood glucose meters are widely available and used by this group, patients' own views are absent from the debate. AIM: To explore the pros and cons of glucose monitoring from the patients' perspectives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative repeat-interview study. SETTING: Patients were recruited from 16 general practices and three hospital clinics within four local healthcare cooperatives in Lothian, Scotland. METHOD: Interview data from 40 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the previous 6 months were analysed using thematic analysis informed by grounded theory. We report findings from round 1 and round 2 interviews. RESULTS: Glucose monitoring can heighten patients' awareness of the impact of lifestyle; for example, dietary choices, on blood glucose levels. Glucose monitoring amplifies a sense of 'success' or 'failure' about self-management, often resulting in anxiety and self-blame if glucose readings remain consistently high. Moreover, monitoring can negatively effect patients' self-management when readings are counter-intuitive. CONCLUSION: Our analysis highlights the importance of understanding the meanings that newly diagnosed patients attach to glucose self-monitoring. To maximise the positive effects of self-monitoring, health professionals should ensure that patients understand the purpose of monitoring and should clarify with patients how readings should be interpreted. PMID:15006123

  8. Effects of pioglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bone, Henry G; Lindsay, Robert; McClung, Michael R; Perez, Alfonso T; Raanan, Marsha G; Spanheimer, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Meta-analyses of clinical studies have suggested an increased incidence of peripheral fractures in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking pioglitazone. The mechanism behind this apparent increase is unknown. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover. Twenty-five sites (in the United States) enrolled participants in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Postmenopausal women (n = 156) with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in the study. The intervention consisted of pioglitazone 30 mg/d (n = 78) or placebo (n = 78), increased to 45 mg/d after 1 month, for 12 months of treatment total, followed by 6 months of washout/follow-up. Percentage changes from baseline to month 12 and from month 12 to month18 in BMD in total proximal femur (primary end point), total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and radius were measured. Least squares mean changes from baseline to month 12 in total proximal femur BMD were -0.69% for pioglitazone and -0.14% for placebo (P = .170). No statistically significant between-group differences were observed for any BMD or bone remodeling marker end point. We observed improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. In addition, pioglitazone appeared to increase body fat, which may affect bone density measurements, especially in the lumbar spine. One pioglitazone-treated and three placebo-treated women experienced confirmed fractures. Over 18 months, one pioglitazone-treated (1.3%) and eight placebo-treated women (10.3%) developed overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pattern and incidence of adverse events with pioglitazone were consistent with clinical experience with thiazolidinediones. Maximal-dose pioglitazone had no effects on BMD or bone turnover, while improving glycemic control as expected, in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

  9. Preliminary study of brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ling; Fu, Chang; Xuan, Ang; Shi, Da-Peng; Gao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-05

    Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases), and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases). The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292). The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  10. Diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and metabolic biomarkers in individuals with normal glucose tolerance are inversely associated with lung function: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Hickson, DeMarc A; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Liu, Jiankang; Petrini, Marcy F; Harrison, Kimystian; White, Wendy B; Sarpong, Daniel F

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes control and diabetes duration, and metabolic biomarkers in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) are inversely associated with spirometry-measured lung function. We conducted a cross-sectional observational cohort study that included nonsmoking African American adults (n = 2,945; mean age = 52.5 ± 12.6 years; 69.2% female), who were free of cardiovascular disease, from the Jackson Heart Study. The interventions were diabetes, metabolic biomarkers and lung function. We measured the associations of glycemia with forced expiratory volume (FEV) in 1 s, FEV in 6 s, and vital capacity. Multivariable adjusted mean lung function values were lower among adults with diabetes and IGT (in women only, but not after adjustment for waist circumference) than adults with NGT. Among adults with diabetes, no associations were observed between lung function and diabetes control or duration. In women with NGT, lower lung function was consistently associated with higher glucose levels and less consistently with higher insulin levels and insulin resistance. Lower lung function was consistently associated with higher insulin levels and insulin resistance and less consistently associated with insulin and hemoglobin A1c in men with NGT. Overall, our findings generally support the hypothesis that diabetes, IGT, and increased levels of metabolic biomarkers in individuals with NGT are inversely associated with lung function in African Americans, independent of adiposity.

  11. Sensitive determination of glucose in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium by high-performance liquid chromatography with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivatization: application to gluconeogenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Wang, Fan; Shu, Nan; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Xiange; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    A new pre-column derivative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of d-glucose with 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (3-OMG) as the internal standard was developed and validated in order to study the gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. Samples were derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methy-5-pyrazolone at 70°C for 50 min. Glucose and 3-OMG were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a YMC-Triart C18 column, with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 20 mm ammonium acetate solution containing 0.09% tri-ethylamine at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluate were detected using a UV detector at 250 nm. The assay was linear over the range 0.39-25 μm (R(2) = 0.9997, n = 5) and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.39 μm (0.070 mg/mL). Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were <15% and within ±3%, respectively. After validation, the HPLC method was applied to investigate the gluconeogenesis in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) cultured HepG2 cells. Glucose concentration was determined to be about 1-2.5 μm in this gluconeogenesis assay. In conclusion, this method has been shown to determine small amounts of glucose in DMEM successfully, with lower limit of quantitation and better sensitivity when compared with common commercial glucose assay kits.

  12. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  13. Two phase detonation studies conducted in 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A report is presented describing the research conducted on five phases: (1) ignition of fuel drops by a shock wave and passage of a shock wave over a burning drop, (2) the energy release pattern of a two-phase detonation with controlled drop sizes, (3) the attenuation of shock and detonation waves passing over an acoustic liner, (4) experimental and theoretical studies of film detonations, and (5) a simplified analytical model of a rotating two-phase detonation wave in a rocket motor.

  14. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  15. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  16. Risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

    PubMed

    Barr, Elizabeth L M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Welborn, Timothy A; Jolley, Damien; Magliano, Dianna J; Dunstan, David W; Cameron, Adrian J; Dwyer, Terry; Taylor, Hugh R; Tonkin, Andrew M; Wong, Tien Y; McNeil, John; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2007-07-10

    Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. The relationship between milder elevations of blood glucose and mortality is less clear. This study investigated whether impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as diabetes mellitus, increase the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. In 1999 to 2000, glucose tolerance status was determined in 10,428 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). After a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 298 deaths occurred (88 CVD deaths). Compared with those with normal glucose tolerance, the adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for known diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were 2.3 (1.6 to 3.2) and 1.3 (0.9 to 2.0), respectively. The risk of death was also increased in those with impaired fasting glucose (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) and impaired glucose tolerance (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0). Sixty-five percent of all those who died of CVD had known diabetes mellitus, newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. Known diabetes mellitus (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7) and impaired fasting glucose (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) were independent predictors for CVD mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and other traditional CVD risk factors, but impaired glucose tolerance was not (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.2). This study emphasizes the strong association between abnormal glucose metabolism and mortality, and it suggests that this condition contributes to a large number of CVD deaths in the general population. CVD prevention may be warranted in people with all categories of abnormal glucose metabolism.

  17. Cyclic voltammetry at TCNQ and TTF-TCNQ modified platinum electrodes: A study of the glucose oxidase/glucose and galactose oxidase/galactose systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, P.D.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the synthetic metal TTF-TCNQ can be used as an electrode material for the oxidation of enzymes containing the prosthetic group flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This direct electron transfer (direct in the sense that oxygen is not a mediator) between reduced enzyme and electrode, a process which does not occur to any measurable extent at a typical metal electrode, is not very well understood. In the present work, electron transfer between reduced glucose oxidase and TTF-TCNQ is investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and it is also shown that TCNQ itself can mediate this electron transfer between the enzyme and a platinum electrode. In addition to the glucose oxidase studies, cyclic voltammetric experiments have been performed on the galactose oxidase system, which contains a copper redox center rather than FAD. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the catalytic ability of TTF-TCNQ in enzyme-based electrochemical sensors is quite general. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  19. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders.

  20. Effects of some drugs on human erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Akkemik, Ebru; Budak, Harun; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    Inhibitory effects of some drugs on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the erythrocytes of human have been investigated. For this purpose, at the beginning, erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was purified 2256 times in a yield of 44.22% by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and 2', 5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel. Temperature of +4°C was maintained during the purification process. Enzyme activity was determined with the Beutler method by using a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. This method was utilized for all kinetic studies. Ketotifen, dacarbazine, thiocolchicoside, meloxicam, methotrexate, furosemide, olanzapine, methylprednizolone acetate, paricalcitol, ritodrine hydrochloride, and gadobenate-dimeglumine were used as drugs. All the drugs indicated the inhibitory effects on the enzyme. Ki constants for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found by means of Lineweaver-Burk graphs. While methylprednizolone acetate showed competitive inhibition, the others displayed non-competitive inhibition. In addition, IC(50) values of the drugs were determined by plotting Activity% vs [I].

  1. Glucose transformation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in acidic ionic liquid: A quantum mechanical study.

    PubMed

    Arifin; Puripat, Maneeporn; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Parasuk, Vudhichai; Irle, Stephan

    2016-01-30

    Isomerization and transformation of glucose and fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in both ionic liquids (ILs) and water has been studied by the reference interaction site model self-consistent field spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD) method coupled with ab initio electronic structure theory, namely coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple excitation (CCSD(T)). Glucose isomerization to fructose has been investigated via cyclic and open chain mechanisms. In water, the calculations support the cyclic mechanism of glucose isomerization; with the predicted activation free energy is 23.8 kcal mol(-1) at experimental condition. Conversely, open ring mechanism is more favorable in ILs with the energy barrier is 32.4 kcal mol(-1) . Moreover, the transformation of fructose into HMF via cyclic mechanism is reasonable; the calculated activation barriers are 16.0 and 21.5 kcal mol(-1) in aqueous and ILs solutions, respectively. The solvent effects of ILs could be explained by the decomposition of free energies and radial distribution functions of solute-solvent that are produced by RISM-SCF-SEDD.

  2. Inflammatory Mediators and Glucose in Pregnancy: Results from a Subset of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Lowe, William L.; Dyer, Alan R.; McDade, Thomas W.; McIntyre, H. David

    2010-01-01

    Context: Inflammatory mediators are associated with type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is unknown whether there are associations with glucose in pregnant women with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose levels and neonatal size in a subset of participants in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. Design: Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 32 wk gestation, and levels of C-peptide, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and resistin were measured in fasting serum samples. Associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose and with birth size were assessed using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting C-peptide, and other potential confounders. Results: Mean levels of adiponectin declined, and PAI-1 and CRP increased across increasing levels of maternal glucose, BMI, and C-peptide. For example, for fasting plasma glucose less than 75 mg/dl and fasting plasma glucose of 90 mg/dl or greater, adiponectin was 22.5 and 17.4 μg/ml and PAI-1 was 30.9 and 34.2 ng/ml, respectively. Associations with 1- and 2-h plasma glucose remained significant for adiponectin (P < 0.001), PAI-1 (P < 0.05), and CRP (P < 0.01) after adjustment for BMI and C-peptide. Adiponectin and CRP were inversely associated with birth weight, sum of skinfolds and percent body fat, and PAI-1 with sum of skinfolds (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for confounders. Resistin was not associated with 1- or 2-h glucose or birth size. Conclusion: Levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with levels of maternal glucose in pregnant women without overt diabetes. PMID:20843942

  3. Effect of different glucose concentrations on proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Francesca; Francesca, Guidi; Magherini, Francesca; Francesca, Magherini; Gamberi, Tania; Tania, Gamberi; Borro, Marina; Marina, Borro; Simmaco, Maurizio; Maurizio, Simmaco; Modesti, Alessandra; Alessandra, Modesti

    2010-07-01

    We performed a proteomic study to understand how Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts its metabolism during the exponential growth on three different concentrations of glucose; this information will be necessary to understand yeast carbon metabolism in different environments. We induced a natural diauxic shift by growing yeast cells in glucose restriction thus having a fast and complete glucose exhaustion. We noticed differential expressions of groups of proteins. Cells in high glucose have a decreased growth rate during the initial phase of fermentation; in glucose restriction and in high glucose we found an over-expression of a protein (Peroxiredoxin) involved in protection against oxidative stress insult. The information obtained in our study validates the application of a proteomic approach for the identification of the molecular bases of environmental variations such as fermentation in high glucose and during a naturally induced diauxic shift.

  4. Fasting Glucose Changes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Compared To Obese Controls: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Asma; Lteif, Aida N.; Kumar, Seema; Simmons, Patricia S.; Chang, Alice Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare changes in fasting glucose among adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to obese adolescents without PCOS. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 310 adolescents with PCOS and 250 obese adolescents, (ages 13–18 years) seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, from 1996–2012. Included for analysis were 98 adolescents with PCOS and 150 obese adolescents who had 2 or more fasting glucose measurements separated by at least 6 months. Adolescents with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes were excluded. Multivariate models were used to assess predictors of change in fasting glucose. Results At diagnosis, adolescents with PCOS had lower body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) and older age than obese adolescents (P<.001). Adolescents with PCOS had shorter follow up (years) (P=.02). Baseline fasting glucose (mg/dl) was not different between groups. Mean change in fasting glucose (mg/dl/year) was 2.4± 9.4 mg/dl/year for PCOS and 2.2±6.2 mg/dl/year for obese adolescents (P=.83). Significant predictors for change in fasting glucose were BMI and fasting glucose at diagnosis (P<.01). Within the PCOS cohort, BMI was a significant predictor for development of IFG (P=.003). Prevalence of hypertension (HTN) increased in the PCOS cohort from baseline to follow up (P=.02). PCOS and BMI were significantly associated with development of HTN in the entire cohort. Conclusions Adolescent girls with PCOS do not show a significant change in fasting glucose or an increased risk for the development of IFG compared to obese adolescents. BMI, not PCOS status, was the strongest predictor for changes in fasting glucose and development of IFG over time. PMID:26238569

  5. Postprandial glucose fluxes and insulin sensitivity during exercise: a study in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michele; Hinshaw, Ling; Mallad, Ashwini; Dalla Man, Chiara; Sparacino, Giovanni; Johnson, Matthew; Carter, Rickey; Basu, Rita; Kudva, Yogish; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Ananda

    2013-08-15

    Quantifying the effect size of acute exercise on insulin sensitivity (SI(exercise)) and simultaneous measurement of glucose disappearance (R(d)), endogenous glucose production (EGP), and meal glucose appearance in the postprandial state has not been developed in humans. To do so, we studied 12 healthy subjects [5 men, age 37.1 ± 3.1 yr, body mass index 24.1 ± 1.1 kg/m², fat-free mass (FFM) 50.9 ± 3.9 kg] during moderate exercise at 50% V(O₂max) for 75 min, 120-195 min after a triple-tracer mixed meal consumed at time 0. Tracer infusion rates were adjusted to achieve constant tracer-to-tracee ratio and minimize non-steady-state errors. Glucose turnover was estimated by accounting for the nonstationary kinetics introduced by exercise. Insulin sensitivity index was calculated in each subject both in the absence [time (t) = 0-120 min, SI(rest)] and presence (t = 0-360 min, SI(exercise)) of physical activity. EGP at t = 0 min (13.4 ± 1.1 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) fell at t = 120 min (2.4 ± 0.4 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) and then rapidly rose almost eightfold at t = 180 min (18.2 ± 2.6 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) before gradually falling at t = 360 min (10.6 ± 0.9 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹). R(d) rapidly peaked at t = 120 min at the start of exercise (89.5 ± 11.6 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) and then gradually declined at t = 195 min (26.4 ± 3.3 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) before returning to baseline at t = 360 min. SI(exercise) was significantly higher than SI(rest) (21.6 ± 3.7 vs. 12.5 ± 2.0 10⁻⁴ dl·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ per μU/ml, P < 0.0005). Glucose turnover was estimated for the first time during exercise with the triple-tracer technique. Our results, applying state-of-the-art techniques, show that moderate exercise almost doubles postprandial insulin sensitivity index in healthy subjects.

  6. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  7. Type 2 diabetes, glucose homeostasis and incident atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Lopez, Faye L.; Filion, Kristian B.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Loehr, Laura R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in previous studies that have frequently been beset by methodological challenges. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Participants Detailed medical histories were obtained on 13025 participants. Individuals were categorized as having no diabetes, pre-diabetes or diabetes based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria at study baseline (1990–92). Main Outcome Measures Diagnoses of incident AF were obtained through 2007. Associations between type 2 diabetes and markers of glucose homeostasis with the incidence of AF were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for possible confounders. Results Type 2 diabetes was associated with a significant increase in risk of AF (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–1.60) after adjustment for confounders. There was no indication that individuals with pre-diabetes or those with undiagnosed diabetes were at increased risk of AF compared to those without diabetes. We observed a positive linear association between HbA1c and risk of AF in those with and without diabetes: 1.13 (1.07–1.20) and 1.05 (0.96–1.15) per 1% point increase, respectively. There was no association between fasting glucose or insulin (p>0.05) in those without diabetes but a significant association with fasting glucose in those with the condition (p=0.0002). Results were similar in whites and African Americans. Conclusions Diabetes, HbA1c level and poor glycemic control are independently associated with increased risk of AF, but the underlying mechanisms governing the relationship are unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:21930722

  8. An amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid buffered with bicarbonate versus glucose/bicarbonate and glucose/lactate solutions: an intraindividual randomized study.

    PubMed

    Plum, J; Erren, C; Fieseler, C; Kirchgessner, J; Passlick-Deetjen, J; Grabensee, B

    1999-01-01

    In order to study acute metabolic changes and peritoneal transport, amino acids as osmotic agent and bicarbonate as buffer were tested as new agents in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. In a prospective, cross-over, randomized, intraindividual study, we investigated the acute metabolic changes following the application of three different PD fluids: (1) a 1% amino acid-based PD solution buffered with bicarbonate (34 mmol/L) (Amino/Bic); (2) a 1.5% glucose anhydrous-containing bicarbonate-buffered solution (34 mmol/L) (Glu/Bic); and (3) a conventional 1.5% glucose anhydrous-based dialysis solution with lactate (35 mmol/L) (Glu/Lac). University medical center. Ten nondiabetic patients stable on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (time on dialysis, 42.5 +/- 21.5 months) were treated and monitored with the test solutions over a 6-hour dwell. Three different study days followed in a randomized order for each patient (interval of 1-3 weeks). Blood and dialysate samples were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Immediately after the 1-hr dwell (and after sampling), the patients received a standardized breakfast, thereby simulating usual food intake. Following the application of Amino/Bic a significant increase in plasma amino acids occurred, with peak levels (maximum 250% increase) after either the 1-hr or the 2-hr dwell. Before taking the standard meal (0.5 hr, 1 hr), the mean serum glucose level with Amino/Bic was 8% +/- 13% lower than with Glu/Bic (p = 0.06) and 14% +/- 8% lower than with Glu/Lac (p < 0.01). This difference was still significant after the standard breakfast and also for the whole dwell (average serum glucose 0.5-6 hr: Amino/Bic, 91 +/- 6 mg/dL; Glu/Bic, 100 +/- 8 mg/dL; Glu/Lac, 102 +/- 7 mg/dL; p < 0.01 MANOVA). The serum insulin profiles did not differ between the fluids. A transperitoneal protein- and amino acid-related nitrogen loss of 0.49 +/- 0.18 g and 0.48 +/- 0.12 g per dwell was measured using Glu/Bic and Glu/Lac, while a

  9. Infrared spectroscopy used to study ice formation: the effect of trehalose, maltose, and glucose on melting.

    PubMed

    Zelent, B; Vanderkooi, J M

    2009-07-15

    We report the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy to detect ice crystals in biological solutions. The method is based on the temperature dependence of the OH bending and stretch bands of water. By using mixtures of D(2)O and H(2)O, water's absorption bands can be made to be on-scale in transmission mode. Water's stretch band moves to lower frequency and sharpens with freezing, and the bending band goes to higher frequency and becomes less sharp. The technique is demonstrated for the study of the hysteresis of freezing in the presence of glucosyl sugars, namely glucose, maltose, and trehalose.

  10. Modified method for the performance of glucose insulin clamp studies in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Cheung, A; Bryer-Ash, M

    1994-08-01

    A modified method for performance of insulin-glucose clamp studies in rats was developed via catheterization of the tail vessels, after preconditioning of animals to limited restraint. The procedure is performed in conscious animals under local anesthesia and employs a specially designed foam rubber jacket which allows the animal mobility of the limbs and forward vision. In addition, a table utilizing a belt system allows easy positioning of the animal in the left and right lateral and supine positions during surgery. After initial development of the procedure, its use in 123 animals is reported. Line placement was successfully achieved in all cases with insignificant blood loss or morbidity and zero mortality. We note that 11% of animals did not complete the subsequent insulin-glucose clamp study due to either one of the vascular cannulae leaving the vessel (one animal), venous rupture (12 animals), or cannula blockage unrelated to surgical technique (one animal). Studies on Wistar Kyoto, Spontaneously Hypertensive, and Sprague-Dawley rats showed a fall in catecholamines after animals were replaced in cages, with stabilization within 30 min. In comparison to traditional techniques, this method is, therefore, proposed as a less traumatic and rapid way of performing infusion studies in conscious rats with a high success rate and minimization of loss of animal life due to procedural problems.

  11. Phased array-fed antenna configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Ball, D. E.; Taylor, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The scope of this contract entails a configuration study for a phased array fed transmit antenna operating in the frequency band of 17.7 to 20.2 GHz. This initial contract provides a basis for understanding the design limitations and advantages of advanced phased array and cluster feeds (both utilizing intergral MMIC modules) illuminating folded reflector optics (both near field and focused types). Design parametric analyses are performed utilizing as constraints the objective secondary performance requirements of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (Table 1.0). The output of the study provides design information which serves as a data base for future active phased array fed antenna studies such as detailed designs required to support the development of a ground tested breadboard. In general, this study is significant because it provides the antenna community with an understanding of the basic principles which govern near field phased scanned feed effects on secondary reflector system performance. Although several articles have been written on analysis procedures and results for these systems, the authors of this report have observed phenomenon of near field antenna systems not previously documented. Because the physical justification for the exhibited performance is provided herein, the findings of this study add a new dimension to the available knowledge of the subject matter.

  12. Effects of vanadium complexes with organic ligands on glucose metabolism: a comparison study in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Reul, Bénédicte A; Amin, Sean S; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Ongemba, Lumbe N; Crans, Debbie C; Brichard, Sonia M

    1999-01-01

    Vanadium compounds can mimic actions of insulin through alternative signalling pathways. The effects of three organic vanadium compounds were studied in non-ketotic, streptozotocin-diabetic rats: vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAc), vanadyl 3-ethylacetylacetonate (VEt), and bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (VM). A simple inorganic vanadium salt, vanadyl sulphate (VS) was also studied. Oral administration of the three organic vanadium compounds (125 mg vanadium element l−1 in drinking fluids) for up to 3 months induced a faster and larger fall in glycemia (VAc being the most potent) than VS. Glucosuria and tolerance to a glucose load were improved accordingly. Activities and mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase and L-type pyruvate kinase) which are suppressed in the diabetic liver, were restored by vanadium treatment. The organic forms showed greater efficacy than VS, especially VAc. VAc rats exhibited the highest levels of plasma or tissue vanadium, most likely due to a greater intestinal absorption. However, VAc retained its potency when given as a single i.p. injection to diabetic rats. Moreover, there was no relationship between plasma or tissue vanadium levels and any parameters of glucose homeostasis and hepatic glucose metabolism. Thus, these data suggest that differences in potency between compounds are due to differences in their insulin-like properties. There was no marked toxicity observed on hepatic or renal function. However, diarrhoea occurred in 50% of rats chronically treated with VS, but not in those receiving the organic compounds. In conclusion, organic vanadium compounds, in particular VAc, correct the hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glycolysis of diabetic rats more safely and potently than VS. This is not simply due to improved intestinal absorption, indicating more potent insulin-like properties. PMID:10077240

  13. Maternal arsenic exposure and gestational diabetes and glucose intolerance in the New Hampshire birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Gossai, Anala; Chen, Yu; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Baker, Emily; Karagas, Margaret

    2016-11-08

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major pregnancy complication with detrimental effects for both mothers and their children. Accumulating evidence has suggested a potential role for arsenic (As) exposure in the development of GDM, but current studies have not assessed As exposure from water, urine or toenail samples. We investigated the association between As exposure and risk of glucose intolerance and GDM among 1151 women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Arsenic was measured in home well water and via biomarkers (i.e., maternal urine collected ~24-28 weeks gestation and toenail clippings collected 2 weeks postpartum). A total of 105 (9.1 %) of women were diagnosed with glucose intolerance and 14 (1.2 %) of women were diagnosed with GDM. A total of 10.3 % of women had water As levels above 10 μg/L, with a mean As level of 4.2. Each 5 μg/L increase in As concentration in home well water was associated with a ~10 % increased odds of GDM (OR: 1.1, 95 % CI 1.0, 1.2). A positive and statistically significant association also was observed between toenail As and GDM (OR: 4.5, 95 % CI 1.2, 16.6), but not urinary arsenic (OR: 0.8, 95 % CI 0.3, 2.4). In a stratified analysis, the association between water As and GDM and glucose intolerance was largely limited to obese women (OR: 1.7, 95 % CI 1.0, 2.8). Our findings support the role of As exposure via water from private wells in the incidence of GDM and that this association may be modified by body composition.

  14. Type 2 diabetes, glucose, insulin, BMI, and ischemic stroke subtypes: Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Scott, Robert A; Traylor, Matthew; Langenberg, Claudia C; Hindy, George; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Seshadri, Sudha; Wareham, Nicholas J; Markus, Hugh S

    2017-08-01

    To implement a mendelian randomization (MR) approach to determine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) are causally associated with specific ischemic stroke subtypes. MR estimates of the association between each possible risk factor and ischemic stroke subtypes were calculated with inverse-variance weighted (conventional) and weighted median approaches, and MR-Egger regression was used to explore pleiotropy. The number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) used as instrumental variables was 49 for T2D, 36 for fasting glucose, 18 for fasting insulin, and 77 for BMI. Genome-wide association study data of SNP-stroke associations were derived from METASTROKE and the Stroke Genetics Network (n = 18,476 ischemic stroke cases and 37,296 controls). Conventional MR analysis showed associations between genetically predicted T2D and large artery stroke (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.40, p = 3.3 × 10(-7)) and small vessel stroke (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33, p = 8.9 × 10(-5)) but not cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.15, p = 0.17). The association of T2D with large artery stroke but not small vessel stroke was consistent in a sensitivity analysis using the weighted median method, and there was no evidence of pleiotropy. Genetically predicted fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels and BMI were not statistically significantly associated with any ischemic stroke subtype. This study provides support that T2D may be causally associated with large artery stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. A study on detection of glucose concentration using changes in color coordinates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Oh, Han-Byeol; Kim, A-Hee; Kim, Jun-Sik; Lee, Eun-Suk; Baek, Jin-Young; Lee, Ki Sung; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Jun, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-02

    Glucose concentration is closely related to the metabolic activity of cells and it is the most important substance as the energy source of a living body which plays an important role in the human body. This paper proposes an optical method that can measure the concentration of glucose. The change in glucose concentration was observed by using CIE diagram, and wavelength and purity values were detected. Also, even small changes in glucose concentration can be evaluated through mathematical modeling. This system is simple, economical, and capable of quantifying optical signals with numerical values for glucose sensing. This method can be applicable to the clinical field that examines diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome.

  16. Study on kinetics of glucose uptake by some species of plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenquan; Wang, Xian; Zhang, Yaohua

    1993-03-01

    The rates of glucose uptake by some species of plankton were determined by3H-glucose tracer method. Experimental results indicated that the observed glucose uptake at natural seawater concentrations by Platymonas subcordiformis and Brachionus plicatilis was principally a metabolic process fitted with the Michaelis-Menten equation in the range of adaptive temperatures. Heterotrophic uptake by Platymonas subcordiformis was mainly dependent on diffusion at high glucose levels. The uptake by Brachionus plicatilis showed active transport even at high glucose levels, indicating its high heterotrophic activity. The uptake rate by Artemia salina was lower, and its V m/K ratio was lower than those of the other two species of plankton.

  17. New-onset diabetes after transplantation--role of oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis and study of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh K; Narayan, Girish

    2013-09-01

    To determine the role of the oral glucose tolerance test in the early detection of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and to compare the various risk factors and insulin kinetics in the transplant patients, we studied 41 live-related renal allograft recipients who were not diabetic before transplantation. Immunosuppression included triple drug therapy (cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids) and rejection episodes were treated with methyl prednisolone (30 mg/kg IV × 3 days). All the study patients were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at Day 90 post-transplant and classified as having normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and NODAT as per the World Health Organization guidelines. Insulin levels were also determined at 0, ½ hour, 1 hour and 2 hours during OGTT. NODAT was noted in 29.2% of the study patients, IFG in 4.8% of the study patients and NGT in 65.8% of the study patients. All the groups had normal fasting plasma glucose, but higher than normal insulin levels, suggesting insulin resistance. The patients with overt NODAT had, in addition, low fasting insulin (insulin secretory defect). OGTT may be used for the early detection of NODAT. Although insulin resistance is detected in the majority of post-transplant patients, NODAT also reveals also an insulin secretory defect.

  18. Does a reduced glucose intake prevent hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery? a randomized controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia in children after cardiac surgery can be treated with intensive insulin therapy, but hypoglycemia is a potential serious side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing glucose intake below standard intakes to prevent hyperglycemia, on blood glucose concentrations, glucose kinetics and protein catabolism in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Subjects received a 4-hour low glucose (LG; 2.5 mg/kg per minute) and a 4-hour standard glucose (SG; 5.0 mg/kg per minute) infusion in a randomized blinded crossover setting. Simultaneously, an 8-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was conducted to determine glucose and leucine kinetics. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (IQR); comparison was made by paired samples t test. Results Eleven subjects (age 5.1 (20.2) months) were studied 9.5 ± 1.9 hours post-cardiac surgery. Blood glucose concentrations were lower during LG than SG (LG 7.3 ± 0.7 vs. SG 9.3 ± 1.8 mmol/L; P < 0.01), although the glycemic target (4.0-6.0 mmol/L) was not achieved. No hypoglycemic events occurred. Endogenous glucose production was higher during LG than SG (LG 2.9 ± 0.8 vs. SG 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/kg per minute; P = 0.02), due to increased glycogenolysis (LG 1.0 ± 0.6 vs. SG 0.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg per minute; P < 0.05). Leucine balance, indicating protein balance, was negative but not affected by glucose intake (LG -54.8 ± 14.6 vs. SG -58.8 ± 16.7 μmol/kg per hour; P = 0.57). Conclusions Currently recommended glucose intakes aggravated hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery with CPB. Reduced glucose intake decreased blood glucose concentrations without causing hypoglycemia or affecting protein catabolism, but increased glycogenolysis. Trial registration Dutch trial register NTR2079. PMID:23031354

  19. Inhibitory action of sphingosine, sphinganine and dexamethasone on glucose uptake: Studies with hydrogen peroxide and phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.; Hill, M.E.; Nelson, D.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of the inhibitory action of glucocorticoids on glucose uptake is incompletely understood. Treatment with corticosteriods of cells in which glucose uptake is stimulated at insulin postbinding and postreceptor sites may clarify the site of the steroid inhibitory action. Hydrogen peroxide, which has been shown to stimulate the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) which stimulates protein kinase C were, therefore, used as stimulators of glucose transport in this study. These studies demonstrate that dexamethasone and the sphingoid bases, sphinganine and sphingosine, inhibit glucose uptake that has been stimulated at either the receptor kinase or protein kinase C level in both 3T3-L1 and 3T3-C2 cells. These data confirm glucocorticoid inhibitory action at a post binding level and support the suggestion that some corticosteriod inhibitory effects may be mediated by an action on sphingolipid metabolism.

  20. Chronic stress, inflammation, and glucose regulation in U.S. Hispanics from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    McCurley, Jessica L; Mills, Paul J; Roesch, Scott C; Carnethon, Mercedes; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Isasi, Carmen R; Teng, Yanping; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Llabre, Maria M; Penedo, Frank J; Schneiderman, Neil; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes prevalence is rising rapidly, and diabetes disproportionately affects Hispanics and other underserved groups. Chronic stress may contribute to diabetes risk, but few studies have examined this relationship in U.S. Hispanics. We examined associations of chronic stress with fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Hispanics without diabetes, and also assessed indirect effects of stress through inflammation (CRP). Participants were 3,923 men and women, aged 18-74, without diabetes, from the four U.S. field centers (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary study. Participants completed a measure of chronic life stress and a physical exam with oral glucose tolerance test. In a multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and health covariates, higher chronic stress was related to higher fasting glucose (standardized regression coefficient: β = .09, p < .01), postload glucose (β = .07, p < .05), and HbA1c levels (β = .08, p < .01). However, there was no indirect effect of stress through inflammation. Findings suggest that higher chronic stress is associated with poorer glucose regulation in Hispanics, prior to the onset of a clinical diabetes diagnosis.

  1. Transparent Analogs for Alloy Phase Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments to add information to data base supporting use of transparent, partially miscible liquids and solids as analogs in studies of alloy solidification. Behavior of these materials observed directly while they undergo liquid/liquid and liquid/solid phase transformations. Light-scattering techniques used to determine phase boundaries. Transparent analogs allow observation of both solidification patterns and processes leading to those patterns, whereas metal alloys require tedious post-solidification metallographic analyses because processes not generally observed. Experiments with transparent substances safer and cheaper since conducted at much lower temperatures.

  2. Transparent Analogs for Alloy Phase Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments to add information to data base supporting use of transparent, partially miscible liquids and solids as analogs in studies of alloy solidification. Behavior of these materials observed directly while they undergo liquid/liquid and liquid/solid phase transformations. Light-scattering techniques used to determine phase boundaries. Transparent analogs allow observation of both solidification patterns and processes leading to those patterns, whereas metal alloys require tedious post-solidification metallographic analyses because processes not generally observed. Experiments with transparent substances safer and cheaper since conducted at much lower temperatures.

  3. A systems biology approach to study glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Steen Lund; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Bro, Christoffer; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved as a complex regulatory system involving several different pathways. There are two main pathways involved in signal transduction. One has a role in glucose sensing and regulation of glucose transport, while another takes part in repression of a wide range of genes involved in utilization of alternative carbon sources. In this work, we applied a systems biology approach to study the interaction between these two pathways. Through genome-wide transcription analysis of strains with disruption of HXK2, GRR1, MIG1, the combination of MIG1 and MIG2, and the parental strain, we identified 393 genes to have significantly changed expression levels. To identify co-regulation patterns in the different strains we applied principal component analysis. Disruption of either GRR1 or HXK2 were both found to have profound effects on transcription of genes related to TCA cycle and respiration, as well as ATP synthesis coupled proton transport, all displaying an increased expression. The hxk2Delta strain showed reduced overflow metabolism towards ethanol relative to the parental strain. We also used a genome-scale metabolic model to identify reporter metabolites, and found that there is a high degree of consistency between the identified reporter metabolites and the physiological effects observed in the different mutants. Our systems biology approach points to close interaction between the two pathways, and our metabolism driven analysis of transcription data may find a wider application for analysis of cross-talk between different pathways involved in regulation of metabolism.

  4. Multicenter Observational Study of the First-Generation Intravenous Blood Glucose Monitoring System in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bochicchio, Grant V.; Hipszer, Brian R.; Magee, Michelle F.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Furnary, Anthony P.; Gulino, Angela M.; Higgins, Michael J.; Simpson, Peter C.; Joseph, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of blood glucose (BG) monitoring and insulin delivery are labor intensive and commonly fail to achieve the desired level of BG control. There is great clinical need in the hospital for a user-friendly bedside device that can automatically monitor the concentration of BG safely, accurately, frequently, and reliably. Methods: A 100-patient observation study was conducted at 6 US hospitals to evaluate the first generation of the Intravenous Blood Glucose (IVBG) System (Edwards Lifesciences LLC & Dexcom Inc). Device safety, accuracy, and reliability were assessed. A research nurse sampled blood from a vascular catheter every 4 hours for ≤ 72 hours and BG concentration was measured using the YSI 2300 STAT Plus Analyzer (YSI Life Sciences). The IVBG measurements were compared to YSI measurements to calculate point accuracy. Results: The IVBG systems logged more than 5500 hours of operation in 100 critical care patients without causing infection or inflammation of a vein. A total of 44135 IVBG measurements were performed in 100 patients with 30231 measurements from the subset of 75 patients used for accuracy analysis. In all, 996 IVBG measurements were time-matched with reference YSI measurements. These pairs had a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 11.61 mg/dl, a mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 8.23%, 93% met 15/20% accuracy defined by International Organization for Standardization 15197:2003 standard, and 93.2% were in zone A of the Clarke error grid. The IVBG sensors were exposed to more than 200 different medications with no observable effect on accuracy. Conclusions: The IVBG system is an automated and user-friendly glucose monitoring system that provides accurate and frequent BG measurements with great potential to improve the safety and efficacy of insulin therapy and BG control in the hospital, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes. PMID:26033922

  5. Polymerization and phase separation studies in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateshan, Karthik

    In technology, a thermosetting polymer's electrical, thermal and mechanical properties are modified by incorporating an elastomer phase in its matrix. This is achieved by phase separation of the dissolved elastomer during the course of polymerization until the liquid vitrifies. The phase separation mechanism and nature of interface formed determine the negative effect of phase separation on polymerization and the transition of mass-controlled kinetics to diffusion-controlled kinetics. This thesis provides an experimental study of polymerization, phase separation and vitrification processes by using real time measurements of dielectric relaxation, calorimetric changes, elastic constants and thermal conductivity of diepoxide-amine mixtures with and without the phase separating amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile elastomer. The results are discussed in general terms of mutual slowing of molecular diffusion and polymerization, and of the development of diffused interfaces between regions of elastomer and polymer matrix, that form as a result of, (i) high degree of spatial heterogeneity in the intermingled regions of non-stoichiometric amounts of polymer and elastomer, (ii) high degree of compatibility between the elastomer and polymer matrix and (iii) large size of the elastomer and polymer molecules. The consequence of molecular diffusional constraints and manifestation of spatial heterogeneity is confirmed by the appearance of Johari-Goldstein relaxation which acts as the precursor for the significantly broadened alpha-relaxation and higher values of dielectric permittivity in the frequency range of 1 kHz and greater. Spatial heterogeneity in the intermingled regions of non-stoichiometric amounts of polymer and elastomer is also confirmed by calorimetry studies. With increasing diffusional limitation, the total heat of polymerization varies from values obtained for stoichiometric amounts of reactants with no change in calorimetric peak temperature. Furthermore

  6. A comparative study on effect of metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes on blood glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mirazi, Naser; Shoaei, Jamileh; Khazaei, Ardeshir; Hosseini, Abdolkarim

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders. Carbon nanotubes have the advantage to cross the plasma membrane without damaging the cells, improving the biological effect of a drug and reducing its side effects. In the present study, the effect of metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes was investigated on blood glucose level in the streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats. Diabetes in the animals was induced with a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; i.p.) and after 3 days the blood glucose was analyzed. Animals showing fasting blood glucose higher than 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic rats. The animals were treated with metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes (150 mg/kg; p.o.) daily and every 48-h for 1 week. Changes in animals' serum blood glucose level were evaluated daily during the treatment period. The results of this study showed that metformin reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. Metformin-conjugated nanotubes significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in blood glucose level between metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes groups (p > 0.05). However, when both formulations of metformin were administered every 48-h, metformin-conjugated nanotubes reduced glycaemia for a longer time than metformin alone (p < 0.001). This study showed that the metformin-conjugated nanotubes would be able to reduce the blood glucose, prolong drug delivery and efficacy duration in animals which were treated with metformin-conjugated nanotubes compared with metformin alone.

  7. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (P< 0·05), 2 h postprandial glucose (P< 0·05) and glucose-area under the curve (AUC) (five measurements over 2 h, P< 0·05) after fish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (P< 0·05), concomitant with increased 30 min and decreased 90 min and 2 h insulin C-peptide level (P< 0·05), and reduced LDL-cholesterol (P< 0·05). Body muscle % was increased (P< 0·05) and body fat % was reduced (P< 0·05) after 4 weeks' supplementation. Physical activity and energy and macronutrients intake did not change during the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term daily supplementation with a low dose of fish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  8. LST phase A design update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An update is presented of the Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST), based on changes in guidelines and new data developed subsequent to the Phase A study. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. A low cost design approach was followed. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads (See N73-18449 through N73-18453)

  9. Sex differences in the control of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Blaak, Ellen

    2008-07-01

    A markedly higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance has been reported in women than in men, whereas the opposite was seen for impaired fasting glucose. The present review focuses on the underlying mechanisms. An increased meal glucose appearance and disturbances in postprandial glucose disposal may contribute to higher glucose concentrations in women. An increased, similar or reduced insulin sensitivity has been reported in women than in men, which makes it unclear to what extent a disturbed insulin-mediated glucose disposal may contribute to increased postprandial glucose concentrations in women. This discrepancy may be explained by differences in the phase of menstrual cycle during the study, the use of oral contraceptives and different degrees of physical fitness. Nevertheless, there are consistent data indicating that women are protected against fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, both disturbances in endogenous glucose output and metabolic clearance of glucose may contribute to the reduced fasting glucose concentrations in women. There is an urgent need for studies that test whether sex-related disturbances in glucose metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, taking age, menstrual cycle, the use of oral contraceptives and physical activity into account.

  10. TDRSS telecommunications study. Phase 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahn, C. R.; Cnossen, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A parametric analysis of the telecommunications support capability of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) was performed. Emphasis was placed on maximizing support capability provided to the user while minimizing impact on the user spacecraft. This study evaluates the present TDRSS configuration as presented in the TDRSS Definition Phase Study Report, December 1973 to determine potential changes for improving the overall performance. In addition, it provides specifications of the user transponder equipment to be used in the TDRSS.

  11. A study on phase-noise reduction method in phase-locked loop systems.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Keiji

    2003-09-01

    Experimental studies are carried out on phase noise and the correlation coefficient between the phase and average current noises of voltage-controlled oscillator in phased-locked loop (PLL) systems. The precise phase stabilization technique is discussed, and new methods to reduce the phase noise are described in PLL systems, using the correlation.

  12. Glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101: a molecular simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Krishna M.; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-08-01

    A molecular simulation study is reported on glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101. The F atom of MIL-101 is identified to be the most favorable adsorption site. Among three MIL-101-X (X = H, NH2 or CH3), the parent MIL-101 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity and recovery efficacy. Upon functionalization by -NH2 or -CH3 group, the steric hindrance in MIL-101 increases; consequently, the interactions between glucose and framework become less attractive, thus reducing the capacity and mobility of glucose. The presence of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, as an impurity reduces the strength of hydrogen-bonding between glucose and MIL-101, and leads to lower capacity and mobility. Upon adding anti-solvent (ethanol or acetone), a similar adverse effect is observed. The simulation study provides useful structural and dynamic properties of glucose in MIL-101, and it suggests that MIL-101 might be a potential candidate for glucose recovery.

  13. Glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101: a molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-08-05

    A molecular simulation study is reported on glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101. The F atom of MIL-101 is identified to be the most favorable adsorption site. Among three MIL-101-X (X = H, NH2 or CH3), the parent MIL-101 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity and recovery efficacy. Upon functionalization by -NH2 or -CH3 group, the steric hindrance in MIL-101 increases; consequently, the interactions between glucose and framework become less attractive, thus reducing the capacity and mobility of glucose. The presence of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, as an impurity reduces the strength of hydrogen-bonding between glucose and MIL-101, and leads to lower capacity and mobility. Upon adding anti-solvent (ethanol or acetone), a similar adverse effect is observed. The simulation study provides useful structural and dynamic properties of glucose in MIL-101, and it suggests that MIL-101 might be a potential candidate for glucose recovery.

  14. Evidence for early defects in insulin sensitivity and secretion before the onset of glucose dysregulation in obese youths: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Cosimo; Weiss, Ram; Cali, Anna; Bonadonna, Riccardo; Santoro, Nicola; Pierpont, Bridget; Shaw, Melissa; Caprio, Sonia

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether obese adolescents with high-"normal" 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose levels display defects in insulin secretion and sensitivity associated with future development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by applying mathematical modeling during the hyperglycemic clamp in 60 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) obese adolescents, divided into three groups based on the 2-h glucose values (<100, 100-119, 120-139 mg/dL), and in 21 IGT obese adolescents. Glucose tolerance was reevaluated after 2 years. Insulin sensitivity decreased significantly across 2-h glucose NGT categories, while the highest NGT category and IGT group were similar. First-phase insulin secretion decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was found between the highest NGT group and IGT subjects. Second-phase secretion was similar across all NGT and IGT groups. The disposition index ((C)DI) decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was observed between the highest NGT and IGT subjects. Age and (C)DI were the best predictors of 2-h glucose after two years. Across rising categories of normal 2-h glucose levels, NGT obese adolescents exhibit significant impairment of β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity associated with the development of IGT.

  15. Glass transition study in model food systems prepared with mixtures of fructose, glucose, and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Leos, M Z; Grajales-Lagunes, A; González-García, R; Toxqui-Terán, A; Pérez-García, S A; Abud-Archila, M A; Ruiz-Cabrera, M A

    2012-05-01

    The glass transition temperature of model food systems prepared with several glucose/fructose/sucrose mass fractions was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A distance-based experimental design for mixtures of 3 components was used to establish the proportion of sugars of the model systems. Thus, 32 compositions including individual sugars and sugar mixtures, both binary and ternary were prepared and analyzed. Thermograms showing the complete process of heating-cooling-reheating were used to determine the precise glass transition temperature during cooling (T(g)(c)) or reheating (T(g)(H) in amorphous sugars. The Scheffe cubic model was applied to experimental results to determine the influence of sugar composition on the glass transition temperature (P < 0.05). The final model proved to be appropriate (R(2) > 0.97, CV < 9%, model significance <0.0001) to predict the T(g) values of any dry mixture of amorphous fructose, glucose, and sucrose. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Boson peak dynamics of glassy glucose studied by integrated terahertz-band spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabeya, Mikitoshi; Mori, Tatsuya; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Koreeda, Akitoshi; Lee, Byoung Wan; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji

    2016-12-01

    We performed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, low-frequency Raman scattering, and Brillouin light scattering on vitreous glucose to investigate the boson peak (BP) dynamics. In the spectra of α (ν ) /ν2 [ α (ν ) is the absorption coefficient], the BP is clearly observed around 1.1 THz. Correspondingly, the complex dielectric constant spectra show a universal resonancelike behavior only below the BP frequency. As an analytical scheme, we propose the relative light-vibration coupling coefficient (RCC), which is obtainable from the combination of the far-infrared and Raman spectra. The RCC reveals that the infrared light-vibration coupling coefficient CIR(ν ) of the vitreous glucose behaves linearly on frequency which deviates from Taraskin's model of CIR(ν ) =A +B ν2 [S. N. Taraskin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 055504 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.055504]. The linearity of CIR(ν ) might require modification of the second term of the model. The measured transverse sound velocity shows an apparent discontinuity with the flattened mode observed in the inelastic neutron scattering study [N. Violini et al., Phys. Rev. B 85, 134204 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.134204] and suggests a coupling between the transverse acoustic and flattened modes.

  17. In vitro study of the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives against oxidation of plasma components.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Since the endogenous antioxidant defense may be not adequate to counteract the enhanced generation of oxidants, a growing interest in research for exogenous nutrients has been observed. The present study was designed to assess in vitro the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives: calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate (0.5-3 mM) in the protection of plasma proteins and lipids, against the damage caused by 0.1 mM peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻). Exposure of plasma to ONOO⁻ resulted in carbonyl groups increase, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, reduction in thiol groups, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. D-gluconic acid lactone and sodium D-gluconate effectively decreased 3-NT formation; the antinitrative action of calcium D-glucarate was less effective. In plasma samples incubated with ONOO⁻ and tested compounds, the level of carbonyl groups was decreased in comparison to plasma samples treated only with ONOO⁻. The level of protein -SH groups and glutathione was significantly higher in the presence of glucose derivatives than in plasma samples treated with ONOO⁻ only. All the tested compounds had the inhibitory effect on the peroxynitrite-induced plasma lipids peroxidation. The results obtained from our work indicate that calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate may partly protect plasma proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-induced damages.

  18. Physicochemical studies of glucose, gellan gum, and hydroxypropyl cellulose--inhibition of cast iron corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2013-06-05

    Glucose, gellan gum, and hydroxypropyl cellulose were studied against the acid corrosion of cast iron by means of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and AC impedance spectroscopy techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. The effect of immersion time and temperature were also studied. The addition of potassium iodide to the corrosion-inhibition system showed both antagonism and synergism toward inhibition efficiency. Polarization studies revealed the mixed-type inhibiting nature of the carbohydrates. The adsorption of inhibitors on the cast iron surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, both in presence and absence of KI. Physical interaction between the inhibitor molecules and the iron surface was suggested by the thermochemical parameters, rather than chemical interaction.

  19. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function.

  20. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (<80mg/dL), normal/reference (80-99mg/dL), impaired (100-125mg/dL), and diabetic (≥126mg/dL). Participants were free of cardiovascular disease at enrollment, had mean age of 62years, and were 52% Caucasian, 24% African American, 8% Asian, and 12% Hispanic. Median follow-up was 15years. Graphs of continuous incidence rates compared to fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of continuous glucose monitoring on low interstitial glucose values and low blood glucose values assessed by point-of-care blood glucose meters: results of a crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Norbert; Schumann, Beatrix; Kulzer, Bernhard; Haak, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In a randomized crossover trial the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was tested on the occurrence of low blood glucose values measured by point of care (POC) measurement and on low glucose values measured by CGM in the interstitial fluid. A total of 41 type 1 diabetic patients (age 42.0 ± 11.4 years, diabetes duration 15.3 ± 10.1 years, A1c 8.2 ± 1.4%) used a CGM system (Dexcom SEVEN PLUS system) twice. In first study phase (CGM blind), patients were blind regarding the CGM current glucose levels and were not alerted when critical glucose values were reached. In the second phase (CGM real time), patients had access to current glucose levels and were alerted if critical glucose values were reached. During CGM real time the proportion of hypoglycemic POC blood glucose values were significantly reduced (7.5 ± 5.6% vs 10.1 ± 7.5%; P = .04), whereas the proportion of euglycemic blood glucose values were significantly enhanced (73.7 ± 18.3% vs 68.3 ± 12.1%; P = .01). The duration of low glucose periods in the interstitial fluid was significantly lower in the CGM real time phase (125 ± 89 vs 181 ± 125 minutes per day; P = .005). The time until a low blood glucose was detected by POC measurement was shortened by 33.2 ± 76.1 minutes (P = .03). The study demonstrated that CGM is able to not only reduce duration of hypoglycemia measured by CGM in interstitial fluid, but also reduce the proportion of low POC blood glucose measurements. In addition, hypoglycemia can be detected earlier.

  2. Catabolism of Glucose and Lactose in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Studied by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Irene; Gaspar, Paula; Sánchez, Borja; Gueimonde, Miguel; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-13Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-13Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-13C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by 13C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway

  3. Glucose utilization by intracranial meningiomas as an index of tumor aggressivity and probability of recurrence: a PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Di Chiro, G.; Hatazawa, J.; Katz, D.A.; Rizzoli, H.V.; De Michele, D.J.

    1987-08-01

    Seventeen patients with intracranial meningiomas were studied with positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) to assess the glucose utilization of these tumors. Four meningiomas followed for 3-5 years after PET-FDG and surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. These tumors had significantly lower glucose utilization rates (1.9 mg/dl/min +/- 1.0) than 11 recurrent or regrowing meningiomas (4.5 mg/dl/min +/- 1.96). The glucose metabolic rates of meningiomas correlated with tumor growth, as estimated from changes in tumor size on repeated computed tomographic scans. Histopathologically, a syncytial (atypical) meningioma had the highest glucose utilization rate, followed by a papillary meningioma and an angioblastic meningioma. Individual transitional and syncytial (typical) meningiomas showed marked differences in glucose metabolism despite similar microscopic appearance. Glucose utilization rate appears to be at least as reliable as histologic classification and other proposed criteria for predicting the behavior and recurrence of intracranial meningiomas.

  4. Comparative study on glucose transporters expression and activity between stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells and hCMEC/D3 cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Alahmad, Abraham J

    2017-08-09

    Glucose constitutes the major source of energy of mammalian brains. Glucose uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs through a facilitated glucose transport, through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), although other isoforms have been described at the BBB. Mutations in GLUT1 is associated with the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS), yet none of the current in vitro models of the human BBB maybe suited for modelling such disorder. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucose transporters and glucose diffusion across the human BBB using brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from healthy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We investigated the expression of different glucose transporters at the BBB using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry and measured glucose uptake and diffusion across BMEC monolayers obtained from two iPSC lines and from hCMEC/D3 cells. BMECs monolayers showed expression of several glucose transporters, in particular GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4. Diffusion of glucose across the monolayers were mediated via a saturable transcellular mechanism and partially inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors. Taken together, our study suggests the presence of several glucose transporters isoforms at the human BBB and demonstrate the feasibility of modelling glucose across the BBB using patient-derived stem cells. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology.

  5. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Sex Influence Glucose Tolerance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Angela J.; Banks, William A.; Hernandez Saucedo, Hector; Craft, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucose intolerance and apolipoprotein ε4 allele (E4+) are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin sensitizers show promise for treating AD, but are less effective in E4+ individuals. Little is known about how the APOE genotype influences glucose metabolism. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 319 older adults who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests; a subset had insulin, amyloid beta (Aβ42), and Mini Mental Status Examination. Glucose and insulin patterns with respect to cognitive diagnosis, E4 status, and sex were examined with analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation. Results People with cognitive impairment had higher fasting insulin levels. E4 status did not affect fasting glucose values, whereas men had higher fasting glucose levels than women. E4+ men had the lowest and E4+ women had the highest glucose levels, compared to E4- groups; insulin did not differ by sex or E4 group. E4 status and sex moderated correlations between metabolic measures and AD risk factors including age and Aβ. Conclusions Insulin resistance was associated with cognitive impairment, and sex, E4 status, and glucose values are interrelated in older adults at risk of AD. Understanding glucose metabolism for different APOE and sex groups may help elucidate differences in therapeutic responses. PMID:27065114

  6. In vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose.

    PubMed

    Ou, S; Kwok, K; Li, Y; Fu, L

    2001-02-01

    There have been many reports concerning the role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose, and the main mechanism was regarded as the viscosity of different dietary fibers in hampering diffusion of glucose and postponing absorption and digestion of carbohydrates. In this paper, two kinds of water-insoluble dietary fibers, water-insoluble dietary fiber of wheat bran and enzyme-resistant starch of maize amylose, and four kinds of water-soluble dietary fibers, water-soluble dietary fiber of wheat bran, carboxymethyl cellulose, guar gum, and xanthan gum, were used to investigate their postprandial serum glucose lowering mechanism in vitro. The results showed that these dietary fibers lowered postprandial serum glucose levels at least by three mechanisms. First, dietary fibers increase the viscosity of small intestine juice and hinder diffusion of glucose; second, they bind glucose and decrease the concentration of available glucose in the small intestine; and, third, they retard alpha-amylase action through capsuling starch and the enzyme and might directly inhibit the enzyme. All of these decreased the absorption rate of glucose and the concentration of postprandial serum glucose.

  7. Identification and preliminary SAR studies of (+)-Geodin as a glucose uptake stimulator for rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seiichi; Okusa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Akiyo; Ikenoue, Takao; Seki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    (+)-Geodin (1) was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 with activity that stimulates glucose uptake by rat adipocytes. Unlike insulin it is active in the presence of wortmannin. Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3) which are the precursors of (+)-geodin biosynthesis were also isolated from the same fungus. Preliminary SAR studies of 1 showed some analogues had enhanced activity. Especially, the activities of racemic geodin and dibromo analogue (7a) were comparable to that of the natural product. Geodin (1), a known fungal metabolite, was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 as an active substance (Fig. 1). Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3), the precursors of 1, were also isolated from the same fungal extract. In this study, preliminary mechanistic insight and SAR are reported.

  8. Ethnic Differences in Glucose Homeostasis Markers between the Kyushu-Okinawa Population Study and the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ai, Masumi; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Otokozawa, Seiko; Asztalos, Bela F.; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Zhou, Yanhua; Liu, Ching-Ti; Jacques, Paul F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Furusyo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    We compared markers of glucose homeostasis and their association with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Fukuoka, Japanese subjects (n = 1108) and age-, gender- and menopausal status-matched participants in the Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1096). The markers examined included fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and glycated albumin, as well as body mass index (BMI), use of medications, and history of diabetes. The results showed that IFG prevalence in Japanese men (15.9%) and women (7.4%) were 50% less than those observed in Framingham men (34.5%) and women (21.4%) (P < 0.001). However, the diabetes prevalence in Japanese men at 13.3% was twice as high (P < 0.01) as the rate in Framingham men at 6.5%, while these rates were similar in women. Median insulin levels in Japanese men (4.6 μIU/mL) and women (4.3 μIU/mL) were about 50% lower (P < 0.001) than those in Framingham men (10.8 μIU/mL) and women (9.9 μIU/mL), as were insulin resistance values (P < 0.001). These population differences were also observed after subjects were stratified by glucose levels. In conclusion, our data indicate that there is significantly less IFG, lower insulin levels, and insulin resistance, but higher diabetes prevalence in Fukuoka men than in Framingham men, indicating that insulin deficiency may be an important cause of diabetes in Japan. PMID:27830830

  9. Direct costs in impaired glucose regulation: results from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, C; Claessen, H; Andrich, S; Brüne, M; Dintsios, C M; Slomiany, U; Roggenbuck, U; Jöckel, K H; Moebus, S; Icks, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective For the first time, this population-based study sought to analyze healthcare utilization and associated costs in people with normal fasting glycemia (NFG), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), as well as previously undetected diabetes and previously diagnosed diabetes linking data from the prospective German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) study with individual claims data from German statutory health insurances. Research design and methods A total of 1709 participants of the HNR 5-year follow-up (mean age (SD) 64.9 (7.5) years, 44.5% men) were included in the study. Age-standardized and sex-standardized healthcare utilization and associated costs (reported as € for the year 2008, perspective of the statutory health insurance) were stratified by diabetes stage defined by the participants' self-report and fasting plasma glucose values. Cost ratios (CRs) were estimated using two-part regression models, adjusting for age, sex, sociodemographic variables and comorbidity. Results The mean total direct healthcare costs for previously diagnosed diabetes, previously undetected diabetes, IFG, and NFG were €2761 (95% CI 2378 to 3268), €2210 (1483 to 4279), €2035 (1732 to 2486) and €1810 (1634 to 2035), respectively. Corresponding age-adjusted and sex-adjusted CRs were 1.53 (1.30 to 1.80), 1.16 (0.91 to 1.47), and 1.09 (0.95 to 1.25) (reference: NFG). Inpatient, outpatient and medication costs varied in order between people with IFG and those with previously undetected diabetes. Conclusions The study provides claims-based detailed cost data in well-defined glucose metabolism subgroups. CRs of individuals with IFG and previously undetected diabetes were surprisingly low. Data are important for the model-based evaluation of screening programs and interventions that are aimed either to prevent diabetes onset or to improve diabetes therapy as well. PMID:27252871

  10. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA). Methods/design In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU) study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Discussion Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already available. However, none of

  11. Intimal media thickness, glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES -22).

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Gokulakrishnan, K; Sandeep, S; Srivastava, B K; Ravikumar, R; Deepa, R

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess carotid intimal media thickness (IMT) in different grades of glucose intolerance and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and coronary artery disease. Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 1600), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 330), newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) (n = 330) and known diabetes (KD) (n = 1170) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), an ongoing study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras), in southern India. Assessment of carotid IMT was performed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. MS was defined using modified adult treatment parel (ATP) III guidelines. Subjects with self-reported diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were excluded from the analysis on MS. Subjects with glucose intolerance had significantly higher mean carotid IMT values compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 0.69 +/- 0.12 mm, IGT 0.75 +/- 0.16 mm, NDD 0.79 +/- 0.19 mm and KD 0.87 +/- 0.24 mm, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that there was a linear increase in mean IMT values with increasing severity of glucose intolerance, even after adjusting for age and gender. Mean IMT values were higher in those with MS and increased with increase in number of metabolic abnormalities (subjects without any metabolic abnormality 0.66 +/- 0.12 mm, one abnormality 0.67 +/- 0.13 mm, two 0.70 +/- 0.12 mm, three 0.72 +/- 0.12 mm, four 0.77 +/- 0.15 mm, five 0.76 +/- 0.13 mm). Regression models showed MS to be associated with IMT, even after adjusting for age, gender and presence of diabetes (P = 0.021). In Asian Indians, carotid IMT increases progressively with increasing severity of glucose intolerance and is also associated with the metabolic syndrome, independent of age, gender and presence of diabetes.

  12. Retrospective study on the effect of tight glucose control in postoperative sepsis patients using an artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Gaku; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Onodera, Chiaki; Kan, Shigenori; Akitomi, Shinji; Hoshikawa, Koichi; Kikkawa, Tomohiro; Kojika, Masahiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2011-12-01

    Tight glucose control (TGC) using a sliding scale based on intermittent blood glucose measurements occasionally can have a fatal outcome as a result of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the use of an artificial pancreas to achieve TGC would be possible in postoperative patients with sepsis. The retrospective study was carried out as an exploratory study, focusing on the possibility of precise evaluation of the significance of TGC as a beneficial intervention by serological monitoring of various mediators. TGC was accomplished using an artificial pancreas (STG-22; (Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan). The patients were divided into two groups: the TGC group (6 patients with sepsis in whom the target blood glucose level set at <150 mg/dl was attempted using the artificial pancreas), and the glucose control (GC) group (6 patients with sepsis in whom glucose control was attempted using a sliding scale; target blood glucose level was set at 200 mg/dl or lower). The mean blood glucose level was 129.7 ± 9.7 mg/dl in the TGC group and 200.9 ± 14.7 mg/dl in the GC group (P < 0.01, ANOVA). No hypoglycemia associated with the artificial pancreas was seen in any of the patients. The serum levels of S100A12 and HMGB-1 tended to decrease, and those of sRAGE tended to increase, in the TGC group. Further data collection from a larger number of cases would be expected to allow a precise assessment of TGC as a potentially beneficial intervention in sepsis patients.

  13. Impact of Randomized Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Glucose Metabolism: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    ERLANDSON, Kristine Mace; KITCH, Douglas; TIERNEY, Camlin; SAX, Paul E.; DAAR, Eric S.; MELBOURNE, Kathleen M.; HA, Belinda; MCCOMSEY, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have found that early HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) contribute to glucose dysregulation. Few randomized trials have evaluated glucose indices in antiretroviral-naïve subjects on newer antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). Analyses used 2-sample t-tests, Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 non-diabetic subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, baseline median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL and CD4 233 cells/μL. Overall, significant 96-week increases occurred in fasting glucose, insulin, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), p≤0.004. Assignment to EFV (vs ATV/r) resulted in significantly greater glucose increase (mean difference 4.4; 95% CI 1.3, 7.5 mg/dL; p=0.006) but not insulin or HOMA-IR (p≥0.72). Glucose indices were not significantly different between ABC/3TC or TDF/FTC arms, p≥0.18. Significant correlations were detected between changes in glucose indices and changes in body mass index; all r≥0.23, p≤0.001. In multivariable analyses, in addition to the EFV effect, higher baseline HIV-1 RNA, and greater BMI change were significant independent factors associated with greater glucose increase. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism were not significantly different between TDF/FTC- and ABC/3TC-based regimens. A small but significantly greater increase in glucose was observed in those assigned to EFV. As glucose dysregulation may increase with time on ART, longer term studies will be needed to further clarify the clinical significance of these findings. PMID:24637543

  14. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  15. Crew interface definition study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callihan, J. C.; Kraemer, J. W.; Alles, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    The timeline analysis of the Shuttle orbiter missions which was conducted in the Phase I Crew Interface Definition Study and the requirements for the man-in-the-loop simulation study are presented. Mission definitions and objectives are presented as they relate to various Shuttle Orbiter missions. The requirements for crew participation and the information required by the crew are discussed, and finally the rationale behind the display concept and calling procedures is given. The simulation objectives, the simulation mechanization, including a detailed presentation of the display and control concept, the simulator test plan and the results are discussed.

  16. Study on iron oxide nanoparticles coated with glucose-derived polymers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herea, D. D.; Chiriac, H.; Lupu, N.; Grigoras, M.; Stoian, G.; Stoica, B. A.; Petreus, T.

    2015-10-01

    This study reports an approach for a facile one-step synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with glucose-derived polymers (GDP) through a mechanochemical hydrothermal process for biomedical applications. Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe2O3/Fe3O4), with sizes below 10 nm, exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, with a specific magnetization saturation value of about 40 emu/g, and a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) of 30 W/g in AC magnetic fields. Depending on the intensity of the applied AC magnetic field, a temperature of 42 °C can be achieved in 4-17 min. The surface polymerized layer affords functional hydroxyl groups for binding to biomolecules containing carboxyl, thiol, or amino groups, thereby making the coated nanoparticles feasible for bio-conjugation. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation pointed out that a relatively high concentration of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (GDP-MNPs) did not induce severe cell alteration, suggesting a good biocompatibility.

  17. Regional brain glucose metabolism in chronic schizophrenia. A positron emission transaxial tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, T.; Wolf, A.P.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen diagnosed schizophrenics and 11 normal controls were studied with a method using the PETT III positron emission tomograph (PET) and fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18. Each subject also had a computed tomographic (CT) scan. For each subject, two brain levels, one through the basal ganglia and one through the semioval center, were analyzed for the mean regional metabolic glucose rate. Specifically, relationships between frontal and posterior regions were evaluated. The CT scans of matching levels were superimposed on the functional PET images to provide anatomic criteria for region of interest selection. While no whole-slice metabolic differences were apparent between groups, schizophrenics had significantly lower activity in the frontal lobes, relative to posterior regions. The medicated and drug-free groups did not differ from one another in these regards. Trait v state dependency of the phenomenon was analyzed, and several technological limitations were considered.

  18. An Improved Method for Studying the Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation of Glucose Using Luminescent Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Pham, Chi V.; Cuber, Matthew; Demas, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring the rate of the oxidation of glucose in the presence of glucose oxidase. The improved method employs luminescence measurements to directly determine the concentration of oxygen in real time, thus obviating complicated reaction schemes employed in previous methods. Our method has been used to determine…

  19. An Improved Method for Studying the Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation of Glucose Using Luminescent Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Pham, Chi V.; Cuber, Matthew; Demas, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring the rate of the oxidation of glucose in the presence of glucose oxidase. The improved method employs luminescence measurements to directly determine the concentration of oxygen in real time, thus obviating complicated reaction schemes employed in previous methods. Our method has been used to determine…

  20. Positron computed tomography studies of cerebral glucose metabolism in man: theory and application in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Phelps, M E

    1981-01-01

    The capability of positron computed tomography (PCT) to delineate the substructures of the brain and its facility for accurately measuring the local tissue radioactivity concentration allow the application of tracer kinetic models for the study of local cerebral function in man. This principle and an adaptation of the 14C-deoxyglucose (DG) model of Sokoloff et al. with 18F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is being used at UCLA. Brookhaven National Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, NIH, and the Massachusetts General Hospital to determine the local cerebral glucose metabolic rate (LCMRGIc) in normal man at rest and during sensory activation and the changes that occur in patients with a variety of cerebral disorders. Kinetic studies with PCT have been employed to measure the rate constants of the model in different gray and white matter structures of the brain in both normal and ischemic states. The precision of the method in normals has been shown to be about +/- 5% for 1.5-2.0 sq cm regions of the brain. Studies in normals have yielded values for hemispheric CMRGIc that are in agreement with measurement using the Kety-Schmidt technique and LCMRGIc values in agreement with values in monkeys using DG autoradiography. Studies in volunteers subjected to visual and auditory stimulation are demonstrating the potential of this technique for investigating the human brain's response to different stimuli. STudies in patients with stroke show excellent correlation between the degree, extent, and particular structures involved and the clinical symptoms. The method consistently detected hypometabolism in cortical, thalamic, and striatal tissues that were dysfunctional due to deactivation or damage but which appeared normal on x-ray CT. Studies in patients with partial epilepsy have shown hypometabolic zones that highly correlated anatomically with interictal EEG spike foci and were associated with normal x-ray CT studies in 77% of the patients studied. The studies on

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346

  2. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  3. Effects of glucose limitation on biomass and spiramycin production by Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Colombié, V; Bideaux, C; Goma, G; Uribelarrea, J L

    2005-11-01

    Spiramycin production by Streptomyces ambofaciens Sp181110 with glucose as the carbon source was studied under a controlled nutritional environment. In a batch culture, the glucose excess after ammonium depletion led to pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate accumulation. 85 mg/l of spiramycin were produced in less than 70 h during the stationary and maintenance phase on these acids after glucose exhaustion. Fed-batch strategy was designed to study spiramycin production without by-product formation and glucose accumulation. In these conditions, up to 150 mg/l were produced in less than 80 h during the stationary phase on glucose. The antibiotic titre was found independent of the glucose feeding under carbon limitation and the importance of putative intracellular reserves formed after nutrient exhaustion was suggested. Besides, spiramycin production was not inhibited by the limiting flux of glucose.

  4. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids in patients with primary aldosteronism: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Matrozova, Joanna; Steichen, Olivier; Amar, Laurence; Zacharieva, Sabina; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2009-04-01

    An association between primary aldosteronism and metabolism disorders has been reported. The aim of this retrospective study was to test for this association by comparison between large cohorts of patients with primary aldosteronism and with essential hypertension. We retrieved the records of 460 cases with primary aldosteronism (103 lateralized, 150 not lateralized, and 207 undetermined) and of 1363 controls with essential hypertension individually matched for age and sex. We compared clinical history; blood pressure levels; body mass index; levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum triglycerides; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose among subtypes of primary aldosteronism, as well as between cases with primary aldosteronism and their matched controls. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipid levels did not differ among the 3 subtypes of primary aldosteronism. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower in patients with primary aldosteronism than their matched controls, but the prevalence of hyperglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus) and blood levels of glucose and lipids did not differ between cases and controls. There was no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative levels of either fasting plasma glucose or serum lipids in patients who underwent adrenalectomy and had follow-up data available. The analysis of this large group of patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension does not confirm a higher prevalence of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism disorders in the former. It is unlikely that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome differs significantly between patients with primary aldosteronism and those with essential hypertension.

  5. Potassium and Glucose Measures in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Mary L.; de Boer, Ian H.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Barzilay, Joshua; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Siscovick, David S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Edelman, David; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. We sought to determine the impacts of serum and dietary potassium measures on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk in older adults. Methods. Among participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based cohort of older American adults, we examined a) cross-sectional associations between potassium and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion estimated from oral glucose tolerance tests and b) longitudinal associations of serum and dietary potassium with diabetes risk. Results. Among 4,754 participants aged ≥65 years at baseline, there were 445 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 12 years. In multivariate models, baseline serum and dietary potassium were both associated with lower insulin sensitivity and greater insulin secretion. Compared with those with a serum potassium ≥4.5 mEq/L, participants with a serum potassium <4.0mEq/L had an adjusted mean difference in Matsuda insulin sensitivity index of −0.18 (−0.39, 0.02). Compared with those in the highest quartile, participants in the lowest quartile of dietary potassium intake had a corresponding adjusted mean difference in Matsuda insulin sensitivity index of −0.61 (−0.94, −0.29). In multivariate models, neither serum nor dietary potassium intake was associated with long-term diabetes risk. Conclusions. Although we did not identify serum and dietary potassium as risk factors for incident diabetes in older adults, results from cross-sectional analyses suggest that both may be associated with increased insulin resistance. This relationship with insulin resistance needs to be confirmed, and its importance on diabetes risk, cardiovascular risk, and conditions specific to older adults should be determined as well. PMID:24895271

  6. Potassium and glucose measures in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ranee; Biggs, Mary L; de Boer, Ian H; Brancati, Frederick L; Svetkey, Laura P; Barzilay, Joshua; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Kizer, Jorge R; Siscovick, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Edelman, David; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    We sought to determine the impacts of serum and dietary potassium measures on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk in older adults. Among participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based cohort of older American adults, we examined a) cross-sectional associations between potassium and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion estimated from oral glucose tolerance tests and b) longitudinal associations of serum and dietary potassium with diabetes risk. Among 4,754 participants aged ≥65 years at baseline, there were 445 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 12 years. In multivariate models, baseline serum and dietary potassium were both associated with lower insulin sensitivity and greater insulin secretion. Compared with those with a serum potassium ≥4.5 mEq/L, participants with a serum potassium <4.0mEq/L had an adjusted mean difference in Matsuda insulin sensitivity index of -0.18 (-0.39, 0.02). Compared with those in the highest quartile, participants in the lowest quartile of dietary potassium intake had a corresponding adjusted mean difference in Matsuda insulin sensitivity index of -0.61 (-0.94, -0.29). In multivariate models, neither serum nor dietary potassium intake was associated with long-term diabetes risk. Although we did not identify serum and dietary potassium as risk factors for incident diabetes in older adults, results from cross-sectional analyses suggest that both may be associated with increased insulin resistance. This relationship with insulin resistance needs to be confirmed, and its importance on diabetes risk, cardiovascular risk, and conditions specific to older adults should be determined as well. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Inconsistent blood glucose checking before driving among drivers with type 1 diabetes: Results from the Australian YourSAY: Glucose Monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Trawley, S; Holmes-Truscott, E; Speight, J

    2016-11-01

    In a survey of Australian drivers with type 1 diabetes, three-quarters reported not checking their blood glucose consistently before driving. They reported lack of health professional recommendation of this behaviour, less concern about safety, and preference for consuming fast-acting glucose, which may be less effective for mitigating risk.

  8. Spacelab data management subsystem phase B study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Spacelab data management system is described. The data management subsystem (DMS) integrates the avionics equipment into an operational system by providing the computations, logic, signal flow, and interfaces needed to effectively command, control, monitor, and check out the experiment and subsystem hardware. Also, the DMS collects/retrieves experiment data and other information by recording and by command of the data relay link to ground. The major elements of the DMS are the computer subsystem, data acquisition and distribution subsystem, controls and display subsystem, onboard checkout subsystem, and software. The results of the DMS portion of the Spacelab Phase B Concept Definition Study are analyzed.

  9. Comparison of Space Glucose Control and Routine Glucose Management Protocol for Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Biao; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yao; Weng, Li; Hu, Xiao-Yun; Peng, Jin-Min; Du, Bin

    2017-09-05

    The Space Glucose Control (SGC) system is a computer-assisted device combining infusion pumps with the enhanced Model Predictive Control algorithm to achieve the target blood glucose (BG) level safely. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycemic control by SGC with customized BG target range of 5.8-8.9 mmol/L in the critically ill patients. It is a randomized controlled trial of seventy critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and hyperglycemia (BG ≥ 9.0 mmol/L). Thirty-six patients in the SGC group and 34 in the routine glucose management group were observed for three consecutive days. Target BG for both groups was 5.8-8.9 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the percentage time in the target range. The percentage time within BG target range in the SGC group (69 ± 15%) was significantly higher than in the routine management group (52 ± 24%; P< 0.01). No measurement was ≤2.2 mmol/L, and there was only one episode of hypoglycemia (2.3-3.3 mmol/L) in each group. The average BG was significantly lower in the SGC group (7.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) than in the routine management group (9.1 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P< 0.001). Target BG level was reached earlier in the SGC group than routine management group (2.5 ± 2.9 vs. 12.1 ± 15.3 h, P= 0.001). However, the SGC group performed worse for daily insulin requirement (59.8 ± 39.3 vs. 28.4 ± 36.7 U, P= 0.001) and sampling interval (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 3.7 ± 0.5 h, P< 0.001) than the routine management group did. Multiple linear regression showed that the intervention group remained a significant individual predictor (P < 0.001) of the percentage time in target range. The SGC system, with a BG target of 5.8-8.9 mmol/L, resulted in effective and reliable glycemic control with few hypoglycemic episodes in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and hyperglycemia. However, the workload was increased. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT 02491346; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  10. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Osei, Elizabeth; Fonville, Susanne; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; Brouwers, Paul J A M; Mulder, Laus J M M; Lingsma, Hester F; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; den Hertog, Heleen M

    2015-08-05

    Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility, safety, and effects on glucose metabolism of metformin and sitagliptin in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke and impaired glucose tolerance. We will also assess whether a slow increase in metformin dose and better support and information on this treatment will reduce the incidence of side effects in these patients. The Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke trial (MAAS trial) is a phase II, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment. Non-diabetic patients (n = 100) with a recent (<6 months) TIA, amaurosis fugax or minor ischemic stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤ 3) and impaired glucose tolerance, defined as 2-hour post-load glucose levels between 7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L after repeated standard oral glucose tolerance test, will be included. Patients with renal or liver impairment, heart failure, chronic hypoxic lung disease stage III-IV, history of lactate acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis, pregnancy or breastfeeding, pancreatitis and use of digoxin will be excluded. The patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:2 ratio to metformin, sitagliptin or "no treatment." Patients allocated to metformin will start with 500 mg twice daily, which will be slowly increased during a 6-week period to a twice daily dose of 1000 mg. Patients allocated to sitagliptin will be treated with a daily fixed dose of 100 mg. The study has been registered as NTR 3196 in The Netherlands Trial Register. Primary outcomes include percentage still on treatment, percentage of (serious) adverse events, and the baseline adjusted difference in 2-hour post-load glucose levels at 6 months. This study will give

  11. A study of the tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction: Variables, characterization, cytotoxicity and preliminary application.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yaxin; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Liu, Yu

    2018-01-15

    The tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction was proposed as an emerging tool for tyramine reduction in a model system and two commercial soy sauce samples. The model system was composed of tyramine and glucose in buffer solutions with or without NaCl. The results showed that tyramine was reduced in the model system, and the reduction rate was affected by temperature, heating time, initial pH value, NaCl concentration, initial glucose concentration and initial tyramine concentration. Changes in fluorescence intensity and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra showed three stages of the Maillard reaction between tyramine and glucose. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were significantly less toxic than that of tyramine (p<0.05). Moreover, tyramine concentration in soy sauce samples was significantly reduced when heated with the addition of glucose (p<0.05). Experimental results showed that the tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction is a promising method for tyramine reduction in foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [13C]glucose breath testing provides a noninvasive measure of insulin resistance: calibration analyses against clamp studies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Maysa; Jangorbhani, Morteza; Schuette, Sally; Considine, Robert V; Chisholm, Robin L; Mather, Kieren J

    2014-02-01

    Exhaled (13)CO2 following ingestion of [(13)C]glucose with a standard oral glucose tolerance load correlates with blood glucose values but is determined by tissue glucose uptake. Therefore exhaled (13)CO2 may also be a surrogate measure of the whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) measured by the gold standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Subjects from across the glycemia range were studied on 2 consecutive days under fasting conditions. On Day 1, a 75-g oral glucose load spiked with [(13)C]glucose was administered. On Day 2, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed. Correlations between breath parameters and clamp-derived GDR were evaluated, and calibration analyses were performed to evaluate the precision of breath parameter predictions of clamp measures. Correlations of breath parameters with GDR and GDR per kilogram of fat-free mass (GDRffm) ranged from 0.54 to 0.61 and 0.54 to 0.66, respectively (all P<0.001). In calibration analyses the root mean square error for breath parameters predicting GDR and GDRffm ranged from 2.32 to 2.46 and from 3.23 to 3.51, respectively. Cross-validation prediction error (CVPE) estimates were 2.35-2.51 (GDR) and 3.29-3.57 (GDRffm). Prediction precision of breath enrichment at 180 min predicting GDR (CVPE=2.35) was superior to that for inverse insulin (2.68) and the Matsuda Index (2.51) but inferior to that for the log of homeostasis model assessment (2.21) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (2.29) (all P<10(-5)). Similar patterns were seen for predictions of GDRffm. (13)CO2 appearance in exhaled breath following a standard oral glucose load with added [(13)C]glucose provides a valid surrogate index of clamp-derived measures of whole-body insulin resistance, with good accuracy and precision. This noninvasive breath test-based approach can provide a useful measure of whole-body insulin resistance in physiologic and epidemiologic studies.

  13. Randomized Pilot Study of Cabergoline, a Dopamine Receptor Agonist: Effects on Body Weight and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Charlisa D.; Karmally, Wahida; McMahon, Donald J.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.; Korner, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Aim Dopaminergic hypofunction and hyperprolactinemia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and glucose intolerance. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of cabergoline, a dopamine receptor agonist, on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese non-diabetic persons with normal plasma prolactin levels. Materials and Methods This 16-week double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study randomized non- diabetic obese adults (BMI 30-42 kg/m2) to placebo or cabergoline (0.25 mg twice weekly for 4 weeks followed by 0.5 mg twice weekly for the next 12 weeks). Of 40 subjects enrolled, 29 completed 16 weeks: 16 randomized to placebo, 13 to cabergoline. All subjects were counseled on a 500 kcal/day calorie deficit diet. A 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Results As expected, prolactin levels decreased after cabergoline (P<0.001). Weight loss was similar after placebo compared with cabergoline treatment: 1.0 vs 1.2% body weight, respectively. Fasting glucose levels did not differ between groups after treatment, however, 90 minute post-prandial glucose and insulin decreased in the cabergoline group only (P = 0.029). HOMA-IR increased by 40% after placebo, and 1.5% after cabergoline treatment. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that cabergoline therapy may improve glucose tolerance independent of weight loss, however, a larger, longer term study of dopamine receptor agonist therapy in obese individuals is warranted to confirm this finding. PMID:22074059

  14. Glucose monitoring of patients with diabetes mellitus receiving general anesthesia: a study of the practices of anesthesia providers in a large community hospital.

    PubMed

    Maser, R E; Ellers, J M; DeCherney, G S

    1996-08-01

    Surgical stress causes hyperglycemia with potential complications (e.g., impaired granulocytic function and delayed wound healing) particularly when glucose levels exceed 250 mg/dL. Standards of care for patients with diabetes undergoing surgery may vary by geographic locale, type of surgical procedure, and type of diabetes. We explored whether anesthesia providers monitor glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Records of 100 patients with diabetes who underwent surgery under general anesthesia (length of procedure: range, 1.9-11.8 hours) were reviewed. Demographic information, glucose levels, frequency of glucose monitoring, and treatment used for diabetes management preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively were recorded. There were 46 males and 54 females, aged 62 +/- 13 years (55% currently treated with insulin). Of the study cohort, 89% had preoperative, 23% had intraoperative, and 54% had postoperative glucose monitoring performed. As expected, postoperative glucose concentrations were significantly higher than preoperative glucose levels (mean difference, 99 mg/dL, P < .01). The mean postoperative glucose level was 262 +/- 89 mg/dL with 30 of the 54 monitored patients having a postoperative glucose level greater than 250 mg/dL. Individuals treated with insulin and those who underwent major surgery were more likely to have glucose levels monitored. These results suggest that better strategies for monitoring glucose levels during the surgical period are needed.

  15. Phase I study of NKT-01.

    PubMed

    Tamura, K; Niitani, H; Oguro, M; Ohno, R; Sanpi, K; Majima, H; Masaoka, T; Kimura, I; Inagaki, J; Suzuoki, Y

    1995-01-01

    A phase I study of NKT-01 (deoxyspergualin), which is a derivative of an antitumor antibiotic, spergualin, was performed by a cooperative study group. NKT-01 was given intravenously by 3-h infusion. The effect of single administration was studied prior to evaluation of daily administration for 5 consecutive days. In all, 5 and 33 patients with various malignancies, including leukemia, were entered into the trials of single and daily administration, respectively. In the single-administration study, all patients were evaluable and no clear adverse effect was observed at doses ranging from 20 to 320 mg/m2. In the daily-administration study, 28 evaluable patients (16 men and 12 women; median age, 55.5 years) were treated with a daily dose of 20-500 mg/m2. Toxicities such as myelosuppression, mild nausea/vomiting, anorexia, alopecia, tongue and perioral numbness, and hypotension were observed dose-dependently during or after the treatment. Grade 2 leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia were experienced at a dose of 500 mg/m2. These usually recovered to normal values by approximately 3 weeks after treatment. A pharmacokinetic analysis of single administration revealed rapid plasma clearance, with mean half-lives for the alpha and beta phases being 28 min and 6.9 h, respectively. Approximately 12% of the infused dose was excreted into the urine in unmetabolized form. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after 5-day administration were similar to those recorded after single administration. Concerning treatment response, a transient but significant reduction in the number of leukemic cells was observed in one patient with adult T-cell leukemia. In this study, perioral numbness, hypotension, and hematological toxicity were concluded to be dose-limiting, with the maximal acceptable dose being 500 mg/m2. The recommended dose for a phase II study of NKT-01 against solid tumors was judged to be 400 mg/m2 given daily by 3-h infusion for 5 days, every 3 weeks. In

  16. Intelligent Robotic Systems Study (IRSS), phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Under the Intelligent Robotics Systems Study (IRSS), a generalized robotic control architecture was developed for use with the ProtoFlight Manipulator Arm (PFMA). Based upon the NASREM system design concept, the controller built for the PFMA provides localized position based force control, teleoperation, and advanced path recording and playback capabilities. The PFMA has six computer controllable degrees of freedom (DOF) plus a 7th manually indexable DOF, making the manipulator a pseudo 7 DOF mechanism. Joints on the PFMA are driven via 7 pulse width modulated amplifiers. Digital control of the PFMA is implemented using a variety of single board computers. There were two major activities under the IRSS phase 4 study: (1) enhancement of the PFMA control system software functionality; and (2) evaluation of operating modes via a teleoperation performance study. These activities are described and results are given.

  17. Electron-transfer studies with a new flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase and osmium polymers of different redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Wang, Xiaoju; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo

    2012-01-03

    A new extracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH) was electrochemically studied as a recognition element in glucose biosensors. The redox enzyme was recombinantly produced in Pichia pastoris and homogeneously purified, and its glucose-oxidizing properties on spectrographic graphite electrodes were investigated. Six different Os polymers, the redox potentials of which ranged in a broad potential window between +15 and +489 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), were used to immobilize and "wire" GcGDH to the spectrographic graphite electrode's surface. The GcGDH/Os polymer modified electrodes were evaluated by chronoamperometry using flow injection analysis. The current response was investigated using a stepwisely increased applied potential. It was observed that the ratio of GcGDH/Os polymer and the overall loading of the enzyme electrode significantly affect the performance of the enzyme electrode for glucose oxidation. The best-suited Os polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(PVI)Cl](+) had a potential of +309 mV versus NHE, and the optimum GcGDH/Os polymer ratio was 1:2 yielding a maximum current density of 493 μA·cm(-2) at a 30 mM glucose concentration.

  18. Are serum nitric oxide metabolites associated with fasting insulin among Iranian adults? (Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study).

    PubMed

    Makhzani, Parastesh; Afghan, Marjan; Tohidi, Maryam; Bagheripour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-05-01

    It has been suggested that insulin resistance is associated with altered nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis. There is however no population-based study documenting an association between fasting serum insulin and serum NO metabolites (NOx) with multivariable adjustment. This study was therefore designed to determine the association between serum NOx and fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices in a sample of a population-based study in Iran. This study, performed within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), analyzed the data of 1518 non-diabetic subjects (955 women), aged 20-87 years, who had participated in phase III of the TLGS (2006-2008). Serum NOx concentrations were measured using the Griess method. Fasting serum insulin was measured by the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the association between serum NOx concentration and quartiles of insulin and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, and QUICKI). NOx concentration in women only was weakly correlated with HOMA1-IR (r = 0.07, P = 0.03) and QUICKI (r = -0.07, P = 0.03), whereas no significant association was observed in men (P > 0.05). Marginally significant correlations were also found between serum NOx and fasting insulin concentration (r = 0.062, p = 0.057) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.063, p = 0.053) in women. NOx concentration differed significantly between quartiles of insulin and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices among women and the total population (P < 0.05), associations which remained significant after age adjustment (P < 0.05), but not after adjustment for other confounding variables (P > 0.05). Fasting serum insulin level and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices are not associated with serum NOx level after multivariable adjustment.

  19. Genome-wide association study of 1,5-anhydroglucitol identifies novel genetic loci linked to glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Maruthur, Nisa M; Loomis, Stephanie J; Pietzner, Maik; North, Kari E; Mei, Hao; Morrison, Alanna C; Friedrich, Nele; Pankow, James S; Nauck, Matthias; Boerwinkle, Eric; Teumer, Alexander; Selvin, Elizabeth; Köttgen, Anna

    2017-06-06

    1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a biomarker of hyperglycemic excursions associated with diabetic complications. Because of its structural similarity to glucose, genetic studies of 1,5-AG can deliver complementary insights into glucose metabolism. We conducted genome-wide association studies of serum 1,5-AG concentrations in 7,550 European ancestry (EA) and 2,030 African American participants (AA) free of diagnosed diabetes from the ARIC Study. Seven loci in/near EFNA1/SLC50A1, MCM6/LCT, SI, MGAM, MGAM2, SLC5A10, and SLC5A1 showed genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) among EA participants, five of which were novel. Six of the seven loci were successfully replicated in 8,790 independent EA individuals, and MCM6/LCT and SLC5A10 were also associated among AA. Most of 1,5-AG-associated index SNPs were not associated with the clinical glycemic markers fasting glucose or the  HbA1c, and vice versa. Only the index variant in SLC5A1 showed a significant association with fasting glucose in the expected opposing direction. Products of genes in all 1,5-AG-associated loci have known roles in carbohydrate digestion and enteral or renal glucose transport, suggesting that genetic variants associated with 1,5-AG influence its concentration via effects on glucose metabolism and handling.

  20. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  1. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  2. Space shuttle phase B study plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hello, B.

    1971-01-01

    Phase B emphasis was directed toward development of data which would facilitate selection of the booster concept, and main propulsion system for the orbiter. A shuttle system is also defined which will form the baseline for Phase C program activities.

  3. Using phase II data for the analysis of phase III studies: An application in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Simon; Neuenschwander, Beat; Röver, Christian; Friede, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Clinical research and drug development in orphan diseases are challenging, since large-scale randomized studies are difficult to conduct. Formally synthesizing the evidence is therefore of great value, yet this is rarely done in the drug-approval process. Phase III designs that make better use of phase II data can facilitate drug development in orphan diseases. A Bayesian meta-analytic approach is used to inform the phase III study with phase II data. It is particularly attractive, since uncertainty of between-trial heterogeneity can be dealt with probabilistically, which is critical if the number of studies is small. Furthermore, it allows quantifying and discounting the phase II data through the predictive distribution relevant for phase III. A phase III design is proposed which uses the phase II data and considers approval based on a phase III interim analysis. The design is illustrated with a non-inferiority case study from a Food and Drug Administration approval in herpetic keratitis (an orphan disease). Design operating characteristics are compared to those of a traditional design, which ignores the phase II data. An analysis of the phase II data reveals good but insufficient evidence for non-inferiority, highlighting the need for a phase III study. For the phase III study supported by phase II data, the interim analysis is based on half of the patients. For this design, the meta-analytic interim results are conclusive and would justify approval. In contrast, based on the phase III data only, interim results are inconclusive and require further evidence. To accelerate drug development for orphan diseases, innovative study designs and appropriate methodology are needed. Taking advantage of randomized phase II data when analyzing phase III studies looks promising because the evidence from phase II supports informed decision-making. The implementation of the Bayesian design is straightforward with public software such as R.

  4. Salacia Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jeykodi, Shankaranarayanan; Deshpande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of Salacia chinensis extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE) capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27803937

  5. A glucose sensor protein for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Jithesh V; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2010-12-15

    In vivo continuous glucose monitoring has posed a significant challenge to glucose sensor development due to the lack of reliable techniques that are non- or at least minimally-invasive. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the development of a new glucose sensor protein, AcGFP1-GBPcys-mCherry, and an optical sensor assembly, capable of generating quantifiable FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) signals for glucose monitoring. Our experimental data showed that the engineered glucose sensor protein can generate measurable FRET signals in response to glucose concentrations varying from 25 to 800 μM. The sensor developed based on this protein had a shelf-life of up to 3 weeks. The sensor response was devoid of interference from compounds like galactose, fructose, lactose, mannose, and mannitol when tested at physiologically significant concentrations of these compounds. This new glucose sensor protein can potentially be used to develop implantable glucose sensors for continuous glucose monitoring.

  6. Pediatric reference values for serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate in Iranians: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Asghar; Azimzadeh, Iraj; Afghan, Marjan; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Bagheripour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-11-01

    Serum creatinine is the most widely used marker for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The aim of this study was to determine pediatric reference values for serum creatinine levels and eGFR values using data from a population-based study in Iran. Serum creatinine of 1594 subjects, aged 3 - 18 years, participating in phase 4 of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2008 - 2011) was measured using the conventional Jaffe method. The non-parametric method of Schwartz and Counahan-Barratt equations were used to calculate eGFR. CLSI/IFCC guidelines were used to determine reference values. In both genders, serum creatinine concentration was significantly increased with age and had a positive correlation with age (boys (r = 0.786, n = 778, P < 0.001) and girls (r = 0.638, n = 724, P < 0.001)). In addition, mean serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in boys, compared to girls (0.86 ± 0.01 vs. 0.80 ± 0.01 mg/dL, P < 0.001). Based on these results, we proposed the following formula: serum creatinine (mg/dL) = k × age (year) + 0.5, where k was 0.03 for boys and 0.02 for girls. This study presents pediatric reference values in Iranian boys and girls for serum creatinine levels to be 0.6 - 1.20 mg/dL and 0.6 - 1.00 mg/dL and for eGFR values to be 81 - 154 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 80 - 129 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. These values can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  7. Prostate cancer risk in the Swedish AMORIS study: the interplay among triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Hammar, Niklas; Lambe, Mats

    2011-05-15

    In a cohort including 5112 prostate cancer (pCa) patients, the authors investigated associations among triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and pCa while taking into account glucose. A cohort (n = 200,660) based on 4 groups of men, according to age at cohort entry, with TG, TC, and glucose measurements was selected from the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) database. Of these, 5112 men developed pCa. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations among TG, TC, and pCa. Competing risks were assessed graphically. Age-stratified analyses for quartiles of TG, TC, and glucose showed a negative association between glucose and pCa risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.01), 0.93 (0.86-1.01), 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first (P(trend) = .001). Stratified analysis by glucose levels (<6.11 or ≥ 6.11 mmol/L) showed a positive association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.71 mmol/L) and pCa risk, when there were high glucose levels (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48). No association was found for hypercholesterolemia (TC ≥ 6.50 mmol/L). Competing risk analysis showed that protective effects of glucose were overestimated in conventional Cox proportional hazard models and strengthened positive findings between TG and pCa risk. The authors'; findings supported the hypothesis that factors of the glucose and lipid metabolism influence pCa risk. Competing risk assessment showed that it is important to take into account the long natural history and age distribution of pCa when interpreting results. The authors'; findings indicate another reason to fight the increasing prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  8. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Citrate and Glucose Cometabolism by Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Ana; Jordan, Kieran N.; Cogan, Timothy M.; Santos, Helena

    1994-01-01

    13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) was used to investigate the metabolism of citrate plus glucose and pyruvate plus glucose by nongrowing cells of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 19B under anaerobic conditions. The metabolism of citrate plus glucose during growth was also monitored directly by in vivo NMR. Although pyruvate is a common intermediate metabolite in the metabolic pathways of both citrate and glucose, the origin of the carbon atoms in the fermentation products was determined by using selectively labeled substrates, e.g., [2,4-13C]citrate, [3-13C]pyruvate, and [2-13C]glucose. The presence of an additional substrate caused a considerable stimulation in the rates of substrate utilization, and the pattern of end products was changed. Acetate plus acetoin and butanediol represented more than 80% (molar basis) of the end products of the metabolism of citrate (or pyruvate) alone, but when glucose was also added, 80% of the citrate (or pyruvate) was converted to lactate. This result can be explained by the activation of lactate dehydrogenase by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, an intermediate in glucose metabolism. The effect of different concentrations of glucose on the metabolism of citrate by dilute cell suspensions was also probed by using analytical methods other than NMR. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (but not pyruvate formate-lyase) was active in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. α-Acetolactate was detected as an intermediate metabolite of citrate or pyruvate metabolism, and the labeling pattern of the end products agrees with the α-acetolactate pathway. It was demonstrated that the contribution of the acetyl coenzyme A pathway for the synthesis of diacetyl, should it exist, is lower than 10%. Evidence for the presence of internal carbon reserves in L. lactis is presented. PMID:16349269

  9. Glucose Homeostasis and Weight Loss in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Banded Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Gustavo Peixoto Soares; Azevedo, Joao Luiz Moreira Coutinho; Neto, Carlos Gicovate; Moreira, Cora Lavigne Castelo Branco; Viana, Elaine Cristina; Carvalho, Perseu Seixas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess glucose homeostasis and weight loss in morbidly obese patients undergoing Silastic® ring sleeve gas-trectomy. METHODS This was a prospective clinical study. Thirty-three female patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 42.33 ± 1.50 kg/m2 (range: 40–45 kg/m2), a mean age of 36.7 ± 9.4 years and a mean waist circumference of 118.7 ± 5.98 cm were included in this study. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed in 11 patients (33.3%), and glucose intolerance was observed in 4 patients (12.1%). Mean plasma fasting glucose levels were 109.77 ± 44.19 mg/dl (75–320) in the preoperative period. All Silastic® ring sleeve gastrectomy procedures were performed by the same surgical team using the same anesthetic technique. The patients were monitored for at least 12 months after surgery. RESULTS The mean weight of the patients decreased from 107.69 ± 6.57 kg to 70.52 ± 9.36 kg (p < 0.001), the mean BMI decreased to 27.4 ± 2.42 kg/m2 (p < 0.001), and the mean waist circumference decreased to 89.87 cm ± 6.66 (p < 0.001) in the postoperative period. Excess BMI loss was 86.5 ± 14.2%. Fasting glucose levels were reduced to 80.94 ± 6.3 mg/dl (p < 0.001). Remission of diabetes and glucose intolerance was observed in all patients. CONCLUSION Silastic® ring sleeve gastrectomy was effective in promoting weight loss, waist circumference reduction and control of glucose homeostasis in morbidly obese patients. PMID:19936183

  10. Antihypertensive drug class and impaired fasting glucose: a risk association study among Chinese patients with uncomplicated hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin CS; Jiang, Johnny Y; Fung, H; Griffiths, Sian; Mercer, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of studies addressing the factors associated with impaired fasting glucose in Chinese patients with uncomplicated hypertension. We included 1,218 patients newly prescribed a single antihypertensive drug in the public primary healthcare setting in Hong Kong, where their fasting glucose levels were measured 6–7 weeks after the first-ever antihypertensive prescription. Methods The odds ratios of having above borderline (≥ 6.1 mmol/l) and adverse (≥ 7.0 mmol/l) glucose levels, respectively, were studied according to patient age, gender, socioeconomic status, clinic types and antihypertensive drug classes by multivariable regression analyses. Results The fasting glucose levels were statistically similar (p = 0.786) among patients prescribed thiazide diuretics (5.48 mmol/l, 95%, 5.38, 5.59), calcium channel blockers (5.46 mmol/l, 95% C.I. 5.37, 5.54), β-blockers (5.42 mmol/l, 95% C.I. 5.34, 5.51) and drugs acting on the renin angiotensin system (RAS) [5.41 mmol/l, 95% C.I. 5.20, 5.61]. Multivariate analyses reported no significant associations between antihypertensive drug class and impaired fasting glucose. Elderly patients and male gender were significantly more likely to present with above borderline and adverse readings respectively. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired fasting glucose in these groups, and use of thiazides should not in itself deter its use as a first-line antihypertensive agent among ethnic Chinese patients. PMID:18783618

  11. Main Facilitators of Smoking Among Young Males in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Amiri, Parisa; Amirshekari, Golshan; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases and its alarming trend. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and determine facilitating factors for smoking in young males, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), from their own perspective. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted within the framework of the TLGS. Participants were young males with 15 to 25 years of age and various levels of education. The inductive content analysis approach was used to analyze data on the participants’ perceptions with regard to smoking facilitators. Data collection was conducted through discussions by six semi-structured focus groups consisted of five to seven people. All the interviews were transcribed after being recorded and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Results: Two main categories derived from the analysis of the data: I) personal needs and features; and II) environmental facilitators. The former concept included three subcategories: 1) fulfilling essential needs; 2) search for identity; and 3) lack of life skills. Environmental facilitators were also divided into two subcategories: 1) social patterns; and 2) ease of access. Conclusions: Tendency towards smoking is influenced by different factors. Clarifying these influential factors for smoking from the perspective of young males can be important in designing effective preventive programs. PMID:25593726

  12. Effects of AMPK activation on lipolysis in primary rat adipocytes: studies at different glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, Tomasz; Szkudelska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important intracellular energy sensor. Effects of activation of AMPK by aminomidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) on lipolysis in the rat adipocytes were determined in the presence of 3 or 12 mM glucose. Response to epinephrine or dibutyryl-cAMP was higher in the presence of 12 mM glucose. AICAR decreased lipolysis, also when glucose was replaced by alanine or succinate and without decrease in cAMP levels. AICAR attenuated epinephrine-induced decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, reduced glucose uptake and lactate release. These results indicate that short-term activation of AMPK by AICAR in the rat adipocytes inhibits lipolysis, due to changes in the final, followed by protein kinase A (PKA), steps of the lipolytic cascade and improves intracellular energy status. Similar effects of AICAR were observed in the presence of 3 and 12 mM glucose, which indicates that the AMPK system is operative at high glucose concentrations.

  13. A Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Study of the Cryoprotective Mechanism of Glucose on Hemocyanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauger, Eric J.

    Cryopreservation is the method of preserving biomaterials by cooling and storing them at very low temperatures. In order to prevent the damaging effects of cooling, cryoprotectants are used to inhibit ice formation. Common cryoprotectants used today include ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and sugars. However, the mechanism responsible for the effectiveness of these cryoprotectants is poorly understood on the molecular level. The water replacement model predicts that water molecules around the surfaces of proteins are replaced with sugar molecules, forming a protective layer against the denaturing ice formation. Under this scheme, one would expect an increase in the hydrodynamic radius with increasing sugar concentration. In order to test this hypothesis, two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of hemocyanin (Hc), an oxygen-carrying protein found in arthropods, in glucose solutions up to 20wt%. FCS found that the hydrodynamic radius was invariant with increasing glucose concentration. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results verified the hydrodynamic radius of hemocyanin in the absence of glucose. Although this invariant trend seems to indicate that the water replacement hypothesis is invalid the expected glucose layer around the Hc is smaller than the error in the hydrodynamic radius measurements for FCS. The expected change in the hydrodynamic radius with an additional layer of glucose is 1nm, however, the FCS standard error is +/-3.61nm. Therefore, the water replacement model cannot be confirmed nor refuted as a possible explanation for the cryoprotective effects of glucose on Hc.

  14. Response surface methodology to optimize partition and purification of two recombinant oxidoreductase enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and d-galactose dehydrogenase in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz Mohammadi, Hamid; Mostafavi, Seyede Samaneh; Soleimani, Saeideh; Bozorgian, Sajad; Pooraskari, Maryam; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat

    2015-04-01

    Oxidoreductases are an important family of enzymes that are used in many biotechnological processes. An experimental design was applied to optimize partition and purification of two recombinant oxidoreductases, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis and d-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH) from Pseudomonas fluorescens AK92 in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was performed to optimize critical factors like polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, concentration of salt and pH value. The best partitioning conditions was achieved in an ATPS composed of 12% PEG-6000, 15% K2HPO4 with pH 7.5 at 25°C, which ensured partition coefficient (KE) of 66.6 and 45.7 for GDH and GalDH, respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the activity of GDH and GalDH was 569.5U/ml and 673.7U/ml, respectively. It was found that these enzymes preferentially partitioned into the top PEG-rich phase and appeared as single bands on SDS-PAGE gel. Meanwhile the validity of the response model was confirmed by a good agreement between predicted and experimental results. Collectively, according to the obtained data it can be inferred that the ATPS optimization using RSM approach can be applied for recovery and purification of any enzyme from oxidoreductase family.

  15. Type 2 Diabetes–Associated K+ Channel TALK-1 Modulates β-Cell Electrical Excitability, Second-Phase Insulin Secretion, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Vierra, Nicholas C.; Dadi, Prasanna K.; Jeong, Imju; Dickerson, Matthew; Powell, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels play an important role in tuning β-cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The K2P channel TWIK-related alkaline pH-activated K2P (TALK)-1 is linked to type 2 diabetes risk through a coding sequence polymorphism (rs1535500); however, its physiological function has remained elusive. Here, we show that TALK-1 channels are expressed in mouse and human β-cells, where they serve as key regulators of electrical excitability and GSIS. We find that the rs1535500 polymorphism, which results in an alanine-to-glutamate substitution in the C-terminus of human TALK-1, increases channel activity. Genetic ablation of TALK-1 results in β-cell membrane potential depolarization, increased islet Ca2+ influx, and enhanced second-phase GSIS. Moreover, mice lacking TALK-1 channels are resistant to high-fat diet–induced elevations in fasting glycemia. These findings reveal TALK-1 channels as important modulators of second-phase insulin secretion and suggest a clinically relevant mechanism for rs1535500, which may increase type 2 diabetes risk by limiting GSIS. PMID:26239056

  16. Type 2 Diabetes-Associated K+ Channel TALK-1 Modulates β-Cell Electrical Excitability, Second-Phase Insulin Secretion, and Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vierra, Nicholas C; Dadi, Prasanna K; Jeong, Imju; Dickerson, Matthew; Powell, David R; Jacobson, David A

    2015-11-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels play an important role in tuning β-cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The K2P channel TWIK-related alkaline pH-activated K2P (TALK)-1 is linked to type 2 diabetes risk through a coding sequence polymorphism (rs1535500); however, its physiological function has remained elusive. Here, we show that TALK-1 channels are expressed in mouse and human β-cells, where they serve as key regulators of electrical excitability and GSIS. We find that the rs1535500 polymorphism, which results in an alanine-to-glutamate substitution in the C-terminus of human TALK-1, increases channel activity. Genetic ablation of TALK-1 results in β-cell membrane potential depolarization, increased islet Ca2+ influx, and enhanced second-phase GSIS. Moreover, mice lacking TALK-1 channels are resistant to high-fat diet-induced elevations in fasting glycemia. These findings reveal TALK-1 channels as important modulators of second-phase insulin secretion and suggest a clinically relevant mechanism for rs1535500, which may increase type 2 diabetes risk by limiting GSIS.

  17. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Ejtahed, Hanieh Sadat; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP) were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean age of participants (43%, men) was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58), respectively (P for trend=0.03). The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05). Higher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities.

  19. Glucose oxidase incorporated collagen matrices for dermal wound repair in diabetic rat models: a biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arul, V; Masilamoni, J G; Jesudason, E P; Jaji, P J; Inayathullah, M; Dicky John, D G; Vignesh, S; Jayakumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Impaired wound healing in diabetes is a well-documented phenomenon. Emerging data favor the involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of diabetic wound healing. We investigated the beneficial role of the sustained release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic dermal wound healing. In order to achieve the sustained delivery of ROS in the wound bed, we have incorporated glucose oxidase in the collagen matrix (GOIC), which is applied to the healing diabetic wound. Our in vitro proteolysis studies on incorporated GOIC show increased stability against the proteases in the collagen matrix. In this study, GOIC film and collagen film (CF) are used as dressing material on the wound of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A significant increase in ROS (p < 0.05) was observed in the fibroblast of GOIC group during the inflammation period compared to the CF and control groups. This elevated level up regulated the antioxidant status in the granulation tissue and improved cellular proliferation in the GOIC group. Interestingly, our biochemical parameters nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, uronic acid, protein, and DNA content in the healing wound showed that there is an increase in proliferation of cells in GOIC when compared to the control and CF groups. In addition, evidence from wound contraction and histology reveals faster healing in the GOIC group. Our observations document that GOIC matrices could be effectively used for diabetic wound healing therapy.

  20. Berberine, a plant alkaloid with lipid- and glucose-lowering properties: From in vitro evidence to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline plant alkaloid endowed with several pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, glucose- and cholesterol-lowering, anti-tumoral and immunomodulatory properties. The main mechanism by which BBR exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis relates to its cholesterol-lowering activity. BBR significantly increases hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression and reduces the expression and secretion of the LDLR modulator proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). In addition to this, several other atheroprotective effects have been ascribed to BBR, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and improvement of endothelial dysfunction. BBR also increases glucose utilization in adipocytes and myocytes, while decreases glucose absorption in intestinal cells, resulting in a net hypoglycemic effect. In hypercholesterolemic animals, BBR significantly decreases LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC) levels and reduces aortic lesions, an effect similar to that of statins. In diabetic animals, BBR significantly reduces glucose levels, improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and adipose tissue mass. Several clinical studies have also tested the efficacy of BBR in humans. In hypercholesterolemic subjects, BBR induces a significant reduction of TC, triglycerides and LDL-C levels and a significant increase of HDL-C levels, without major adverse effects. BBR also reduces glycemia and plasma cholesterol in diabetic patients, improves lipid and glucose profile and decreases body mass index and waist circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome. These findings, together with the good tolerability, suggest that BBR administration might be considered a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia or diabetes. Given the level of evidence available to date well-designed randomized controlled trials to test safety

  1. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut. Methods A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19–59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract. Results Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234), -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004) and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence). Conclusions Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a

  2. Phase diagram study of Fulleride family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddeb, D.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.; Héritier, M.; Bennaceur, R.

    2004-08-01

    The phase diagram of the Fulleride compounds is studied as a function of n, i.e. the band filling of the LUMO or HOMO energy band, depending on the nature of the electron or hole doping, performed either chemically or by an electric field effect. We discuss the role of strong electron-electron correlation, related to electron-vibron interaction and Jahn-Teller distorsion. Superconducting coupling is expected for odd values of n and is expected to be strongest for n=3 in electron doped systems. We take into account the correlated nature of the electron Fermi liquid, which should exhibit a pseudogap phenomenon. Superconductivity is discussed within a strong coupling approach. We show that Tc( n) decrease away from n=3 on both sides of this maximum. Moreover, for even values of n, we obtain that the system is the neighbourhood of metal-insulator transition. The case of hole doping, although chemically unaccessible is also discussed.

  3. Detection of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Africans Is Improved by Combining A1C With Fasting Glucose: The Africans in America Study

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Caroline K.; O'Connor, Michelle Y.; Ricks, Madia; Chung, Stephanie T.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Lozier, Jay N.; Sacks, David B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Abnormal glucose tolerance is rising in sub-Saharan Africa. Hemoglobin A1c by itself and in combination with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is used to diagnose abnormal glucose tolerance. The diagnostic ability of A1C in Africans with heterozygous variant hemoglobin, such as sickle cell trait or hemoglobin C trait, has not been rigorously evaluated. In U.S.-based Africans, we determined by hemoglobin status the sensitivities of 1) FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L, 2) A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol), and 3) FPG combined with A1C (FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L and/or A1C ≥5.7% [39 mmol/mol]) for the detection of abnormal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 216 African immigrants (68% male, age 37 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], range 20–64 years). Abnormal glucose tolerance was defined as 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L. RESULTS Variant hemoglobin was identified in 21% (46 of 216). Abnormal glucose tolerance occurred in 33% (72 of 216). When determining abnormal glucose tolerance from the OGTT (2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L), sensitivities of FPG for the total, normal, and variant hemoglobin groups were 32%, 32%, and 33%, respectively. Sensitivities for A1C were 53%, 54%, and 47%. For FPG and A1C combined, sensitivities were 64%, 63%, and 67%. Sensitivities for FPG and A1C and the combination did not vary by hemoglobin status (all P > 0.6). For the entire cohort, sensitivity was higher for A1C than FPG and for both tests combined than for either test alone (all P values ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS No significant difference in sensitivity of A1C by variant hemoglobin status was detected. For the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance in Africans, the sensitivity of A1C combined with FPG is significantly superior to either test alone. PMID:25338926

  4. Detection of abnormal glucose tolerance in Africans is improved by combining A1C with fasting glucose: the Africans in America Study.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E; Thoreson, Caroline K; O'Connor, Michelle Y; Ricks, Madia; Chung, Stephanie T; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lozier, Jay N; Sacks, David B

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal glucose tolerance is rising in sub-Saharan Africa. Hemoglobin A1c by itself and in combination with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is used to diagnose abnormal glucose tolerance. The diagnostic ability of A1C in Africans with heterozygous variant hemoglobin, such as sickle cell trait or hemoglobin C trait, has not been rigorously evaluated. In U.S.-based Africans, we determined by hemoglobin status the sensitivities of 1) FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L, 2) A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol), and 3) FPG combined with A1C (FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L and/or A1C ≥5.7% [39 mmol/mol]) for the detection of abnormal glucose tolerance. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 216 African immigrants (68% male, age 37 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], range 20-64 years). Abnormal glucose tolerance was defined as 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L. Variant hemoglobin was identified in 21% (46 of 216). Abnormal glucose tolerance occurred in 33% (72 of 216). When determining abnormal glucose tolerance from the OGTT (2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L), sensitivities of FPG for the total, normal, and variant hemoglobin groups were 32%, 32%, and 33%, respectively. Sensitivities for A1C were 53%, 54%, and 47%. For FPG and A1C combined, sensitivities were 64%, 63%, and 67%. Sensitivities for FPG and A1C and the combination did not vary by hemoglobin status (all P > 0.6). For the entire cohort, sensitivity was higher for A1C than FPG and for both tests combined than for either test alone (all P values ≤ 0.01). No significant difference in sensitivity of A1C by variant hemoglobin status was detected. For the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance in Africans, the sensitivity of A1C combined with FPG is significantly superior to either test alone. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June-November 2014. Adults aged 35-64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  6. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  7. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with reduced glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes - the Tromsø OGTT-study.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Moira S; Figenschau, Yngve; Almås, Bjørg; Njølstad, Inger; Jorde, Rolf

    2011-09-01

    The relationships between vitamin D concentrations, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance remain uncertain. During 2008 - 2010, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 3520 subjects from Tromsø, Norway. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in 1193 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, in 304 with isolated impaired fasting glucose, in 254 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance, in 139 with a combination of the two, and in 194 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Serum 25(OH)D did not differ between subjects with isolated impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, but was lower in all groups of deranged glucose metabolism as compared with normal subjects. These differences could not be explained by differences in intakes of vitamin D from cod liver oil or other supplements and remained statistically significant after adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, physical activity score, and month of examination. When the cohort was divided according to serum 25(OH)D quartiles, there was an improvement in all measures of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, serum insulin, HbA(1c)) and estimates of insulin resistance (QUICKI , HOMA-IR, ISI(0.120)) with increasing serum 25(OH)D quartile. However, interventional studies are needed to prove a causal relationship between vitamin D and glucose metabolism.

  9. The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Katherine; Lutgers, Helen L; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Campbell, Lesley V; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Baune, Bernard T; Lipnicki, Darren M; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes predicts accelerated cognitive decline and brain atrophy. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and incident glucose disorders have detrimental effects on global cognition and brain volume. We further hypothesized that metabolic and inflammatory derangements accompanying hyperglycaemia contribute to change in brain structure and function. This was a longitudinal study of a community-dwelling elderly cohort with neuropsychological testing (n = 880) and brain volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 312) measured at baseline and 2 years. Primary outcomes were global cognition and total brain volume. Secondary outcomes were cognitive domains (processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial and executive function) and brain volumes (hippocampal, parahippocampal, precuneus and frontal lobe). Participants were categorised as normal, impaired fasting glucose at both assessments (stable IFG), baseline diabetes or incident glucose disorders (incident diabetes or IFG at 2 years). Measures included inflammatory cytokines and oxidative metabolites. Covariates were age, sex, education, non-English speaking background, smoking, blood pressure, lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications, mood score, apolipoprotein E genotype and baseline cognition or brain volume. Participants with incident glucose disorders had greater decline in global cognition and visuospatial function compared to normal, similar to that observed in baseline diabetes. Homocysteine was independently associated with the observed effect of diabetes on executive function. Apolipoprotein E genotype did not influence the observed effects of diabetes on cognition. Incident glucose disorders and diabetes were also associated with greater 2-year decline in total brain volume, compared to normal (40.0 ± 4.2 vs. 46.7 ± 5.7 mm(3) vs. 18.1 ± 6.2, respectively, p < 0.005). Stable IFG did not show greater decline in global cognition or brain volumes compared

  10. Consumption of nitrate containing vegetables and the risk of chronic kidney disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Asghari, Golaleh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence regarding the potential properties of nitrate-rich foods in development of chronic diseases. In this study, we investigated the association of nitrate-containing vegetables (NCVs) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated 1546 eligible adult participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), at baseline (2006-2008) and again after 3 years (2009-2011). Dietary intake was collected using the validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nitrate-containing vegetables and its categories including high-, medium-, and low-nitrate vegetables were defined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD were defined. Association between NCVs and CKD in the cross-sectional phase and the predictability of NCVs consumption in CKD occurrence were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean dietary intake of energy-adjusted NCVs was 298.0 ± 177.3 g/day. Highest compared to the lowest tertile of NCVs was accompanied with a significantly lower mean eGFR (76.6 vs. 83.3, mL/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of CKD (21.7 vs. 9.9%, p < 0.001). At baseline, higher intake of high-NCVs was associated with a 48% higher chance of having CKD (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.05-2.13). After 3 years of follow-up, there was no significant association between consumption of total NCVs and its categories with the occurrence of CKD. Considering the lack of association between high-NCVs intakes and the risk of CKD in prospective analysis, additional research is recommended to clarify possible effect of nitrate intakes from vegetables on kidney function.

  11. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V; Gjedde, A; Cold, G E

    2010-05-01

    The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. Eight volunteers underwent two dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans. One scan assessed conscious-baseline metabolism and the other scan assessed metabolism during 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane anaesthesia. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were monitored and bispectral index responses were registered. Statistical parametric maps and conventional regions of interest analysis were used to determine rGMR differences. All subjects were unconsciousness at 1.0 MAC sevoflurane. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were constant over time. In the awake state, rGMR ranged from 0.24 to 0.35 mumol/g/min in the selected regions. Compared with the conscious state, total GMR decreased 56% in sevoflurane anaesthesia. In white and grey matter, GMR was averaged 42% and 58% of normal, respectively. Sevoflurane reduced the absolute rGMR in all selected areas by 48-71% of the baseline (P< or = 0.01), with the most significant reductions in the lingual gyrus (71%), occipital lobe in general (68%) and thalamus (63%). No increases in rGMR were observed. Sevoflurane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe.

  12. Glucose Oxidase Adsorption on Sequential Adsorbed Polyelectrolyte Films Studied by Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristán, Ferdinando; Solís, Araceli; Palestino, Gabriela; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Pérez, Elías

    2005-04-01

    The adsorption of Glucose Oxidase (GOX) on layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) deposited on Sequentially Adsorbed Polyelectrolyte Films (SAPFs) were studied by three different spectroscopic techniques. These techniques are: Optical Wave Light Spectroscopy (OWLS) to measure surface density; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to verify the adsorption of GOX on the surface; and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection mode (FTIR-HATR) to inspect local structure of polyelectrolytes and GOX. Two positive and two negative polyelectrolytes are used: Cationic poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and anionic poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). These spectroscopic techniques do not require any labeling for GOX or SAPFs, specifically GOX and PSS are naturally fluorescent and are used as a couple donor-acceptor for the FRET technique. The SAPFs are formed by a (PEI)-(PSS/PAH)2 film followed by (PAA/PAH)n bilayers. GOX is finally deposited on top of SAPFs at different values of n (n=1..5). Our results show that GOX is adsorbed on positive ended SAPFs forming a monolayer. Contrary, GOX adsorption is not observed on negative ended film polyelectrolyte. GOX stability was tested adding a positive and a negative polyelectrolyte after GOX adsorption. Protein is partially removed by PAH and PAA, with lesser force by PAA.

  13. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of the cellulase - catalyzed conversion of cellulose to glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, D.K.; Laidler, K.J.

    1983-10-01

    The kinetics of the cellulase-catalyzed conversion of soluble cellulose into glucose have been studied over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures, and at pH values ranging from 4.75 to 7.0. Lineweaver-Burk plots were linear and led to V = 6.2..mu..M/s and Km = 13.1mM at pH 5.8 and 25.0 degrees C. The pK values corresponding to the free enzyme are 4.8 and 6.8 and are consistent with carboxyl and imidazole groups as the active ionizing species. These pK values were little changed in the enzyme-substrate intermediate that reacts in the rate-determining step, suggesting that the ionizing groups are still free in this intermediate. The activation energy corresponding to V/Km is 80.6 kJ/mol, and that corresponding to V is 38.7 kJ/mol. The corresponding entropies of activation are 21 J K/sup -1/mol/sup -1/ and -157 J K/sup -1/mol/sup -1/, respectively. 22 references.

  15. Pre-collapse phase studies before Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.

    2012-03-01

    The role of molecular clouds as factories of stars has been recognized for decades, but understanding how a large cloud of tens of thousands or more solar masses fragments into stellar-sized pockets with an efficiency of only a few percent and an IMF spectrum is still a puzzling mystery. In this talk, I will review how our observational understanding of the stages prior to star formation has evolved with time, from the earliest molecular studies to the pre-Herschel era. Both the large scale of clouds and the small structure of dense cores will be covered, following the results from molecular-line observation and dust emission/extinction studies. Although Herschel observations are clearly revolutionizing our view of cloud and core formation, parallel work on the kinematics of the cloud gas is also shedding new light on the pre-collapse phases. I will end my presentation showing how large-scale kinematics studies, highly complementary to the Herschel continuum data, reveal a sequence of fragmentation that seems responsible for core formation.

  16. Radiation inactivation studies on the rabbit kidney sodium-dependent glucose transporter.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Malathi, P; Preiser, H; Jung, C Y

    1985-09-05

    Rabbit kidney cortical brush-border membrane vesicles were irradiated in the frozen state with increasing doses of high energy electrons from a Van de Graaff generator. Sodium-dependent D-glucose and L-alanine transport showed a simple exponential loss of activity with increasing radiation dosage. Target size calculation based on these data gives estimates of 1.0 X 10(6) daltons for the glucose transporter and 1.2 X 10(6) daltons for the alanine transporter. A highly purified glucose transport protein extracted from rabbit kidney cortex was similarly irradiated both before and after reconstitution into liposomes. The target size of this purified glucose transporter was 343,000 daltons, based on inactivation of transport. The intensity of the major 165,000-dalton sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis band of this preparation was decreased by radiation. The decrease in staining intensity was dose-dependent, yielding a target size of 298,000 daltons, in situ. We propose that the purified glucose transporter reconstituted into liposomes is a tetramer comprised of 85,000-dalton subunits.

  17. Reconsidering the activation entropy for anomerization of glucose and mannose in water studied by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Ami; Aida, Misako; Katsumoto, Yukiteru

    2015-08-01

    The anomerization of monosaccharides is a very important process to understand how their stereoisomers are stabilized in aqueous solutions. For glucose and mannose, it has been known that α- and β-anomers of hexopyranose exist as the major components. In order to examine the anomerization pathway for glucose and mannose in aqueous solutions, it is indispensable to determine the thermodynamic parameters such as the activation energy, the activation Gibbs free energy (ΔG‡), enthalpy (ΔH‡), and entropy (ΔS‡). Although several research groups reported these quantities in aqueous solution, they have still been controversial especially for ΔS‡. In this paper, we employ 1H NMR spectroscopy for monitoring the population of both α- and β-anomers of glucose and mannose. The contribution of ΔS‡ to ΔG‡ for glucose in water is estimated to be ca. 30%, while that for mannose is 8.0%. The large difference in ΔS‡ suggests that the anomerization pathway is not the same for glucose and mannose.

  18. Quantitative study of starving platelets in a minimal medium: maintenance by acetate or plasma but not by glucose.

    PubMed

    Whisson, M E; Nakhoul, A; Howman, P; Niu, X; Guppy, M

    1993-06-01

    The requirement of donor platelets for fuels, plasma and calcium were studied using platelets washed, filtered to remove leucocytes and resuspended in a new glucose-free minimal platelet storage medium with low citrate (3 mmol/l), low buffer capacity and no calcium. This is the first study of platelets stored without plasma, glucose or calcium and it was shown that platelets continued to aggregate with collagen plus adrenaline for 48 h and showed only a 50% fall in 'swirl index', an objective morphology score, after 3 days, showing that by these criteria human platelets do not require glucose. Sodium acetate extended the storage time by between 2 and 4 days, depending on the index parameter. This is the first evidence showing that failure of platelets in these conditions is at least partly due to exhaustion of fuel, and the first evidence that acetate prolongs in vitro survival. As little as 10% low-glucose plasma extended the storage time, but it was no better than acetate. New observations using this system included a very rapid fall in pH during resuspension of the washed platelet pellet, a rising pH in the absence of added fuel and an increased pH with added acetate.

  19. Flight Phase Status Monitor Study. Phase I. Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-10

    analysis Title indepindent altitude monitor &.; --. ods j or aircraft alerting I(Report No.) monitor concept and modes study Ir s~tems data ( FAA -RD-73...168) ( FAA -RO-75-861 ( FAA RD--6-2221 Objectives 0 Identify nature of typical 0 Develop operational alert 0 Tabulate current boerting inadvertent terrain...alerting system ’ for system design(Rpr o)concepts system concept concepts (DOT/ FAA /RD-82-26) ( FAA -RD-Ba-68) evaluations ( FAA -RO-81-38 I & 11) Objectives 0

  20. Association between Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Bita; Amouzegar, Atieh; Arzhan, Soraya; Ghanbariyan, Arash; Delshad, Maryam; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. This study aimed to examine the association between PA and MetS and its components among normal weight and overweight/obese adolescent in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: This cross-sectional study includes 777 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who were selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling from among TLGS participants. Subjects were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese based on the age- and sex-specific standardized percentile curves of BMI for Iranian population. Levels of PA were assessed using a standardized and modifiable activity questionnaire (MAQ), and categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the Cook's criteria. Results: Prevalence of the MetS was higher in overweight/obese than normal group (35% vs. 3%; P: 0.02). Normal groups were more physically active (50% vs. 44%); however, difference was not significant. There was a significant association between the light PA and risk of lower level of HDL-C before and after adjustment, in normal weight group (OR: 1.61, CI 95%: 1.11, 2.35; OR: 1.65, CI 95%: 1.12, 2.44, respectively). The overweight/obese group with light and moderate PA had a higher risk of having abdominal obesity than those with vigorous PA, only after adjustment for determined covariates (OR: 1.11, CI 95%: 1.07, 1.21; OR: 1.06, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.08, respectively); the association between MetS and PA was not significant. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the association between PA and some individual components of MetS such as waist and HDL-C. PMID:24130941

  1. The space transportation main engine phase A' study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Space Transportation Main Engine Phase A prime study was conducted over a 7 month period as an extension to the Phase A study. The Phase A prime program was designed to expand the study effort completed in Phase A, focusing on the baseline engine configuration selected. Analysis and trade studies were conducted to further optimize some of the major engine subsystems. These changes resulted in improvements to the baseline engine. Several options were evaluated for consideration by vehicle contractors.

  2. Studying Three-Phase Supply in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit Kumar; Arun, P.

    2009-01-01

    The power distributions of nearly all major countries have accepted three-phase distribution as a standard. With increasing power requirements of instrumentation today even a small physics laboratory requires a three-phase supply. While physics students are given an introduction to this in passing, no experimental work is done with three-phase…

  3. Effects of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 selective inhibitor, ipragliflozin, on the diurnal profile of plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: A study using continuous glucose monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hitomi; Yoshinobu, Satoko; Kawano, Seiko; Tsuruta, Munehisa; Nohara, Masayuki; Hasuo, Rika; Akasu, Shoko; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Wada, Nobuhiko; Hirao, Saori; Iwata, Shinpei; Kaku, Hiroo; Tajiri, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To assess the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor therapy on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods We administered ipragliflozin to 21 inpatients with type 2 diabetes for 7 days, and analyzed the diurnal profiles of plasma glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. A total of 21 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched diabetic patients served as controls. Results Continuous glucose monitoring showed that the 24-h glucose curve was shifted downward without hypoglycemia by the administration of ipragliflozin. The average glucose level was reduced from 182 ± 54 mg/dL to 141 ± 33 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). The magnitude of the reduction was highly correlated with the baseline average glucose level. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was decreased, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was increased during the treatment. Urinary glucose excretion was correlated with the average glucose level both on day 0 and on day 7, although the regression line was steeper and shifted leftward on day 7. The ipragliflozin-treated patients lost more weight than the control patients (1.4 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.6 kg, P < 0.0001). Plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate were significantly increased with peaks before breakfast and before dinner. Patient age and bodyweight loss were negatively and positively correlated with the peak levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate on day 7, respectively. Conclusions The ipragliflozin treatment improved the 24-h glucose curve without causing hypoglycemia. The close correlation between the magnitude of glucose reduction and the baseline plasma glucose concentration suggests that the risk of hypoglycemia is likely low. It might be prudent to monitor ketone body levels in younger patients and in patients with rapid weight loss. PMID:26543545

  4. Soaking turkey meat in salt-glucose syrup solutions--an experimental study of mass transfers.

    PubMed

    Deumier, F; Collignan, A; Bohuon, P

    2002-08-01

    Turkey meat can be salted and dried in one step by soaking in a concentrated salt-glucose syrup solution at low temperature. Sugar impregnation is minimal; only low molecular weight sugars generally penetrate the product. Glucose uptake is very quick, suggesting the possible involvement of passive glucose transporters. The operational scope of this process, depending on the targeted end-product features, was determined for turkey meat on the basis of clearly characterized mass transport phenomena between the product and the soaking solution. With 2 cm thick meat fillets processed at 10 C it is thus possible to obtain salted-dried end-products containing 2 to 10% salt and 35 to 70% water, ranges that are compatible with a broad range of commercial cured products.

  5. Flow reactor studies of the paired electro-oxidation and electroreduction of glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K.; Baizer, M.M.; Nobe, K.; Pintauro

    1985-08-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and reduction of glucose to sorbitol hav been paired in an undivided packed-bed electrode flow reactor. A Raney Ni powder electrocatalyst significantly improved the current efficiency for sorbitol production, as compared to a high hydrogen overpotential Zn(Hg) cathode. The optimum operating conditions for the paired syntheses are activity W-2 Raney Ni powder cathode, graphite chip anode, a 1.6M glucose and 0.4M CaBr/sub 2/ initial solution composition, pH 5-7, 60/sup 0/C solution temperature, an applied current of 250-500 mA per 10g of nickel powder cathode and a solution volumetric flow rate of 100 ml-min/sup -1/. Under these conditions, the sorbitol current efficiencies are 80-100%, the gluconic acid efficiencies are 100%, and the product yields are very high.

  6. Effect of gender on glucose utilization rates in healthy humans: A positron emission tomography study

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, S.A.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Kumar, A.; Salerno, J.A.; Kozachuk, W.E.; Wagner, E.; Rapoport, S.I.; Horwitz, B. )

    1990-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used with 18fluorodeoxyglucose to see if gender differences in resting cerebral glucose utilization could be detected. Thirty-two healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men; age range: 21-38 yr) were examined using a high-resolution PET scanner to determine the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in 65 gray matter regions of interest. Whole brain CMRglc did not differ significantly between the two genders, nor did any of the regional CMRglc values. Only 1 of 65 ratios of regional-to-whole brain CMRglc differed significantly between men and women, which is consistent with chance. These results indicate that there are no differences in resting regional cerebral glucose utilization between young men and women.

  7. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Farhadnejad, Hossein; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Yuzbashian, Emad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80), cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93), vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69), vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92), vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70), potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97) and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76) had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61), subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD. PMID:27104561

  8. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional...

  9. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional...

  10. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional...

  11. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional...

  12. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional...

  13. Safety and feasibiLIty of Metformin in patients with Impaired glucose Tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke (LIMIT) trial - a multicenter, randomized, open-label phase II trial.

    PubMed

    den Hertog, Heleen M; Vermeer, S E; Zandbergen, A A M; Achterberg, Sefanja; Dippel, Diederik W J; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L J; Koudstaal, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the safety, feasibility, and effects on glucose metabolism of treatment with metformin in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke and impaired glucose tolerance. We performed a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label phase II trial with blinded outcome assessment. Patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke in the previous six months and impaired glucose tolerance (2-hour post-load glucose levels of 7.8-11.0 mmol/l) were randomized to metformin, in a daily dose of 2 g, or no metformin, for three months. Primary outcome measures were safety and feasibility of metformin, and the adjusted difference in 2-hour post-load glucose levels at three months. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number 54960762. Forty patients were enrolled; 19 patients were randomly assigned metformin. Nine patients in the metformin group had side effects, mostly gastrointestinal, leading to permanent discontinuation in four patients after 3-10 weeks. Treatment with metformin was associated with a significant reduction in 2-hour post-load glucose levels of 0·97 mmol/l (95% CI 0·11-1·83) in the on-treatment analysis, but not in the intention-to-treat analysis (0·71 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·36 to 1·78). Treatment with metformin in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke and impaired glucose tolerance is safe, but leads to minor side effects. If tolerated, it may lead to a significant reduction in post-load glucose levels. This suggests that the role of metformin as potential therapeutic agent for secondary stroke prevention should be further explored. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Peritoneal transport dynamics of glucose and icodextrin: the in vitro comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Krystyna; Szary, Beata; Grzelak, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    We performed in vitro experiments with the isolated rabbit parietal peritoneum to evaluate the importance of fluid stirring intensification and of chemical modification of mesothelium and interstitium to the peritoneal transport of glucose and icodextrin. We used a mathematical model of mass transport to calculate the diffusive permeability coefficient, P, in centimeters per second. In control conditions (intact tissue; stirring rate: 11 mL/min), the rate of glucose (2.0 g/dL) transfer remained constant, and no differences were observed for transport from the interstitial to the mesothelial (I-->M) side of the membrane or in the opposite direction (M-->I). The value of P (+/- standard error of the mean) was 2.731 +/- 0.472 x 10(-4) cm/s. In contrast, the icodextrin (7.5 g/dL) I-->M transport rate was higher than that for M-->I (P: 0.319 +/- 0.038 x 10(-4) cm/s and 0.194 +/- 0.035 x 10(-4) cm/s respectively). Dynamics of the icodextrin M-->I transfer were constant, but I-->M increased by 50% over time. The intensification of the stirring rate increased the value of P at varying rates: the increase was greater for icodextrin than for glucose, and greater for the I-->M transport direction than for the M-->I direction for both solutes. Chemical modification (by 2.5 mmol/L sodium deoxycholate) increased glucose and icodextrin I-->M transfer a mean of 41% and 81% respectively, but increased M-->I transfer by 70% and 224% respectively. The dynamics of glucose and icodextrin peritoneal transfer in vitro are different: glucose diffusion is constant, but I-->M icodextrin transfer increases over time and is greater than M-->I transfer Fluid stirring intensification and chemical injury to the peritoneum enhance diffusion of glucose and icodextrin. Glucose and icodextrin M-->I transfer but not I-->M transfer is restricted more by tissue barriers than by stagnant fluid layers.

  15. Acute Response in vivo of a Fiber-Optic Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring from Canine Studies on Point Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuo-Chih; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Chiu, Cheng-Yang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute response of Sencil™, a fiber-optic sensor, in point accuracy for glucose monitoring in vivo on healthy dogs under anesthesia. A total of four dogs with clinically normal glycemia were implanted with one sensor each in the chest region to measure the interstitial glucose concentration during the ovariohysterectomy procedure. The data was acquired every 10 seconds after initiation, and was compared to the concentration of venous plasma glucose sampled during the surgery procedures for accuracy of agreement analysis. In the four trials with a range of 71–297 mg/dL plasma glucose, the collected 21 pairs of ISF readings from the Sencil™ and the plasma reference showed superior dispersion of residue values than the conventional system, and a linear correlation (the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.9288 and the y-intercept is 14.22 mg/dL). The MAD (17.6 mg/dL) and RMAD (16.16%) of Sencil™ measurements were in the comparable range of the conventional system. The Clarke error grid analysis indicated that 100% of the paired points were in the clinically acceptable zone A (61.9%) and B (38.1%). PMID:22163627

  16. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21-64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140-187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30-120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); P<0.01]. The area under the plasma glucose concentration-time curve for 0-2 h (AUC0-2 h) values (means ± SD) were significantly lower for active-L (268±43 mg/h/dl) and active-H (266±42 mg/h/dl) than for the placebo (284±43 mg/h/dl; P<0.05). No significant differences were identified in the postprandial plasma insulin levels between the three conditions. No adverse events associated with intake of either dose of kale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe.

  17. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21–64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140–187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30–120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); P<0.01]. The area under the plasma glucose concentration-time curve for 0–2 h (AUC0–2 h) values (means ± SD) were significantly lower for active-L (268±43 mg/h/dl) and active-H (266±42 mg/h/dl) than for the placebo (284±43 mg/h/dl; P<0.05). No significant differences were identified in the postprandial plasma insulin levels between the three conditions. No adverse events associated with intake of either dose of kale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe. PMID:27882216

  18. Auditory adaptation to sound intensity in conscious rats: 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Pyo; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Park, Chan-Woong; Kim, In Young; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2012-03-07

    Despite the importance of the adaptive process for discriminating the broad range of sound intensity, there have been few systemic investigations targeting the auditory mechanisms. In this study, the adaptation effect of sound intensity on the change in glucose metabolism in rat brains was examined using a PET technique. In the first experiment, broadband white noise sound (40, 60, 80, or 100 dB sound pressure level) was given for 30 min after an 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose injection in an awake condition. In the second experiment, sound stimuli with an intensity modulation of 0, 0.5, and 5.0 Hz in frequency and at three intensity levels were used for examining the metabolism change according to the short time scale variation of the sound intensity. As a result, the metabolic activities in the bilateral cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complexes, and inferior colliculus were proportional to the sound intensity level, whereas the bilateral auditory cortical areas unexpectedly decreased as the sound intensity level increased in the first experiment. In the second experiment, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex was higher at 0.5 and 5.0 Hz modulation frequency than the 0.0 Hz modulation frequency, while retaining an inverse relationship with the sound intensity. The metabolism in inferior colliculus was higher at 5.0 Hz modulation frequency than 0.0 and 0.5 Hz modulation frequencies. Taken together, the auditory cortex metabolism seemed to be actively adapted to the average sound intensity, which indicates that it plays an important role in processing the broad range to sound intensity more than the other nucleus of the auditory pathway. Especially, this study demonstrated that the sound intensity-dependent glucose metabolism can be seen in a small rodent's brain stem level using 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET functional neuroimaging.

  19. The association between diabetes mellitus, glucose, and chronic musculoskeletal complaints. Results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Ole M; Midthjell, Kristian; Zwart, John-Anker; Hagen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DM, non-fasting glucose and chronic MSCs defined as pain and/or stiffness ≥ 3 months during the past year in the general adult population. Methods The results were based on cross-sectional data from 64,785 men and women (aged ≥ 20 years) who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey, which included 1,940 individuals with known DM. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results High non-fasting glucose was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic MSCs compared to a low glucose level. DM was associated with higher prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for glucose level, BMI, age, gender and physical activity, chronic widespread MSCs was 1.6 times more likely (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2) among individuals < 60 years of age with DM than among those without DM. The association between chronic widespread MSCs and DM was most evident among the group of individuals aged < 60 years with either type 2 DM or unclassified DM (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5). Conclusion In this cross-sectional study a high non-fasting glucose was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs. Among individuals with known DM chronic widespread MSCs were more likely. PMID:19055732

  20. Fasting plasma glucose and 5-year incidence of diabetes in the JPHC diabetes study - suggestion for the threshold for impaired fasting glucose among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the optimal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) cut-off value which effectively identifies high risk subjects for type 2 diabetes in Japanese, we conducted a population-based prospective study on diabetes as part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and estimated the 5-year incidence of diabetes. The subjects of the analysis of this study were 2,207 Japanese aged 51-70 at baseline from whom a fasting blood sample was collected in both the baseline and the 5-year follow-up surveys and who completed the questionnaires at both times. Diabetes was defined as an FPG value > or = 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) and/or self-reported diabetes. A total of 125 subjects developed diabetes during the 5 years after the baseline survey, and the incidence rate for a baseline FPG value of 95-99, 100-104, 105-109, 110-114, 115- 119, and 120-125 mg/dL was 6.1, 11.5, 30.3, 52.6, 86.4, and 115.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that an FPG value of 102 mg/dL (5.67 mmol/L) was optimal for predicting diabetes during the next 5-years. The cut-off value was similar in both genders and in the 51- to 60-year-old group and 61- to 70-year-old group. Use of hemoglobin A(1c) level > or = 6.1% for an additional diagnostic criterion resulted in a small increment in incidence, but the cut-off value for predicting diabetes was almost the same (101 mg/dL). The results of this study suggested that the cut-off FPG value should be lowered in terms of prediction of type 2 diabetes among Japanese populations.

  1. Effects of deprivation of oxygen or glucose on the neural activity in the guinea pig hippocampal slice--intracellular recording study of pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Takata, T; Okada, Y

    1995-06-12

    The block of synaptic transmission and neural activity during deprivation of oxygen or glucose has been simply attributed to the lack of energy due to the disorder of energy production. To clarify the interrelation between neural activity and energy metabolism during hypoxia or glucose deprivation, we studied the changes in ATP levels and electrical events of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region and [Ca2+]i mobilization of the dendritic and cellular region of CA3 area, using guinea pig hippocampal slices. The studies of field potentials and intracellular recording from the pyramidal cell of CA3 area during hypoxia or glucose deprivation revealed that the cessation of synaptic activity and the depolarization of resting potential occurred earlier than during glucose deprivation while the increase of [Ca2+]i was slow during hypoxia but rapid during glucose deprivation although the ATP level of CA3 area was maintained at its original level for 20 min during both conditions. When glucose was replaced by lactate, ATP concentration was not reduced but the electrical activity decayed and [Ca2+]i increased with the similar time course as observed during lack of glucose, only. These results suggest that different mechanisms underlie the block of synaptic transmission in the CA3 pyramidal neurons during hypoxia and glucose deprivation and that lactate cannot substitute for glucose in the maintenance of neural activity.

  2. Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study.

    PubMed

    Biggelaar, Louise J C J den; Eussen, Simone J P M; Sep, Simone J S; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele; Dongen, Martien C J M van; Denissen, Karlijn F M; Wijckmans, Nicole E G; Schram, Miranda T; Kallen, Carla J van der; Koster, Annemarie; Schaper, Nicolaas; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2017-04-13

    The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluated associations cross-sectionally in a population-based cohort consisting of 2818 individuals (mean ± SD age 59.7 ± 8.18, 49.5% male, n = 120 newly diagnosed T2DM). Glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Glucose metabolism status, insulin sensitivity, and BCF were measured by a seven-points oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of glucose intake with insulin sensitivity in the fully adjusted model (standardized beta (95% CI) 0.07 (0.05, 0.14) SD for ≥23 g vs. <10 g of glucose). Fructose and sucrose intake were not associated with insulin sensitivity after full adjustments. In addition, no associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF were detected. In conclusion, higher intake of glucose, not fructose and sucrose, was associated with higher insulin sensitivity, independent of dietary fibre. No convincing evidence was found for associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF in this middle-aged population.

  3. [Delphi consensus on management of dyslipidaemia in patients with impaired glucose metabolism: Diana study].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Barrios, Vivencio; Pascual, Vicente; Ascaso, Juan F; Cases, Aleix; Millán, Jesús; Serrano, Adalberto; Pintó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a multidisciplinary consensus based on the Delphi system to establish clinical recommendations for the management of dyslipidaemia when hyperglycaemia is present, and the relevant factors that should be taken into consideration when prescribing and monitoring treatment with statins. The questionnaire developed by the scientific committee included four blocks of questions about dyslipidaemia in patients with impaired glucose metabolism. The results of the first two blocks are presented here: a) management of dyslipidaemia; b) relevant factors that should be taken into consideration when prescribing and monitoring treatment with statins. Among the 497 experts who participated in the study, an agreement of over 90% was attained for recommending screening for dyslipidaemia in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease or a family history and/or abdominal obesity and/or hypertension. There was a high degree of agreement that a statin is the lipid-lowering treatment of choice, and that it should be switched when side effects develop. Also, the choice of statin and dose should be made according to baseline LDL cholesterol levels, the target to achieve, and the possible drug-drug interactions. The screening of dyslipidaemia is primarily conducted in patients with cardiovascular disease, or any major cardiovascular risk factor. When prescribing a statin, physicians mainly focus on the ability to reduce LDL cholesterol and the risk of drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic study of high‑glucose effects on human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lingxia; Wang, Youpei; Zheng, Meiqin; Wang, Qing; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Liqing; Wu, Lingjian

    2016-03-01

    Skin ulcers are a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Fibroblasts are located within the dermis of skin tissue and can be damaged by diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism of how DM affects fibroblasts remains elusive. To understand the effects of DM on fibroblasts, the current study mimicked DM by high‑glucose (HG) supplementation in the culture medium of human foreskin primary fibroblast cells, and the analysis of transcriptomic changes was conducted. RNA sequencing‑based transcriptome analysis identified that, upon HG stress, 463 genes were upregulated and 351 genes downregulated (>1.5‑fold changes; P<0.05). These altered genes were distributed into 20 different pathways. In addition, gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that 31 GO terms were enriched. Among the pathways identified, nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) pathway genes were highly expressed, and the addition of Bay11‑7082, a typical NF‑κB signaling inhibitor, blocked the previously observed alterations in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), an inflammation marker and frizzled class receptor 8 (FZD8), a Wnt signaling gene, expression that resulted from HG stress. Furthermore, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling diminished the role of Bay11‑7082 in the regulation of PAI1 expression under HG conditions, suggesting that Wnt signaling may function downstream of the NF‑κB pathway to protect fibroblast cells from HG stress. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first analysis of transcriptomic responses under HG stress in human fibroblasts. The data provided here may aid the understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which fibroblast cells are damaged in the skin of patients with DM.

  5. Intelligent Robotic Systems Study (IRSS), phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This phase of the Intelligent Robotic Systems Study (IRSS) examines some basic dynamics and control issues for a space manipulator attached to its worksite through a compliant base. One example of this scenario is depicted, which is a simplified, planar representation of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Development Test Flight 2 (DTF-2) experiment. The system consists of 4 major components: (1) dual FTS arms to perform dextrous tasks; (2) the main body to house power and electronics; (3) an Attachment Stabilization and Positioning Subsystem (ASPS) to provide coarse positioning and stabilization of the arms, and (4) the Worksite Attachment Mechanism (WAM) which anchors the system to its worksite, such as a Space Station truss node or Shuttle bay platform. The analysis is limited to the DTF-2 scenario. The goal is to understand the basic interaction dynamics between the arm, the positioner and/or stabilizer, and the worksite. The dynamics and controls simulation model are described. Analysis and simulation results are presented.

  6. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  7. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  8. DFTMD Studies of Glucose and Epimers: Anomeric Ratios Rotamer Populations, and Hydration Energies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Results are presented from density functional molecular dynamics (DFTMD) simulations, based on constant energy dynamics, of glucose and its cyclic form of 6-carbon epimers. Both in vacuo and an implicit solvent method (COSMO) were examined including simulations of all low energy conformations of ea...

  9. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Keita; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabetes, and/or severity of periodontitis were evaluated. Results 68 patients (9.5%) had hyperglycemia (blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Of these patients, 20 (29.4%) did not have a history of diabetes. Blood glucose tended to be higher with greater periodontitis severity. Of the 3 groups, the severe periodontitis group had the highest proportion of patients with hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). Conclusions Patients with dental problems could be screened for diabetes, especially undiagnosed diabetes. General dentists could function as practitioners to screen for diabetes. Trial registration number UMIN-CTR 000014877. PMID:26629348

  10. A Disposable Tear Glucose Biosensor-Part 4: Preliminary Animal Model Study Assessing Efficacy, Safety, and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Engelschall, Erica; Lan, Kenneth; Shah, Pankti; Saez, Neil; Maxwell, Stephanie; Adamson, Teagan; Abou-Eid, Michelle; McAferty, Kenyon; Patel, Dharmendra R; Cook, Curtiss B

    2014-01-01

    A prototype tear glucose (TG) sensor was tested in New Zealand white rabbits to assess eye irritation, blood glucose (BG) and TG lag time, and correlation with BG. A total of 4 animals were used. Eye irritation was monitored by Lissamine green dye and analyzed using image analysis software. Lag time was correlated with an oral glucose load while recording TG and BG readings. Correlation between TG and BG were plotted against one another to form a correlation diagram, using a Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) and self-monitoring of blood glucose as the reference measurements. Finally, TG levels were calculated using analytically derived expressions. From repeated testing carried over the course of 12 months, little to no eye irritation was detected. TG fluctuations over time visually appeared to trace the same pattern as BG with an average lag times of 13 minutes. TG levels calculated from the device current measurements ranged from 4 to 20 mg/dL and correlated linearly with BG levels of 75-160 mg/dL (TG = 0.1723 BG = 7.9448 mg/dL; R(2) = .7544). The first steps were taken toward preliminary development of a sensor for self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG). No conjunctival irritation in any of the animals was noted. Lag time between TG and BG was found to be noticeable, but a quantitative modeling to correlate lag time in this study is unnecessary. Measured currents from the sensors and the calculated TG showed promising correlation to BG levels. Previous analytical bench marking showed BG and TG levels consistent with other literature. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Molecular study of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in respect to different energy intake.

    PubMed

    Laliotis, George P; Vitsa, Alkistis; Bizelis, Iosif; Charismiadou, Maria A; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an important role in a ruminant's metabolism catalyzing the first committed reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway as it provides necessary compounds of NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids. The cloning of ovine (Ovis aries) G6PD gene revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (oG6PD(A) and oG6PD(B)), with oG6PD(B) being a product of alternative splicing and with no similarity to any other previously reported G6PD transcript. Here, we attempt to study the effect of energy balance in ovine G6PD transcript expression, trying simultaneously to find out any potential physiological role of the oG6PD(B) transcript. Changes of energy balance that lead to synergistic changes in the expression of both transcripts, but in opposite directions and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance favours the presence of the oG6PD(B) transcript leading to a significant increase of its expression, compared to oG6PD(A) expression (P<0.05). In contrast, positive energy balance leads to a significant increase of oG6PD(A) compared to oG6PD(B) expression (P<0.05). In either condition oG6PD(B) expression is unchanged. Regression analysis showed that there is an energy balance threshold where the expression of both transcripts shows no change. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D.; Grant, C.; Johnson, C.; Meirick, R.; Polhemus, C.; Ray, A.; Rittenhouse, D.; Skidmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported for work performed during the first phase of the conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system. This phase consists of four tasks: General requirements, concept development, subsystem requirements and analysis, and concept evaluation.

  13. Integrated design of electrical distribution systems: Phase balancing and phase prediction case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Murat

    Distribution system analysis and design has experienced a gradual development over the past three decades. The once loosely assembled and largely ad hoc procedures have been progressing toward being well-organized. The increasing power of computers now allows for managing the large volumes of data and other obstacles inherent to distribution system studies. A variety of sophisticated optimization methods, which were impossible to conduct in the past, have been developed and successfully applied to distribution systems. Among the many procedures that deal with making decisions about the state and better operation of a distribution system, two decision support procedures will be addressed in this study: phase balancing and phase prediction. The former recommends re-phasing of single- and double-phase laterals in a radial distribution system in order to improve circuit loss while also maintaining/improving imbalances at various balance point locations. Phase balancing calculations are based on circuit loss information and current magnitudes that are calculated from a power flow solution. The phase balancing algorithm is designed to handle time-varying loads when evaluating phase moves that will result in improved circuit losses over all load points. Applied to radial distribution systems, the phase prediction algorithm attempts to predict the phases of single- and/or double phase laterals that have no phasing information previously recorded by the electric utility. In such an attempt, it uses available customer data and kW/kVar measurements taken at various locations in the system. It is shown that phase balancing is a special case of phase prediction. Building on the phase balancing and phase prediction design studies, this work introduces the concept of integrated design, an approach for coordinating the effects of various design calculations. Integrated design considers using results of multiple design applications rather than employing a single application for a

  14. Second generation biofuels: Thermochemistry of glucose and fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Osmont, A.; Escot Bocanegra, P.; Goekalp, I.; Thollas, B.; Kozinski, J.A.

    2010-06-15

    The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas or biogas is a more and more important topic. In the framework of these studies, improved understanding of glucose and fructose thermal decomposition and oxidation appears crucial. For this task, thermodynamic data are needed to make possible, for instance, the building of a detailed chemical kinetic model of glucose and fructose reactivity at high temperature. A semitheoretical protocol, presented elsewhere, is used for the estimation of the thermodynamic data of glucose and fructose in the gas phase. Five isomers of glucose and five isomers of fructose are considered and the lowest-energy conformers are found to be {beta}-D-glucopyranose for glucose and {beta}-D-fructopyranose for fructose. The data for all 10 isomers are provided in the CHEMKIN-NASA format. (author)

  15. Small compound inhibitors of basal glucose transport inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells via glucose-deprivation-like mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Weihe; Cao, Yanyan; Liu, Yan; Bergmeier, Stephen; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2010-12-08

    Cancer cells depend heavily on glucose as both energy and biosynthesis sources and are found to upregulate glucose transport and switch their main energy supply pathway from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. These molecular and metabolic changes also provide targets for cancer treatment. Here we report that novel small molecules inhibited basal glucose transport and cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in lung and breast cancer cells without affecting much their normal cell counterparts. Cancer cells survived the compound treatment lost their capability to proliferate. Mechanistic study indicates that the cancer cell inhibition by the test compounds has a component of apoptosis and the induced apoptosis was p53-independent and caspase 3-dependent, similar to those resulted from glucose deprivation. Compound treatment also led to cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase. The inhibition of cancer cell growth was partially relieved when additional glucose was supplied to cells, suggesting that the inhibition was due to, at least in part, the inhibition of basal glucose transport. When used in combination, the test compounds demonstrated synergistic effects with anticancer drugs cisplatin or paclitaxel in inhibition of cancer cell growth. All these results suggest that these glucose transport inhibitors mimic glucose deprivation and work through inhibiting basal glucose transport. These inhibitors have the potential to complement and replace traditional glucose deprivation, which cannot be used in animals, as new tools to study the effects of glucose transport and metabolism on cancer and normal cells.

  16. Glucose and lipid levels with lanreotide autogel 120 mg in treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly: data from the PRIMARYS study.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe J; Petersenn, Stephan; Houchard, Aude; Sert, Caroline; Bevan, John S

    2017-04-01

    Impaired glycaemic control, characteristic of acromegaly, can be exacerbated by treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs), particularly those with multireceptor activity. We present data from the PRIMARYS study on the impact of the SSA lanreotide, associated with tumour volume and hormonal improvements, on glucose and other metabolic parameters in acromegaly. PRIMARYS was a 48-week open-label single-arm phase 3b study of lanreotide autogel 120 mg/4 weeks. A priori and post hoc metabolic profile data are reported for the overall population, patients with/without diabetes and patients achieving/not achieving hormonal control. Treatment-naïve adults with pituitary macroadenoma, mean growth hormone >1 μg/l and elevated insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (n = 90). Glycaemic parameters [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels] assessed at baseline and weeks 12, 24 and 48. Lipid-profile data (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) collected at baseline and study end. In patients with diabetes (n = 24), HbA1c showed a clinically relevant decrease during treatment [mean change from baseline to week 48, -1·44% (95% CI: -2·52, -0·36)]. In the overall population, in patients without diabetes, or in patients with/without hormonal control, HbA1c did not significantly change by week 48. Mean FPG levels showed no significant change by week 48 in all populations. Individually, increases and decreases in glycaemic parameters affected some patients in all populations. Glycaemic status as a composite measure of HbA1c and FPG (classification as normal, mild or diabetic) was stable from baseline to study end in most patients (overall, 70%; patients with diabetes, 50%; patients without diabetes, 76%), but worsened by week 48 in nine (15%) patients [seven (50%) with diabetes at baseline] and improved in nine (15%) patients (none with diabetes). Changes in lipid profiles were not

  17. A Study on Virtual Indirect Control Method of Single Phase/Three Phase Matrix Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Kazuyuki; Fukuma, Tooru; Kondo, Keiichiro; Sato, Yukihiko

    In this paper, we study a control method based on the virtual indirect circuit method for a single phase to three phase matrix converter (MC). The MC has a capacitor at the input side to compensate for the single phase input power fluctuation. We propose a method to determine the amplitude of the compensation capacitor voltage on the basis of the load power. The method is validated using a 1350W class single phase to three phase matrix converter system. In addition, restrictions on the modulation ratio of the input current and the compensation capacitor current are revealed, showing the limit of the output voltage according to the load power.

  18. The glucose intolerance of acute pancreatitis: hormonal response to arginine.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S S; Duckworth, W C; Jallepalli, P; Bobal, M A; Iyer, R

    1980-01-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis were studied by arginine infusion at 48--72 h. 7--10 days, and 18--21 days after onset of their illness. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon values were determined. Acute pancreatitis was characterized by fasting hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia, associated with relative hyoinsulinemia. Arginine stimulation early in the disease (48--72 h) demonstrated hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia, which normalized by 18--21 days. Both phases of the normal biphasic insulin response to arginine were decreased during the initial arginine infusion. By 18--21 days, although the first phase was completely normal, the second phase of insulin secretion remained depressed. Acute pancreatitis is associated with damage to both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Glucose intolerance seen with this disease appears to be the result of hyperglucagonemia and relative hypoinsulinemia. Although the healing process at 3 wk is associated with return of plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations to normal, the impaired second phase insulin secretion persists.

  19. Phase I study of nelfinavir in liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Janet; Mott, Michelle; Xi, Bixin; Hepner, Ernestine; Guan, Min; Fousek, Kristen; Magnusson, Rachel; Tinsley, Raechelle; Valdes, Frances; Frankel, Paul; Synold, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose HIV protease inhibitors are associated with HIV protease inhibitor–related lipodystrophy syndrome. We hypothesized that liposarcomas would be similarly susceptible to the apoptotic effects of an HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir. Methods We conducted a phase I trial of nelfinavir for liposarcomas. There was no limit to prior chemotherapy. The starting dose was 1,250 mg twice daily (Level 1). Doses were escalated in cohorts of three to a maximally evaluated dose of 4,250 mg (Level 5). One cycle was 28 days. Steady-state pharmacokinetics (PKs) for nelfinavir and its primary active metabolite, M8, were determined at Levels 4 (3,000 mg) and 5. Results Twenty subjects (13 males) were enrolled. Median (range) age was 64 years (37–81). One subject at Level 1 experienced reversible, grade 3 pancreatitis after 1 week and was replaced. No other dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Median (range) number of cycles was 3 (0.6–13.5). Overall best responses observed were 1 partial response, 1 minor response, 4 stable disease, and 13 progressive disease. Mean peak plasma levels and AUCs for nelfinavir were higher at Level 4 (7.3 mg/L; 60.9 mg/L × h) than 5 (6.3 mg/L; 37.7 mg/L × h). The mean ratio of M8:nelfinavir AUCs for both levels was ~1:3. Conclusions PKs demonstrate auto-induction of nelfinavir clearance at the doses studied, although the mechanism remains unclear. Peak plasma concentrations were within range where anticancer activity was demonstrated in vitro. M8 metabolite is present at ~1/3 the level of nelfinavir and may also contribute to the anticancer activity observed. PMID:22983015

  20. Energetic Studies and Phase Diagram of Thioxanthene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Vera L. S.; Monte, Manuel J. S.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Gomes, José R. B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D. M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The molecular stability of thioxanthene, a key species from which very important compounds with industrial relevance are derived, has been studied by a combination of several experimental techniques and computational approaches. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline thioxanthene (117.4 ± 4.1 kJ·mol-1) was determined from the experimental standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpy of sublimation was determined by a direct method, using the vacuum drop microcalorimetric technique, and also by an indirect method, using a static apparatus, where the vapor pressures at different temperatures were measured. The latter technique was used for both crystalline and undercooled liquid samples, and the phase diagram of thioxanthene near the triple point was obtained (triple point coordinates T = 402.71 K and p = 144.7 Pa). From the two methods, a mean value for the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K (101.3 ± 0.8 kJ·mol-1), was derived. From the latter value and from the enthalpy of formation of the solid, the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) enthalpy of formation of gaseous thioxanthene was calculated as 218.7 ± 4.2 kJ·mol-1. Standard ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite procedure and several homodesmotic reactions in order to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioxanthene. The ab initio results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Hydroxyl radical oxidation of glucose in aqueous aerosol studied in single levitated droplets by laser Raman tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M. D.; Hunt, O. R.; Ward, A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted that cloud processing of atmospheric contaminants changes the optical properties of these clouds. Airborne particulate matter plays a crucial role in determining the climate and weather of the Earth. The chemical composition of particulate matter affects climate directly, by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly, owing to its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei, thus leading to an increase in cloud formation. Both the direct and indirect effects are influenced by the chemical composition of the aerosol. We present a study of oxidation of important biomass burning marker (glucose) by hydroxyl radical in single optically levitated droplets (1-20μm) using Laser Raman Tweesers. We levitate and hold the aqueous particle in the focus of an Ar-ion laser and photogenerate hydroxyl radical in the particle by a second UV laser. The Particle is subjected to a known RH. Scattered light from the trapping laser is used to provide chemical data in real time via Raman spectroscopy and brightfeild spectroscopy is used to follow the hygrodynamic size changes of the particle also in real time. The decay of glucose and hydrogen peroxide (by Raman spectroscopy) can be a fitted to a kinetic model to determine the rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with glucose as shown in the figure. Unlike our previous work (oxidation of organic particles with ozone) we see no size change and thus no change in critical supersaturation following reaction. This surprising result suggests this reaction does not alter cloud optical properties. To our knowledge this is the first time hydroxyl radical chemistry in single droplets has been studied by laser Raman tweezers. The work demonstrates that laser Raman tweezers is an excellent technique for studying the effect of oxidation reaction on the hygroscopic properties of aerosol. Loss of glucose and hydrogen peroxide from single optically levitated particle during photolysis of hydrogen

  2. [Acute-phase serum proteins and adipocytokines in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relationships with body composition and blood glucose fluctuations].

    PubMed

    Klimontov, V V; Tyan, N V; Fazullina, O N; Myakina, N E; Orlov, N B; Konenkov, V I

    To estimate the relationships between the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs) and adipocytokines, body composition (BC), and blood glucose (BG) fluctuations in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 165 women with T2DM and 22 with a normal body mass index (BMI) at the age of 40 to 70 years were examined. The concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and acid α1-glycoprotein (α1-AGP) were determined by ELISA. The levels of interleukins 6, 8, and 18 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were measured by a multiplex analysis. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to estimate BC parameters. BG fluctuations were estimated via continuous glucose monitoring. The levels of hs-CRP, α1-AGP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-α, and PAI-1 were significantly higher in the obese women with T2DM than those in the control group. In the diabetic normal weight women, only hs-CRP, α1-AGP, and IL-8 concentrations exceeded those in the controls. The level of hs-CRP (other than α1-AGP) correlated positively with BMI, the mass of adipose tissue, body trunk (android), and gynoid fats. A multivariate regression analysis showed that adipose tissue mass and trunk fat proportion were independent predictors of hs-CRP levels. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, PAI-1, and TNF-α correlated positively with waist-to-hip ratio, but demonstrated no associations with BMI and BC. Only the serum α1-AGP level showed a positive association with mean BG and its variability parameters. In the women with T2DM, the serum concentrations of APPs and adipocytokines correlate differently with the mass of adipose tissue, its distribution, and BG fluctuations. The findings indicate the multifactorial genesis of chronic inflammation in these patients.

  3. Serum lipids and glucose control: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.

    PubMed

    Petitti, Diana B; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Palla, Shana L; Daniels, Stephen R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Kershnar, Ann K; Marcovina, Santica; Pettitt, David J; Pihoker, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    To assess the relationship of serum lipid concentrations with glucose control in youth with diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Multicenter study of youth with diabetes onset at younger than 20 years. PATIENTS/ PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen hundred seventy-three SEARCH participants aged 10 years or older with hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride measured at the SEARCH study examination. Hemoglobin A(1c). Lipid concentrations. There were significant trends of higher levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C (but not HDL-C) with higher hemoglobin A(1c) concentrations for both diabetes types. The slopes of TC increase were 7.8 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) per unit increase in hemoglobin A(1c) for type 1 and 8.1 mg/dL (0.21 mmol/L) for type 2. Levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C were all significantly higher (all P values <.001) in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes (mean differences in milligrams per deciliter [millimoles per liter], +13.6 [+0.35] for TC; +8.3 [+0.22] for LDL-C; +66.3 [+0.75] for triglyceride; +25.5 [+0.66] for non-HDL-C). Levels of HDL-C were lower in youth with type 2 diabetes (mean difference, -11.9 mg/dL [-0.31 mmol/L]). Among those with type 1 diabetes in poor glycemic control, 35%, 27%, and 12% had high concentrations of TC (>or=200 mg/dL [5.17 mmol/L]), LDL-C (>or=130 mg/dL [3.36 mmol/L]), and triglyceride (>or=200 mg/dL [2.26 mmol/L]), respectively. In youth with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control, percentages with high levels of TC, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 65%, 43%, and 40%, respectively. Glycemic control and lipid levels are independently associated in youth with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  4. Diauxic Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii on Galactose and Glucose: Regulation of Glucose Transport by Another Hexose.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Pei, H; Bancroft, K; Childers, G W

    1995-02-01

    The growth curve of Azotobacter vinelandii was biphasic when the organism was grown in a medium containing a mixture of galactose and glucose. Galactose was the primary carbon source; glucose was also consumed, but the rate at which it was consumed was lower than the rate at which galactose was consumed during the first phase of growth. Metabolic pathways for both sugars were induced. Cell cultures exhibited a second lag period as galactose was depleted. The length of this lag phase varied from 2 to 10 h depending on the pregrowth history of the cells. The second log growth phase occurred at the expense of the remaining glucose in the medium and was accompanied by induction of the high-maximum rate of metabolism glucose-induced glucose permease and increases in the levels of glucose metabolic enzymes. The second lag phase of diauxie may have been due to the time required for induction of the glucose-induced glucose permease.

  5. Golgi apparatus dis- and reorganizations studied with the aid of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and visualized by 3D-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Ranftler, Carmen; Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia; Neumüller, Josef; Ellinger, Adolf; Pavelka, Margit

    2017-04-01

    We studied Golgi apparatus disorganizations and reorganizations in human HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells by using the nonmetabolizable glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and analyzing the changes in Golgi stack architectures by 3D-electron tomography. Golgi stacks remodel in response to 2DG-treatment and are replaced by tubulo-glomerular Golgi bodies, from which mini-Golgi stacks emerge again after removal of 2DG. The Golgi stack changes correlate with the measured ATP-values. Our findings indicate that the classic Golgi stack architecture is impeded, while cells are under the influence of 2DG at constantly low ATP-levels, but the Golgi apparatus is maintained in forms of the Golgi bodies and Golgi stacks can be rebuilt as soon as 2DG is removed. The 3D-electron microscopic results highlight connecting regions that interlink membrane compartments in all phases of Golgi stack reorganizations and show that the compact Golgi bodies mainly consist of continuous intertwined tubules. Connections and continuities point to possible new transport pathways that could substitute for other modes of traffic. The changing architectures visualized in this work reflect Golgi stack dynamics that may be essential for basic cell physiologic and pathologic processes and help to learn, how cells respond to conditions of stress.

  6. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Michelle M.; Gonzales, Kelly L.; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3,776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. Methods This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Results Neither diabetes prevalence (22-31%; p = 0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p = 0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio = 3.1, p < 0.001). Conclusions The positive relationship between treatment modality and psychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. PMID:24051029

  7. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, p<0.001). The positive relationship between treatment modality and psychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  8. Phase equilibria study of pseudobrookite type minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudobrookite, is found in volcanic rocks, and the mineral armalcolite ((Fe,Mg)Ti2O5) found in the Apollo 11 and subsequent lunar samples seems to be unique to the moon. In plutonic rocks on the earth, ilmenite and rutile were found with what appears to be an equilibrium liquidus texture, while on the moon armalcolite often appears to be the primary liquidus phase among Ti-oxides. This suggests that total pressure may be a factor in the formation of these minerals, and a knowledge of the phase relations in this system yields information about the pressure under which a given magma crystallized.

  9. Phase structure of a single urban intersection: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim Foulaadvand, M.; Fukui, M.; Belbasi, S.

    2010-07-01

    We study the phase structure of a cellular automata model proposed by Belbasi and Foulaadvand to describe the vehicular traffic flow at the intersection of two perpendicular streets. A set of traffic lights operating in a fixed-time scheme controls the traffic flow. A closed boundary condition is applied to the streets, each of which conducts a unidirectional flow. Streets are single-lane and cars cannot turn upon reaching the intersection. Via extensive Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that the model phase diagram consists of ten phases. The flow characteristics in each phase are investigated and the types of phase transitions between phases are specified.

  10. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Werner, I; Bacher, A; Eisenreich, W

    1997-10-10

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina. Fungal cultures were grown with [1-13C]glucose or with a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose. Young leaves of R. typhina were kept in an incubation chamber and were supplied with a solution containing a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose via the leaf stem. Isotope distributions in isolated gallic acid and aromatic amino acids were analyzed by one-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the complex isotopomer composition of metabolites was obtained by deconvolution of the 13C13C coupling multiplets using numerical simulation methods. This approach required the accurate analysis of heavy isotope chemical shift effects in a variety of different isotopomers and the analysis of long range 13C13C coupling constants. The resulting isotopomer patterns were interpreted using a retrobiosynthetic approach based on a comparison between the isotopomer patterns of gallic acid and tyrosine. The data show that both in the fungus and in the plant all carbon atoms of gallic acid are biosynthetically equivalent to carbon atoms of shikimate. Notably, the carboxylic group of gallic acid is derived from the carboxylic group of an early intermediate of the shikimate pathway and not from the side chain of phenylalanine or tyrosine. It follows that the committed precursor of gallic acid is an intermediate of the shikimate pathway prior to prephenate or arogenate, most probably 5-dehydroshikimate. A formation of gallic acid via phenylalanine, the lignin precursor, caffeic acid, or 3,4, 5-trihydroxycinnamic acid can be ruled out as major pathways in the fungus and in young leaves of R. typhina. The incorporation of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose followed by quantitative NMR analysis of isotopomer patterns is suggested as a general method for biosynthetic studies. As shown by the plant experiment, this

  11. Duodenal and ileal glucose infusions differentially alter gastrointestinal peptides, appetite response, and food intake: a tube feeding study.

    PubMed

    Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides.Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner.Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P < 0.05) such that glucose-to-ileum altered VAS-rated fullness, satisfaction, and thoughts of food compared with saline-to-ileum (Tukey's post hoc, P < 0.05); decreased ad libitum EI at lunch compared with glucose-to-duodenum [-22%, -988 ± 379 kJ (mean ± SEM), Tukey's post hoc, P < 0.05]; and increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) compared with all other treatments (Tukey's post hoc, P < 0.05).Conclusions: Macronutrient delivery to the proximal and distal small intestine elicits different outcomes. Glucose infusion to the ileum increased GLP-1 and PYY secretion, suppressed aspects of VAS-rated appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a

  12. Gas-phase intramolecular elimination reaction studies of steviol glycosides in positive electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Mani; Clos, John F; Somayajula, Kasi V; Milanowski, Dennis J; Mocek, Ulla; Dubois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of the gas-phase intramolecular elimination reaction of steviol glycosides in positive electrospray mass spectrometry. The observed glycosylated product ions are proposed to be formed via an intramolecular elimination of sugar units from the parent molecule ion. It was further proven by MS/MS studies and deuterium labeling experiments with one of the steviol glycosides, rebaudioside A. These mass spectrometric results confirmed that the new glycosylated product ions observed are most likely formed by the combination of glucose moieties (Glu) II-IV and Glu I via a gas-phase intramolecular elimination reaction.

  13. EPA GAS PHASE CHEMISTRY CHAMBER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase smog chamber experiments are being performed at EPA in order to evaluate a number of current chemical mechanisms for inclusion in EPA regulatory and research models. The smog chambers are 9000 L in volume and constructed of 2-mil teflon film. One of the chambers is co...

  14. EPA GAS PHASE CHEMISTRY CHAMBER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase smog chamber experiments are being performed at EPA in order to evaluate a number of current chemical mechanisms for inclusion in EPA regulatory and research models. The smog chambers are 9000 L in volume and constructed of 2-mil teflon film. One of the chambers is co...

  15. The study of a fluorescent biosensor based on polyelectrolyte microcapsules with encapsulated glucose oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakova, L. I.; Sirota, N. P.; Sirota, T. V.; Shabarchina, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    A fluorescent biosensor is synthesized and described. The biosensor consists of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in the cavities and an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent indicator Ru(dpp) immobilized in shells, where Ru(dpp) is tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride. The theoretical activity of the encapsulated GOx and the effect storage time and medium composition have on the stability of sensor microcapsules are determined from polarographic measurements. No change in the activity of the encapsulated enzyme and or its loss to the storage medium are detected over the test period. The dispersion medium (water or a phosphate buffer) are shown to have no effect on the activity of microcapsules with immobilized GOx. The described optical sensor could be used as an alternative to electrochemical sensors for in vitro determination of glucose in the clinically important range of concentrations (up to 10 mmol/L).

  16. Studies on the pathogenesis of the early dumping syndrome induced by intraduodenal instillation of hypertonic glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Snook, J A; Wells, A D; Prytherch, D R; Evans, D H; Bloom, S R; Colin-Jones, D G

    1989-01-01

    A reaction indistinguishable from the early dumping syndrome was induced in four of nine normal volunteers by intraduodenal instillation of a hypertonic glucose meal. Tachycardia and marked peripheral vasodilatation were demonstrated in 'dumpers' by Doppler ultrasound measurements of the arterial blood flow signal. The dumping reaction was not detectably altered by the addition of guar to the meal. Plasma VIP concentration rose and plasma volume fell to a similar degree in 'dumpers' and 'non-dumpers', suggesting that neither event is an integral component of the dumping mechanism. In contrast, the rates of rise of blood glucose and enteroglucagon concentration were markedly greater in 'dumpers'. The results are inconsistent with the conventional explanation that the early dumping syndrome is caused by a large osmotic fluid shift, but are compatible with a mechanism involving an initial period of intestinal hypermotility. PMID:2693232

  17. Study on glucose photoacoustic signals denoising based on a modified wavelet shift-invariance thresholding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong

    2016-11-01

    To improve the denoising effect of the glucose photoacoustic signals, a modified wavelet thresholding combined shift-invariance algorithm was used in this paper. In addition, the shift-invariance method was added into the improved algorithm. To verify the feasibility of modified wavelet shift-invariance threshold denoising algorithm, the simulation experiments were performed. Results show that the denoising effect of modified wavelet shift-invariance thresholding algorithm is better than that of others because its signal-to-noise ratio is largest and the root-mean-square error is lest. Finally, the modified wavelet shift-invariance threshold denoising was used to remove the noises of the photoacoustic signals of glucose aqueous solutions.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Lupin Root Nodules: II. Studies with C-labeled Glucose, the Pathway of Glucose Catabolism, and the Effects of Some Treatments That Inhibit Nitrogen Fixation.

    PubMed

    Laing, W A; Christeller, J T; Sutton, W D

    1979-03-01

    Labeling studies using detached lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) nodules showed that over times of less than 3 minutes, label from [3,4-(14)C]glucose was incorporated into amino acids, predominantly aspartic acid, to a much greater extent than into organic acids. Only a slight preferential incorporation was observed with [1-(14)C]- and [6-(14)C]glucose, while with [U-(14)C]-glucose more label was incorporated into organic acids than into amino acids at all labeling times. These results are consistent with a scheme whereby the "carbon skeletons" for amino acid synthesis are provided by the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction.A comparison of (14)CO(2) release from nodules supplied with [1-(14)C]- and [6-(14)C]glucose indicated that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway accounted for less than 6% of glucose metabolism. Several enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways were assayed in vitro using the 12,000g supernatant fraction from nodule homogenates. In all cases, the specific activities were adequate to account for the calculated in vivo fluxes.Three out of four diverse treatments that inhibited nodule nitrogen fixation also inhibited nodule CO(2) fixation, and in the case of the fourth treatment, replacement of N(2) with He, it was shown that the normal entry of label from exogenous (14)CO(2) into the nodule amino acid pool was strongly inhibited.

  19. Potassium Measures and Their Associations with Glucose and Diabetes Risk: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Ranee; Zelnick, Leila; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Siscovick, David S.; Ix, Joachim H.; Tracy, Russell; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Edelman, David; de Boer, Ian H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have found low-normal potassium (K) to be associated with increased diabetes risk. We sought to verify these associations in a multi-ethnic US cohort; and to determine if these associations extend to US Hispanics and Asian-Americans. Methods We analyzed data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who were free-of-diabetes at baseline. We examined cross-sectional associations between measures of K—serum, dietary, and urine—with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. We examined longitudinal associations between K and diabetes risk over 8 years. Findings In multivariable models, compared to those with higher serum K (≥4.5mmol/L), those with lower serum K (<4.0mmol/L) had significantly higher fasting glucose [1.3 mg/dL (95%CI 0.2, 2.4), P-value = 0.03]. Incident diabetes developed in 1281 of 5415 at-risk participants. In minimally-adjusted models, we found inverse associations between serum and dietary K and diabetes risk. Compared to those with higher serum K, those with lower serum K had an HR (95% CI) of incident diabetes of 1.23 (1.04, 1.47), P-value = 0.02. However, these associations were attenuated in fully-adjusted models. We found no significant interaction between potassium and ethnicity. Conclusions In this multi-ethnic cohort, we found a significant inverse association between serum K and fasting glucose but no significant association with longer-term diabetes risk. This inverse association between potassium and glucose must be studied further to understand the physiology and its potential impact on chronic health. PMID:27280455

  20. Metabolic syndrome and the early detection of impaired glucose tolerance among professionals living in Beijing, China: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components with the risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in high risk urban professionals. The goal is to improve the selection of candidates who would most benefit from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods This is a cross sectional study in which MS was identified by both the definitions proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results There were 928 eligible subjects in the study, and 23.9% of them failed in OGTT. The odds ratio of IGT was increased 3.16-fold for MS defined by the NCEP criteria and 2.79-fold for the hyperglycemia factor alone. Both MS and hyperglycemia were shown to be acceptable measures to discriminate subjects with IGT from those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The clustering of any 1, 2, or ≥3 metabolic components resulted in increased odds ratios for IGT: i.e., 1.71, 2.38 and 5.92, respectively. Even without hyperglycemia in the cluster, an increased odds ratio was still observed. The risk of IGT increased dramatically when the fasting plasma glucose and waist circumference were both at their highest defined level. Conclusions MS and its components are associated with the increased risk of IGT. People with MS, one of its components, especially hyperglycemia and central obesity, or a cluster of its components are strong candidates for an OGTT in order to achieve early cost-effective detection of IGT. PMID:24499585

  1. Phase Diagram Studies of ZnS Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    mechanical, processing of ZnS-base ’alloys’. Knowledge of the phase equilibria of various ZnS-rich systems is essential to achieve our objectives...initial studies of the solid-state phase equilibria in the ZnS-CdS and ZnS-Ga2s3 phase diagrams.

  2. Radiocarbon labeled fully deuterated glucose: Preparation, chromatography and preliminary distribution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Wess, M.M.; Govoni, P.L.; Wagner, A.; Katz, J.J.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-05-01

    Since carbon-deuterium bonds are harder to break than carbon-hydrogen bonds, substitution of deuterium into organic molecules often leads to alterations in metabolism; e.g. fully deuterated glucose (d/sup 7/-G or deuterioglucose) is a poorer substrate than (protio) glucose for the bacterial enzyme, glucose oxidase. Radiolabeled d/sup 7/-G was therefore prepared to search for a possible isotope effect in its biodistribution in mammals. Green algae grown in deuterium oxide for many generations were exposed to C-14 CO/sub 2/ in the light, and then boiled in 2N-HCl. After rotary evaporation of the HCl the residue was passed through H/sup +/-form and CO/sub 3//sup =/-form Dowex columns in water and then passed through silica gel and activated charcoal in ethanol. The major component of the final neutral fraction, d/sup 7/-G was further purified by HPLC on a Bio-Rad HPX-87P column eluted with water. The behavior of d/sup 7/-G on HPX-87P, on an NH-column (Alltech) and on 2D cellulose TLC, was identical with that of glucose. However, on silica gel TLC d/sup 7/-G ran more slowly (R/sub Glc./ = 0.93); this result was confirmed with authentic d/sup 7/-G. In later work, pure C-11 and C-14 d/sup 7/-G were rapidly and conveniently obtained by HPX-87P chromatography of an invertase-treated extract obtained by boiling algae in 80% EtOH. Preliminary tissue distributions and metabolite analyses suggest slow transport of d/sup 7/-G than G into the brain. Exploitation of deuterium isotope effects could become a useful aspect of radiopharmaceutical design.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among university applicants in Eastern China: findings from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hao, C; Zhang, C; Chen, W; Shi, Z

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among urban university applicants in Eastern China. The study uses data from the annual health examination among all students finishing high school who applied for university entrance in Changzhou City in 2012. In total, 6716 students aged 17-19 years had fasting blood glucose, alanine transaminase, height, weight and blood pressure measured. Impaired fasting glucose and diabetes were defined as fasting blood glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/l (but < 7 mmol/l) and ≥ 7 mmol/l, respectively. The overall prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes was 2.40% and 0.13%, respectively (3.67% and 0.09% in boys; 1.09% and 0.18% in girls). In total, 20.9% of boys and 10.6% of girls were overweight/obese. High socio-economic status was associated with an increased risk of diabetes/impaired fasting glucose, but the association was significant only among boys (adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.26-2.98). Alanine transaminase levels were significantly and positively related to diabetes/impaired fasting glucose risk. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with increased risk of impaired fasting glucose/diabetes in girls, but not in boys. Moreover, the number of the above-mentioned risk factors (i.e. overweight/obesity, elevated alanine transaminase, pre-hypertension) was significantly and positively related to diabetes/impaired fasting glucose among both boys and girls. Impaired fasting glucose was prevalent among urban university applicants, in particular boys and those of high socio-economic status in eastern China. Elevated levels of liver function enzyme appear to be the strongest risk factor for diabetes/impaired fasting glucose. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  4. Incretin effect potentiates beta-cell responsivity to glucose as well as to its rate of change: OGTT and matched intravenous study.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Marco; Toffolo, Gianna; Shuster, Lynne T; Service, F John; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain greater insight into the mechanism whereby "incretins" (greater insulinemia after oral than intravenous glucose) enhance insulin secretion. To do so, we use a model of C-peptide secretion to reanalyze data from a previously published study in which glycemic profiles observed following glucose ingestion were matched in the same 10 subjects by means of an intravenous glucose infusion. We report that incretins increase insulin secretion by enhancing both the dynamic (to the rate of increase of glucose) and static (to given glucose concentration) response with an increase of 58% for the static (Phi(s) = 16.4 +/- 1.8 vs. 24.6 +/- 2.0 10(-9) min(-1), P = 0.01) and 63% for the dynamic (Phi(d) = 278 +/- 32 vs. 463 +/- 86 10(-9), P = 0.02) indexes. Since increases in the dynamic response to glucose are believed to be due to an increase in the rate of docking, and exocytosis of insulin containing granules and increases in the static response to glucose are believed to be caused by a shift in the sensitivity of the beta-cell to glucose, these results suggest that incretins may modulate more than one step in the beta-cell insulin secretory cascade.

  5. Glucose-methanol co-utilization in Pichia pastoris studied by metabolomics and instationary ¹³C flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Jordà, Joel; Suarez, Camilo; Carnicer, Marc; ten Pierick, Angela; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter; Ferrer, Pau; Albiol, Joan; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2013-02-28

    Several studies have shown that the utilization of mixed carbon feeds instead of methanol as sole carbon source is beneficial for protein production with the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In particular, growth under mixed feed conditions appears to alleviate the metabolic burden related to stress responses triggered by protein overproduction and secretion. Yet, detailed analysis of the metabolome and fluxome under mixed carbon source metabolizing conditions are missing. To obtain a detailed flux distribution of central carbon metabolism, including the pentose phosphate pathway under methanol-glucose conditions, we have applied metabolomics and instationary ¹³C flux analysis in chemostat cultivations. Instationary ¹³C-based metabolic flux analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS measurements in time allowed for an accurate mapping of metabolic fluxes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate and methanol assimilation pathways. Compared to previous results from NMR-derived stationary state labelling data (proteinogenic amino acids, METAFoR) more fluxes could be determined with higher accuracy. Furthermore, using a thermodynamic metabolic network analysis the metabolite measurements and metabolic flux directions were validated. Notably, the concentration of several metabolites of the upper glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway increased under glucose-methanol feeding compared to the reference glucose conditions, indicating a shift in the thermodynamic driving forces. Conversely, the extracellular concentrations of all measured metabolites were lower compared with the corresponding exometabolome of glucose-grown P. pastoris cells.The instationary ¹³C flux analysis resulted in fluxes comparable to previously obtained from NMR datasets of proteinogenic amino acids, but allowed several additional insights. Specifically, i) in vivo metabolic flux estimations were expanded to a larger metabolic network e.g. by including trehalose recycling, which accounted for about 1.5% of

  6. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM). The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM), among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT) and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years) were investigated. Using OGTT, (25%) had impaired fasting blood (plasma) glucose concentration (BG) (>5.6 mmol/L). 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic) and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (BG > 7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L). Monitoring the maximum (postprandial) BG using CGMS,4 adolescents were diagnosed with diabetes (25%) (BG >11.1 mmol/L) and 9 with IGT (56%). HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels <2.6 (1.6 ± 0.8) and >0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03), respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B%) on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively) on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01) and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001). Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r

  7. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-05-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression.

  8. GLUT2, glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thorens, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    The glucose transporter isoform GLUT2 is expressed in liver, intestine, kidney and pancreatic islet beta cells, as well as in the central nervous system, in neurons, astrocytes and tanycytes. Physiological studies of genetically modified mice have revealed a role for GLUT2 in several regulatory mechanisms. In pancreatic beta cells, GLUT2 is required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In hepatocytes, suppression of GLUT2 expression revealed the existence of an unsuspected glucose output pathway that may depend on a membrane traffic-dependent mechanism. GLUT2 expression is nevertheless required for the physiological control of glucose-sensitive genes, and its inactivation in the liver leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, revealing a liver-beta cell axis, which is likely to be dependent on bile acids controlling beta cell secretion capacity. In the nervous system, GLUT2-dependent glucose sensing controls feeding, thermoregulation and pancreatic islet cell mass and function, as well as sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques established that Glut2 (also known as Slc2a2)-expressing neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius can be activated by hypoglycaemia to stimulate glucagon secretion. In humans, inactivating mutations in GLUT2 cause Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, which is characterised by hepatomegaly and kidney disease; defects in insulin secretion are rare in adult patients, but GLUT2 mutations cause transient neonatal diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have reported that GLUT2 variants increase the risks of fasting hyperglycaemia, transition to type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia and cardiovascular diseases. Individuals with a missense mutation in GLUT2 show preference for sugar-containing foods. We will discuss how studies in mice help interpret the role of GLUT2 in human physiology.

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides), glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 – 0.27), logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09), and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22) compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex). Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research. PMID:22852830

  10. Lectin from Canavalia villosa seeds: A glucose/mannose-specific protein and a new tool for inflammation studies.

    PubMed

    Lossio, Claudia F; Moreira, Cleane G; Amorim, Renata M F; Nobre, Clareane S; Silva, Mayara T L; Neto, Cornevile C; Pinto-Junior, Vanir R; Silva, Ivanice B; Campos, Julia; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Cavada, Benildo S; Nascimento, Kyria S

    2017-07-08

    With important carbohydrate binding properties, lectins are proteins able to decipher the glycocode, and as such, they can be used in bioassays involving cell-cell communication, protein targeting, inflammation, and hypernociception, among others. In this study, a new glucose/mannose-specific lectin from Canavalia villosa seeds (Cvill) was isolated by a single affinity chromatography step in a Sephadex(®) G-50 column, with a purification yield of 19.35mg of lectin per gram of powdered seed. Analysis of intact protein by mass spectrometry showed the lectin is composed of three polypeptide chains, including a 25.6kDa α chain, 12.9KDa β, and 12.6 KDa γ fragments, similar to the profile of ConA-like glucose/mannose-specific lectins. Partial sequence of the protein was obtained by MS-MALDI TOF/TOF covering 41.7% of its primary structure. Cvill presented sugar specificity to d-glucose, α-methyl-d-mannoside, d-mannose, and glycoproteins fetuin and ovoalbumin. The lectin characterization showed that Cvill presents high stability within a broad range of pH and temperature, also showing average toxicity against Artemia nauplii. The proinflammatory effect of Cvill was observed by induction of paw edema and hypernociception in mice, with the participation of the carbohydrate binding site, showing its potential to be used as tool in inflammation studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption of dairy foods in relation to impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Maastricht Study.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone J P M; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Wijckmans, Nicole; den Biggelaar, Louise; Oude Elferink, Stefanie J W H; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; van der Kallen, Carla J; Koster, Annemarie; Schaper, Nicolaas; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2016-04-01

    Observational studies suggest an inverse association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of information on the relationship of specific dairy products with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Individuals aged 40-75 years were recruited for the Maastricht Study. All the participants filled out a 253-food item FFQ, covering fifty specific dairy items that captured differences between full-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed products, as well as fermented and non-fermented products. Glucose metabolism status was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, and participants were informed on their glucose metabolism status after returning the FFQ. Data of 2391 individuals were available to estimate OR (95 % CI) for IGM (n 470) and newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM (n 125), with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, energy intake and intakes of vegetables, fruits, meat and fish. For IGM, fully adjusted analyses revealed inverse associations, with OR comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake of 0·73 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·96) for skimmed products and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·99) for fermented products. These dairy products were not associated with ND T2DM. In contrast, full-fat products were positively associated with ND T2DM (OR 2·01; 95 % CI 1·16, 3·47), whereas total dairy product intake was inversely associated with ND T2DM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·93). In conclusion, individuals with a high consumption of skimmed and fermented products had lower odds of having IGM, and individuals with a high consumption of total dairy products had lower odds of having ND T2DM. High intake of full-fat products was not related to IGM but was positively related to ND T2DM.

  12. Radiation-inactivation studies on brush-border-membrane vesicles. General considerations, and application to the glucose and phosphate carriers.

    PubMed Central

    Béliveau, R; Demeule, M; Ibnoul-Khatib, H; Bergeron, M; Beauregard, G; Potier, M

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-inactivation studies were performed on brush-border-membrane vesicles purified from rat kidney cortex. No alteration of the structural integrity of the vesicles was apparent in electron micrographs of irradiated and unirradiated vesicles. The size distributions of the vesicles were also similar for both populations. The molecular sizes of two-brush-border-membrane enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase, estimated by the radiation-inactivation technique, were 104800 +/- 3500 and 89,400 +/- 1800 Da respectively. Polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis patterns of membrane proteins remained unaltered by the radiation treatment, except in the region of higher-molecular-mass proteins, where destruction of the proteins was visible. The molecular size of two of these proteins was estimated from their mobilities in polyacrylamide gels and was similar to the target size, estimated from densitometric scanning of the gel. Intravesicular volume, estimated by the uptake of D-glucose at equilibrium, was unaffected by irradiation. Uptake of Na+, D-glucose and phosphate were measured in initial-rate conditions to avoid artifacts arising from a decrease in the driving force caused by a modification of membrane permeability. Na+-independent D-glucose and phosphate uptakes were totally unaffected in the dose range used (0-9 Mrad). The Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose was studied in irradiated vesicles, and the molecular size of the transporter was found to be 288,000 Da. The size of the Na+-dependent phosphate carrier was also estimated, and a value of 234,000 Da was obtained. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:3421923

  13. Building Enclosure Hygrothermal Performance Study, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2002-08-08

    The moisture performance of three different classes of wall systems has been investigated in the context of the preliminary hygrothermal analysis of walls in Seattle. The results reported in this phase specifically address the moisture performance of walls designed with loads that have some unintentional water penetration. The results have been developed in a manner to present the relative performance of the walls in the same climate with similar water penetration effects. The analysis was performed with the best available input data. Several limitations should be recognized within the context of this study. Results showed that selection of wooden sheathing boards on interior vapor-tight assemblies does not significantly influence the performance of stucco-clad walls. A larger effect was observed when the interior vapor control is made vapor open. When continuous cavity ventilation is employed, the effect of the selection of the type of sheathing board on the hygrothermal performance of the wall was found to be negligible. When comparing oriented strand board sheathing performance against the performance of exterior grade gypsum, the differences are very significant in terms of the amount of moisture content present in the walls. Moisture content alone does not indicate their respective durability as durability is directly related to the combination of relative humidity and temperature, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of the substrates. This study did not investigate the durability performance of either sheathing. In terms of interior vapor control, inhabitant behavior must be considered during the wall hygrothermal design stage. If interior relative humidity is maintained below 60%, then a latex primer and paint may perform better than the use of PVA or even a polyethylene sheet. When the interior environment is maintained at a higher relative humidity, then stricter vapor control is needed. Multilayered building paper was experimentally shown to

  14. Assessment of Knowledge of Self Blood Glucose Monitoring and Extent of Self Titration of Anti-Diabetic Drugs among Diabetes Mellitus Patients - A Cross Sectional, Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V; Thirunavukkarasu, J

    2016-03-01

    Self blood glucose monitoring is an important context of self care in the management of diabetes mellitus. All the guidelines must be followed while performing self blood glucose monitoring and tracking of values is essential to facilitate the physician while titrating the drugs and /or doses of anti diabetes medication. Self titration by patients following self monitoring must be discouraged. To assess the knowledge and practice of self blood glucose monitoring among diabetes patients and extent of self titration of anti diabetes medicines among diabetes patients based on self blood glucose monitoring. This pilot, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using a validated questionnaire among adult male and female diabetes patients performing self blood glucose monitoring at home. Diabetes patients with complications and juvenile diabetes patients were excluded. Out of 153 patients surveyed, only 37 (24.1%) (20 males, 17 females) patients were aware and have been following self blood glucose monitoring appropriately. About 116 (75.8%) (64 males, 52 females) of patients were devoid of adequate knowledge and did not practice self blood glucose monitoring in a proper way. Ninety eight (64.05%) accepted that they self titrate their anti diabetic medicines based on self monitoring. Self monitoring of blood glucose should be encouraged and patients should be taught importance of following correct steps and tracking of self monitoring by physician or diabetes educator.

  15. Change in fasting plasma glucose and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Asgari, Samaneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a cohort of the Iranian population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) to investigate the association between change in FPG between baseline examination (1999–2001) and the second visit (2002–2005) with incident T2D. Participants A total of 3981 non-diabetic participants aged ≥20 years. Outcome measure T2D was defined if the participant was using antidiabetic drugs or if FPG was ≥7 mmol/L or if the 2 h post-challenge plasma glucose (2-hPCG) was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Results During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, after the second examination, 288 new cases of T2D were identified. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis using age as timescale, we presented a simple model including FPG change (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.33) and baseline waist circumference (WC) (HR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.008) with a discriminative power (C-index) of 72%. Furthermore, we showed that the highest quartile of FPG change enhanced the T2D risk to 1.65 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.27) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend=0.004).The independent risk of FPG change resisted further adjustment with 2-hPCG change. Adding the 2-hPCG change only slightly increased the discriminative power of the model including FPG change and baseline value of WC (0.73% vs 0.72%). After the study population had been limited to those with normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance, FPG change remained an independent predictor (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.88). Conclusions Two measurements of FPG obtained about 3 years apart can help to identify populations at risk of incident T2D independently of important traditional risk factors and their changes, including 2-hPCG change. PMID:27217283

  16. Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in a Rural Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study Evaluating Accuracy and Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Brooke; Phan, Kim; Bertheau, Leonard; Dogbey, Godwin; Schwartz, Frank; Shubrook, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose management in an intensive care unit (ICU) is labor-intensive. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) has the potential to improve efficiency and safety in this setting. The goal of this study was to determine if the Medtronic Guardian® REAL-Time CGMS was accurate and tolerated by patients in a rural hospital ICU unit. Method Differences between individual finger stick blood glucose (FSBG) and CGMS values were compared to American Diabetes Association (ADA) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. Continuous glucose monitoring system accuracy was evaluated over four ranges: <75, 75–140, 140–200, and >200 mg/dl. Other accuracy measures [mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean absolute relative difference (MARD), and coefficient of linear regression of CGMS on FSBG] were calculated. Nursing staff and patients were surveyed regarding use of the CGMS in the ICU. Results Twenty-nine participants had 320 FSBG and corresponding CGMS readings. Sixty-two percent of participants were admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Two hundred and thirteen (66.6%) were accurate within the ISO standard, whereas only 70 out of 320 (21.9%) were within the 5% ADA standard. The CGMS was most accurate in euglycemia. Technical difficulties, such as adequate time for “wetting” and calibration of electrodes, arose with the sensors. The MAD was 28.3 mg/dl, the MRAD was 17.4%, and the linear regression coefficient of CGMS on FSBG was 0.834 (p < 0.001). Conclusions The CGMS is well tolerated by ICU patients but, at present, is not sufficiently accurate to be used for therapeutic decisions in the acute setting, particularly in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. There is a need to find resolution to the technical issues regarding electrode “wetting” and calibration if CGMS use in the ICU setting is to provide an effective means of diabetes care and management. PMID:20513330

  17. Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during the first six months of life: an FDG positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnala, A.; Suhonen-Polvi, H.; Aärimaa, T.; Kero, P.; Korvenranta, H.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Bergman, J.; Haaparanta, M.; Solin, O.; Nuutila, P.; Wegelius, U.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To measure the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRGlc) in neonatal brains during maturation using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). METHODS: Twenty infants were studied using PET during the neonatal period. The postconceptional age ranged from 32.7 to 60.3 weeks. All infants had normal neurodevelopment and were normoglycaemic. The development of the infants was carefully evaluated (follow up 12-36 months) clinically, and by using a method based on Gesell Amatruda's developmental diagnosis. LCMRGlc was quantitated using PET derived from FDG kinetics and calculated in the whole brain and for regional brain structures. RESULTS: LCMRGlc for various cortical brain regions and the basal ganglia was low at birth (from 4 to 16 mumol/100 g/minute). In infants 2 months of age and younger LCMRGlc was highest in the sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. By 5 months, LCMRGlc had increased in the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and cerebellar cortical regions. In general, the whole brain LCMRGlc correlated with postconceptional age (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). The change in the glucose metabolic pattern observed in the neonatal brain reflects the functional maturation of these brain regions. CONCLUSION: These findings show that LCMRGlc in infants increases with maturation. Accordingly, when LCMRGlc is measured during infancy, the postconceptional age has to be taken into account when interpretating the results. Images Figure 1 PMID:8777676

  18. D-glucose derived novel gemini surfactants: synthesis and study of their surface properties, interaction with DNA, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Chatterjee, Amrita; Kumar, Nupur; Ganguly, Anasuya; Chakraborty, Indranil; Banerjee, Mainak

    2014-10-09

    Four new D-glucose derived m-s-m type gemini surfactants with variable spacer and tail length have been synthesized by a simple and efficient synthetic methodology utilizing the free C-3 hydroxy group of diisopropylidene glucose. The synthetic route to these gemini surfactants with a quaternary ammonium group as polar head group involves a sequence of simple reactions including alkylation, imine formation, quaternization of amine etc. The surface properties of the new geminis were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These gemini surfactants showed low cytotoxicity by MTT assay on HeLa cell line. The DNA binding capabilities of these surfactants were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, fluorescence titration, and DLS experiments. The preliminary studies by agarose gel electrophoresis indicated chain length dependent DNA binding abilities, further supported by ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. Two of the D-glucose derived gemini surfactants showed effective binding with pET-28a plasmid DNA (pDNA) at relatively low N/P ratio (i.e., cationic nitrogen/DNA phosphate molar ratio). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose metabolism and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio; Esposito, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Islet dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance are both present in type 2 diabetes and are both necessary for the development of hyperglycemia. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, large, prospective clinical studies have shown a strong relation between time-averaged mean values of glycemia, measured as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and vascular diabetic complications. These studies are the basis for the American Diabetes Association's current recommended treatment goal that HbA1c should be <7%. The measurement of the HbA1c concentration is considered the gold standard for assessing long-term glycemia; however, it does not reveal any information on the extent or frequency of blood glucose excursions, but provides an overall mean value only. Postprandial hyperglycemia occurs frequently in patients with diabetes receiving active treatment and can occur even when metabolic control is apparently good. Interventional studies indicate that reducing postmeal glucose excursions is as important as controlling fasting plasma glucose in persons with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Evidence exists for a causal relation between postmeal glucose increases and microvascular and macrovascular outcomes; therefore, it is not surprising that treatment with different compounds that have specific effects on postprandial glucose regulation is accompanied by a significant improvement of many pathways supposed to be involved in diabetic complications, including oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and nuclear factor-kappaB activation. The goal of therapy should be to achieve glycemic status as near to normal as safely possible in all 3 components of glycemic control: HbA1c, fasting glucose, and postmeal glucose peak.

  20. Determinants of hemoglobin A1c level in patients with type 2 diabetes after in-hospital diabetes education: A study based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Torimoto, Keiichi; Okada, Yosuke; Sugino, Sachiko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between blood glucose profile at hospital discharge, evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level at 12 weeks after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes who received inpatient diabetes education. This was a retrospective study. The participants were 54 patients with type 2 diabetes who did not change their medication after discharge. The mean blood glucose (MBG), standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean postprandial glucose excursion, maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, percentage of time with blood glucose at ≥180 mg/dL (time at ≥180), percentage of time with blood glucose at ≥140 mg/dL, and percentage of time with blood glucose at <70 mg/dL were measured at admission and discharge using CGM. The primary end-point was the relationship between CGM parameters and HbA1c level at 12 weeks after discharge. The HbA1c level at 12 weeks after discharge correlated with MBG level (r = 0.30, P = 0.029). Multivariate analysis showed that MBG level and disease duration were predictors of 12-week HbA1c level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out considering goal achievement as a HbA1c level <7.0% 12 weeks after discharge. Disease duration and time at ≥180 were associated with goal achievement. The present results suggested that blood glucose profile at discharge using CGM seems useful to predict HbA1c level after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes who received inpatient diabetes education. Early treatment to improve MBG level, as well as postprandial hyperglycemia, is important to achieve strict glycemic control. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Initial choice of oral glucose-lowering medication for diabetes mellitus: a patient-centered comparative effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Krumme, Alexis A; Avorn, Jerry; Brennan, Troyen; Matlin, Olga S; Spettell, Claire M; Pezalla, Edmund J; Brill, Gregory; Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2014-12-01

    Although many classes of oral glucose-lowering medications have been approved for use, little comparative effectiveness evidence exists to guide initial selection of therapy for diabetes mellitus. To determine the effect of initial oral glucose-lowering agent class on subsequent need for treatment intensification and 4 short-term adverse clinical events. This study was a retrospective cohort study of patients who were fully insured members of Aetna (a large national health insurer) who had been prescribed an oral glucose-lowering medication from July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2013. Individuals newly prescribed an oral glucose-lowering agent who filled a second prescription for a medication in the same class and with a dosage at or above the World Health Organization's defined daily dose within 90 days of the end-of-day's supply of the first prescription were studied. Individuals with interim prescriptions for other oral glucose-lowering medications were excluded. Initiation of treatment with metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione, or a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor. Time to addition of a second oral agent or insulin, each component separately, hypoglycemia, other diabetes-related emergency department visits, and cardiovascular events. A total of 15 516 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 8964 (57.8%) started therapy with metformin. In unadjusted analyses, use of medications other than metformin was significantly associated with an increased risk of adding a second oral agent only, insulin only, and a second agent or insulin (P < .001 for all). In propensity score and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, initiation of therapy with sulfonylureas (hazard ratio [HR], 1.68; 95% CI, 1.57-1.79), thiazolidinediones (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.43-1.80), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.47-1.79) was associated with an increased hazard of intensification. Alternatives to metformin were not associated with a

  2. Glucose-induced inhibition of in vitro bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Balint, E; Szabo, P; Marshall, C F; Sprague, S M

    2001-01-01

    Patients with diabetes tend to have an increased incidence of osteopenia that may be related to hyperglycemia. However, little is known about how glucose may alter bone formation and osteoblast maturation. To determine whether glucose affects osteoblastic calcium deposition, MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated in media containing either a normal (5.5 mmol/L) or high glucose concentration (15 mmol/L) or mannitol (15 mmol/L), and bone nodule formation was examined. Net calcium flux was measured thrice weekly and cumulative calcium uptake was determined. Compared with control incubations, glucose significantly inhibited daily and cumulative calcium uptake into the nodules. At the time of matrix maturation, cultures undergo a rapid phase of increased calcium deposition; this was significantly inhibited by the presence of glucose. Total calcium uptake, determined by acid digestion, was also significantly inhibited by glucose. Area and number of nodules were quantitated at the end of the incubation period (day 30) by staining with Alizarin Red S calcium stain. Compared with both control and mannitol-treated cultures, the number of nodules was increased by incubation with glucose. Furthermore, both the average total nodular area and calcified nodular area of large nodules were increased by glucose. Cellular proliferation as well as the release of markers of osteoblast activity (osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase) were determined at the end of the experimental period (day 30). Cellular proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the presence of glucose, however, the release of osteocalcin into culture media was similar in all three groups. In conclusion, the present study shows that elevated glucose concentration present throughout the development of murine osteoblasts stimulates cellular proliferation while inhibiting calcium uptake. The result of glucose inhibition of calcium uptake suggests that bone could be structurally altered in

  3. Glucose and insulin tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, P; Genazzani, A R; Felber, J P; Facchini, V; Onano, A M; Romagnino, S; Facchinetti, F; Piras, G L

    1975-03-01

    On the basis of the behaviour during menstrual cycle of the pituitary hormones plasma levels, the Authors have studied during the different periods of the cycle (follicular, ovulatory and luteal) the effects of OGTT and ITT's on the plasma levels of Glucose, insulin, HGH and Cortisol. Significantly lower levels of IRI, HGH and Cortisol were found in follicular phase compared to ovulatory period and luteal phase except for Cortisol in luteal phase. A slightly higher glucose tolerance was found in follicular phase as well as a reduced hypoglicemia under insulin load. Reduced HGH response to ITT was found in follicular phase as well as a reduced Cortisol response compared to the results observed in ovulatory and luteal phase. These data sustain the concept that hormonal variations occurring in an ovulatory cycle are also capable of modifying the woman's body response to various stimuli such as OGTT and ITT.

  4. Membrane lipid phase transitions and phase organization studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful yet relatively inexpensive and convenient technique for studying the structure and organization of membrane lipids in their various polymorphic phases. This spectroscopic technique yields information about the conformation and dynamics of all regions of the lipid molecule simultaneously without the necessity of introducing extrinsic probes. In this review, we summarize some relatively recent FTIR spectroscopic studies of the structure and organization primarily of fully hydrated phospholipids in their biologically relevant lamellar crystalline, gel and liquid-crystalline phases, and show that interconversions between these bilayer phases can be accurately monitored by this technique. We also briefly discuss how the structure and organization of potentially biologically relevant nonlamellar micellar or reversed hexagonal lipid phases can be studied and how phase transitions between lamellar and nonlamellar phases, or between various nonlamellar phases, can be followed as well. In addition, we discuss the potential for FTIR spectroscopy to yield fairly high resolution structural information about phospholipid packing in lamellar crystalline or gel phases. Finally, we show that many, but not all of these FTIR approaches can also yield valuable information about lipid-protein interactions in membrane protein- or peptide-containing lipid membrane bilayer model or even in biological membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: FTIR in membrane proteins and peptide studies.

  5. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  6. [Study of regional cerebral glucose metabolism, in man, while awake or asleep, by positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Franck, G; Salmon, E; Poirrier, R; Sadzot, B; Franco, G

    1987-03-01

    Measurements of regional cerebral glucose uptake by the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose technique (18FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) along with polygraph recordings were made serially during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of nocturnal sleep in two right-handed normal volunteers. During stage III-IV sleep, values declined diffusely in both hemispheric regions (-31%), thalamus (-33%), cerebellum (-33%) and brain stem (-25%). During paradoxical sleep regional values increased diffusely compared with slow wave sleep. Compared to wakefulness, regional metabolic values seemed to increase but the results were more variable from one volunteer to the other. These preliminary data indicate important regional alterations in cerebral metabolism between sleep states.

  7. Blood glucose regulation in diabetics. A flatness based nonlinear control simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocha, Guillermo; Podestá, Melina; Mazzadi, Alejandro; Amorena, Carlos; D'Atellis, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Flat systems are a generalization of linear systems, but the techniques used for controlling flat systems are much different than many of the existing techniques for linear systems. In this paper we present the flatness-based control of blood glucose regulation in human system. A non-near model, he Bergman Minimal Model, is used o represent he dynamics of blood regulation in humans and because of the flatness property, he system variables can be expressed as functions of he at output and heir time derivatives and a control aw developed.

  8. Comparative study of Inula Racemosa and Saussurea Lappa on the glucose level in Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Shukla, S; Tripathi, P; Chaurasia, S; Singh, S K; Tripathi, Y B

    1995-07-01

    Inula racemosa and Saussurea lappa have been used in ayurvedic system for the management of diabetes. The result of this communication concludes that I. racemosa reduces the blood glucose earlier as compared to S. lappa. Maximum response in case of I. racemosa is noted between 2 to 4 hours after drug administration while for S. lappa while for S. lappa, it is 4 to 8 hours. S. lappa can be used as substitute for I. racemosa for the management of diabetes, but it should not be taken for granted that this substitution should be applicable to all other systems, where I. racemosa has been recommended as a drug of choice.

  9. [Contribution of the kidney to glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-09-01

    The kidney is involved in glucose homeostasis through three major mechanisms: renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose consumption, and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption is one of the most important physiological functions of the kidney, allowing full recovery of filtered glucose, elimination of glucose from the urine, and prevention of calorie loss. Approximately 90% of the glucose is reabsorbed in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, where glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) are located, while the remaining 10% is reabsorbed in the S3 segment by SGLT1 and GLUT1 transporters. In patients with hyperglycemia, the kidney continues to reabsorb glucose, thus maintaining hyperglycemia. Most of the renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by SGLT2. Several experimental and clinical studies suggest that pharmacological blockade of this transporter might be beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. [Principle and practice of clinical phase III studies].

    PubMed

    Morant, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Randomized phase III studies compare new treatments with standard therapy according to defined guidelines and legal rules. Large international randomized phase III studies are some of the most complex and expensive medical experiments. The results of such trials will decide about the future of new drugs and are the basis of evidence-based medicine and the development of clinical guidelines. This contribution discusses randomization, endpoints, inclusion and exclusion criteria of phase III trials as well as further challenges when developing and conducting phase III studies in oncology. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Truesdell, A.H. . Earth Sciences Div.)

    1994-02-01

    Phase distribution as well as mass flow and heat transfer behavior in two-phase geothermal systems have been studied by numerical modeling. A two-dimensional porous-slab model was used with a non-uniform heat flux boundary conditions at the bottom. Steady-state solutions are obtained for the phase distribution and heat transfer behavior for cases with different mass of fluid (gas saturation) in place, permeabilities, and capillary pressures. The results obtained show very efficient heat transfer in the vapor-dominated zone due to the development of heat pipes and near-uniform saturations. The phase distribution below the vapor-dominated zone depends on permeability. For relatively high-permeability systems, single-phase liquid zones prevail, with convection providing the energy throughput. For lower permeability systems, a two-phase liquid-dominated zone develops, because single-phase liquid convection is not sufficient to dissipate heat released from the source. These results are consistent with observations from the field, where most high-temperature liquid-dominated two-phase systems have relatively low permeabilities e.g. Krafla, Iceland; Kenya; Baca, New Mexico. The numerical results obtained also show that for high heat flow a high-temperature single-phase vapor zone can develop below a typical (240 C) vapor-dominated zone, as has recently been found at the Geysers, California, and Larderello, Italy.

  12. Study on the measuring distance for blood glucose infrared spectral measuring by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01